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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. is open-source. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. However the book “Robotics.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . ScalePointFeature .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . about . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . icolor . icp . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . iopen . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . kcircle . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . maxﬁlt . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

You need to signup in order to post. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. tutors.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. That’s what you your teachers. and you will be suitably acknowledged.google. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.com.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.

Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.I. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Year = {2005}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1. 1. 1.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Number = {4}. Corke}.3.petercorke.zip).1. The details are @article{Corke05f.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Month = nov.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Author = {P. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. and the “See also” functions to each other. type of organization and application.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.html on a server for class use. the table of content to functions. Volume = {12}.gz) or zip format (.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. The ﬁle robot. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1.

the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. pp 16–25. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.S. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. Vincent Lepetit. Coimbra. and there are hundreds of modules available.Functions such as SURF. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. P.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. 12(4). and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.. November 2005. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.7 Acknowledgements Last.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. but not least. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Twente.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. Corke.1. 1.6. VLFeat http://www. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.vlfeat.R.mathworks.I. 1. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. MSER. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .7. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 1994 University of British Columbia.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. IM ‘resolution’. used by all subclasses. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Options ‘name’. T ‘color’. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘sensor’. Camera. N ‘image’. S ‘centre’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. S ‘noise’.

SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.char Convert to string s = C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .centre Get camera position p = C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.CHAPTER 2.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera. CatadioptricCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display Display value C.clf Clear the image plane C.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Camera. Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.u + b.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera. otherwise false (0).CHAPTER 2.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). and off if H is false (or 0).v + c = 0.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Camera. C.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. Camera. The matrices x. y. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. z to the image plane and plots them.CHAPTER 2.plot(p. Options ‘Tobj’.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.clf Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.plot Plot points on image plane C. y. sphere. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.plot. cylinder. mkcube.T.hold. Camera. z. uv = C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). See also mesh. Camera. y. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mesh(x.

point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tcam’. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Camera.mesh. ‘fps’.hold.T.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. T See also Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. ‘Tobj’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.clf Camera. Options ‘Tcam’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.

rpy(R. p. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. C. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.CHAPTER 2. a subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy Set camera attitude C.y].p. that is.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. optical axis is z-axis. f=8mm.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. P ‘pixel’.177 See also CentralCamera.and v-axes parallel to x. p.Sastry. F ‘distortion’. J. SIGMA ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Springer. camera at origin.Soatto. E = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S.Kosecka.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and y-axes respectively. N ‘focal’. E = C. Reference Y.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). CatadioptricCamera.F. 2003.8]) See also Camera. T ‘color’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. S ‘centre’. IM ‘resolution’.E Essential matrix E = C. S ‘noise’. 10um pixels. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. CentralCamera.Ma.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. “An invitation to 3D”. u. S. ﬁsheyecamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. D ‘default’ ‘image’.

S.Soatto.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. “An invitation to 3D”. F = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera.H Homography matrix H = C.H CentralCamera. 2003.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Sastry. n.E CentralCamera.Ma.CHAPTER 2.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. J. S. from two viewpoints. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Kosecka. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. p.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. Reference Y.177 See also CentralCamera.H(T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Springer.

Moreno-Noguer.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. See also quiver CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 81.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Feb.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. pp. vol. V. 2009. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. F. Journal on Computer Vision. and P. 155-166.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Int. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Fua. a = C. Lepetit.estpose(xyz.CHAPTER 2. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.

In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. Springer. J. Reference Y. translation not to scale • n. 2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s.Kosecka.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .invE(E.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. Chap 9. J.Soatto. p. s. 2003. p116. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Soatto. “Multiview Geometry”. section 5. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Kosecka. See also CentralCamera. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Sastry. s. 259 Y. s.CHAPTER 2.Sastry.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.E CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. Springer.Ma.

Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p.plot epiline(f. See also Hough CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. C. ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. H = C. CentralCamera.project(p. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. one per line. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.T.plot epiline(f.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

313-326.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 8.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. and P. vol. Espiau. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.c. F. See also Camera. Chaumette.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .visjac e(E. Rives. Reference B.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.plot CentralCamera.b.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. June 1992. “Multiview Geometry”.

Rives. Chaumette. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera. Vol 12(5).visjac l(L. F. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Hager & Corke.b. IEEE Trans. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.visjac p polar. June 1992. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. vol.visjac p.visjac e CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. 8. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Oct.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Reference B. 1996. Espiau.CHAPTER 2.c. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. and P. pp 651-670. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Hutchinson. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. 313-326.visjac p(uv.visjac p polar. R&A.

F. I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p. Louis).visjac p polar. 2009. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). CentralCamera. Spindler. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Oct. radius and theta. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. in Proc.visjac p polar(rt. Int. Chaumette. (St.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. CentralCamera. 5962-5967. pp. CentralCamera.visjac l. and F. Corke. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac e CentralCamera. P.visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.

91-110.Lowe. vol.60. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See README. PointFeature. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 2004.CHAPTER 2.SIFT. Int. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. pp. Nov. Journal on Computer Vision. ScalePointFeature. D. See also isift.

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. SiftPointFeature.match(f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F.CHAPTER 2. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=opaque. v. 0=transparent (default 0. f = PointFeature(u. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. See also isift SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.

support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. F.support(im.support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(images.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.T] = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. [out.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.T. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S ‘pose’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. N ‘pixel’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. See also SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project(p. Options ‘name’. Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.01) .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.5) target center . error.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.center of the target in world coords (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. defaults in parentheses: target size . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.0. image plane size and desired feature locations. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . camera pose.depth of points to use for Jacobian. of 4-vector. The camera view. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.CHAPTER 2. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .gain. Jacobian condition number.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .the side length of the target in world units (0. error norm. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The external view.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The camera view.

Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.depth of points to use for Jacobian.5) target center . IEEE Int. May 3-7 2010. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. defaults in parentheses: target size . pp.01) . in Proc. error.center of the target in world coords (0. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. I. of 4-vector. Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera. Conf. Corke.visjac p(pt.CHAPTER 2.0. 5550-5555. scalar for If null take actual value all points.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.the side length of the target in world units (0. for all points. Jacobian condition number. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). CentralCamera.visjac l. camera pose.gain.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. P. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. See also CentralCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.visjac p polar. (Anchorage). The external view. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error norm.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .

Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. pp.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Luc Van Gool. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 346–359. No. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 3. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. Andreas Ess. Tinne Tuytelaars.CHAPTER 2. 110. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

f = PointFeature(u. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. f = PointFeature(u. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.match(f2. [m. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. PointFeature.match(f2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match Match SURF point features m = F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Options ‘thresh’.C] = F.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.

w) as above but the support region is displayed. 1=opaque. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F.support(im.support(images.support(images. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.plot scale Plot feature scale F. out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.T] = F. 0=transparent (default 0. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.2) SurfPointFeature.support(im.plot scale(options. [out.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. C ‘alpha’.

axis. G ‘scale’. otherwise the result is not predictable. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Video AxisWebCamera.com). Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.com) web camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A.close() closes the connection to the web camera. AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.display AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.

Zisserman. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. pp.1470-1477. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Conf. Oct. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.Sivic and A. b = BagOfWords(f.org). Ninth IEEE Int.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. in Proc. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature BagOfWords. f can also be a cell array. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. 2003. on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.

BagOfWords.display Display value B.char Convert to string s = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. See also BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.exemplars(w.contains Find images containing word k = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. isurf BagOfWords. BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords.

occurrence Word occurrence n = B.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. N ‘maxperimage’.remove stop Remove stop words B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords.n] = B. M ‘width’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.isword Features from words f = B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.

subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

CHAPTER 2. Camera CatadioptricCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

See also Camera.project(p. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. S ‘noise’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). CatadioptricCamera. N ‘sensor’. A ‘resolution’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera.T. M ‘k’. T ‘Tcam’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. K ‘maxangle’. Options ‘Tobj’. N ‘focal’. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. optical axis is z-axis. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ﬁsheyecamera. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. f=8mm. ‘equisolid’.and v-axes parallel to x. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].and y-axes respectively. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. camera at origin. 10um pixels. SIGMA ‘pose’.CHAPTER 2. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . u. S ‘centre’. ‘sine’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. SurfPointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. See also PointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.

Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. f2.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.CHAPTER 2. one per element. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display Display value M. See also PointFeature.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. m = FeatureMatch(f1. SurfPointFeature. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.u2.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.v1. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.outlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v2].outlier Outlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier.

p1.p2 FeatureMatch.im2}) m.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p1.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. These are the (u.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.plot() M.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. These are the (u. for example by: idisp({im1.

ransac FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Example f1 = isurf(im1). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.CHAPTER 2. m. m = f1.ransac Apply RANSAC M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.ransac(func. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac( @fmatrix. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. f2 = isurf(im2).match(f2). See also idisp FeatureMatch. homography. 1e-4). See also fmatrix.

CHAPTER 2. Y This camera model assumes central projection. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. v. The image is not inverted. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.

Options ‘name’.axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. f=8mm. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. 10um pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. S ‘noise’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. N ‘sensor’. ‘sine’. camera at origin. K ‘resolution’. P ‘pixel’.and v-axes are parallel to x. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. S ‘centre’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. u.and y. SIGMA ‘pose’. optical axis is z-axis. ‘equisolid’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . M ‘k’.

Options ‘Tobj’. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CentralCamera. See also FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.CHAPTER 2. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. CatadioptricCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T. See also Camera. T ‘Tcam’.

0) and the line. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. A horizontal line has theta = 0. See also LineFeature Hough. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.CHAPTER 2. The voting array is 2-dimensional. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).H). For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.

Set ht. else N = [Ntheta. See also Hough. Default 400 × 401. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = HT. Hough. Nrho]. N All edge pixels have equal weight. W ‘houghthresh’. Hough. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edgeThresh.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.5) Set ht. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.display Display value HT.houghThresh (default 0. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.edgeThresh (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. W ‘nbins’. T ‘suppress’. T ‘edgethresh’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.1).

H = HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. then all elements in an HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines Hough.plot.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. See also Hough.plot(n. L = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. See also Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.lines Find lines L = HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. LineFeature Hough.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line features HT.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The highest peak is found. The process is repeated for all peaks.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. HT.

CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.

L = LineFeature(rho.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. strength. L = LineFeature(rho.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. theta. theta. LENGTH is undeﬁned.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. See also LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value L. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char Convert to string s = L.

less than gap pixels are tolerated. l2 = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot() overlay the line on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge.plot Plot line L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also icanny LineFeature. LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Small gaps.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.

S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.com).char Convert to string M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.close Close the image source M. Movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the movie. G ‘scale’. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. S ‘skip’.axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vid • edges are represented by integer ids. planar. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. S ‘frame’. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.CHAPTER 2. F Skip frames.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph create an n-d.

neighbours(v) g.next(v) g.connectivity() g.clear() add vertex.edges(e) g.plot() g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add node(coord) g.distance(v1.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. Object properties (read/write) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). v2) g. v) g.goal(v) g.component(v) g.add node(coord.cost(e) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.coord(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add edge(v1.path(v) set goal vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.CHAPTER 2. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. PGraph.add edge(v1. PGraph. E = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. Options ‘distance’. v. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.CHAPTER 2. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v = G. and returns the node id v. v2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add node(x. and returns the edge id E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v = G.add node(x.add edge(v1. where x is D × 1. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.

coord Coordinate of node x = G.CHAPTER 2. PGraph. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector. and the distance d. edges and components.d] = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. of node id v. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G. [v.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.clear Clear the graph G. PGraph.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. D × 1.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.display Display value F. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. v.char Convert to string s = F. one per element. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.char PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. [m.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.C] = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. where 1 is perfect match. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2.match Match point features m = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon .plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot Plot feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

intersection. union.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. one column per vertex. HEIGHT].html and require a licence. so use with care.mit. Polygon. http://puddle.area Area of polygon a = P. kirill@plume.area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon.mit. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char String representation s = P.edu.CHAPTER 2. Pankratov. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. p = Polygon(C. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. difference. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Polygon.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.

inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.char Polygon.CHAPTER 2. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.display Display polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). returns coordinates of P. See also Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. else 0.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.

• If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.moments Moments of polygon a = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. returns empty polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. y1 y2]. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. See also mpq poly Polygon.moments(p.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. each column is [x y]’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.

union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union Union of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. P.plot() plot the polygon.plot Plot polygon P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.

CHAPTER 2. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.char Convert to string s = R.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.E] = R. [x.display Display value R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Ray3D. [x. one per element. See also Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.E] = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.

less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle.CHAPTER 2.b. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.c. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. one per element. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.xmax. For example R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.box Return bounding box b = R. ymax].th] = R. See also iblobs. RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. ymin. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = R.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. imoments RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

plot Plot centroid R.char RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.CHAPTER 2.display Display value R. R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. See also RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary plot boundary R.and xmarkers. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box Plot bounding box R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.CHAPTER 2.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.

Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. SurfPointFeature. 1=opaque. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. strength. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v. See also PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. C ‘alpha’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = ScalePointFeature(u. F. ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options.CHAPTER 2.

The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘thresh’. Options ‘radius’. T ‘movie’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. See also PointFeature Tracker. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. R ‘nslots’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. C. options) is a new tracker object. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. one per active track.

tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.display Display value T. Tracker. See also Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. and their characteristics is displayed. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. Movie Video.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close Close the image source V.char Convert to string V.close() closes the connection to the camera. Video.

CHAPTER 2. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and the right image is cyan. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default the left image is red. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. color. the second for right. a = anaglyph(left. if negative it is reduced. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). right. If th1 is a column vector. the ﬁrst for left.

then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. y1.y1) to (x2. Endpoints must be integer. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. See also RegionFeature. If lambda is a column vector. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. 6500). For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y2). Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. x2.y2]. p2) as above but p1=[x1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.boundary. % emission of sun plot(l. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.y1] and p2=[x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.s] = boundmatch(R1. [x. p = bresenham(p1.CHAPTER 2. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.

The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Y.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. [C.CHAPTER 2.

that is.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. and x is N × 3. k = closest(a. R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. green and blue primaries respectively. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. [k. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.CHAPTER 2. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). x = circle(C. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.d1] = closest(a. Options ‘n’. R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).

while Table I(5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .16). since. 335 of Table 1(5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.d2] = closest(a. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). and 22500 (444. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. • From Table I(5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.5.CHAPTER 2.5. (Table 1(5.d1.ioo.ac. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ucl. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. they were measured directly.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). The data are referred to as pilot data. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.32).5. As noted in footnote a on p. 19000 (526.

xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.M). out = col2im(pix. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ioo. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uk See also cmfrgb. imsize is a 2-vector (N. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ac.ucl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .

• Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.CHAPTER 2.

The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. @isnan. func. icolor.C] = colorkmeans(im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. out = colorize(im. k. [L. @isnan. mask.CHAPTER 2. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.G. eg. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.B). im<100. See also imono. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. and returns a per-pixel logical result.

See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. low is good. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities.C. XYZ = colorname(name. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. L = colorkmeans(im. eg. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. name = colorname(XYZ.R] = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. k) as above but also returns the residual R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. Input and output images have 3 planes. [o1. or alternatively. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.o3] = colorspace(s. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.o2. double data is the natural choice. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.i2.txt. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. it can be omitted.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Color space names are case insensitive.CHAPTER 2. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. As MATLAB’s native datatype. s = ‘src->dest’. i1. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.

Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).2*A. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.200). for memory and computational performance. Example A = rand(400. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. like a colormap. out will also have size M × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I. However.B). d = distance(A.100). B = rand(400. • If im is an M × 3 array.CHAPTER 2.

but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.3.j). The result E is a matrix. in matrix coordinate frame. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background.y). Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. E = edgelist(im. non-zero is an object. tel.CHAPTER 2.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. bunschot@wins. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tested: PC Matlab v5. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. non zero is counter-clockwise. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.uva. University of Amsterdam.(+31)20-5257524.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. not image frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. seed. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.

ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. See also fmatrix. p. See also epiline. one per line drawn. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. H = epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. 1998. p1.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).R. Coimbra. Oct 27. p. I. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.CHAPTER 2.S. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. epiline(f.

sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.uwa. The University of Western Australia. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. that is. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. no outlier rejection is performed. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. which means it can be passed to ransac().edu. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. that is. page 270. Notes • The points must be corresponding. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. homography. p2.csse.au/. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. it is singular. http://www. epiline. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. See also ransac. • Contains a RANSAC driver.CHAPTER 2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. • f is a rank 2 matrix.

itriplepoint. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. y1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and (x2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y2). x2. ithin.CHAPTER 2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. See also imorph. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.

Notes • The points must be corresponding. no outlier rejection is performed. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.uwa. http://www. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. invhomog. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. which means it can be passed to ransac().au/. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. See also ransac. The University of Western Australia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.CHAPTER 2.edu.csse. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also homography. D ‘size’. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. See also e2h.CHAPTER 2. ie. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. im. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. R ‘scale’. im. S output image contains all the warped pixels. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. that is tp=T*T1. S ‘dimension’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. [out. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. V ‘roi’. itrim.offs] = homwarp(H.

on Information Theory. 200). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. ianimate(seq. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. IRE Trans. ianimate(im. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. IT-8:pp. ’gs’). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. 1962. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ’nfeat’. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 179-187. features. features. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). Hu.CHAPTER 2. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K.

The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. N ‘only’. YMIN YMAX]. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. isurf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iharris. M ‘npoints’.CHAPTER 2.

minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0 ‘connect’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle. A set pixel aspect ratio. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.CHAPTER 2. [S1. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. horizontal coordinate centroid. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. default 1. [A1. ilabel. vertical coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.

T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also isobel. out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. 1996-7. S ‘th0’. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. T ‘th1’. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Tel Aviv University. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also iopen.CHAPTER 2.

options) concatenates images from the cell array im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘dir’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. iconcat(im.u] = iconcat(im.CHAPTER 2. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). C = icolor(im. See also imono. [C.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. The images do not have to be of the same size. [0 1 1]). D ‘bgval’. colorize.

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. options) convolves im1 with im2.CHAPTER 2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CT ‘edgegap’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. S ‘deriv’. R ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. E ‘suppress’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. N ‘detector’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). CM ‘cminthresh’. K ‘patch’. D ‘k’. D ‘sigma’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

T ‘maxiter’.. with a delay of 0. p2. May 1988.G. [T. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.5 [sec]. 1988. p2. Tomasi. Manchester. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. J. Shi and C. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Image and Vision Computing. J. 1994.6. Harris and M. Options ‘dplot’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.CHAPTER 2. with a delay of d [sec]. pp.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.121-128. Stephens. IEEE Computer Society.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. 593-593. T ‘distthresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. vol.J. • “Finding corners”. C. • “Good features to track”.d] = icp(p1. Proc. pp. Proc. where * denotes squared and smoothed. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Noble. N ‘mindelta’. pp 147-151. See also PointFeature.

. m. no. Pattern Anal. Intell. m. vol.Besl and H. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. P. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. each plane is decimated. pp. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Feb. s = idecimate(im. 2. Mach. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = idecimate(im. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.or 3-dimensional.McKay. IEEETrans. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.CHAPTER 2. 239-256. 14. See also iscale. 1992. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im.

darker than ‘grey’. positive is blue. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. positive is blue. negative is red. zero is white. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. negative is red. C ‘xydata’. If im is a cell array of images. zero is white color map: random values. If the image is zoomed. XY ‘colormap’. Options ‘ncolors’. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value.and y-axes respectively. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. linear proﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. zero is black. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. histogram and zooming.

colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. See also image. labels.CHAPTER 2. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. labelimage. icolorize. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. idisplabel(im. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colormap. See also iblobs. caxis. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin. See also itriplepoint. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.45. out = igamma(im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.

jpg’). sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. pp. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Sept.5). See also ithresh. k. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. Journal on Computer Vision. k. [l. 100. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Example im = iread(’58060. min. min. Huttenlocher. 2006. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. k is the scale parameter. min is the minimum region size (pixels). k. 167181. 0. Felzenszwalb and D. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 59.m] = igraphseg(im.m] = igraphseg(im.5). P. Int. 1500. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 2004. [L. L = igraphseg(im.CHAPTER 2. vol.

h). options) displays the image histogram. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. ’normcdf’). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. bar(x. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. H = ihist(im. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. [h.h).CHAPTER 2. [H. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.x] = ihist(im).x] = ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot(x.x] = ihist(im.

same size as im. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.y2). x1. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. y1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.y1) and bottom-right (x2. [L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. ii is a precomputed integral image.m. y2. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.

out = iline(im.Y].parents. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. p1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.maxlabel. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iproﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.maxlabel. ilabel(im.CHAPTER 2.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. See also iblobs.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. 8).class. [L. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. each a 2-vector [X. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1. eg. • This is a “low level” function. p2. otherwise it does not. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.parents. The pixels on the line are set to 1. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). • Is a MEX ﬁle.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x.and y-offsets relative to (x. im2. H. ymin.y).y) and of size s. y. -s. w2.DY) are the x. y. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. The return value is xm=[DX. xmax.y). If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.score] = imatch(im1. and columns the vertical position. ymax] relative to (x. s] % relative to (x. • ZNCC matching is used.CC] where (DX. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.y) and its half-width is H. The template in im1 is centred at (x. s.DY. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. centred at (x. a perfect match score is 1. im2. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. [xm. x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.

v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. [u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. H) as above but the domain is w × H.u) = u and v(v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. effectively a greyscale image. All pixels are equally weighted. effectively a binary image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. v. [u. f = imoments(u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The element u(v. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(w. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.CHAPTER 2.u) = v.

horizontal coordinate centroid. or its area. m02. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m11. m20. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. m10. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m01. • This function does not perform connectivity. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. See also RegionFeature. the elements are m00. icolor. Different conversion functions are supported.CHAPTER 2. ilabel.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize.

Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.org). by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . part of VLFeat (vlfeat. 761767. and T. Chum. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. ’light’). 2004. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Pajdla. [label. Matas. pp. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.m] = imser(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. O. The labels [L. Image and Vision Computing. se.CHAPTER 2. ’double’). ’grey’. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. 22. options) as above but m is the number of regions found.png’. Sept. Urban. m. J. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. vol.m] = imser(im.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

that is n erosions followed by n dilations. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. sides.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. See also iclose. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im.

20.V]. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. 10. p.CHAPTER 2. im1. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ’t’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. otherwise im2 is selected. im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ’tblr’. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.

v) for the corresponding row of p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.uv] = iproﬁle(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1.CHAPTER 2. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. [p. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. See also bresenham. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

se).2) = 0. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. out = ipyramid(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. op. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. order. out = ipyramid(im. The highest rank. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. nbins. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. op. is order=1.5)). 12. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. 1.CHAPTER 2. out = imorph(image. se. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. ones(5. idecimate. sigma. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. im > irank(im. the maximum. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscalespace. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size.3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = imorph(image. se(2.

either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. where R=[umin umax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. ivar. G ‘reduce’. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. im = iread(ﬁle. R ‘roi’. See also imorph. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. vmin vmax]. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value.

h2] = irectify(f. homwarp. [out1.h1. istereo. igamma. imwrite. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im1. See also FeatureMatch. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. imono.out2] = irectify(f.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. im1. Notes • Color images are not supported. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.out2. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. m. • The resulting images may have negative disparity.

umax. S ‘extrapval’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. angle. V ‘smooth’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.vmax].CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. Options ‘outsize’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. vmin. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. [out. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmin vmax].H] return central part of image.

s>1 makes the image larger. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. V ‘smooth’.5 moves the crop window up or to the left.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. bias=0. Options ‘outsize’. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.5 is symmetric cropping. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.CHAPTER 2. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s ‘extrapval’. out = isamesize(im1. while bias>0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. bias<0. s<1 makes it smaller. im2.

L.s] = iscalespace(im. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n) as above but sigma=1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n.L. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.CHAPTER 2.s] = iscalespace(im. in space and scale. idecimate. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. See also iscalespace. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . corresponding to each step of the sequence. [g.

options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ismooth. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. it its third dimension is equal to three. that is. ‘valid’) as above. else false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog(T. See also isrot. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ilaplace.CHAPTER 2.

International Journal of Computer Vision. Reference David G. 2 (2004). Lowe. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. • Features are returned in descending strength order. 60.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. isurf. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. See also SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. N ‘suppress’. pp. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .vlfeat. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. 91-110.

See also imatch. and these output pixels are set to NaN. s is same size as im. ssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @ssd. im. zsad. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. [w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. ncc. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.CHAPTER 2. @zssd. @zsad. zssd. sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.H.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. [w. @ncc. s = isimilarity(T.

Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. convolved. then converted back to integer. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.CHAPTER 2. See also iconv. [gx.gy] = isobel(im. sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. See also ishomog. range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. [d.u).sim] = istereo(iml. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. H.u) means that imr(v. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.M] for an N × M window. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the disparity d=d(v. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). range is the disparity search range. imr. else false (0). H is the half size of the matching window. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. w. imr.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. That is. See also ksobel.CHAPTER 2. icanny. isrot(R. range. ‘valid’) as above. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.

‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. • sim = max(dsi. w.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. Options ‘metric’. range. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. p.A and p. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. [d. out = istretch(im. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. That is. 3) See also irectify. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. p. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. imr. w. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. B. imr. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.5 to +0.dsi] = istereo(iml. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range. ‘ncc’.sim. [d. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. dx.p] = istereo(iml. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.sim.5).

number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).CHAPTER 2. Kroon (U. N ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Notes • Color images. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. or sequences. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. T ‘octaves’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 346–359. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. isvec(v. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. else false (0).CHAPTER 2. Vol.or columnvector. either a row. Andreas Ess. pp. isift. Tinne Tuytelaars. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. 110. Luc Van Gool. See also hitormiss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 3. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Otherwise false (0). itriplepoint. See also ishomog. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . No. out = ithin(im. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector.

im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. ithresh(im. See also homwarp.out2] = itrim(im1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. The same cropping is applied to each input image.im2. [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. The default is 0. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. Notes • Greyscale image only. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.CHAPTER 2. a lower value will include more.out2] = itrim(im1.

The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. See also iendpoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. se. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. op. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.CHAPTER 2. ithin. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hence output image had reduced dimensions. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. se.

func. ones(3.CHAPTER 2. out = iwindow(image. See also ivar.3). se. @max). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hence output image had reduced dimensions. @std). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. ones(5. se.5). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.

• The vertical derivative. klog.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. See also ones. dG/dx. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss. ktriangle. kdog. k = kcircle(R. dG/dy. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. is k’. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2.

See also kgauss. See also kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. klog. k = kgauss(sigma. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kdog(sigma1. kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .6*sigma1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. kdog. sigma2.KGAUSS(SIGMA2).

CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. iconv. kdgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. k = klog(sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdog. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also ilaplace. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. and W=2 × H+1.

and D is the dimension. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).CHAPTER 2.C] = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Pattern Recognition Principles. L = kmeans(x. [L.C] = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. k. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. C ‘T’. Options ‘T’.z] = mkcube(s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. symmetric about the origin. [x. The points are the columns of p. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.CHAPTER 2. [x. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. s. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.z] = mkcube(s.y. See also cylinder.y. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. ‘edge’. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).

or y(:.xp . n. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. n) MPLOT(t. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. MPLOT(t. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. p. npq. or y(:. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y) MPLOT(t.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.yq .y). MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. y. the sum of I(x. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. n) MPLOT(y. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.CHAPTER 2. y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.

Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. p. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. upq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. npq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also mpq. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.

1986. niblack. Prentice-Hall. for example.CHAPTER 2. W. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. idisp(im >= t). See also zncc. the height of a character. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.2. [T.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. where W=2*w2+1. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. -0. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. k.s] = niblack(im. in text segmentation. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. • A common choice of k=-0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 20).m. sad. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ssd. T has the same dimensions as im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Example t = niblack(im. k.

upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. See also npq poly. That is UPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. mpq.q)/MPQ(im.0.0).p. p. p.

See also mpq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. upq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. npq. mpq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered as a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m.

options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. otsu IEEE Trans.xp] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Jan 1979.i] = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. pp 62-66 See also niblack. idisp(im >= t). Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. [yp. Example t = otsu(im). options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Systems. N. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. x. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.

N ‘scale’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. [zp. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.CHAPTER 2. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.S points. use peak(-V). Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . use peak2(-V). Typically choose N to be odd. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. N ‘scale’.ij] = peak2(z. S ‘interp’.

Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. See also pnmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p has three dimensions. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ie. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. plot2(p.CHAPTER 2.

Examples plot_circle(c. P. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 5). ’b’). ’LineWidth’. x2. value pairs that are passed to plot. ‘size’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ‘r’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.y1) and (x2. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’edgecolor’. ’r’). YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y2. r.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. W.y2). r. R. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. r. plot_circle(c.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. PLOT BOX(x1. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. 1=solid. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. W. or a set of name. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.y1.CHAPTER 2. PLOT BOX(’centre’. P. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’fillcolor’. ’g’. ‘size’. plot_circle(c. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z.

plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. current plot.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. centred at the origin. c Specify color of the axes. xc. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. If C=[X. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y]. C.CHAPTER 2. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. ls) ls is the standard line styles. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. with Matlab line style ls. Options ‘color’.

to ‘view’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ’color’. n ‘text opts’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ‘printf’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ‘framename’. trplot( T.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’r’). The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’r’. options) adds point markers to a plot. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. fmt. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’.X = 0. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’color’. Options ‘textcolor’. ’name’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T.

See also plot. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. NOTES • The sphere is always added. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. The default is 1. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. patch. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. color. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. R. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. either a letter or 3-vector. 1=solid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot.

iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.CHAPTER 2. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also pgmﬁlt. See also plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plotp(p. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.

[m.resid] = ransac(func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. T. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. x. x. x typically contains corresponding point data. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.in. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. Options ‘maxTrials’.CHAPTER 2. T.in] = ransac(func. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. d) as above but elements increment by d. N ‘maxDataTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. one column per point pair. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. [m.

2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.x) condition the point data out. Comp.x data to work on. No 6.theta = []. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.theta and the subset of R. Mach.inlier. pp 101-113.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.A.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x = CONDITION(R.theta] = ERR(R.theta is a cell array. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.x.out. Comm.resid] = EST(R. [out.CHAPTER 2. Cambridge University Press. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . that is.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.out.C.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. pp 381-395. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta = DECONDITION(R.R. Boles.x.x and returns the best model out.misc element.misc private data (cell array) out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta to the points R. Fishler and R. that is they will produce a model. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. they detect a structure argument.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. If multiple models are found out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. [out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. References • m. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.t threshold (1 × 1) R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.theta. Vol 24..theta. Assoc. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.

edu.au/ pk See also fmatrix. If lambda is a vector. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.uwa.csse. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.

roty.CHAPTER 2. See also roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx.

Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2. Z axes respectively. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. • many texts (Paul. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Y. If roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . yaw. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. T = rpy2tr(roll. See also tr2rpy.

tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. r2t. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. See also zsad. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. and rotation theta in the plane. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. theta) as above where xy=[x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y.

Two cross-hairs are created. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ncc.CHAPTER 2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also zsdd. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

opt.foo = true.choose = {’this’. – If T is 3 × 3. c. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). The software pattern is: function(a.blah = [].bar = false. opt. varargin) opt.CHAPTER 2. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It supports options that have an assigned value. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. then R is 3 × 3. then R is 2 × 2. b. opt. ’other’}. ’that’. tr2rt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.

true ‘nobar’ sets opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.choose <.blah <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.3 ‘blah’.CHAPTER 2. 3 sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.true sets opt.blah <.N sets opt <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. varargin). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. w. x. N ‘setopt’. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. ’#yes’}.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.choose <.y ‘that’ sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.foo <.debug <.y sets opt.false ‘blah’.x.‘this’.select <. args) creates a test pattern image. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.foo <.1.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.verbose <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt. If neither of ‘this’. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.select = {’#no’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.select <. varargin). The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

sd and sdd are n-vectors. dot diameter. args is the number of cycles. sf. 256. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args are dot pitch (distance between centres).sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 2). n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. intercept. square side length. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. 256. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. args are pitch (distance between centres). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.CHAPTER 2. 50. binary square pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. a line. binary dot pattern. args are theta (rad). args is the number of cycles. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 25).sd. sf. [s. args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. args is the number of cycles.

then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Y. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). See also angvec2r.P. [theta. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. The 3 angles rpy=[R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Y and Z axes respectively.

p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. – If TR is 3 × 3. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. • The validity of R is not checked. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. See also rpy2tr. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. r2t.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.CHAPTER 2. See also rt2tr.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.y.z].:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. ie. If T has three dimensions. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. y.

out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. [c1.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). each N × 1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.CHAPTER 2. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. or x and y. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). [o1. An historical anomaly.

Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

f ‘label’. trprint T is the command line form of above. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format.CHAPTER 2. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’.

tr2rpy. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. See also upq poly. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.y0) is the centroid. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. That is. p.(x-x0)p . mpq. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.y).CHAPTER 2.(y-y0)q where (x0. the sum of I(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). sad. See also sad. See also ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.CHAPTER 2. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ssd.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. See also sdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

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