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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

and I commend it to you.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. is open-source. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This is extravagant on storage. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. However the book “Robotics. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Video . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . iint . . . . . iendpoint . . colorkmeans . . . . . . homline . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . colnorm . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . isize . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . troty . . . testpattern . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. lecturers and professors are paid to do. tutors. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. You need to signup in order to post.com.google. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and you will be suitably acknowledged. That’s what you your teachers.

5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. type of organization and application. Year = {2005}. Month = nov. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. 1.I. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Corke}. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). the table of content to functions.zip). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1.html on a server for class use.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.petercorke.gz) or zip format (.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. The ﬁle robot. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. 1. 1. The details are @article{Corke05f. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Volume = {12}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. and the “See also” functions to each other. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Author = {P.1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Number = {4}.3.

Twente. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix..R. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. VLFeat http://www. Corke. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. 12(4).1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. MSER. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. Coimbra.mathworks. Vincent Lepetit. and there are hundreds of modules available. 1. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.Functions such as SURF.7 Acknowledgements Last. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.I. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.vlfeat. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.1. pp 16–25. but not least. 1994 University of British Columbia. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. November 2005. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. 1.6.7. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.S. P. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. IM ‘resolution’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. S ‘noise’.CHAPTER 2. Camera. N ‘image’. S ‘centre’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. N ‘sensor’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. used by all subclasses. SIGMA ‘pose’. T ‘color’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘name’. P ‘pixel’.

Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.centre Get camera position p = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.delete Camera object destructor C.display Display value C. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.char Convert to string s = C. CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clf Clear the image plane C.CHAPTER 2.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.

otherwise false (0).ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.u + b.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v + c = 0. Camera.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera. C.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.char Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. y. See also mesh. y. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. mkcube. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. y. Camera.plot.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.T. z.plot(p.hold. Camera. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.clf Camera. Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. cylinder. z to the image plane and plots them. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. uv = C.plot Plot points on image plane C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. sphere.mesh(x. The matrices x.

plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Overrides the current camera pose C.T.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T See also Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Options ‘Tcam’. T ‘scale’. ‘Tcam’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.mesh.CHAPTER 2. Camera.clf Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.hold. ‘Tobj’. ‘fps’.

y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. that is. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.p. The image is not inverted. a subclass of Camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.y].rpy(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. C. p. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rpy Set camera attitude C.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.C Camera matrix C = C. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

camera at origin. CentralCamera.E Essential matrix E = C. Reference Y.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. T ‘color’.8]) See also Camera. E = C.Soatto. 2003.Kosecka. f=8mm. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and v-axes parallel to x.Sastry. F ‘distortion’. optical axis is z-axis.Ma. D ‘default’ ‘image’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. p. P ‘pixel’. S.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘focal’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S ‘centre’. u. N ‘sensor’. S. E = C. Springer. 10um pixels. J.CHAPTER 2. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘noise’.177 See also CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera.F. IM ‘resolution’.and y-axes respectively.

F = C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). S.E CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Sastry. p.Soatto.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.177 See also CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . from two viewpoints.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Reference Y.F Fundamental matrix F = C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.H Homography matrix H = C.Kosecka.Ma. J. n.H CentralCamera. Springer.H(T.CHAPTER 2. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. 2003.

Fua. a = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. pp. vol.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. Feb. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Moreno-Noguer. Lepetit. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. 2009. Journal on Computer Vision. and P. 81. CentralCamera. V. See also quiver CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. F. CentralCamera.estpose(xyz. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.CHAPTER 2. 155-166.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Int.

2003.Ma. section 5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Kosecka. translation not to scale • n. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Ma. “Multiview Geometry”.E CentralCamera. Chap 9. “An invitation to 3D”.Soatto. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).invE(E.CHAPTER 2.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s. p.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. J. s. J.Sastry.Sastry. 259 Y. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. 2003.Kosecka. s. s. Springer. p116.Soatto. “An invitation to 3D”. Reference Y. Springer. See also CentralCamera.

plot epiline(f.project(p. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. p. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. See also Hough CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. H = C.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. ‘Tobj’. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. one per line.CHAPTER 2. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). ‘Tcam’. C.plot epiline(f.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. 8. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Chaumette.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Rives. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. F. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.c. Reference B. vol.visjac e(E. and P.plot CentralCamera. Espiau. June 1992. 313-326.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.CHAPTER 2.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pp. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. “Multiview Geometry”. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. See also Camera. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.

c. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac p(uv. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.CHAPTER 2.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac p polar.visjac e CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R&A. Reference B. 313-326. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac l(L. IEEE Trans. 1996. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. CentralCamera. Hager & Corke. F. 8. Espiau. Rives. pp.visjac p polar. Chaumette.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. vol.visjac p. CentralCamera.b. June 1992. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. and P.visjac p. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Oct. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera. Hutchinson. Vol 12(5).visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pp 651-670.

Chaumette. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac p. See also CentralCamera. Louis). Oct.visjac p polar. in Proc. (St. CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p polar(rt.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac e CentralCamera. I. Int.visjac l. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. 2009. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. 5962-5967. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. F. Spindler. P. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac l. CentralCamera. pp. radius and theta. and F. Corke.

u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.60. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Journal on Computer Vision.Lowe. PointFeature.SIFT. pp. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. Int. See also isift.91-110. D.CHAPTER 2. See README. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Nov. vol. 2004.

SiftPointFeature.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 0=transparent (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = PointFeature(u. v. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. C ‘alpha’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.plot scale(options.match(f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F. 1=opaque. See also isift SiftPointFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im. F.CHAPTER 2. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.T] = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = F.support(images.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. [out.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). CentralCamera. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. See also SphericalCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. Options ‘name’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. Options ‘Tobj’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Overrides the current camera pose C.T. S ‘pose’. T ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.project(p.

5) target center . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. defaults in parentheses: target size . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. image plane size and desired feature locations. scalar for If null take actual value all points.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . error norm. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The external view. error.gain. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. of 4-vector.01) .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera view.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.the side length of the target in world units (0. Jacobian condition number. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.center of the target in world coords (0. camera pose. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.0. The camera view.

defaults in parentheses: target size .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. See also CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Jacobian condition number. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.5) target center . The external view. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. P. for all points.depth of points to use for Jacobian.visjac p(pt.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .0.01) . or a vector (N × 1) for each point.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . camera pose.gain. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.the side length of the target in world units (0. 5550-5555.visjac l. error norm. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. in Proc. May 3-7 2010. IEEE Int. error. Conf. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. I.visjac p polar. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. pp. CentralCamera.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .center of the target in world coords (0.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Robotics and Automation. image plane size and desired feature locations.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . of 4-vector. Corke. scalar for If null take actual value all points. (Anchorage).

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 346–359. Luc Van Gool. No. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 110. Andreas Ess. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 3. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Vol. pp. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).CHAPTER 2. Tinne Tuytelaars.

Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].match(f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. [m. ScalePointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.match Match SURF point features m = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. f = PointFeature(u. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.C] = F. Options ‘thresh’. f = PointFeature(u. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. PointFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.support Support region of feature out = F. out = F.T] = F. 1=opaque. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. [out. F.plot scale(options.support(im.support(im. F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.support(images. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 0=transparent (default 0. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) SurfPointFeature. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com). Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . G ‘scale’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.axis.com) web camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Video AxisWebCamera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.char Convert to string A.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. See also AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.display AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close() closes the connection to the web camera.

2003.Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. in Proc.org). Oct. f can also be a cell array. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. pp. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.Sivic and A.1470-1477. Conf. on Computer Vision. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. b = BagOfWords(f. Ninth IEEE Int. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.

char BagOfWords. BagOfWords.display Display value B.exemplars(w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. See also BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. isurf BagOfWords. images.exemplars display exemplars of words B.contains Find images containing word k = B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.

All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop Remove stop words B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. M ‘width’.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.n] = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. N ‘maxperimage’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords.

wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. subclass of Camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Camera CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

10um pixels. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. u. ﬁsheyecamera. M ‘k’. P ‘pixel’. f=8mm. SIGMA ‘pose’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and v-axes parallel to x. A ‘resolution’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. S ‘noise’. optical axis is z-axis. N ‘sensor’. T ‘Tcam’. camera at origin. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. ‘equisolid’. See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. S ‘centre’.T. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘sine’.project(p. N ‘focal’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).and y-axes respectively. Options ‘Tobj’. CatadioptricCamera. K ‘maxangle’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.

SurfPointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. FeatureMatch.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element.char Convert to string s = M. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display Display value M. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. m = FeatureMatch(f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. f2.

p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier Outlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.v2]. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.outlier.u2.inlier.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.

The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p1. These are the (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . These are the (u.plot() M.plot Show corresponding points M.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.p2.FeatureMatch.p1.p2 FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. for example by: idisp({im1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.im2}) m.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.

match(f2). homography. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. f2 = isurf(im2). Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac(func.ransac Apply RANSAC M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac( @fmatrix.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. m. ransac FeatureMatch. m = f1. 1e-4). and an error is created if this UserData is not found.

v. that is.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Y This camera model assumes central projection.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. The image is not inverted. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

10um pixels.CHAPTER 2.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘noise’. N ‘sensor’. SIGMA ‘pose’. K ‘resolution’. u. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.axes respectively. camera at origin. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. f=8mm. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].and v-axes are parallel to x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘sine’. S ‘centre’. Options ‘name’. P ‘pixel’. ‘equisolid’. M ‘k’.and y. optical axis is z-axis. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).

plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.project(p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also FishEyeCamera.CHAPTER 2. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Options ‘Tobj’. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. CatadioptricCamera.T.

options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. A horizontal line has theta = 0. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.CHAPTER 2. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. The voting array is 2-dimensional.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. See also LineFeature Hough.H).

The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.char Convert to string s = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. N All edge pixels have equal weight. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.1). W ‘nbins’. Hough.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Default 400 × 401.houghThresh (default 0. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. W ‘houghthresh’.5) Set ht. T ‘suppress’.edgeThresh. See also Hough.display Display value HT.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else N = [Ntheta. Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.CHAPTER 2.edgeThresh (default 0. Nrho]. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Hough. T ‘edgethresh’.

HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. then all elements in an HT.plot Plot line features HT. LineFeature Hough. See also Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The process is repeated for all peaks. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. L = HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The highest peak is found.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.lines Hough.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. H = HT.CHAPTER 2.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.lines Find lines L = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.

RegionFeature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. LENGTH is undeﬁned. theta.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. See also LineFeature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. L = LineFeature(rho.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. one per element. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.CHAPTER 2.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.char Convert to string s = L.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. strength. LineFeature. theta. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also icanny LineFeature.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot() overlay the line on current plot. Small gaps.plot Plot line L.seglength(edge. l2 = L. l2 = L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). less than gap pixels are tolerated. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. L.CHAPTER 2. LineFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Movie.char Convert to string M.axis.close() closes the connection to the movie. S ‘skip’. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. G ‘scale’. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.close Close the image source M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . planar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.CHAPTER 2. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. S ‘frame’. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. F Skip frames. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph create an n-d.

clear() add vertex.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .coord(v) g.plot() g.goal(v) g.next(v) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). v2) g.path(v) set goal vertex.add node(coord. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.cost(e) g.edges(e) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.add edge(v1.add node(coord) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. Object properties (read/write) g.component(v) g.neighbours(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. v) g.connectivity() g.CHAPTER 2.distance(v1.

v = G. where x is D × 1.add edge(v1. PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge(v1. PGraph.CHAPTER 2. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. and returns the node id v. v = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. Options ‘distance’.add node(x. and returns the edge id E.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. E = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.

closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.d] = G. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph. edges and components.coord Coordinate of node x = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. of node id v. D × 1.closest Find closest node v = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. [v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the distance d.CHAPTER 2. PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.clear Clear the graph G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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display Display value F.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. one per element. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. v. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.char Convert to string s = F.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

match(f2.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = F. where 1 is perfect match.char PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. [m.CHAPTER 2. the norm of the Euclidean distance.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. PointFeature. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match Match point features m = F. Options ‘thresh’.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.

CHAPTER 2. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon .plot Plot feature F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

mit.edu. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . http://puddle.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. kirill@plume.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.area() is the area of the polygon. one column per vertex.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. so use with care.CHAPTER 2. Pankratov. p = Polygon(C. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. difference.area Area of polygon a = P.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit. Polygon. intersection. Polygon. HEIGHT]. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Polygon. union.char String representation s = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.html and require a licence.

Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. else 0. Polygon. returns coordinates of P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display polygon P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Polygon.char Polygon. See also Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.CHAPTER 2.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.difference Difference of polygons d = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.

Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.moments(p. each column is [x y]’.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. See also mpq poly Polygon. y1 y2]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. returns empty polygon. Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.CHAPTER 2.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.

union Union of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot() plot the polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot polygon P.

unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. Ray3D. Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. See also Ray3D.char Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. one per element.char Convert to string s = R.E] = R.display Display value R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.CHAPTER 2. [x. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.E] = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. [x.

c.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid.0) 1 for a circle.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.CHAPTER 2.b. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.

These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.xmax.CHAPTER 2. ymin.char Convert to string s = R. For example R.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. See also iblobs.th] = R.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .box Return bounding box b = R. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. RegionFeature. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. ymax].

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary plot boundary R.char RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and xmarkers. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. See also RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot centroid R.display Display value R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. R. It is indicated with overlaid o. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box Plot bounding box R.

plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.plot scale(options. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. C ‘alpha’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. strength. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 0=transparent (default 0. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 1=opaque. f = ScalePointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v. F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. See also PointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.

Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. N ‘thresh’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. T ‘movie’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. C. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. R ‘nslots’. options) is a new tracker object. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. one per active track. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Options ‘radius’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.display Display value T. Tracker.char Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.CHAPTER 2.plot Show feature trajectories T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = T. See also Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

S ‘resolution’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera. otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Movie Video. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. and their characteristics is displayed.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video. Video.close Close the image source V.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the camera.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.

color. right. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. a = anaglyph(left.CHAPTER 2. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and the right image is cyan. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. the second for right. By default the left image is red. If th1 is a column vector. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. right. the ﬁrst for left. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. if negative it is reduced. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If lambda is a column vector. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y2).y2].y1) to (x2. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. See also RegionFeature. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. Endpoints must be integer. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. x2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].boundary. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. [x. 6500).s] = boundmatch(R1.CHAPTER 2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. p2) as above but p1=[x1.y1] and p2=[x2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. y1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % emission of sun plot(l. p = bresenham(p1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. [C. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.CHAPTER 2.

y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). [k.CHAPTER 2. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . green and blue primaries respectively. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.d1] = closest(a. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. k = closest(a. and x is N × 3. R. that is. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. x = circle(C. R. Options ‘n’.

rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 19000 (526.d2] = closest(a. they were measured directly.ucl. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). and 22500 (444. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. 335 of Table 1(5. As noted in footnote a on p. while Table I(5. (Table 1(5.5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. • From Table I(5.d1.ac. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).CHAPTER 2.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.16). The data are referred to as pilot data.5.ioo. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.5. since.32).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.

ac. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imsize is a 2-vector (N. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ucl. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.uk See also cmfrgb. out = col2im(pix.M). E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.CHAPTER 2.ioo.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

@isnan. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.B). [L. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. eg. icolor.CHAPTER 2. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @isnan. k. func. im<100. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. out = colorize(im. mask. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.C] = colorkmeans(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. See also imono.G. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im.

‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. XYZ = colorname(name. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = colorkmeans(im.CHAPTER 2.C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. k) as above but also returns the residual R.R] = colorkmeans(im. low is good. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. eg. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. name = colorname(XYZ. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.

or alternatively. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. As MATLAB’s native datatype. Input and output images have 3 planes.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. s = ‘src->dest’. • Color space names are case insensitive.CHAPTER 2. it can be omitted.txt. s = ‘dest<-src’. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.o2.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. colorspace(s. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o3] = colorspace(s. double data is the natural choice. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. [o1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. i1.i2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.

B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . However.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Example A = rand(400. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .100). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.2*A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. out will also have size M × 3. for memory and computational performance. B = rand(400. d = distance(A. like a colormap. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.CHAPTER 2. • If im is an M × 3 array. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.B).200). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).

Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.3. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. non zero is counter-clockwise.uva. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. seed.CHAPTER 2.y). Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. The result E is a matrix.(+31)20-5257524. non-zero is an object. Tested: PC Matlab v5. tel.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. E = edgelist(im. University of Amsterdam. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.j). See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. in matrix coordinate frame. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. not image frame. bunschot@wins.

p. I. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. See also fmatrix. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. H = epiline(f.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). one per line drawn. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Coimbra. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. 1998. Oct 27. See also epiline. p. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.S. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. epiline(f.R. p1.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • f is a rank 2 matrix. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. See also ransac. page 270. • Contains a RANSAC driver. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.edu. http://www. that is. homography.CHAPTER 2. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1).uwa.csse. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. c. no outlier rejection is performed. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. it is singular.au/. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. epiline. that is. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac(). epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. The University of Western Australia. p2.

ithin. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). x2.y1) and (x2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. itriplepoint. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.y2). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.CHAPTER 2. See also imorph. y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.

Notes • The points must be corresponding. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ransac.au/. invhomog. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. no outlier rejection is performed.csse.CHAPTER 2.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. The University of Western Australia. http://www. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. which means it can be passed to ransac(). fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.edu. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.

If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. [out. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. See also homography. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. im. ie.offs] = homwarp(H. See also e2h. S ‘dimension’. V ‘roi’. R ‘scale’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. that is tp=T*T1.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. im. itrim. D ‘size’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ianimate(im. ianimate(seq. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Hu. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. IT-8:pp. on Information Theory. 179-187. ’nfeat’. 200). features. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 1962. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). ’gs’). Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IRE Trans. features.

F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. isurf. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im.CHAPTER 2. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. M ‘npoints’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. YMIN YMAX]. N ‘only’. iharris.

CHAPTER 2. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. C set connectivity. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . default 1.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. [S1. A set pixel aspect ratio. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.0 ‘connect’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. ilabel. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [A1. horizontal coordinate centroid.

T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. S ‘th0’. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’.CHAPTER 2. out = iclose(im. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. This is an dilation followed by erosion. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. 1996-7. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Tel Aviv University. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also iopen. See also isobel.

See also imono. [C. [0 1 1]). and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. Options ‘dir’. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconcat(im.CHAPTER 2.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. C = icolor(im.u] = iconcat(im. D ‘bgval’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. The images do not have to be of the same size. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). colorize. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).options) concatenates images from the cell array im.

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. options) convolves im1 with im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.CHAPTER 2.

• The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. D ‘sigma’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). K ‘patch’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. CM ‘cminthresh’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘detector’. D ‘k’. E ‘suppress’. R ‘nfeat’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. S ‘deriv’. CT ‘edgegap’.

Manchester. p2. See also PointFeature.G. with a delay of d [sec]. Shi and C. Image and Vision Computing. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. IEEE Computer Society. Stephens. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. T ‘maxiter’. J. pp 147-151. C. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. 1988.121-128. pp.J.5 [sec]. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.6. N ‘mindelta’. Proc. T ‘distthresh’. Harris and M. J. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.CHAPTER 2. 1994. 593-593. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. pp. p2. with a delay of 0. where * denotes squared and smoothed. • “Good features to track”. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. [T.d] = icp(p1. Proc. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.Noble.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. • “Finding corners”. May 1988. Options ‘dplot’. Tomasi.

vol. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. pp. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale.McKay.CHAPTER 2. 2.. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Intell. Mach. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 1992. 239-256. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.or 3-dimensional. Feb. 14.Besl and H. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. m. each plane is decimated. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. IEEETrans. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. s = idecimate(im. Pattern Anal. P. m. no. s = idecimate(im.

histogram and zooming. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. XY ‘colormap’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. darker than ‘grey’. zero is black. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. positive is blue.CHAPTER 2. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points.and y-axes respectively. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. negative is red. If the image is zoomed. zero is white color map: random values. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). C ‘xydata’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘ncolors’. If im is a cell array of images. positive is blue. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. zero is white. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. negative is red. linear proﬁle.

See also iblobs. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labelimage. idisplabel(im. See also image. colormap. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. caxis. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. icolorize. labels. labelimage. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im.

Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. See also itriplepoint.CHAPTER 2. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.45. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. out = igamma(im. ithin. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.

and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.5).m] = igraphseg(im. Int. k.m] = igraphseg(im. Journal on Computer Vision. 59. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im.jpg’). P. 2006.CHAPTER 2. pp. vol. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Sept. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min. See also ithresh. L = igraphseg(im. 1500. 0. Example im = iread(’58060. Felzenszwalb and D. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. k. k is the scale parameter. 2004. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. 167181. 100. [L. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.5). min. Huttenlocher. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. [l. min is the minimum region size (pixels).

CHAPTER 2. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H.x] = ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. H = ihist(im. plot(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h).x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). ’normcdf’).h). bar(x. [h. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.

y2). [L. x1.y1) and bottom-right (x2.CHAPTER 2. y2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Region labels are in the range 1 to M.m. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. same size as im. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. ii is a precomputed integral image. [L. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.

p2. iproﬁle.class. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. out = iline(im. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. otherwise it does not.maxlabel. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. [L. p1. 8).maxlabel.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.Y]. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. ilabel(im. eg. each a 2-vector [X. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.parents. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. p1. The pixels on the line are set to 1.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. See also iblobs.parents. • This is a “low level” function.CHAPTER 2.

• ZNCC matching is used.score] = imatch(im1.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y) and of size s. y. and columns the vertical position. ymin. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. a perfect match score is 1.CHAPTER 2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. • Is a MEX ﬁle. im2.y) and its half-width is H. y. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. -s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.and y-offsets relative to (x. H. s.y). s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).CC] where (DX. x. centred at (x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. s] % relative to (x.DY) are the x.DY. ymax] relative to (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. The return value is xm=[DX. im2. [xm. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. w2. xmax. The template in im1 is centred at (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.y). x.

v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. H) as above but the domain is w × H. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. effectively a greyscale image. [u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.CHAPTER 2. All pixels are equally weighted. The element u(v.u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.u) = v. v.v] = imeshgrid(w. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. [u. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image.

the elements are m00. m01. m02. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. icolor.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. or its area. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid. m10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. See also RegionFeature. m20. Different conversion functions are supported. ilabel. m11. • This function does not perform connectivity. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize.

png’.m] = imser(im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Sept. se. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. The labels [L. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.CHAPTER 2. vol. [label. m. 2004. ’grey’. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. and T. Matas. Pajdla.m] = imser(im. ’light’). op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.org). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. 761767. O. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. 22. ’double’). Urban. Image and Vision Computing. J. Chum.

ˆ2). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.CHAPTER 2. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.

sides. se. n. This is an erosion followed by dilation. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also iclose. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. sides. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2.

by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise im2 is selected. 10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. p. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ’tblr’.V]. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ’t’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 20. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero.CHAPTER 2. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. im1. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.

p1. [p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p. See also bresenham. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1.uv] = iproﬁle(im.

is order=1. se).3). The highest rank. See also iscalespace. out = imorph(image. out = ipyramid(im. 1. se. out = ipyramid(im. out = imorph(image. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. order.2) = 0. op. im > irank(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. idecimate.CHAPTER 2. se. ones(5. the maximum. se(2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5)). op. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. 12. nbins. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. sigma. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im.

im = iread(ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. G ‘reduce’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. R ‘roi’. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2. ivar. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. where R=[umin umax. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.

CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.CHAPTER 2. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m. homwarp.h2] = irectify(f. istereo. imono.h1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. igamma. See also FeatureMatch. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m.out2. Notes • Color images are not supported. imwrite. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im1. [out1. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.out2] = irectify(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im1.

V ‘smooth’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘extrapval’. Options ‘outsize’. angle. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.vmin vmax].R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. See also idisp. vmin.umax. [out.H] return central part of image.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.vmax]. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.

H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. bias=0. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘smooth’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s ‘extrapval’. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. im2. s<1 makes it smaller.CHAPTER 2. bias<0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s>1 makes the image larger. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. while bias>0. Options ‘outsize’. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. out = isamesize(im1.5 is symmetric cropping.

s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. See also iscalespace. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).L. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.L. [g. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). idecimate. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .s] = iscalespace(im. in space and scale. n) as above but sigma=1.CHAPTER 2. n. corresponding to each step of the sequence.

ismooth. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. ilaplace. else false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax.CHAPTER 2. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. that is. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. See also isrot. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. it its third dimension is equal to three.

• Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. isurf. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.CHAPTER 2. N ‘suppress’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. Lowe. • Features are returned in descending strength order. International Journal of Computer Vision. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 91-110. See also SiftPointFeature. 60. 2 (2004). R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. Reference David G.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. pp.

d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. and these output pixels are set to NaN. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zsad. [w. im. @zssd. ssd. sad. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. zssd. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @zsad. ncc. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.H. See also imatch. [w.CHAPTER 2. @ncc. s is same size as im. s = isimilarity(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @ssd. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary.

gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. then converted back to integer. [gx.gy] = isobel(im.CHAPTER 2. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. sigma.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. See also iconv. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. convolved. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. [gx. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

imr. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.u) means that imr(v. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr. H is the half size of the matching window. See also ishomog.sim] = istereo(iml. range. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. [d. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. else false (0). or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.CHAPTER 2. w. the disparity d=d(v.M] for an N × M window. That is. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. H.u). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. isrot(R. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). icanny. range is the disparity search range. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ksobel. ‘valid’) as above.

In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.p] = istereo(iml. • sim = max(dsi. w. Options ‘metric’. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. p. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).dsi] = istereo(iml. That is. imr. p.sim. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. [d. 3) See also irectify. imr.CHAPTER 2. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.5). ‘ncc’. out = istretch(im. range. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.A and p.5 to +0.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. B.sim. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). [d. range. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. w. dx. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.

T ‘octaves’. Notes • Color images. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Kroon (U. or sequences. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. N ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. itriplepoint. out = ithin(im. Luc Van Gool. 346–359. Vol. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector.CHAPTER 2. See also hitormiss. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. isvec(v. pp. Andreas Ess. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. No. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . either a row. isift. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay.or columnvector. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. See also ishomog. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. else false (0). 110. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3. Otherwise false (0).

Notes • Greyscale image only. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. The same cropping is applied to each input image. [out1. The default is 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. ithresh(im. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.im2.CHAPTER 2. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1.5. See also homwarp. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a lower value will include more.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin. See also iendpoint. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. op. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.CHAPTER 2. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. se.

The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. out = iwindow(image. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. See also ivar. ones(5. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ones(3. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. se. @max). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.3). se. @std). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5).CHAPTER 2. func. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.

s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. See also kgauss. ktriangle. k = kcircle(R. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. k = kdgauss(sigma.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. kdog. See also ones. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. is k’. dG/dy. dG/dx. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. • The vertical derivative.

See also kgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. By default SIGMA2 = 1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. See also kdgauss. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. sigma2. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. k = kgauss(sigma. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .6*sigma1. kdog. k = kdog(sigma1. kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. klog.

See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. k = klog(sigma. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdog. iconv. kdgauss. See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.

pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).C] = kmeans(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.CHAPTER 2. k. [L. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. and D is the dimension. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. k. Pattern Recognition Principles.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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C ‘T’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).y. ‘edge’. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.CHAPTER 2.z] = mkcube(s. symmetric about the origin. [x. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.z] = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. Options ‘T’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The points are the columns of p. s. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.y. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. See also cylinder. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.

Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.2)). or y(:.yq . npq. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. MPLOT(t. the sum of I(x.2)). n. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y) MPLOT(t. p. n) MPLOT(y.y). Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. or y(:. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. See also mpq poly. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.xp . mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.CHAPTER 2. n) MPLOT(t.

• If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also mpq. p. they are considered to be a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. upq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

-0. ssd. in text segmentation. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. T has the same dimensions as im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. k.m. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Example t = niblack(im. niblack. the height of a character.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing.CHAPTER 2. sad. [T. k. 1986. • A common choice of k=-0. See also zncc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for example. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. 20). idisp(im >= t). W. Prentice-Hall.s] = niblack(im. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.2. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. where W=2*w2+1.

Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.0. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. That is UPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. mpq.0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. See also npq poly.q)/MPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p.p. p.

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered as a single vertex. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.CHAPTER 2. so centroids will be still be correct. upq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. See also mpq poly. mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

Systems. otsu IEEE Trans. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. x. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. [yp.xp] = peak(y.i] = peak(y. N. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Jan 1979. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. idisp(im >= t).CHAPTER 2. [yp. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Example t = otsu(im). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.

Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. use peak(-V). options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. S ‘interp’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V). N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.S points. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.ij] = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Typically choose N to be odd. [zp.

If p has three dimensions. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ie. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p can be N × 2 or N × 3.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plot2(p. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. See also pnmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

y1) and (x2. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’b’). PLOT BOX(x1. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Examples plot_circle(c. ’LineWidth’. ‘r’. P. 1=solid. ’edgecolor’. ‘size’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.y2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ’g’. value pairs that are passed to plot. r. plot_circle(c. x2. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ’r’).CHAPTER 2.y2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. r. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. r. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. plot_circle(c. ’fillcolor’. PLOT BOX(’centre’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. W. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. 5). W. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y1. or a set of name. R.

plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. Options ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.Y]. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. with Matlab line style ls. c Specify color of the axes.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.Y. current plot. centred at the origin. If C=[X. xc. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. C. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles.

CHAPTER 2. fmt. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’color’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’r’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ‘printf’. Options ‘textcolor’. trplot( T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .X = 0. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. n ‘text opts’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’name’. to ‘view’. ‘framename’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’color’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’r’). l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’.

See also plot. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. NOTES • The sphere is always added. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. 1=solid. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. R. The default is 1. either a letter or 3-vector. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. color. patch. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2.

The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also pgmﬁlt. See also plot. plotp(p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.CHAPTER 2. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column.

gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.

T. T. x typically contains corresponding point data. N ‘maxDataTrials’.resid] = ransac(func. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x.in. [m. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. x. one column per point pair. d) as above but elements increment by d. x.in] = ransac(func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m.CHAPTER 2.

Mach. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.CHAPTER 2.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.x.theta = DECONDITION(R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.inlier.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.resid] = EST(R. Comm.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.x. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta to the points R. Assoc.A. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. Fishler and R.theta and the subset of R.theta.theta] = ERR(R.R. Boles. that is they will produce a model.s sample size (1 × 1) out. [out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. pp 101-113. that is. pp 381-395. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. they detect a structure argument.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.out.misc element.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Cambridge University Press.x and returns the best model out. No 6.theta = [].x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta.t threshold (1 × 1) R.out.theta is a cell array. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.s out.C.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R..x = CONDITION(R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x data to work on. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.misc private data (cell array) out. If multiple models are found out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. References • m. [out. Vol 24. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Comp.x) condition the point data out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.

CHAPTER 2. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. If lambda is a vector. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.edu. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .csse. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.au/ pk See also fmatrix.uwa.

angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2. roty. See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. rotz. See also roty.

t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also tr2rpy. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. • many texts (Paul. Z axes respectively. pitch. If roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. T = rpy2tr(roll. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. yaw. pitch. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. Y.CHAPTER 2. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy.

theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.y. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ncc. See also zsad.CHAPTER 2. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. theta) as above where xy=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. and rotation theta in the plane. r2t.

See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. See also zsdd. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. sad. ncc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Two cross-hairs are created. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels].

args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. – If T is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. opt. then R is 2 × 2. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. ’other’}.foo = true. The software pattern is: function(a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt. then R is 3 × 3. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. ’that’. tr2rt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. b.choose = {’this’. opt. opt.blah = [].bar = false. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).CHAPTER 2. c. It supports options that have an assigned value.

‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.select <. varargin).select <.foo <.blah <.debug <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt.‘this’.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.1.true sets opt. ’#yes’}.x.y ‘that’ sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.choose <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.N sets opt <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. 3 sets opt. w. N ‘setopt’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose <. x. varargin).2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).foo <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.false ‘blah’.verbose <.3 ‘blah’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. If neither of ‘this’. args) creates a test pattern image. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.blah <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.y sets opt.CHAPTER 2.select = {’#no’.

n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. sd and sdd are n-vectors. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 256. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. intercept. 256. square side length.sdd] = tpoly(s0. binary dot pattern.sd. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. args is the number of cycles. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. 2). a line.sd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args are theta (rad). The trajectory s. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args are pitch (distance between centres). A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. 50. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. sf. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 25). [s. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sf. dot diameter.CHAPTER 2. args is the number of cycles. binary square pattern.

Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. The 3 angles rpy=[R.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Y.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Y and Z axes respectively. See also angvec2r. rpy = tr2rpy(R.

Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. y. – If TR is 3 × 3. • The validity of R is not checked. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.y. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. ie. See also rpy2tr. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.CHAPTER 2. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.z]. See also rt2tr.:. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. If T has three dimensions. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. r2t.

CHAPTER 2.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. or x and y.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. [c1. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. each N × 1. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [o1. An historical anomaly. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).

troty. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. f ‘label’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx. trprint T is the command line form of above.

upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2rpy.(y-y0)q where (x0. mpq.y0) is the centroid. the sum of I(x. See also upq poly. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.(x-x0)p . That is.y). npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.CHAPTER 2. p. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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CHAPTER 2. See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also ncc. ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. sad. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ncc.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. sad. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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