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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. However the book “Robotics. This is extravagant on storage. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. is open-source. and I commend it to you. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . Tracker . . 1. . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . Hough .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . .6. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . ipixswitch . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . ksobel . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . upq poly . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. You need to signup in order to post.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.com.google. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. lecturers and professors are paid to do.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. and you will be suitably acknowledged. That’s what you your teachers. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tutors.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.

Author = {P. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.zip). If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). The ﬁle robot. Volume = {12}. and the “See also” functions to each other. 1. Number = {4}.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. type of organization and application.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .html on a server for class use.petercorke. 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.gz) or zip format (. the table of content to functions. 1. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.3.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Month = nov. Year = {2005}. The details are @article{Corke05f.I.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. 1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Corke}.

and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.1.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.mathworks. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. 12(4). which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. 1994 University of British Columbia. Twente. and there are hundreds of modules available.R. 1. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. 1. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.7 Acknowledgements Last.. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. November 2005. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.Functions such as SURF. P. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.I. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. Coimbra. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. pp 16–25. VLFeat http://www.vlfeat.6. Corke. MSER.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. Vincent Lepetit.S. but not least. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .7. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

S ‘centre’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. T ‘color’. N ‘sensor’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.CHAPTER 2.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. used by all subclasses. P ‘pixel’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘image’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. Options ‘name’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.

display Display value C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). CatadioptricCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.char Convert to string s = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delete Camera object destructor C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera.CHAPTER 2.centre Get camera position p = C. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. SphericalCamera Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera.

hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.v + c = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and off if H is false (or 0). See also Camera.char Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.u + b.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.CHAPTER 2.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera. Camera. otherwise false (0).

cylinder.T. y. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Camera.mesh(x. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. y. z.plot(p.plot.clf Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. uv = C. sphere. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. T ‘Tcam’. z to the image plane and plots them. See also mesh.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot points on image plane C. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. y. mkcube.hold. The matrices x. Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.

point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.T. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. ‘Tobj’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Camera.mesh. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.clf Camera. Options ‘Tcam’. T See also Camera. ‘Tcam’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. T ‘scale’. Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.hold.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘fps’. Overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2.

p. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.y]. C.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rpy Set camera attitude C. that is. p.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy(R. a subclass of Camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C Camera matrix C = C.

CatadioptricCamera. E = C. P ‘pixel’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Sastry. u. f=8mm. p.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.177 See also CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.and y-axes respectively. SIGMA ‘pose’. T ‘color’. F ‘distortion’.Ma. camera at origin.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.CHAPTER 2. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.Soatto. E = C. N ‘focal’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. S ‘centre’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. Springer. CentralCamera.F. 10um pixels. N ‘sensor’. Reference Y.and v-axes parallel to x. IM ‘resolution’. J. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.E Essential matrix E = C. optical axis is z-axis.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “An invitation to 3D”.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).8]) See also Camera. D ‘default’ ‘image’.Kosecka. S. S ‘noise’. 2003. S.

K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. 2003. from two viewpoints. “An invitation to 3D”.CHAPTER 2.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. p.Kosecka. S.E CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.Ma.177 See also CentralCamera. F = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. J.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. Reference Y. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. See also CentralCamera. Springer. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H(T. n.Sastry. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H Homography matrix H = C.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Soatto. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.

Int.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). 81. Journal on Computer Vision.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. CentralCamera. Fua. and P.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. a = C. V. 2009.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. vol. 155-166. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Lepetit. Feb. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.CHAPTER 2.estpose(xyz.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Moreno-Noguer. F. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Springer. Chap 9. s. s. translation not to scale • n. p116.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sastry. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Kosecka. 259 Y. Springer. “An invitation to 3D”. J.invE(E. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. p.Soatto.Kosecka. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”. 2003. Reference Y.Ma.Ma. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. section 5. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Soatto. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.E CentralCamera.Sastry. J.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). “Multiview Geometry”. See also CentralCamera.

p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. See also Hough CentralCamera. C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. one per line.plot epiline(f.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. H = C. ‘Tobj’. ‘Tcam’.project(p. p. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.plot epiline(f. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.

Chaumette. 313-326.b.plot CentralCamera. Rives.c. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Reference B. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac e(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. pp. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.CHAPTER 2.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Espiau.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and P. June 1992. See also Camera. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. 8. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. vol. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. “Multiview Geometry”. F.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.

b.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac p polar. IEEE Trans.visjac p. R&A. CentralCamera. vol. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Reference B. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. 1996. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). CentralCamera. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.visjac p(uv. Espiau.visjac p polar.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac e CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.CHAPTER 2.c. Rives.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Oct. Vol 12(5). CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also CentralCamera. Hutchinson. pp 651-670. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. and P. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Chaumette. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 8. Hager & Corke.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 313-326. F.visjac l(L.visjac p. June 1992. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.

Chaumette. Corke. and F.visjac l. pp. in Proc.visjac p. See also CentralCamera. Oct. 5962-5967. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac p polar(rt. Spindler. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. 2009.visjac p polar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Int. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. (St.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac l. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. radius and theta. P. CentralCamera. I. CentralCamera. Louis). F. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. CentralCamera.

PointFeature. See README. pp. ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. D. Nov.Lowe. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.91-110. 2004. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.60. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. Journal on Computer Vision. See also isift. vol.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Int.SIFT.

plot scale(options. C ‘alpha’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = PointFeature(u. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. 0=transparent (default 0. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. SiftPointFeature. 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match Match SIFT point features m = F. See also isift SiftPointFeature.match(f2.plot scale Plot feature scale F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.

CHAPTER 2. F.support(im.T] = F.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support Support region of feature out = F.support(im. out = F. [out. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2.project(p.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. Options ‘name’. N ‘pixel’. Overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. S ‘pose’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. See also SphericalCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).T. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tobj’. CentralCamera.

showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.0.center of the target in world coords (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . defaults in parentheses: target size . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .the side length of the target in world units (0. of 4-vector. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.CHAPTER 2. error. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. error norm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The external view. The camera view.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . camera pose. Jacobian condition number. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.gain.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.5) target center . The camera view. image plane size and desired feature locations.01) .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.

of 4-vector. for all points.center of the target in world coords (0.5) target center . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. error norm. (Anchorage). Corke. Conf.visjac l.visjac p polar. pp. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.0.01) . z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. See also CentralCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.depth of points to use for Jacobian. defaults in parentheses: target size . May 3-7 2010. CentralCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . Robotics and Automation. 5550-5555.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Jacobian condition number.the side length of the target in world units (0. in Proc. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. The external view.visjac p(pt. scalar for If null take actual value all points. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . image plane size and desired feature locations. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. camera pose. IEEE Int. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. error. P.gain.

“SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.CHAPTER 2. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Tinne Tuytelaars. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Andreas Ess. Vol. 110. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Luc Van Gool. No. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 346–359. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 3.

match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. Options ‘thresh’.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].match Match SURF point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. PointFeature. [m. v. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.C] = F. ScalePointFeature.

ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. 0=transparent (default 0.support(images. out = F.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.2) SurfPointFeature. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support Support region of feature out = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. F. F. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque.support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.support(im.T] = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. [out.plot scale(options.

S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com). Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘resolution’.axis.com) web camera. Video AxisWebCamera. otherwise the result is not predictable. G ‘scale’.axis. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.display AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. See also AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f can also be a cell array.1470-1477.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.Zisserman. Oct. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. b = BagOfWords(f. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.org). pp. in Proc. Conf. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.Sivic and A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int. on Computer Vision. 2003. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B. isurf BagOfWords. images. BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B.display Display value B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.CHAPTER 2. See also BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char Convert to string s = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. BagOfWords.exemplars(w.

remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’.CHAPTER 2. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. M ‘width’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.n] = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.isword Features from words f = B.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. subclass of Camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera.

S ‘noise’. optical axis is z-axis.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. 10um pixels. K ‘maxangle’.T. S ‘centre’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.and y-axes respectively. ﬁsheyecamera. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘focal’. f=8mm. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. T ‘Tcam’. See also Camera.project(p. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Options ‘Tobj’. N ‘sensor’. M ‘k’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. camera at origin. A ‘resolution’. See also Camera. u.CHAPTER 2. ‘sine’. SIGMA ‘pose’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.and v-axes parallel to x. ‘equisolid’. P ‘pixel’. CatadioptricCamera.

SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. See also PointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.

f2. See also PointFeature.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value M. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char Convert to string s = M.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.

outlier Outlier features m2 = M.v1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier. See also FeatureMatch.v2]. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.outlier.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.u2.

v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for example by: idisp({im1.plot() M. FeatureMatch. These are the (u. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch.im2}) m.p2. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. See also FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.p2 FeatureMatch.p1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1.

See also fmatrix. ransac FeatureMatch. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also idisp FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. m = f1.match(f2).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. homography. 1e-4).CHAPTER 2. m.ransac(func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac Apply RANSAC M.ransac( @fmatrix.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. f2 = isurf(im2). and an error is created if this UserData is not found.

Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.CHAPTER 2. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. v. The image is not inverted.

S ‘centre’. f=8mm. 10um pixels. ‘equisolid’.and y. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. S ‘noise’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. K ‘resolution’. u. optical axis is z-axis. Options ‘name’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].axes respectively. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘sensor’.CHAPTER 2. M ‘k’. ‘sine’.and v-axes are parallel to x. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). P ‘pixel’. camera at origin.

CatadioptricCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T ‘Tcam’.T. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also FishEyeCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.project(p.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.0) and the line. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. A horizontal line has theta = 0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. The voting array is 2-dimensional.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. See also LineFeature Hough. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.H). Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.

char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5) Set ht. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.CHAPTER 2. W ‘nbins’.edgeThresh. Hough. See also Hough.houghThresh (default 0. Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.1). Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Default 400 × 401. W ‘houghthresh’. Hough.edgeThresh (default 0. T ‘suppress’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Nrho].display Display value HT. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. else N = [Ntheta. T ‘edgethresh’.

plot(n. The process is repeated for all peaks. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. The highest peak is found.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot Plot line features HT. L = HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. then all elements in an HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. HT. See also Hough.plot. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. LineFeature Hough.CHAPTER 2.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.lines Find lines L = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. H = HT.lines Hough.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.CHAPTER 2. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. RegionFeature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.

LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.char Convert to string s = L. L = LineFeature(rho.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. theta. theta. LENGTH is undeﬁned. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(rho. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. See also LineFeature. one per element.display Display value L.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.CHAPTER 2.

Small gaps.plot() overlay the line on current plot. l2 = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . LineFeature. l2 = L.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge. less than gap pixels are tolerated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.CHAPTER 2.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot Plot line L. L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. See also icanny LineFeature.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2.axis.char Convert to string M. Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com). options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie.close Close the image source M. S ‘skip’.

grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. undirected graph create an n-d. F Skip frames. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. planar.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.CHAPTER 2. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. S ‘frame’.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Options ‘skip’.

pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.clear() add vertex.distance(v1.coord(v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().add node(coord) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.component(v) g.goal(v) g.neighbours(v) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. return vid add vertex and edge to v.next(v) g.add edge(v1.cost(e) g. v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.add node(coord. v2) g.plot() g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity() g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.CHAPTER 2.edges(e) g.path(v) set goal vertex. Object properties (read/write) g.

Options ‘distance’. PGraph.CHAPTER 2. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add edge(v1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. E = G. v = G. where x is D × 1.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. PGraph. v. v2. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. and returns the edge id E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v = G.add node(x.add edge(v1. and returns the node id v. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node(x.

CHAPTER 2.char Convert graph to string s = G.d] = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. D × 1. PGraph. of node id v.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.coord(v) return coordinate vector. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. edges and components. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.clear Clear the graph G. PGraph. [v.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord Coordinate of node x = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SurfPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. PointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. v. one per element.

C] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. where 1 is perfect match. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match Match point features m = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.match(f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.char PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. Polygon .plot Plot feature F.CHAPTER 2. F. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).

centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . difference. kirill@plume.html and require a licence. Polygon.char String representation s = P. one column per vertex.area Area of polygon a = P. Pankratov.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. p = Polygon(C. Polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. so use with care. union. http://puddle. intersection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.edu.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. HEIGHT].mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.CHAPTER 2.

display Display polygon P.CHAPTER 2. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.char Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference Difference of polygons d = P. else 0.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). returns coordinates of P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Polygon.

returns empty polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. y1 y2].CHAPTER 2. Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. See also mpq poly Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. each column is [x y]’.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.moments(p. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.

P. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.plot Plot polygon P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot() plot the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.union Union of polygons i = P.

unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.

closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.E] = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. [x. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. one per element.display Display value R.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Ray3D. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.char Convert to string s = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. See also Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.

corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.b. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.CHAPTER 2.c. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid.

CHAPTER 2.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. one per element.char Convert to string s = R.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. RegionFeature. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. ymin.box Return bounding box b = R. For example R.xmax. See also iblobs. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.uc will be a list not a vector. imoments RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.th] = R. ymax]. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary plot boundary R.and xmarkers.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. It is indicated with overlaid o.display Display value R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box Plot bounding box R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R.

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. C ‘alpha’. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. 1=opaque. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale(options.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature. strength. v. SurfPointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.

C. options) is a new tracker object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.CHAPTER 2. one per active track. N ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘radius’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. R ‘nslots’. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. T ‘movie’. See also PointFeature Tracker. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. A complete history of all tracks is maintained.

plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.display Display value T. Tracker.char Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Convert to string s = T. See also Tracker.

otherwise the result is not predictable. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Movie Video. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S ‘resolution’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. and their characteristics is displayed. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.

close Close the image source V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera.char Convert to string V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera.

right. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). the ﬁrst for left. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. color. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. and the right image is cyan. the second for right. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. if negative it is reduced. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. right. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction.CHAPTER 2. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). If th1 is a column vector. By default the left image is red. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. a = anaglyph(left.

s] = boundmatch(R1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y1) to (x2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.y2].CHAPTER 2. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. x2. y1.y1] and p2=[x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. See also RegionFeature. [x. p = bresenham(p1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. Endpoints must be integer. % emission of sun plot(l. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.y2).boundary. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. p2) as above but p1=[x1. 6500). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. If lambda is a column vector.

See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Y. [C. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.CHAPTER 2.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red.d1] = closest(a. that is. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. and x is N × 3. [k. x = circle(C. green and blue primaries respectively. Options ‘n’. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. k = closest(a. R.CHAPTER 2. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.

3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). they were measured directly.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. since.d2] = closest(a. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.5. and 22500 (444. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. As noted in footnote a on p.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). (Table 1(5.32).) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. while Table I(5.5.5. The data are referred to as pilot data. 19000 (526.ioo. • From Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.d1.CHAPTER 2.ucl. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.ac.5. 335 of Table 1(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.16).

uk See also cmfrgb.ac. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ucl. imsize is a 2-vector (N. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. out = col2im(pix.CHAPTER 2. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .M). If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ioo.

g] to every pixel in the color image im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .CHAPTER 2. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.

Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. @isnan. See also imono. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. icolor.C] = colorkmeans(im.CHAPTER 2. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. out = colorize(im.G. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. mask. @isnan. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . func. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.B). eg. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. im<100. k. [L. and returns a per-pixel logical result.

interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . XYZ = colorname(name.C. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(XYZ. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. L = colorkmeans(im.R] = colorkmeans(im. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. k) as above but also returns the residual R. eg. low is good.

As MATLAB’s native datatype. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • Color space names are case insensitive. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.i2. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.txt. or alternatively. [o1.o3] = colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. s = ‘src->dest’. colorspace(s. double data is the natural choice. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.CHAPTER 2. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Input and output images have 3 planes. i1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.o2. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. it can be omitted.

• If im is an M × 3 array.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. Example A = rand(400. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.100).2*A. out will also have size M × 3.CHAPTER 2. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. like a colormap.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B = rand(400. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.B).200). d = distance(A. for memory and computational performance. However. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.

The result E is a matrix. tel. non-zero is an object. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.3. bunschot@wins. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. not image frame. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . seed.uva. University of Amsterdam. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. non zero is counter-clockwise. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.CHAPTER 2. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.(+31)20-5257524. E = edgelist(im. in matrix coordinate frame.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Tested: PC Matlab v5.j).y). Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.

H = epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2.CHAPTER 2. p. p1.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Coimbra. epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. one per line drawn. 1998. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). I.R. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. See also fmatrix.S. Oct 27. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. See also epiline. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.

sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.csse. homography. See also ransac. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im.CHAPTER 2.uwa.edu. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views.au/. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www. that is. that is. The University of Western Australia. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • f is a rank 2 matrix. c. epiline. it is singular. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. no outlier rejection is performed. page 270. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. Notes • The points must be corresponding.

See also imorph.y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. x2.CHAPTER 2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2). 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). itriplepoint. y1. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. ithin. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.

http://www. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.CHAPTER 2. See also ransac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.uwa.csse.edu. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac(). no outlier rejection is performed. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. invhomog.au/. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. The University of Western Australia. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.

ie.offs] = homwarp(H. See also homography. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. D ‘size’. V ‘roi’. im. See also e2h. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. S output image contains all the warped pixels. itrim. R ‘scale’. S ‘dimension’.CHAPTER 2. [out. that is tp=T*T1.

200). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 179-187. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. ianimate(im. ’nfeat’. 1962. ’gs’).CHAPTER 2. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. ianimate(seq. features. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . on Information Theory. IRE Trans. features. IT-8:pp. Hu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im.

box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.CHAPTER 2. iharris. M ‘npoints’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. YMIN YMAX]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. N ‘only’.

0) 1 for a circle. ilabel. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.0 ‘connect’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. [A1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. C set connectivity. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.CHAPTER 2. A set pixel aspect ratio.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. horizontal coordinate centroid. default 1. [S1.

kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tel Aviv University.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also iopen. This is an dilation followed by erosion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. out = iclose(im. 1996-7. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. S ‘th0’. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.CHAPTER 2. See also isobel.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.

color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. colorize. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. [0 1 1]). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). D ‘bgval’.CHAPTER 2. The images do not have to be of the same size. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. [C. See also imono. C = icolor(im. Options ‘dir’. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.u] = iconcat(im. iconcat(im.

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.CHAPTER 2. options) convolves im1 with im2. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. D ‘k’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. N ‘detector’. E ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im.CHAPTER 2. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). CM ‘cminthresh’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. R ‘nfeat’. D ‘sigma’. S ‘deriv’. K ‘patch’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. CT ‘edgegap’.

. • “Good features to track”. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.Noble. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. [T. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. where * denotes squared and smoothed.CHAPTER 2.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. pp. Tomasi.G. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. vol. Options ‘dplot’. pp 147-151. p2. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.5 [sec]. Manchester. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. May 1988.J. J. Stephens. with a delay of d [sec]. T ‘distthresh’. J.d] = icp(p1.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. • “Finding corners”. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Shi and C. Image and Vision Computing. IEEE Computer Society. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. p2. Proc. T ‘maxiter’.6. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. N ‘mindelta’. with a delay of 0. pp. Proc. Harris and M. 1988. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. 1994. 593-593.121-128. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. See also PointFeature.

CHAPTER 2. each plane is decimated. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Feb. 239-256. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. vol. Mach.. IEEETrans. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Pattern Anal. P. pp. s = idecimate(im. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. m. 2.or 3-dimensional. Intell. See also iscale. s = idecimate(im.Besl and H. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 1992. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. no. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. m. 14. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.McKay.

negative is red. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue. zero is white. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. darker than ‘grey’. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. linear proﬁle. negative is red. positive is blue. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. histogram and zooming. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points.CHAPTER 2.and y-axes respectively. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. If the image is zoomed. C ‘xydata’. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. XY ‘colormap’. zero is black. Options ‘ncolors’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. If im is a cell array of images. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white color map: random values.

The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labels. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. See also iblobs. colormap. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.CHAPTER 2. icolorize. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labelimage. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. idisplabel(im. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. caxis. labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also image.

• Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. out = igamma(im.45. See also itriplepoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ithin.2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.

5). k. 167181.m] = igraphseg(im. L = igraphseg(im. 100. k. Int. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 59. Example im = iread(’58060.CHAPTER 2. min. 2004. vol.m] = igraphseg(im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Sept.jpg’). min. Felzenszwalb and D. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.5). P. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. [L. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 1500. pp. k. 0. [l. Huttenlocher. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. k is the scale parameter. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. See also ithresh. 2006. Journal on Computer Vision.

options) is the image histogram as a column vector.x] = ihist(im. bar(x. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.h). [H.x] = ihist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. ’normcdf’). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. [h. H = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). plot(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. options) displays the image histogram. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.h).

ii is a precomputed integral image. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. y1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.y2).y1) and bottom-right (x2. x1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. [L. [L. y2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.m. same size as im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.

Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. otherwise it does not.parents. • This is a “low level” function. iproﬁle.parents.Y].maxlabel. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. each a 2-vector [X. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.class. p1. p2. p1. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.maxlabel.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. 8). The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. [L. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. ilabel(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eg. See also iblobs. out = iline(im.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.CHAPTER 2. The pixels on the line are set to 1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.

ymin.DY.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and columns the vertical position.y) and of size s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y). Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. im2. x.y). -s.y) and its half-width is H.score] = imatch(im1. • Is a MEX ﬁle. xmax. s] % relative to (x. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. centred at (x.DY) are the x. x. [xm. • ZNCC matching is used. H. y. The return value is xm=[DX.and y-offsets relative to (x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. y. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. im2. w2. a perfect match score is 1. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).CHAPTER 2. ymax] relative to (x. The template in im1 is centred at (x.CC] where (DX.

f = imoments(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. [u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(w. The element u(v. [u. All pixels are equally weighted.CHAPTER 2. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image. effectively a greyscale image. H) as above but the domain is w × H.u) = u and v(v. v.u) = v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.

0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m11. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. m10. m02. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m20. See also RegionFeature. the elements are m00. icolor. ilabel. or its area. Different conversion functions are supported. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. • This function does not perform connectivity. m01. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. horizontal coordinate centroid.

m] = imser(im. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. O. se. ’double’). ’light’). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing. Pajdla. ’grey’. m. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. pp. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.CHAPTER 2. [label. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.m] = imser(im. 2004. Matas. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. and T. J. 761767. Urban. vol. Chum.png’. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. The labels [L. 22.org). Sept.

• Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.ˆ2). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).

out = iopen(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. se. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.CHAPTER 2. sides. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. See also iclose. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. otherwise im2 is selected. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.V]. ’tblr’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. p. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ’t’.CHAPTER 2. 10. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. 20. im1. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im2.

v) for the corresponding row of p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).uv] = iproﬁle(im. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. [p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. See also bresenham. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.

CHAPTER 2. the maximum. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. idecimate. op. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. out = imorph(image. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. out = ipyramid(im. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. se. out = imorph(image. hence output image had reduced dimensions. nbins. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . order. 12. out = ipyramid(im. se(2. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. 1. ones(5. The highest rank. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.2) = 0. See also iscalespace. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. im > irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. is order=1.5)). Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.3). se). sigma. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. op. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. se.

ivar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value.CHAPTER 2. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. im = iread(ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. See also imorph. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. where R=[umin umax. vmin vmax]. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. R ‘roi’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path.

Notes • Color images are not supported. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. m. homwarp. [out1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).out2. igamma. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. imwrite.h1. istereo. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.out2] = irectify(f. im1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. imono. m. im1. See also FeatureMatch.h2] = irectify(f.

S ‘extrapval’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.vmin vmax].R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. See also idisp. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. vmin. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘outsize’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. [out. angle.CHAPTER 2. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. V ‘smooth’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.umax.H] return central part of image.vmax].

H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. out = isamesize(im1.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. V ‘smooth’.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s<1 makes it smaller. while bias>0. im2. bias<0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.CHAPTER 2. s>1 makes the image larger. Options ‘outsize’. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias=0.5 is symmetric cropping. s ‘extrapval’. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.

s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.L. n.s] = iscalespace(im. [g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. in space and scale. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. See also iscalespace. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n) as above but sigma=1. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). corresponding to each step of the sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . idecimate. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.CHAPTER 2.

See also isrot. ismooth. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. it its third dimension is equal to three.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ilaplace. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. that is. ‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. else false (0).

• Features are returned in descending strength order.vlfeat.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest.CHAPTER 2. 2 (2004). isurf. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. Reference David G. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. pp. See also SiftPointFeature. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 91-110. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . International Journal of Computer Vision. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘suppress’. 60. Lowe.

zssd. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. [w.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. @ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. s is same size as im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. s = isimilarity(T. sad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and these output pixels are set to NaN. ncc. @zssd. [w. See also imatch. im. @zsad.CHAPTER 2. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma.H. @ncc. ssd.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. zsad.

See also iconv. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. convolved. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gy] = isobel(im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx. sigma. [gx.CHAPTER 2. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. then converted back to integer.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.

but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.sim] = istereo(iml. isrot(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. else false (0). H is the half size of the matching window. icanny. See also ishomog. w. See also ksobel. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. range is the disparity search range. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. imr. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. range. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H. the disparity d=d(v.u) means that imr(v. range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.M] for an N × M window. imr.u). • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. That is. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.CHAPTER 2. ‘valid’) as above. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. [d.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imr. range. • sim = max(dsi.5 to +0.sim. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.sim. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. w. out = istretch(im.A and p. [d. 3) See also irectify.p] = istereo(iml.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. ‘ncc’. w. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.5). Options ‘metric’. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. B. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. p. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. range. p.CHAPTER 2. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. imr. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.dsi] = istereo(iml. [d. dx. That is.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.

Kroon (U. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Notes • Color images. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. T ‘octaves’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D.CHAPTER 2. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. or sequences. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.

See also hitormiss. See also ishomog. isvec(v.or columnvector. 346–359. pp. out = ithin(im. 110. else false (0). icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines.CHAPTER 2. No. Tinne Tuytelaars. Luc Van Gool. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Andreas Ess. Vol. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). either a row.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. isift. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 3. Otherwise false (0).

a lower value will include more.im2. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. ithresh(im. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. Notes • Greyscale image only. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The same cropping is applied to each input image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.5. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. The default is 0.out2] = itrim(im1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.CHAPTER 2. See also homwarp.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

hence output image had reduced dimensions. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im.CHAPTER 2. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. op. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. se. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ithin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iendpoint. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.

se. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.5). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.CHAPTER 2. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. @std). See also ivar. func. se. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. out = iwindow(image. @max). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.3). ones(5. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. ones(3. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hence output image had reduced dimensions.

ktriangle. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. dG/dx. dG/dy. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian.CHAPTER 2. • The vertical derivative. kdog. is k’. See also ones. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. See also kgauss. k = kcircle(R. klog. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdgauss(sigma.

sigma2. where sigma1 > SIGMA2.CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. kdog. See also kdgauss.6*sigma1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. kdgauss. klog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kdog(sigma1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. klog. See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . By default SIGMA2 = 1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1.

zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = klog(sigma. iconv. See also kgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. and W=2 × H+1. See also ilaplace. kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. kdog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.

C] = kmeans(x. [L. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.CHAPTER 2. k. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). it is assumed to have been completed previously. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.C] = kmeans(x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. Pattern Recognition Principles. L = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference Tou and Gonzalez.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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CHAPTER 2.y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. The points are the columns of p. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. s. ‘edge’. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). [x.z] = mkcube(s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. Options ‘T’.y. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.z] = mkcube(s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. symmetric about the origin. See also cylinder. [x. C ‘T’. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.

or y(:. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. n) MPLOT(t. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.y). npq.yq . n) MPLOT(y. the sum of I(x. p. That is. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. y. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. or y(:. y) MPLOT(t.CHAPTER 2. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .xp . See also mpq poly.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n.2)).

q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). upq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. so centroids will be still be correct. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered to be a single vertex. p.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. npq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v.

• A common choice of k=-0. idisp(im >= t).2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. niblack.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the height of a character. k. W.2. in text segmentation.m. T has the same dimensions as im. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. [T. k. sad. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. for example.s] = niblack(im. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. where W=2*w2+1. ssd. 20). -0. Example t = niblack(im. See also zncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. 1986. Prentice-Hall. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.

upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.0). That is UPQ(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.p.0. mpq. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. p. p. See also npq poly.q)/MPQ(im.

npq. upq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. so centroids will be still be correct.CHAPTER 2. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq poly. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered as a single vertex. mpq.

Example t = otsu(im). [yp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i] = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. idisp(im >= t). options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. [yp. otsu IEEE Trans. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. N. x. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).xp] = peak(y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Systems. Jan 1979.

CHAPTER 2. [zp. Typically choose N to be odd. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. N ‘scale’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.ij] = peak2(z. use peak(-V). use peak2(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.S points. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘interp’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.

ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p can be N × 2 or N × 3. If p has three dimensions. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. ie. plot2(p.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. See also pnmﬁlt. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.

y2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. P. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. PLOT BOX(x1. 5). or a set of name.CHAPTER 2. R. ’fillcolor’. ’edgecolor’. Examples plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.y1) and (x2. ’g’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. r. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ‘r’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ’LineWidth’. ‘size’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. r. plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. plot_circle(c. ‘size’. P. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. r.y1. W. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. 1=solid. W. x2. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C.y2). Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ’b’). ’r’). value pairs that are passed to plot. PLOT BOX(’centre’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].

CHAPTER 2. C. centred at the origin.Y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Options ‘color’. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. current plot.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.Y. ls) ls is the standard line styles. xc. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c Specify color of the axes. with Matlab line style ls. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. If C=[X. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.

The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. trplot( T. Options ‘textcolor’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. fmt. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. to ‘view’. ‘framename’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘printf’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’name’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. n ‘text opts’. ’color’. options) adds point markers to a plot. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’color’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L.CHAPTER 2.X = 0. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ’r’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’r’). w ‘arrow’ ’length’.

Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. The default is 1. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R. NOTES • The sphere is always added. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. 1=solid. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. R. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2. See also plot. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. patch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. either a letter or 3-vector. color. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.

plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. plotp(p. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column.

gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.gt] = radgrad(im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.CHAPTER 2. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. [gr. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.

T. T. x typically contains corresponding point data. one column per point pair. [m. Options ‘maxTrials’. x.resid] = ransac(func. N ‘maxDataTrials’. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. [m. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. x. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set.CHAPTER 2.in] = ransac(func. T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. x. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set.in. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.

s sample size (1 × 1) out. If multiple models are found out.theta. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . References • m.theta is a cell array.R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. they detect a structure argument.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.inlier.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x data to work on.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. [out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.s out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.theta = []. Cambridge University Press.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x = CONDITION(R.misc element.misc private data (cell array) out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. Vol 24. that is.theta. Mach. [out.theta and the subset of R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x that best supports (most inliers) that model. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta = DECONDITION(R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. that is they will produce a model. No 6. Assoc. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. Comm.x.theta to the points R.out. pp 381-395.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data..x) condition the point data out. Fishler and R.resid] = EST(R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. Comp. Boles. pp 101-113. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.C.A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.x and returns the best model out.x.CHAPTER 2.theta] = ERR(R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.

If lambda is a vector. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.edu. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse.CHAPTER 2. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix.

angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. See also roty. See also rotx. rotz. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz.CHAPTER 2. roty.

where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. T = rpy2tr(roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. • many texts (Paul. Y. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Z axes respectively. If roll.CHAPTER 2. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. See also tr2rpy. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw. pitch. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. pitch. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.

theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ncc.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. r2t. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. ssd. theta) as above where xy=[x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. and rotation theta in the plane. See also zsad. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. y.

isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad.CHAPTER 2. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also zsdd. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Two cross-hairs are created.

istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. then R is 2 × 2.choose = {’this’. ’other’}. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. b. c. tr2rt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. ’that’. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.CHAPTER 2. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. The software pattern is: function(a. opt. – If T is 3 × 3.bar = false. opt.blah = []. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then R is 3 × 3.foo = true.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt. It supports options that have an assigned value. varargin) opt.

verbose <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.1. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.select <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.‘this’. opt = tb_optparse(opt.y sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.choose <. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. ’#yes’}.choose <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.blah <.select <.select = {’#no’.false ‘blah’.CHAPTER 2. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. x. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).blah <.foo <. varargin). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. w.N sets opt <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args) creates a test pattern image. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.debug <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.x. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. varargin). N ‘setopt’. If neither of ‘this’.foo <.true sets opt. 3 sets opt.y ‘that’ sets opt.

n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . intercept. args is the number of cycles. 25). args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sf. 256.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sf. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. square side length. The trajectory s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. binary square pattern. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.sd. args are theta (rad). binary dot pattern. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. dot diameter. 256. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args are pitch (distance between centres). [s. 50. sd and sdd are n-vectors. a line. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args is the number of cycles.CHAPTER 2. 2).sd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.CHAPTER 2. Y and Z axes respectively. The 3 angles rpy=[R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. See also angvec2r. [theta.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Y.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. y. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.z]. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. r2t. See also rt2tr. – If TR is 3 × 3.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. ie. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rpy2tr. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.y. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. If T has three dimensions. • The validity of R is not checked.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.CHAPTER 2.

C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. or x and y.CHAPTER 2. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [o1. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). An historical anomaly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. each N × 1. [c1.

trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.CHAPTER 2.

trprint T is the command line form of above. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotx. f ‘label’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty.CHAPTER 2. and displays in RPY format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

That is. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. p. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.y).y0) is the centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.CHAPTER 2. tr2rpy. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. the sum of I(x.(x-x0)p .(y-y0)q where (x0. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq. See also upq poly.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also ncc. ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. sad.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also sdd. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

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