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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This toolbox predates IPT by many years. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. However the book “Robotics. is open-source. This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. and I commend it to you. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.

. . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . 1. . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . BagOfWords . 1. . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . 1. . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . iendpoint . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . ramp . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . plot2 . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . zssd . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . sad . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. That’s what you your teachers. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and you will be suitably acknowledged. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You need to signup in order to post. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.google. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.com.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. tutors. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.

HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.gz) or zip format (.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1. Author = {P.petercorke. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. 1. 1.1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.html on a server for class use. 1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Year = {2005}. Number = {4}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.3.I.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. type of organization and application. Corke}. The ﬁle robot. the table of content to functions. Month = nov. The details are @article{Corke05f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the “See also” functions to each other. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.zip). Volume = {12}.

graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.R. 12(4). The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. and there are hundreds of modules available. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . VLFeat http://www.6. Vincent Lepetit. but not least.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.Functions such as SURF.7. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.1. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. MSER. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.S. Corke. 1.7 Acknowledgements Last. P. November 2005. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. Twente. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.mathworks. Coimbra. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. pp 16–25.vlfeat. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. 1.. 1994 University of British Columbia.I.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

Camera. used by all subclasses. N ‘image’. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. P ‘pixel’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. T ‘color’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. Options ‘name’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.

char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.delete Camera object destructor C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera. SphericalCamera Camera.centre Get camera position p = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.CHAPTER 2. Camera.char Convert to string s = C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. CatadioptricCamera.display Display value C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.clf Clear the image plane C.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. otherwise false (0). See also Camera.CHAPTER 2.char Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.v + c = 0.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.u + b. Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.

Options ‘Tobj’. y. Camera. Camera. Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. mkcube. z to the image plane and plots them. z.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. T ‘Tcam’. sphere.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. See also mesh.mesh(x. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.hold. uv = C.clf Camera. y.plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. y. cylinder.CHAPTER 2.plot(p.plot Plot points on image plane C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. The matrices x.

plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Options ‘Tcam’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera. ‘Tobj’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.mesh.hold. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Overrides the current camera pose C. ‘Tcam’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.clf Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.CHAPTER 2. T ‘scale’. T See also Camera. ‘fps’.T. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Camera.

p.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.y]. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is. The image is not inverted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.CHAPTER 2. C. a subclass of Camera.rpy(R.rpy Set camera attitude C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.p.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C Camera matrix C = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. ﬁsheyecamera. D ‘default’ ‘image’.8]) See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and y-axes respectively. p. P ‘pixel’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .177 See also CentralCamera. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. f=8mm. optical axis is z-axis. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. IM ‘resolution’. CentralCamera.Ma. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). Springer.F. CatadioptricCamera. camera at origin. SIGMA ‘pose’. u.Soatto. 2003. 10um pixels. N ‘focal’. E = C. S.E Essential matrix E = C. S ‘noise’. F ‘distortion’. S ‘centre’. Reference Y. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.and v-axes parallel to x.Kosecka. J. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.Sastry.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. N ‘sensor’.CHAPTER 2. T ‘color’. “An invitation to 3D”. S. E = C.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.

2003. “An invitation to 3D”.H(T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. S. See also CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.Ma. J. from two viewpoints.H Homography matrix H = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. n.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).177 See also CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. p.CHAPTER 2.E CentralCamera.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Reference Y.Soatto. F = C.Kosecka.Sastry.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.F Fundamental matrix F = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. S.

invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.CHAPTER 2. F. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Fua.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. a = C. Journal on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. and P. Feb. Moreno-Noguer. 155-166. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. CentralCamera.estpose(xyz. V. 2009.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. CentralCamera. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. vol. Lepetit. See also quiver CentralCamera. 81.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Int.

Reference Hartley & Zisserman. See also CentralCamera. s. Springer.Kosecka.invE(E. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Sastry. Chap 9.Soatto. “An invitation to 3D”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. 2003. s. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference Y. 2003. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.CHAPTER 2. s. “An invitation to 3D”. translation not to scale • n. J.E CentralCamera.Ma.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . J.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Ma.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Sastry.Kosecka. s. section 5. 259 Y.Soatto. Springer. p116. p.

plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.T.H CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot epiline(f.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. See also Hough CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. C.plot epiline(f.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. H = C. CentralCamera. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p. ‘Tobj’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.project(p. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per line.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).

Rives.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac e(E. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2. Chaumette. pp.plot CentralCamera.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.c. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. June 1992.b. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . 8. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. vol. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Espiau. 313-326. and P. Reference B. F. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera.

Rives. Hutchinson.b. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 313-326. pp 651-670. Hager & Corke.visjac p.visjac p.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. pp. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Reference B. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Vol 12(5). IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. June 1992. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. 8.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Oct. 1996. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac p polar. See also CentralCamera.visjac l(L. F. CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p polar.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac l CentralCamera.c. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). R&A. Espiau. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.visjac p(uv. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. IEEE Trans. Chaumette. and P.

visjac p polar(rt.visjac l. Louis). I. and F. (St. Corke. Int. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera. 2009. P. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Spindler.visjac e CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac p polar. Oct.visjac p. radius and theta.CHAPTER 2.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. in Proc.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Chaumette. F. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. 5962-5967.visjac l.

ScalePointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.60. See README. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Nov.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. vol. PointFeature. D. 2004.CHAPTER 2. Journal on Computer Vision.SIFT.Lowe. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.91-110. Int. pp. See also isift.

SiftPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.plot scale(options. 1=opaque. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isift SiftPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u. v. F. C ‘alpha’.plot scale Plot feature scale F.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match(f2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.match Match SIFT point features m = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. f = PointFeature(u.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 0=transparent (default 0.

w) as above but the support region is displayed. [out.support Support region of feature out = F. F.support(im. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.CHAPTER 2. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.T] = F.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

CHAPTER 2. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.T. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Overrides the current camera pose C. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. CentralCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Options ‘name’.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). T ‘Tcam’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘pose’. ﬁsheyecamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’.

from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. defaults in parentheses: target size .CHAPTER 2. image plane size and desired feature locations.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The external view. The camera view. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.gain. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.depth of points to use for Jacobian.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.5) target center .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . error. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . error norm.01) . Jacobian condition number. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera view. of 4-vector. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.center of the target in world coords (0.the side length of the target in world units (0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . camera pose.

of 4-vector.CHAPTER 2. camera pose.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .0. CentralCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. I. image plane size and desired feature locations.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Corke. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The external view.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .01) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Conf. error norm. 5550-5555. in Proc. See also CentralCamera.gain. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. IEEE Int.visjac p polar. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.visjac l. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. for all points. pp.center of the target in world coords (0. Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera.the side length of the target in world units (0. error. P. defaults in parentheses: target size .visjac p(pt. (Anchorage).depth of points to use for Jacobian. May 3-7 2010.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Jacobian condition number.5) target center .

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Luc Van Gool. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. 110. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. No. 3. Andreas Ess. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Vol. pp. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.CHAPTER 2. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

match Match SURF point features m = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. [m. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.C] = F.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. v.

Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. out = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.support(images. [out.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. C ‘alpha’.support(im. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale Plot feature scale F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.plot scale(options.support Support region of feature out = F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F.2) SurfPointFeature.support(im.T] = F.CHAPTER 2. 0=transparent (default 0. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. 1=opaque. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.

S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.com) web camera. G ‘scale’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’.com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis. Video AxisWebCamera.axis. otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

close Close the image source A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.char Convert to string A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. See also AxisWebCamera.

Ninth IEEE Int. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. in Proc. Conf.1470-1477.Zisserman. b = BagOfWords(f. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. 2003. Oct.CHAPTER 2. pp.org). f can also be a cell array. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sivic and A.

exemplars display exemplars of words B. isurf BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.exemplars(w.display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.contains Find images containing word k = B. images. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.char BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.CHAPTER 2. See also BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.n] = B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. M ‘width’.remove stop Remove stop words B. Options ‘ncolumns’. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. N ‘maxperimage’.isword Features from words f = B.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.

CHAPTER 2. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.

Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

A ‘resolution’. camera at origin. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘centre’. T ‘Tcam’.and v-axes parallel to x. F ‘default’ ‘projection’.and y-axes respectively. 10um pixels. K ‘maxangle’. f=8mm.T. See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera. N ‘sensor’. N ‘focal’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. M ‘k’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. ‘equisolid’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Options ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘sine’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. P ‘pixel’. u.CHAPTER 2. optical axis is z-axis. ﬁsheyecamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].

See also PointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.

m = FeatureMatch(f1. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. See also PointFeature.display Display value M. f2. one per element.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature.char Convert to string s = M. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.v2].outlier Outlier features m2 = M.inlier. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.ransac FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. See also FeatureMatch.u2.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.

These are the (u.im2}) m.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.FeatureMatch.p1.p2.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p2 FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.plot() M.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch.p1.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.

f2 = isurf(im2).match(f2).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Example f1 = isurf(im1). inliers and outliers (and their percentages). homography. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. m. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. ransac FeatureMatch. See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2. 1e-4).ransac(func. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp FeatureMatch.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.ransac( @fmatrix.ransac Apply RANSAC M. m = f1. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.

subset Subset of matches m2 = M. Y This camera model assumes central projection.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. v. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). K ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘name’. f=8mm. N ‘sensor’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.and y. optical axis is z-axis. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘centre’. P ‘pixel’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. camera at origin. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘sine’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. S ‘noise’.axes respectively. u. M ‘k’. ‘equisolid’.and v-axes are parallel to x.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. 10um pixels. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].

See also Camera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera.T. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’. See also FishEyeCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. See also LineFeature Hough.CHAPTER 2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).0) and the line. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.H). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. The voting array is 2-dimensional. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. A horizontal line has theta = 0.

W ‘nbins’.houghThresh (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display Display value HT. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.5) Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0. See also Hough. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Default 400 × 401.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.CHAPTER 2. else N = [Ntheta.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. T ‘suppress’. W ‘houghthresh’.char Convert to string s = HT.1). Hough. T ‘edgethresh’. Hough.edgeThresh.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Nrho]. Set ht.

plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.plot(n. LineFeature Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks. then all elements in an HT. See also Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot. L = HT.plot Plot line features HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.CHAPTER 2. H = HT. The highest peak is found.lines Hough.lines Find lines L = HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.

PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.

LENGTH is undeﬁned. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. L = LineFeature(rho. strength. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta. theta. L = LineFeature(rho.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. LineFeature.display Display value L. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. See also LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.char Convert to string s = L. LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.

l2 = L.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. less than gap pixels are tolerated. See also icanny LineFeature. L.points Return points on line segments p = L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.plot Plot line L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. Small gaps. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength(edge.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). l2 = L.

close Close the image source M.com).CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the movie. S ‘skip’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . G ‘scale’. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.char Convert to string M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Movie.

undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. F Skip frames. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. Options ‘skip’. planar. S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. undirected graph create an n-d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. v2) g.cost(e) g.goal(v) g.next(v) g. v) g.clear() add vertex.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(coord.plot() g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. Object properties (read/write) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.coord(v) g.distance(v1.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.path(v) set goal vertex.add edge(v1.neighbours(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.component(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.add node(coord) g.connectivity() g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().edges(e) g.

and returns the edge id E.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. E = G. and returns the node id v. v = G. PGraph.add node(x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. Options ‘distance’. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. where x is D × 1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add edge(v1.add node(x. PGraph. v2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge(v1. v = G.CHAPTER 2.

[v.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. of node id v. PGraph. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. D × 1.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph.clear Clear the graph G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert graph to string s = G. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G.d] = G.CHAPTER 2.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.coord Coordinate of node x = G. edges and components. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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CHAPTER 2.display Display value F. SurfPointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. See also ScalePointFeature. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. one per element. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. where 1 is perfect match.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Options ‘thresh’.C] = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. [m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.match Match point features m = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. the norm of the Euclidean distance. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.match(f2.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.plot Plot feature F. Polygon . F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

Polygon. intersection.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pankratov. kirill@plume. one column per vertex.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. so use with care. p = Polygon(C. Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.char String representation s = P.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.edu. HEIGHT]. union. Polygon. difference.mit.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.html and require a licence.area() is the area of the polygon. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. http://puddle.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.CHAPTER 2.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. See also Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon.char Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.display Display polygon P. else 0. Polygon. returns coordinates of P.

moments Moments of polygon a = P. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. y1 y2]. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. returns empty polygon.CHAPTER 2. each column is [x y]’. Polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.moments(p.

plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.CHAPTER 2.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. P.union Union of polygons i = P. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.plot Plot polygon P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.

Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.CHAPTER 2.

Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.E] = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. [x.char Ray3D. Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.E] = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. See also Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. one per element.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.c. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0) 1 for a circle.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. horizontal coordinate centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2.b. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

xmax. For example R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. one per element.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.uc will be a list not a vector.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. See also iblobs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.th] = R.char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. RegionFeature.box Return bounding box b = R. imoments RegionFeature. ymax]. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. ymin.

It is indicated with overlaid o. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot Plot centroid R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.and xmarkers. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. RegionFeature.display Display value R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.char RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.

plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. R.plot box Plot bounding box R. R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 1=opaque.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. See also PointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0=transparent (default 0.CHAPTER 2. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.plot scale(options. C ‘alpha’. strength. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.

T ‘movie’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. N ‘thresh’. Options ‘radius’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. C.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. options) is a new tracker object. one per active track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. R ‘nslots’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.

char Convert to string s = T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display Display value T.char Tracker.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. See also Tracker. Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.

S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and their characteristics is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.CHAPTER 2. Movie Video. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. otherwise the result is not predictable. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. AxisWebCamera.

close Close the image source V.char Convert to string V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.CHAPTER 2. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video. Video.

right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. the second for right. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1.CHAPTER 2. right. color. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. By default the left image is red. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. if negative it is reduced. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. If th1 is a column vector. right. a = anaglyph(left. the ﬁrst for left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and the right image is cyan.

y1] and p2=[x2.y1) to (x2. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. [x. See also RegionFeature. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.boundary. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. 6500).y2]. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. x2.CHAPTER 2. % emission of sun plot(l. If lambda is a column vector. p2) as above but p1=[x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. p = bresenham(p1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. y1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Endpoints must be integer. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.s] = boundmatch(R1.y2).

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. [C. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Y.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.CHAPTER 2.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.

C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R. and x is N × 3. R.d1] = closest(a. Options ‘n’. k = closest(a. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. x = circle(C. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. that is. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). green and blue primaries respectively. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).CHAPTER 2. [k.

the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.ac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. they were measured directly. while Table I(5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].16). See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).d2] = closest(a.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.CHAPTER 2. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.32). 335 of Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. since. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. The data are referred to as pilot data. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.5.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. 19000 (526.5.ioo.ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).d1. (Table 1(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). and 22500 (444. • From Table I(5. As noted in footnote a on p.

R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ac. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.M). out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ioo. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.uk See also cmfrgb.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .CHAPTER 2. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.g] to every pixel in the color image im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. @isnan. and returns a per-pixel logical result. icolor. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. out = colorize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. eg. @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. im<100.G.CHAPTER 2. k. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. mask. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [L. See also imono. func.B). [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.

Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(XYZ. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre.C. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. k) as above but also returns the residual R. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im. XYZ = colorname(name.R] = colorkmeans(im. eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. low is good. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space.

colorspace(s.txt. i1. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o2.i2. double data is the natural choice. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. s = ‘src->dest’. it can be omitted. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. As MATLAB’s native datatype. or alternatively. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. [o1.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. • Color space names are case insensitive. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o3] = colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes.

2*A. for memory and computational performance. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . out will also have size M × 3. d = distance(A.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. like a colormap.100). The distance d is M × N and element d(I.CHAPTER 2.B). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. • If im is an M × 3 array. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.200).J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example A = rand(400. However. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. B = rand(400.

bunschot@wins. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. non-zero is an object.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.(+31)20-5257524.CHAPTER 2. seed. The result E is a matrix.3. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.uva. not image frame. Tested: PC Matlab v5. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. University of Amsterdam. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. in matrix coordinate frame. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E = edgelist(im. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. tel. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.j). Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. non zero is counter-clockwise.

p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p. 1998. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. See also fmatrix. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Author Based on fmatrix code by. one per line drawn.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.S. Oct 27. p1. H = epiline(f. epiline(f. I. p. See also epiline. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f.R. Coimbra. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.

edu. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). See also ransac. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. it is singular. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. Notes • The points must be corresponding. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. c.CHAPTER 2. no outlier rejection is performed. which means it can be passed to ransac(). page 270.csse. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. that is. that is. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. epiline. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.uwa. homography. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. • f is a rank 2 matrix. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. The University of Western Australia. p2.au/. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Contains a RANSAC driver. http://www. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.

y2). Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y1. x2. ithin. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. See also imorph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.CHAPTER 2. itriplepoint. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y1) and (x2.

fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. http://www. invhomog. no outlier rejection is performed. See also ransac.uwa. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. which means it can be passed to ransac(). The University of Western Australia. Notes • The points must be corresponding. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.edu. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.csse.CHAPTER 2. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.

V ‘roi’. See also homography. im. R ‘scale’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. [out. D ‘size’. im.offs] = homwarp(H. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. itrim. S output image contains all the warped pixels. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. that is tp=T*T1.CHAPTER 2. S ‘dimension’. ie. See also e2h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im.

options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. IRE Trans. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ianimate(im. ’gs’). Hu. 179-187. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. on Information Theory. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq).CHAPTER 2. 1962. 200). ’nfeat’. features. IT-8:pp. ianimate(seq.

F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. N ‘only’. M ‘npoints’. YMIN YMAX]. isurf. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.CHAPTER 2. iharris.

maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. ilabel. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. [S1. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. C set connectivity. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid. default 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0 ‘connect’. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. [A1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio.

imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. se. This is an dilation followed by erosion.CHAPTER 2. T ‘th1’. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. 1996-7. Tel Aviv University. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. See also iopen.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. out = iclose(im. See also isobel. S ‘th0’.

Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). The images do not have to be of the same size. C = icolor(im. Options ‘dir’. iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. [0 1 1]). See also imono. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u] = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [C. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. colorize. D ‘bgval’. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.CHAPTER 2.

options) convolves im1 with im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. D ‘k’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). R ‘nfeat’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. S ‘deriv’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. E ‘suppress’. CT ‘edgegap’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. K ‘patch’. N ‘detector’.CHAPTER 2. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. D ‘sigma’. CM ‘cminthresh’.

T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. May 1988. 1988.121-128. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Stephens.6. N ‘mindelta’.G. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Harris and M. [T. T ‘distthresh’.5 [sec]. T ‘maxiter’. p2. • “Good features to track”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Image and Vision Computing.Noble. 1994. Proc. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.J. p2. Proc. 593-593. pp. J. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. J. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Tomasi. with a delay of d [sec]. Options ‘dplot’. pp 147-151. IEEE Computer Society. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. • “Finding corners”.. Shi and C.d] = icp(p1. vol. Manchester. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. with a delay of 0. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. C.

239-256. s = idecimate(im. pp.Besl and H.McKay.CHAPTER 2. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. vol. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Intell.. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 14. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. s = idecimate(im. Pattern Anal. m. no. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. each plane is decimated. IEEETrans. Feb. 1992. Mach. m. P. Notes • If the image has multiple planes.or 3-dimensional. 2. See also iscale. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.

frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. If im is a cell array of images. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue. histogram and zooming. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view.CHAPTER 2. negative is red. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. Options ‘ncolors’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is white. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward.and y-axes respectively. C ‘xydata’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. negative is red. zero is white color map: random values. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. XY ‘colormap’. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. linear proﬁle. darker than ‘grey’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. If the image is zoomed. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. zero is black. positive is blue. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally).

caxis. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also image. labels. labelimage. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. colormap. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. icolorize. labelimage. idisplabel(im.CHAPTER 2. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. See also iblobs. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image.

• For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. out = igamma(im. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.2.CHAPTER 2. See also itriplepoint. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.45. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. ithin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.

[l.5). Example im = iread(’58060. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. P. k. [L. 167181. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 59. k. Huttenlocher. vol. 0. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.m] = igraphseg(im. min.CHAPTER 2. 1500. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. pp.m] = igraphseg(im. L = igraphseg(im. 2004. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. See also ithresh. Journal on Computer Vision. Int. Sept. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min. k is the scale parameter. k. min is the minimum region size (pixels).jpg’). sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.5). 100. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Felzenszwalb and D. 2006. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.

H = ihist(im.h).x] = ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bar(x.x] = ihist(im). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [H.CHAPTER 2. [h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. plot(x. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.h). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. ’normcdf’). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.x] = ihist(im.

for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. same size as im. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. x1.y1) and bottom-right (x2.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. ii is a precomputed integral image. y2. y1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. [L. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. [L.y2). where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.

parents.parents. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. eg.Y]. iproﬁle. each a 2-vector [X. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. p2. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.CHAPTER 2. [L. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. The pixels on the line are set to 1. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. See also iblobs. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. p1. p1.maxlabel. out = iline(im. ilabel(im. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. otherwise it does not.maxlabel. • This is a “low level” function. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. 8).class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.

x.score] = imatch(im1. -s. H. • Is a MEX ﬁle. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. w2. y. The template in im1 is centred at (x. centred at (x. y. s] % relative to (x. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.y) and its half-width is H. • ZNCC matching is used.y) and of size s.y). See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.DY.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y). im2. im2. ymin. a perfect match score is 1. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. The return value is xm=[DX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). ymax] relative to (x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. xmax. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.CC] where (DX.CHAPTER 2. s. x.and y-offsets relative to (x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. [xm.DY) are the x. and columns the vertical position.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. The element u(v. effectively a binary image. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(w. All pixels are equally weighted. [u. f = imoments(u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.CHAPTER 2. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.u) = u and v(v. v. effectively a greyscale image. H) as above but the domain is w × H.

if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. or its area. the elements are m00.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m02. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m01. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. • This function does not perform connectivity. ilabel. m10. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. horizontal coordinate centroid. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m11. m20. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. Different conversion functions are supported.CHAPTER 2. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. See also RegionFeature. icolor.

Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. Matas. ’grey’. ’light’). Image and Vision Computing. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Urban. J. ’double’). 2004. and T.CHAPTER 2. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. 22.png’. vol. Pajdla. 761767.m] = imser(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. The labels [L. Sept. O. [label. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im.m] = imser(im. m. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Chum. pp.org). se.

CHAPTER 2. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.ˆ2). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.

imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. se. sides. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an erosion followed by dilation. See also iclose. sides.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is n erosions followed by n dilations. n. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. out = iopen(im.

im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. p. 10. ’t’.V]. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 20. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. im1. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. otherwise im2 is selected.CHAPTER 2. ’tblr’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer.

out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uv] = iproﬁle(im. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. [p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.v) for the corresponding row of p. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. See also bresenham. p1. p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).

ones(5. out = imorph(image. See also iscalespace. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3.2) = 0. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. sigma. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im.3). out = ipyramid(im. 12. nbins. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = ipyramid(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. The highest rank.CHAPTER 2. is order=1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se(2. out = imorph(image.5)). se. idecimate. op. 1. op. the maximum. order. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. im > irank(im. se). edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed.

R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. im = iread(ﬁle. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). See also imorph. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin vmax]. R ‘roi’. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. where R=[umin umax. ivar.CHAPTER 2. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. G ‘reduce’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path.

CHAPTER 2. im1. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.out2] = irectify(f. im1. igamma. m.h1.h2] = irectify(f. homwarp. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. Notes • Color images are not supported. See also FeatureMatch. imono. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.out2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. istereo. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. m. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. imwrite.

same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’.umax.vmax]. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. vmin. angle. See also idisp.vmin vmax].R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.H] return central part of image.CHAPTER 2. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. S ‘extrapval’. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.

s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.5 moves the crop window up or to the left.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. out = isamesize(im1. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 is symmetric cropping.CHAPTER 2. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. while bias>0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias<0. bias=0. im2. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. V ‘smooth’.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s<1 makes it smaller. Options ‘outsize’. s ‘extrapval’. s>1 makes the image larger. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.

CHAPTER 2. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.L. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .s] = iscalespace(im. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. corresponding to each step of the sequence. in space and scale. n. [g. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.s] = iscalespace(im. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. n) as above but sigma=1. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). idecimate. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. See also iscalespace. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog(T.CHAPTER 2. that is. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ‘valid’) as above. ilaplace. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. else false (0). it its third dimension is equal to three. ismooth. See also isrot.

N ‘suppress’. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. 91-110. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. isurf. pp. • Features are returned in descending strength order. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. Lowe. 60.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www.CHAPTER 2. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .vlfeat. 2 (2004). Reference David G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. International Journal of Computer Vision. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. See also SiftPointFeature.

H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. @ncc. s is same size as im. See also imatch. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.H. zsad. zssd. sad. s = isimilarity(T. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. [w. @ssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. @zsad. @zssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. and these output pixels are set to NaN. [w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ncc.

dx) as above but returns the gradient images. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.CHAPTER 2. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. [gx. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. convolved. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.gy] = isobel(im. See also iconv. [gx. then converted back to integer.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.

See also ishomog. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.u). which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. isrot(R. imr. That is. w. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).CHAPTER 2. H is the half size of the matching window. range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. the disparity d=d(v. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. See also ksobel. icanny.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) means that imr(v. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. else false (0).sim] = istereo(iml. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. H. ‘valid’) as above. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. imr. range is the disparity search range. range.M] for an N × M window. [d.

Options ‘metric’.A and p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.dsi] = istereo(iml. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. dx.CHAPTER 2.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. out = istretch(im. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. p. [d. w.5 to +0. 3) See also irectify. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. That is. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. [d. ‘ncc’. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.p] = istereo(iml. range. imr. B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.sim. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). w. imr.5).dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.sim. range. • sim = max(dsi.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.

T ‘octaves’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Notes • Color images. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Kroon (U. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. or sequences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im.CHAPTER 2. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. N ‘thresh’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. See also hitormiss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay.or columnvector.CHAPTER 2. 110. pp. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. out = ithin(im. isift. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Luc Van Gool. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. 3. No. Tinne Tuytelaars. 346–359. Andreas Ess. Otherwise false (0).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. itriplepoint. either a row. isvec(v. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. See also ishomog. else false (0). Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Vol.

T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.CHAPTER 2.out2] = itrim(im1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. See also homwarp. Notes • Greyscale image only. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. The same cropping is applied to each input image. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. ithresh(im.5. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.out2] = itrim(im1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. The default is 0. a lower value will include more. [out1.im2.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. See also iendpoint. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. op. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. ithin.

edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled.3). @max). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. @std). hence output image had reduced dimensions. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. out = iwindow(image. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. func. ones(3. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. se. See also ivar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. se.CHAPTER 2. ones(5.

imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. See also ones.CHAPTER 2. • The vertical derivative. kdog. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. dG/dy. is k’. ktriangle. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. k = kcircle(R. See also kgauss. k = kdgauss(sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dx. klog. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed.

k = kgauss(sigma.6*sigma1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). kdgauss. kdog. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .CHAPTER 2. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. See also kgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2. klog. See also kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. By default SIGMA2 = 1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. k = kdog(sigma1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1.

CHAPTER 2. kdog. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also kgauss. See also ilaplace. k = klog(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. kdgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. and W=2 × H+1.

C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to.CHAPTER 2. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. it is assumed to have been completed previously.C] = kmeans(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Pattern Recognition Principles.C] = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. [L. k. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. k. L = kmeans(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. Options ‘T’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. The points are the columns of p.y. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. See also cylinder.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.z] = mkcube(s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. [x. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. s. symmetric about the origin. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).z] = mkcube(s. ‘edge’. C ‘T’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).

n) MPLOT(y. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. the sum of I(x. n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.2)). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.xp . y) MPLOT(t. That is. y. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.CHAPTER 2. npq. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. See also mpq poly. p. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.yq . or y(:. or y(:.2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n) MPLOT(t.y).

Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. npq poly. See also mpq.CHAPTER 2. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq poly. p. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. they are considered to be a single vertex. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.

the height of a character. W.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. See also zncc. where W=2*w2+1. sad.2. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. • A common choice of k=-0. Prentice-Hall. niblack. for example. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.s] = niblack(im. 20). Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. [T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. k. Example t = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im.CHAPTER 2.m. -0. k. 1986. in text segmentation. idisp(im >= t). The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. That is UPQ(im.p.CHAPTER 2.0. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. mpq. p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. p. See also npq poly. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.q)/MPQ(im.0).

Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. upq. See also mpq poly. npq.CHAPTER 2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. so centroids will be still be correct. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. they are considered as a single vertex. mpq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.

Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.xp] = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp(im >= t). x. otsu IEEE Trans.CHAPTER 2. Systems. Jan 1979. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.i] = peak(y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. N. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. [yp. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Example t = otsu(im).

use peak2(-V).ij] = peak2(z. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak(-V). N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.CHAPTER 2. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. S ‘interp’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. [zp.S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.S points. Typically choose N to be odd.

pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. plot2(p. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im.CHAPTER 2. See also pnmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. If p has three dimensions. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ie.

y1) and (x2. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. PLOT BOX(x1. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. r.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. W. Examples plot_circle(c.y1. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg.CHAPTER 2.y2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. x2. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ’edgecolor’. ‘r’. ’fillcolor’. or a set of name. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. plot_circle(c.y2). value pairs that are passed to plot. ‘size’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. PLOT BOX(’centre’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’g’. ’LineWidth’. P. r. P. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ‘size’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’r’). R. ’b’). options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. W. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. r. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. 5). plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. 1=solid.

ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.CHAPTER 2. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . current plot. ls) ls is the standard line styles. C. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.Y]. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. If C=[X. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. Options ‘color’. c Specify color of the axes. centred at the origin.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. xc. with Matlab line style ls.Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.

data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’name’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. fmt. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’r’). l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ‘framename’. ’color’. to ‘view’.X = 0. ’color’. Options ‘textcolor’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’r’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines.CHAPTER 2. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ‘printf’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trplot( T. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. options) adds point markers to a plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. n ‘text opts’.

• The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R. 1=solid. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . patch. color. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. R. NOTES • The sphere is always added. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. The default is 1. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque.CHAPTER 2. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. either a letter or 3-vector.

See also plot. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plotp(p. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. See also pgmﬁlt. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format.CHAPTER 2. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.gt] = radgrad(im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. [gr.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.CHAPTER 2.

resid] = ransac(func. x typically contains corresponding point data. T. [m.in] = ransac(func. one column per point pair. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. Options ‘maxTrials’.in. x. T. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. N ‘maxDataTrials’. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x. T. d) as above but elements increment by d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.CHAPTER 2. x. [m.

debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.x) condition the point data out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. pp 381-395.theta = DECONDITION(R. that is they will produce a model.x.out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.s out.theta.misc element. Vol 24.s sample size (1 × 1) out.R.x data to work on.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. Boles.t threshold (1 × 1) R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. No 6. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.x and returns the best model out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.inlier.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Assoc. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.theta = [].x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.misc private data (cell array) out.out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. [out.x.resid] = EST(R. If multiple models are found out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R..valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Comm.CHAPTER 2.x = CONDITION(R. [out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. they detect a structure argument.theta and the subset of R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.C. Cambridge University Press. Mach.A.theta. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. that is. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.theta] = ERR(R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. Fishler and R. References • m.theta to the points R. pp 101-113. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.theta is a cell array. Comp.

See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector.au/ pk See also fmatrix. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.edu. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse.CHAPTER 2.

rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . roty. See also rotx. See also roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2.

See also tr2rpy. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. T = rpy2tr(roll. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • many texts (Paul. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Y. If roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. Z axes respectively.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. ncc. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. See also zsad. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. r2t. theta) as above where xy=[x. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. and rotation theta in the plane. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. ssd.y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.CHAPTER 2.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. y.

Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels].CHAPTER 2. ncc. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. See also zsdd. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Two cross-hairs are created. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

boolean or enumeration types (string or int). opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. The software pattern is: function(a. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. ’that’.bar = false. then R is 3 × 3. It supports options that have an assigned value. tr2rt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt. then R is 2 × 2. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. opt. ’other’}. – If T is 3 × 3.choose = {’this’.foo = true. b.blah = [].CHAPTER 2. c. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. opt.

true ‘nobar’ sets opt.choose <. opt = tb_optparse(opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). N ‘setopt’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.1.false ‘blah’.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.blah <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.x. w. ’#yes’}. If neither of ‘this’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.foo <. x.true sets opt.verbose <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. varargin). Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.foo <. 3 sets opt.blah <.select = {’#no’. args) creates a test pattern image.select <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y ‘that’ sets opt.choose <. varargin). If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.CHAPTER 2. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’.debug <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.y sets opt.N sets opt <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.‘this’.select <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.

sd. sd and sdd are n-vectors. args is the number of cycles. square side length. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. args is the number of cycles. args are pitch (distance between centres). binary dot pattern. [s. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. The trajectory s. a line. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sf. args are theta (rad). intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. dot diameter.CHAPTER 2. binary square pattern. 25). 256.sd. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 256. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. intercept. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args is the number of cycles. sf. 50. 2).

Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. See also angvec2r. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rpy = tr2rpy(R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. The 3 angles rpy=[R.P. [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Y and Z axes respectively. Y.

:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.y.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. • The validity of R is not checked. ie. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. y. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2t. If T has three dimensions. – If TR is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.z]. See also rpy2tr. See also rt2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.CHAPTER 2.

Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). or x and y. each N × 1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. [c1. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [o1.CHAPTER 2.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. An historical anomaly. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. troty.

If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. f ‘label’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.CHAPTER 2. trprint T is the command line form of above. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotx. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. and displays in RPY format.

y).y0) is the centroid.(y-y0)q where (x0. mpq. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. p. the sum of I(x. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. See also upq poly.CHAPTER 2. tr2rpy. That is.(x-x0)p .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. sad. See also ncc. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ssd. See also sad. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. ssd.

ncc. sad. See also sdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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