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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

However the book “Robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. and I commend it to you. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This is extravagant on storage. is open-source. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . LineFeature . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . icanny . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . col2im . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . inormhist . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . 8 . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . plot2 . . plot homline . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . .

I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.com.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.google.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. That’s what you your teachers. tutors.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. You need to signup in order to post. lecturers and professors are paid to do.

1. and the “See also” functions to each other. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.3.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Month = nov.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. type of organization and application.petercorke. 1.gz) or zip format (. Corke}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Year = {2005}. The details are @article{Corke05f.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.zip). 1. 1. The ﬁle robot. Volume = {12}.1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.I. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.html on a server for class use. the table of content to functions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author = {P. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Number = {4}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.

Functions such as SURF. Twente. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.7 Acknowledgements Last.mathworks. pp 16–25. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”..6. 1.R.S. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. Corke. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. P. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 1994 University of British Columbia. 1. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.7.vlfeat. 12(4). Vincent Lepetit. and there are hundreds of modules available.1. November 2005. Coimbra. but not least. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. MSER. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. VLFeat http://www.I.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. T ‘color’. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. IM ‘resolution’. used by all subclasses.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. N ‘sensor’. Camera. N ‘image’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. S ‘centre’. Options ‘name’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. P ‘pixel’.

Camera.centre Get camera position p = C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. SphericalCamera Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera. Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.clf Clear the image plane C.display Display value C. Camera.char Convert to string s = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. CatadioptricCamera.delete Camera object destructor C.

See also Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.u + b. Camera. C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.char Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.v + c = 0.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). and off if H is false (or 0). otherwise false (0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.

z to the image plane and plots them. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.clf Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot Plot points on image plane C. The matrices x. Camera. T ‘Tcam’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). cylinder.T. uv = C. Camera.plot(p. sphere. y.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. y.plot.CHAPTER 2.mesh(x. See also mesh. z. mkcube. y.hold. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. Camera.hold. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.mesh.T.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. T ‘scale’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Options ‘Tcam’. Camera.clf Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T See also Camera. ‘fps’. Overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. ‘Tobj’.

y]. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy(R. The image is not inverted. p.rpy Set camera attitude C. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.p. a subclass of Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.CHAPTER 2. C. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

T ‘color’.Kosecka.8]) See also Camera. P ‘pixel’. p.and v-axes parallel to x. u.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. ﬁsheyecamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’.177 See also CentralCamera. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. CatadioptricCamera. S. “An invitation to 3D”. f=8mm. J.Ma.Sastry.E Essential matrix E = C.and y-axes respectively. E = C. N ‘sensor’. N ‘focal’. camera at origin. S.F.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. S ‘noise’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. 10um pixels. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. Reference Y.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). D ‘default’ ‘image’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Springer. E = C.CHAPTER 2. optical axis is z-axis.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘distortion’. 2003.Soatto.

177 See also CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Springer.Kosecka.H CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. n. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Soatto.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. F = C. p. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Sastry. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 2003. Reference Y. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. J. See also CentralCamera. S.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.E CentralCamera.H Homography matrix H = C.H(T. S.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. from two viewpoints.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.estpose(xyz. 155-166. 81. Lepetit. Moreno-Noguer.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. F. and P. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera. 2009. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Feb.CHAPTER 2.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. vol. Fua. a = C. pp. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Journal on Computer Vision. V.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. CentralCamera. Int.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.

invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. Reference Y. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. J.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Soatto. s.Sastry. Springer. s.Sastry. See also CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.CHAPTER 2.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. 259 Y.Ma. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. 2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. p.Ma.Kosecka. Springer. J. “An invitation to 3D”. “Multiview Geometry”. s. s. translation not to scale • n.Kosecka. section 5.Soatto. “An invitation to 3D”.E CentralCamera. 2003.invE(E. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. p116. Chap 9.

H = C.plot epiline(f.project(p. CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p.plot epiline(f. C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Hough CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.H CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. one per line. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T.plot epiline(f.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.

Chaumette.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. June 1992. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Reference B. 313-326. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac e(E. F.c.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.plot CentralCamera. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .CHAPTER 2.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. vol. and P. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Espiau.b. “Multiview Geometry”. See also Camera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 8. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Rives.

Oct. 313-326. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). pp 651-670. R&A. CentralCamera.visjac p. CentralCamera. vol. Reference B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. IEEE Trans. F.visjac p(uv. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Espiau.visjac p polar.visjac e CentralCamera.c.visjac l CentralCamera. Hager & Corke. See also CentralCamera. 8.visjac p polar. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. pp.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. and P. June 1992. Hutchinson.visjac l(L.b. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Chaumette. 1996. Rives. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.CHAPTER 2. Vol 12(5). Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.

The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). in Proc.visjac l. Corke. 2009. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. pp. Spindler. I.visjac l.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac e CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. radius and theta.visjac p. Louis). CentralCamera. 5962-5967. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. and F. (St.visjac p polar. P.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. F. Oct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar(rt. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Chaumette. Int. CentralCamera.

See also isift. PointFeature. Journal on Computer Vision. Int. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. pp. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. vol. See README.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.CHAPTER 2.Lowe. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.91-110.60. D. 2004.SIFT. Nov. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. ScalePointFeature.

1=opaque. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match Match SIFT point features m = F. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. SiftPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. C ‘alpha’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also isift SiftPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. F.match(f2.plot scale(options. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.plot scale Plot feature scale F.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(images.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the support region is displayed.T] = F.support(images.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. [out.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project Project world points to image plane pt = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Options ‘Tobj’. Options ‘name’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T. See also SphericalCamera. S ‘pose’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. N ‘pixel’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T ‘Tcam’.project(p.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. Overrides the current camera pose C.

0.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error.depth of points to use for Jacobian. The camera view. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.01) .5) target center . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Jacobian condition number. The external view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. camera pose.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error norm. The camera view.center of the target in world coords (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.gain. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . image plane size and desired feature locations.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.the side length of the target in world units (0. defaults in parentheses: target size . scalar for If null take actual value all points. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. of 4-vector.

error. May 3-7 2010. Corke. P. The external view.visjac p polar.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).CHAPTER 2. of 4-vector. I. See also CentralCamera.5) target center .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.0. pp. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations. for all points. 5550-5555.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.01) .visjac p(pt. in Proc.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Jacobian condition number.gain. defaults in parentheses: target size .center of the target in world coords (0.visjac l.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . (Anchorage). CentralCamera. error norm. Robotics and Automation.the side length of the target in world units (0. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. scalar for If null take actual value all points.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. IEEE Int. camera pose. Conf.

3. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 110. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Tinne Tuytelaars. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. pp. Andreas Ess. Vol.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. No. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.CHAPTER 2. Luc Van Gool. 346–359. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. [m. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. v.match(f2.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2.C] = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match Match SURF point features m = F. Options ‘thresh’.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match(f2. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

support Support region of feature out = F.2) SurfPointFeature.support(im. F. [out. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. 0=transparent (default 0.support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options. 1=opaque. out = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. F.CHAPTER 2.plot scale Plot feature scale F.T] = F.support(images. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but the support region is displayed.

axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.com). Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.axis. S ‘resolution’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com) web camera.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.CHAPTER 2. Video AxisWebCamera. otherwise the result is not predictable.

close() closes the connection to the web camera.char Convert to string A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.CHAPTER 2.display AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.

b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. f can also be a cell array. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Conf. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. 2003.Zisserman.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.CHAPTER 2.org). on Computer Vision. Oct. b = BagOfWords(f. in Proc. Ninth IEEE Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.1470-1477. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.Sivic and A. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.

isurf BagOfWords.char BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. images.contains Find images containing word k = B.display Display value B.exemplars display exemplars of words B. BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.CHAPTER 2.exemplars(w. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. See also BagOfWords.

n] = B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. BagOfWords. N ‘maxperimage’.remove stop Remove stop words B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.isword Features from words f = B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.CHAPTER 2. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. M ‘width’. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2. subclass of Camera.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Camera CatadioptricCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

ﬁsheyecamera. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’. ‘equisolid’. ‘sine’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘noise’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. N ‘sensor’. K ‘maxangle’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.and v-axes parallel to x. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. S ‘centre’. A ‘resolution’. See also Camera. T ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. f=8mm. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera.project(p. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. u. N ‘focal’. See also Camera. CatadioptricCamera. M ‘k’. camera at origin. optical axis is z-axis.and y-axes respectively. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10um pixels. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.

FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also PointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.char Convert to string s = M. FeatureMatch. one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch. f2.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. m = FeatureMatch(f1.display Display value M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

See also FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.v2]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.inlier.outlier.u2.CHAPTER 2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1. FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.ransac FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.

The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1.plot Show corresponding points M. See also FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.im2}) m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p1. These are the (u. These are the (u.p FeatureMatch.p2.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.CHAPTER 2.FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() M. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.

See also idisp FeatureMatch. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.CHAPTER 2. ransac FeatureMatch.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. m.ransac Apply RANSAC M. m = f1.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. homography. 1e-4). and an error is created if this UserData is not found.ransac( @fmatrix. See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. f2 = isurf(im2). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. Example f1 = isurf(im1). Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.ransac(func. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . inliers and outliers (and their percentages).match(f2).

The image is not inverted.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.CHAPTER 2. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. v.

axes respectively. ‘sine’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. optical axis is z-axis. ‘equisolid’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. camera at origin. u. P ‘pixel’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). M ‘k’. Options ‘name’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. N ‘sensor’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.and y.CHAPTER 2.and v-axes are parallel to x. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. S ‘centre’. 10um pixels. S ‘noise’. K ‘resolution’. SIGMA ‘pose’. f=8mm. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].

In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. See also FishEyeCamera. CatadioptricCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera. Options ‘Tobj’.T. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also Camera.

A horizontal line has theta = 0. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.CHAPTER 2. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.0) and the line. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. See also LineFeature Hough. The voting array is 2-dimensional.H).Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.

W ‘nbins’.edgeThresh.1). Hough.5) Set ht. Set ht. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.CHAPTER 2. Nrho]. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. See also Hough. W ‘houghthresh’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh (default 0. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.display Display value HT.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. T ‘edgethresh’. T ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Default 400 × 401. N All edge pixels have equal weight. else N = [Ntheta. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.houghThresh (default 0.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

LineFeature Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision. then all elements in an HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot(n.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. H = HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.lines Find lines L = HT. HT. HT.plot.lines Hough. The highest peak is found. L = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot Plot line features HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. See also Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.

If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.

L = LineFeature(rho.char Convert to string s = L. one per element. LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2.display Display value L. LineFeature. theta. theta. strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.

Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength(edge. L.points Return points on line segments p = L. l2 = L. Small gaps. l2 = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot Plot line L.plot() overlay the line on current plot.CHAPTER 2. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.

CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.close Close the image source M.com).axis. S ‘skip’. Movie. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie.char Convert to string M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. planar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’. F Skip frames.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. undirected graph create an n-d.

closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. Object properties (read/write) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.component(v) g. v2) g.connectivity() g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.coord(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .cost(e) g.path(v) set goal vertex. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add node(coord. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.neighbours(v) g.edges(e) g.add node(coord) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.next(v) g.distance(v1. v) g.goal(v) g.add edge(v1.plot() g.clear() add vertex. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.

and returns the node id v. v2. PGraph.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. Options ‘distance’.add node(x.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node(x. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph.add edge(v1. and returns the edge id E.add edge(v1. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. v = G. v. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. E = G.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. where x is D × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.

char Convert graph to string s = G. D × 1.d] = G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G.closest Find closest node v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. edges and components. of node id v.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. [v.CHAPTER 2.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph.clear Clear the graph G. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. and the distance d.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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SurfPointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. v.char Convert to string s = F.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.display Display value F.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. one per element. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ScalePointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

match(f2.C] = F.CHAPTER 2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.char PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m.match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. where 1 is perfect match.match Match point features m = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. Options ‘thresh’. the norm of the Euclidean distance.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot Plot feature F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Polygon .CHAPTER 2.

area() is the area of the polygon. http://puddle.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. HEIGHT].Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Polygon.mit. Pankratov. p = Polygon(C. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so use with care. intersection.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.char String representation s = P.mit.edu. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.html and require a licence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Polygon. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. difference.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. kirill@plume. union.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Polygon. one column per vertex.area Area of polygon a = P.

intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. returns coordinates of P.char Polygon.display Display polygon P.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. See also Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. else 0.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.

CHAPTER 2.moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns empty polygon. each column is [x y]’.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Polygon.moments(p.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. See also mpq poly Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. y1 y2].intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon.

union Union of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.plot() plot the polygon. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.CHAPTER 2. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.

Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.CHAPTER 2. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.

char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2. one per element. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.char Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Ray3D. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. [x.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.display Display value R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. See also Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.E] = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.

c. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2.b. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature.th] = R. See also iblobs. one per element.char Convert to string s = R.box Return bounding box b = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.xmax.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. imoments RegionFeature. ymin.uc will be a list not a vector. ymax]. RegionFeature. For example R.

plot Plot centroid R. RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and xmarkers.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. See also RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.char RegionFeature. R. R.CHAPTER 2. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary plot boundary R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value R.

plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box Plot bounding box R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. strength. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 1=opaque. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 0=transparent (default 0. v. See also PointFeature.plot scale(options. ScalePointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = ScalePointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. C ‘alpha’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. N ‘thresh’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a new tracker object. R ‘nslots’. Options ‘radius’. See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2. one per active track. C. T ‘movie’.

plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. See also Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char Convert to string s = T. Tracker.display Display value T.

CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. and their characteristics is displayed. Movie Video. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. otherwise the result is not predictable. AxisWebCamera.

Video. Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char Convert to string V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.close Close the image source V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close() closes the connection to the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. the ﬁrst for left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. right. the second for right. If th1 is a column vector. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. By default the left image is red. color. right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). The result is in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view.CHAPTER 2. a = anaglyph(left. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). and the right image is cyan. if negative it is reduced. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left.

y1) to (x2. Endpoints must be integer. 6500). See also RegionFeature. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y2). x2. If lambda is a column vector.boundary. p = bresenham(p1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.CHAPTER 2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.s] = boundmatch(R1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y1] and p2=[x2. y1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [x. % emission of sun plot(l. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. p2) as above but p1=[x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.y2]. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.CHAPTER 2. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. [C. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Y.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. k = closest(a.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.CHAPTER 2. green and blue primaries respectively. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. [k. R. x = circle(C. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.d1] = closest(a. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. and x is N × 3. that is. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). Options ‘n’. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.

3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5.32).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.5.ucl. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. The data are referred to as pilot data.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ioo.CHAPTER 2. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).ac. since. while Table I(5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). 335 of Table 1(5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.5. 19000 (526. and 22500 (444. (Table 1(5. • From Table I(5. they were measured directly. As noted in footnote a on p.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).d2] = closest(a.16). If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.d1.

ucl.ioo. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. out = col2im(pix. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.uk See also cmfrgb.CHAPTER 2.M). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize is a 2-vector (N.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.CHAPTER 2. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

@isnan.CHAPTER 2. eg. See also imono.G. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. icolor. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.C] = colorkmeans(im. mask. k. im<100. out = colorize(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. func. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. @isnan. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. [L.B). Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.

Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ.CHAPTER 2. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. eg.R] = colorkmeans(im. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . XYZ = colorname(name. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. k) as above but also returns the residual R. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. low is good.C. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. L = colorkmeans(im.

o2. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. it can be omitted. i1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. [o1. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. colorspace(s. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. double data is the natural choice. • Color space names are case insensitive. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.i2. s = ‘dest<-src’.txt. As MATLAB’s native datatype. s = ‘src->dest’.o3] = colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes. or alternatively. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.

J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Example A = rand(400.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. out will also have size M × 3. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.100). B = rand(400. for memory and computational performance. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. • If im is an M × 3 array. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.2*A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. like a colormap.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . However.200).B).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d = distance(A.

but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. not image frame. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. in matrix coordinate frame. University of Amsterdam. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. E = edgelist(im. Tested: PC Matlab v5.3. non zero is counter-clockwise. The result E is a matrix. tel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. non-zero is an object.j). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. bunschot@wins. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.(+31)20-5257524.y).uva. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. seed. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.

See also epiline. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. p. epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. H = epiline(f. p. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. 1998. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Coimbra. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f.R. See also fmatrix. Oct 27. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S.CHAPTER 2. p1. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. one per line drawn.

If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. epiline. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. no outlier rejection is performed.au/. p2. • Contains a RANSAC driver. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c. which means it can be passed to ransac(). epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. that is. See also ransac. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. page 270. • f is a rank 2 matrix.uwa. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. homography. that is. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. http://www. it is singular.csse. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. Notes • The points must be corresponding.edu. The University of Western Australia.CHAPTER 2.

See also imorph. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.y1) and (x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. itriplepoint. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x2.CHAPTER 2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. y1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).y2). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.

csse. no outlier rejection is performed.au/. See also ransac.edu. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. which means it can be passed to ransac(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . invhomog. Notes • The points must be corresponding. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.CHAPTER 2. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.uwa. The University of Western Australia. http://www. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.

If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. See also homography. ie. im. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. D ‘size’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. itrim. [out.CHAPTER 2.offs] = homwarp(H. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. V ‘roi’. im. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R ‘scale’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. S output image contains all the warped pixels. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. See also e2h. that is tp=T*T1. S ‘dimension’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.

ianimate(im. features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). on Information Theory. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. ’gs’). features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ’nfeat’. 200). Hu. IT-8:pp. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. IRE Trans. ianimate(seq. 1962. 179-187. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects.CHAPTER 2. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K.

YMIN YMAX]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. M ‘npoints’. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’.CHAPTER 2. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. iharris. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. N ‘only’. isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.

0) 1 for a circle. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.CHAPTER 2. A set pixel aspect ratio. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and larger values correspond to stronger edges. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. vertical coordinate bounding box.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. horizontal coordinate centroid. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. ilabel.0 ‘connect’. [S1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. [A1. default 1.

Tel Aviv University. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. See also iopen. This is an dilation followed by erosion. S ‘th0’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. See also isobel. se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. T ‘th1’. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. 1996-7.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.

and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [C.u] = iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. colorize.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. [0 1 1]). Options ‘dir’.CHAPTER 2. C = icolor(im. See also imono. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. D ‘bgval’. iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. options) convolves im1 with im2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. K ‘patch’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CM ‘cminthresh’. E ‘suppress’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. N ‘detector’. R ‘nfeat’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. D ‘sigma’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. S ‘deriv’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘k’. CT ‘edgegap’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’.

Tomasi.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. May 1988. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.121-128. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. pp 147-151. • “Good features to track”. Image and Vision Computing.d] = icp(p1. • “Finding corners”. N ‘mindelta’. pp. 1994.6. Shi and C. T ‘distthresh’. 593-593. pp. Stephens. 1988. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Options ‘dplot’. J. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Manchester. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.CHAPTER 2.J. IEEE Computer Society. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. C. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Harris and M. T ‘maxiter’. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Proc. p2. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. J.Noble.G. vol. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Proc. p2.. [T. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. See also PointFeature. with a delay of 0.5 [sec]. with a delay of d [sec].

m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.. Feb. 14. 239-256. P. each plane is decimated. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.McKay. See also iscale.CHAPTER 2. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2. s = idecimate(im. Intell. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. vol. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. no. Mach.or 3-dimensional. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. 1992. m. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Pattern Anal. s = idecimate(im. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. IEEETrans. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. pp.Besl and H. m.

– The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. histogram and zooming. zero is white color map: random values. positive is blue. XY ‘colormap’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. linear proﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. negative is red. Options ‘ncolors’. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. zero is black. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white. positive is blue. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. If im is a cell array of images. If the image is zoomed. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward.CHAPTER 2. negative is red. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. darker than ‘grey’. C ‘xydata’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top.and y-axes respectively.

labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labels. See also image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labelimage. labelimage. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colormap. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also iblobs. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. idisplabel(im. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.CHAPTER 2. caxis. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. icolorize.

45. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. See also itriplepoint. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. out = igamma(im. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.CHAPTER 2.

167181. k. 59. Example im = iread(’58060. [L. L = igraphseg(im. k. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 2004. vol. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . min is the minimum region size (pixels). Sept. k is the scale parameter. min. 1500. See also ithresh. P. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.CHAPTER 2. Int. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. 100. Felzenszwalb and D.m] = igraphseg(im. 0. Huttenlocher. 2006. [l. min. pp. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Journal on Computer Vision.jpg’). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. k.m] = igraphseg(im. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.5).

For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.x] = ihist(im). ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im. [H. [h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. bar(x. options) displays the image histogram.h). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. plot(x. H = ihist(im. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.h).x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

x1.y2). The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.y1) and bottom-right (x2. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. ii is a precomputed integral image. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.m. y1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. y2. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. same size as im. [L.CHAPTER 2.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.

imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.maxlabel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. iproﬁle. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. eg.CHAPTER 2. 8). • This is a “low level” function. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .parents. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. p1. ilabel(im. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.class. The pixels on the line are set to 1. otherwise it does not. each a 2-vector [X. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.maxlabel. p2. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.parents. out = iline(im.Y]. See also iblobs. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. [L. p1.

centred at (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).DY) are the x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. and columns the vertical position.y). im2.score] = imatch(im1. a perfect match score is 1. The return value is xm=[DX. • Is a MEX ﬁle. s] % relative to (x. im2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. y. ymax] relative to (x. • ZNCC matching is used. x. w2.CC] where (DX. s.and y-offsets relative to (x.y) and of size s. H. [xm. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.DY. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. x.y) and its half-width is H. xmax. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.CHAPTER 2.y). y.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The template in im1 is centred at (x. -s. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. ymin.

[u.v] = imeshgrid(w.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. f = imoments(u.u) = u and v(v. effectively a greyscale image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. effectively a binary image. All pixels are equally weighted. [u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. H) as above but the domain is w × H.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. f = imoments(u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.u) = v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. The element u(v. v.

imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. icolor. Different conversion functions are supported. m02. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m20. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. or its area. horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2. • This function does not perform connectivity. ilabel. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m11. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m10.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. the elements are m00. See also RegionFeature. m01.

Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. se. Urban. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. 761767. m. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. ’light’).png’. Image and Vision Computing. O. Chum. Pajdla. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Sept. [label. ’grey’. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. pp.m] = imser(im. 22.org). part of VLFeat (vlfeat. ’double’).m] = imser(im. and T. J. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. vol.CHAPTER 2. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. The labels [L. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2004. Matas.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.ˆ2). Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.

out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. n. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an erosion followed by dilation. See also iclose. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. sides.CHAPTER 2. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se.

255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. 10. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ’tblr’.V]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. im1. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 20.CHAPTER 2. ’t’. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. p. otherwise im2 is selected. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.

See also bresenham. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. [p.v) for the corresponding row of p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.uv] = iproﬁle(im. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1.

op. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. nbins. out = ipyramid(im. se).2) = 0. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. ones(5. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. The highest rank. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. out = imorph(image. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. idecimate. se(2. See also iscalespace. se.5)). sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1.3). out = imorph(image. order. 12. im > irank(im. out = ipyramid(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. op. the maximum. is order=1. Notes • Works for greyscale images only.CHAPTER 2. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. sigma. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ivar. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. G ‘reduce’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. R ‘roi’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image.CHAPTER 2. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. where R=[umin umax. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. im = iread(ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph. vmin vmax]. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path.

Notes • Color images are not supported. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im1. imono. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. imwrite.CHAPTER 2. im1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. homwarp.h1.out2] = irectify(f. m. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.out2. See also FeatureMatch. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. igamma. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. istereo. [out1. m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.h2] = irectify(f.

out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin.CHAPTER 2. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmax]. V ‘smooth’.H] return central part of image. S ‘extrapval’.vmin vmax].R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. [out. See also idisp.umax. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. angle.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. Options ‘outsize’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.

CHAPTER 2. s<1 makes it smaller. V ‘smooth’. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias<0. im2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. Options ‘outsize’. out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. while bias>0. s>1 makes the image larger. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s ‘extrapval’. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 is symmetric cropping. bias=0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [g. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.L. corresponding to each step of the sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . n. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.s] = iscalespace(im. idecimate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n) as above but sigma=1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). See also iscalespace. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. in space and scale.s] = iscalespace(im.CHAPTER 2. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it its third dimension is equal to three. ‘valid’) as above. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. See also isrot. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.CHAPTER 2. that is. ismooth. ishomog(T. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ilaplace. else false (0).

R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. Lowe. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. isurf.CHAPTER 2. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. International Journal of Computer Vision. Reference David G. 60. 2 (2004). 91-110.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. N ‘suppress’. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. See also SiftPointFeature.vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. pp.

[w. ssd. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.CHAPTER 2.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. [w. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. im. s is same size as im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.H. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. @ssd. ncc. zssd. sad. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. @zsad. and these output pixels are set to NaN. @ncc. @zssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. s = isimilarity(T.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. zsad. See also imatch.

See also iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.gy] = isobel(im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. convolved. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then converted back to integer. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. [gx. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.CHAPTER 2.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. [gx. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. sigma.

[d. See also ishomog.u). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml.u) means that imr(v. w. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.CHAPTER 2. range. H. H is the half size of the matching window. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. isrot(R. icanny. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. ‘valid’) as above. imr. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. See also ksobel. else false (0). • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. That is.sim] = istereo(iml.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.M] for an N × M window. imr. range is the disparity search range. the disparity d=d(v. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.

The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.sim.sim. B. imr.dsi] = istereo(iml. range. dx. That is. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. Options ‘metric’. w.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. range. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. p. imr. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. out = istretch(im. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. [d. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). ‘ncc’. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. 3) See also irectify. [d.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).5 to +0.A and p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.p] = istereo(iml.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.CHAPTER 2. p. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. • sim = max(dsi. w. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.5).

are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. N ‘thresh’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Notes • Color images. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘octaves’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Kroon (U. or sequences.CHAPTER 2.

“SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Otherwise false (0). isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 110. See also ishomog. pp.or columnvector. out = ithin(im. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Andreas Ess. Tinne Tuytelaars. itriplepoint. 346–359. 3. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. No. else false (0). See also hitormiss. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. isvec(v. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.CHAPTER 2.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). either a row. Luc Van Gool. isift.

See also homwarp.out2] = itrim(im1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. ithresh(im. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. [out1.CHAPTER 2.out2] = itrim(im1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. The same cropping is applied to each input image. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. a lower value will include more. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.5. Notes • Greyscale image only. The default is 0.im2.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. se. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.CHAPTER 2. See also iendpoint. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. op.

se. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. out = iwindow(image.3).5).CHAPTER 2. func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. @std). See also ivar. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ones(3. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. ones(5. se. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. @max).

See also kgauss. ktriangle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kdgauss(sigma. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. • The vertical derivative. See also ones. dG/dy. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. klog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. kdog. k = kcircle(R. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. dG/dx. is k’.

sigma2. See also kgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kgauss(sigma. kdog. klog.CHAPTER 2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . kdgauss. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.6*sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. k = kdog(sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. klog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. See also kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1.

zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. iconv. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also ilaplace. See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. k = klog(sigma. kdgauss. and W=2 × H+1. kdog. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.

L = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. Pattern Recognition Principles. and D is the dimension. [L. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez.C] = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. k.CHAPTER 2. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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The points are the columns of p. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. C ‘T’.z] = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. symmetric about the origin. [x. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. See also cylinder. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2.y. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. Options ‘T’. [x. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated.z] = mkcube(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. ‘edge’. s. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.

labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y) MPLOT(t.2)). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq.xp . MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. MPLOT(t. or y(:. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. y. p. the sum of I(x. or y(:. n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.yq .y). That is.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.2)). MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. y. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.

i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v.CHAPTER 2. they are considered to be a single vertex. p. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. npq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. upq poly. See also mpq. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.

2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. niblack. W. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. k. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. where W=2*w2+1. Example t = niblack(im. sad. for example. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. k.s] = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. ssd. the height of a character.m. in text segmentation. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. [T.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. See also zncc. idisp(im >= t). 1986. -0. T has the same dimensions as im. Prentice-Hall.CHAPTER 2. 20). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.

0). Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also npq poly. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.q)/MPQ(im. That is UPQ(im.p.0. mpq. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.CHAPTER 2. p.

See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. upq. mpq. See also mpq poly. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq.CHAPTER 2. they are considered as a single vertex. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

pp 62-66 See also niblack.i] = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N.xp] = peak(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. [yp. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Systems. otsu IEEE Trans. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. x. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. [yp. Example t = otsu(im). ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. idisp(im >= t). x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.

S points.S points. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V). Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.CHAPTER 2. N ‘scale’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. use peak(-V). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. S ‘interp’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.

iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. ie. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pnmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. plot2(p. If p has three dimensions. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

’r’). P.y1. P.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. 5). ‘size’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ‘size’. plot_circle(c. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ’g’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. r. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ’edgecolor’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ‘r’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. PLOT BOX(’centre’.y2. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ’fillcolor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. r. Examples plot_circle(c. x2. plot_circle(c. W. PLOT BOX(x1. or a set of name. W. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. PLOT BOX(’topleft’.y1) and (x2.y2). ’b’). plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ’LineWidth’. r. 1=solid. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. value pairs that are passed to plot. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.

options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.Y. current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. c Specify color of the axes.CHAPTER 2. xc. Options ‘color’. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. If C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) ls is the standard line styles.Y]. centred at the origin. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. C. with Matlab line style ls.

w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. to ‘view’. options) adds point markers to a plot. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. n ‘text opts’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’r’). Options ‘textcolor’. ‘printf’. ’name’. ’color’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. fmt. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’r’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p.CHAPTER 2. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. trplot( T. ’color’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ‘framename’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker.X = 0. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font.

C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. either a letter or 3-vector. R. 1=solid. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.CHAPTER 2. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. See also plot. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The default is 1. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. NOTES • The sphere is always added. patch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot.

pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also pgmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plotp(p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used.CHAPTER 2. See also plot.

radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im. [gr.

resid] = ransac(func. [m. x.in. one column per point pair. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. T. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x. T. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x. Options ‘maxTrials’. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.in] = ransac(func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. N ‘maxDataTrials’.CHAPTER 2. T. x typically contains corresponding point data. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. d) as above but elements increment by d.

x and returns the best model out.theta = DECONDITION(R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. that is.x) condition the point data out. If multiple models are found out.x data to work on. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Vol 24. Mach. Assoc.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.theta. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x.theta is a cell array.inlier.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. References • m. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. Comm.theta to the points R. Comp.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.out.out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. Boles.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. pp 101-113. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.R.s out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. Fishler and R. [out. they detect a structure argument.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.x = CONDITION(R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.misc private data (cell array) out.theta = [].misc element.resid] = EST(R.theta. No 6.A.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.CHAPTER 2.theta] = ERR(R.x. that is they will produce a model. [out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. pp 381-395.C.. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.s sample size (1 × 1) out.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta and the subset of R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. Cambridge University Press.

edu. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. If lambda is a vector.CHAPTER 2.uwa. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.au/ pk See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.

CHAPTER 2. rotz. roty. rotz. See also rotx. See also roty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx.

Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. • many texts (Paul. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. If roll.CHAPTER 2. Y. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. See also tr2rpy. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. pitch. Z axes respectively. T = rpy2tr(roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.CHAPTER 2.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. theta) as above where xy=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.y. See also zsad. and rotation theta in the plane. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. r2t. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. ssd.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.

isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. sad. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Two cross-hairs are created. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsdd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

then R is 3 × 3. tr2rt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b. ’that’.choose = {’this’. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. c. opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. opt. varargin) opt. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. – If T is 3 × 3.foo = true. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. It supports options that have an assigned value.bar = false.blah = [].CHAPTER 2. ’other’}. then R is 2 × 2. The software pattern is: function(a.

The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’. If neither of ‘this’. varargin). opt = tb_optparse(opt.blah <.foo <. x. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.foo <. N ‘setopt’.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.choose <.select <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. varargin). If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).‘this’.blah <.1. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. ’#yes’}.debug <. 3 sets opt.select <.verbose <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.false ‘blah’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. w. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.select = {’#no’. args) creates a test pattern image.x.choose <.CHAPTER 2.true sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.y ‘that’ sets opt.N sets opt <.

[s. args are pitch (distance between centres). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sd and sdd are n-vectors.sd. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. square side length.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 256. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd.sd. args is the number of cycles. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. binary dot pattern. binary square pattern. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 256. args is the number of cycles. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. a line. 25). args is the number of cycles. sf. intercept. args is the number of cycles. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). args are theta (rad). 50.CHAPTER 2. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. dot diameter. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. The trajectory s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. 2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sf.

v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. The 3 angles rpy=[R. Y.P.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Y and Z axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R. See also angvec2r. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).

:.y. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. ie. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. See also rpy2tr. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.z]. – If TR is 3 × 3.CHAPTER 2.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T has three dimensions. • The validity of R is not checked. y. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. r2t. See also rt2tr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.

out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ).CHAPTER 2. An historical anomaly. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). or x and y. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). [c1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). each N × 1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. [o1.

troty. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2.

If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trprint T is the command line form of above. and displays in RPY format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trotx. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. f ‘label’.CHAPTER 2.

That is.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.(x-x0)p .CHAPTER 2. mpq. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. tr2rpy. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(y-y0)q where (x0. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. p. the sum of I(x.y0) is the centroid. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also upq poly. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sad. See also ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. ssd. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. See also sdd. ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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