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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This is extravagant on storage. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. However the book “Robotics. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. and I commend it to you. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

. . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . 1. . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . Ray3D .

. . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . icanny . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . ccdresponse . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . bresenham . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm .

. . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . inormhist . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . R . . isize . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . isamesize . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . mplot . . . . . . . npq . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

com. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. and you will be suitably acknowledged. tutors.google. You need to signup in order to post.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That’s what you your teachers.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.

html on a server for class use. Author = {P.petercorke. 1. The details are @article{Corke05f.3. and the “See also” functions to each other.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. type of organization and application. the table of content to functions. 1. Number = {4}. 1. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Corke}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Volume = {12}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).zip).com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Year = {2005}. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.gz) or zip format (.1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.I.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. 1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. The ﬁle robot. Month = nov.

VLFeat http://www.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. P. and there are hundreds of modules available. 12(4).org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. Twente.I.1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.mathworks.. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.Functions such as SURF. Corke. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.R. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Coimbra. MSER. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.7 Acknowledgements Last. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 1. November 2005.S.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. pp 16–25. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. 1994 University of British Columbia. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.vlfeat. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. but not least. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. 1.6. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.7. Vincent Lepetit.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

used by all subclasses. IM ‘resolution’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. N ‘sensor’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. T ‘color’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P ‘pixel’. S ‘centre’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. S ‘noise’. Options ‘name’. Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘image’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.CHAPTER 2.delete Camera object destructor C. CatadioptricCamera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. SphericalCamera Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.char Convert to string s = C.centre Get camera position p = C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.display Display value C.

ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). otherwise false (0). C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.char Camera.CHAPTER 2.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.v + c = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera. Camera. Camera. See also Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.u + b.

Camera. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. y. z to the image plane and plots them. z.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Camera. mkcube.clf Camera. uv = C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. y.plot Plot points on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. cylinder. Camera.CHAPTER 2.T. sphere. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(p.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. T ‘Tcam’. The matrices x. Camera.hold.plot. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.mesh(x. See also mesh. y.

CHAPTER 2. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Options ‘Tcam’. Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. T See also Camera. T ‘scale’.clf Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. ‘fps’. Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. ‘Tcam’. Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. ‘Tobj’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.mesh.T.hold.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. C. p. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.p. The image is not inverted. that is.y]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(R. a subclass of Camera.CHAPTER 2.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.C Camera matrix C = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Sastry. N ‘focal’.Kosecka. IM ‘resolution’. S. J. T ‘color’.Ma. Reference Y.and v-axes parallel to x. f=8mm. 10um pixels. S ‘centre’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera at origin. optical axis is z-axis. D ‘default’ ‘image’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). E = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. F ‘distortion’. Springer.F.E Essential matrix E = C. E = C.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.8]) See also Camera. p. u.177 See also CentralCamera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. 2003. P ‘pixel’.and y-axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. S.Soatto. CentralCamera.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. N ‘sensor’.

H Homography matrix H = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. J. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.E CentralCamera. Reference Y.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.F Fundamental matrix F = C.H CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.Kosecka.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Soatto. 2003. p. n.Sastry.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). Springer.177 See also CentralCamera.Ma. F = C. S.H(T. S. from two viewpoints. See also CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.

a = C. Lepetit.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. 155-166.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. CentralCamera. Moreno-Noguer.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).estpose(xyz.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. and P. See also quiver CentralCamera. pp.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. V. vol.CHAPTER 2. 81. F. Fua. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. 2009. Feb. Int. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Journal on Computer Vision.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.

p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. s. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma.Ma. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Springer.E CentralCamera. translation not to scale • n.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer.Soatto.CHAPTER 2. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. section 5.Soatto. “Multiview Geometry”. p116. See also CentralCamera. s. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry. s.invE(E. J. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. 259 Y. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Chap 9. s. 2003.Kosecka. J. Reference Y.Kosecka. 2003.Sastry.

one per line.H CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. ‘Tcam’. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).project Project world points to image plane uv = C. p. CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. See also Hough CentralCamera. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.project(p.plot epiline(f. ‘Tobj’. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. H = C.plot epiline(f.

Reference B. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. “Multiview Geometry”. See also Camera.visjac e(E.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Rives.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. Espiau. vol. pp.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot CentralCamera.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.CHAPTER 2. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Chaumette.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. F. June 1992. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. 8. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.c. 313-326. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. and P.b.

Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac p.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. pp. Rives. CentralCamera.b. Reference B. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac p polar. 1996. CentralCamera. 313-326. Vol 12(5).CHAPTER 2.visjac l(L. pp 651-670. Hager & Corke. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. IEEE Trans. June 1992. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Espiau.visjac e CentralCamera. Hutchinson. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. 8.c. Oct. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. vol. R&A.visjac p. See also CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. F. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p(uv.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. and P.visjac l CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Chaumette. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. CentralCamera.

visjac p.visjac p polar. (St. 5962-5967. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Oct. in Proc. and F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Louis). pp.visjac l. CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt.visjac l.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. CentralCamera. P. Spindler.visjac e CentralCamera. Corke. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Int.CHAPTER 2. Chaumette. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2009. See also CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. I. radius and theta. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. F.

• SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See also isift. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. ScalePointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.91-110. See README. vol. 2004.SIFT. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2. Int. D. pp.Lowe. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Nov.60. Journal on Computer Vision. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

SiftPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale Plot feature scale F.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F. 1=opaque. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0=transparent (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. f = PointFeature(u. See also isift SiftPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.

out = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.support(im.support(images.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed.T] = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

Overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tobj’. Options ‘name’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. See also SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. CentralCamera. T ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.project(p. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).T. S ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.

The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The external view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .gain. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5) target center . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The camera view. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. defaults in parentheses: target size .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.01) . camera pose. image plane size and desired feature locations.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.center of the target in world coords (0. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The camera view. Jacobian condition number. error.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. error norm. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.the side length of the target in world units (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. scalar for If null take actual value all points. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. of 4-vector.

P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. in Proc. (Anchorage).visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . CentralCamera.01) . error. See also CentralCamera. 5550-5555. CentralCamera. camera pose.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Robotics and Automation. IEEE Int.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. error norm.depth of points to use for Jacobian. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).gain.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. of 4-vector.center of the target in world coords (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .0. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.visjac p(pt. scalar for If null take actual value all points. Conf. I. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The external view. for all points. Corke.visjac l.5) target center . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. Jacobian condition number. image plane size and desired feature locations. May 3-7 2010.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .the side length of the target in world units (0. pp. defaults in parentheses: target size .

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. No. 3. pp.CHAPTER 2. Luc Van Gool.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Tinne Tuytelaars. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 346–359. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Vol. Andreas Ess. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 110. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.

v.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. f = PointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. Options ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match(f2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match Match SURF point features m = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match(f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.C] = F. [m. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

support(im.T] = F. F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. C ‘alpha’. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=opaque.2) SurfPointFeature.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale(options. 0=transparent (default 0.support(images. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images.

• The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’. otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com) web camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’.com).axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Video AxisWebCamera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.char Convert to string A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close() closes the connection to the web camera.close Close the image source A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.display AxisWebCamera.

The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Ninth IEEE Int. pp. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. f can also be a cell array. b = BagOfWords(f. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. in Proc. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.Sivic and A.1470-1477. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.CHAPTER 2. Conf.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.org). Oct.Zisserman. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. 2003. on Computer Vision.

The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .exemplars display exemplars of words B.contains Find images containing word k = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char BagOfWords. images.CHAPTER 2.exemplars(w. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. BagOfWords.display Display value B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. See also BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.

N ‘maxperimage’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.n] = B. M ‘width’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop Remove stop words B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.isword Features from words f = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera.

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

CHAPTER 2.and y-axes respectively. Options ‘Tobj’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. T ‘Tcam’. P ‘pixel’. See also Camera. N ‘focal’.and v-axes parallel to x.project(p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. u. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘noise’. A ‘resolution’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘sine’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. See also Camera. M ‘k’. 10um pixels. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. f=8mm. S ‘centre’.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. CatadioptricCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘sensor’. K ‘maxangle’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. camera at origin. optical axis is z-axis.

A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. See also PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object.

char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. m = FeatureMatch(f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.char Convert to string s = M. See also FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. See also PointFeature. f2. SurfPointFeature. FeatureMatch.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.display Display value M. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.

v2]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.v1. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.outlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch.inlier.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac FeatureMatch.u2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.

These are the (u.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot Show corresponding points M.CHAPTER 2.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2.plot() M.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.im2}) m.FeatureMatch.p1.FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.p1. These are the (u.p2 FeatureMatch.

See also idisp FeatureMatch. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. ransac FeatureMatch. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. Example f1 = isurf(im1).match(f2).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.ransac( @fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. 1e-4).ransac(func.ransac Apply RANSAC M. m = f1. m. See also fmatrix. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. f2 = isurf(im2). and an error is created if this UserData is not found. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. homography.

subset Subset of matches m2 = M. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. that is. The image is not inverted. v. Y This camera model assumes central projection.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. S ‘centre’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘name’. M ‘k’. K ‘resolution’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. 10um pixels. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.axes respectively.and v-axes are parallel to x. camera at origin. ‘equisolid’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. f=8mm. optical axis is z-axis.CHAPTER 2.and y. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘sine’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. SIGMA ‘pose’. u. P ‘pixel’. N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’.

See also FishEyeCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.T. CentralCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CatadioptricCamera. T ‘Tcam’.project(p.CHAPTER 2. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’.

and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. A horizontal line has theta = 0. The voting array is 2-dimensional. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. See also LineFeature Hough.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.0) and the line.H). Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display Display value HT. Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Nrho]. T ‘edgethresh’.edgeThresh (default 0.1).edgeThresh.CHAPTER 2.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. W ‘houghthresh’. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Hough.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5) Set ht.houghThresh (default 0. T ‘suppress’. Default 400 × 401. See also Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. W ‘nbins’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. else N = [Ntheta. Hough.

The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n. HT. LineFeature Hough. HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.CHAPTER 2.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. L = HT. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks. then all elements in an HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines Hough.lines Find lines L = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line features HT. The highest peak is found.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. H = HT.

Note • LineFeature is a reference object. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. theta. L = LineFeature(rho. one per element. LENGTH is undeﬁned. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. theta. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.display Display value L.char Convert to string s = L.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = LineFeature(rho. strength. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. LineFeature.

L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. l2 = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). Small gaps.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot() overlay the line on current plot. LineFeature. less than gap pixels are tolerated.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge. See also icanny LineFeature. l2 = L.plot Plot line L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.

char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘skip’.char Convert to string M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. G ‘scale’. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Movie.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source M. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com).

F Skip frames. undirected graph create an n-d. planar. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Options ‘skip’.CHAPTER 2.

return vid add edge from v1 to v2. v) g.add edge(v1. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.plot() g.coord(v) g.next(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.clear() add vertex. Object properties (read/write) g.connectivity() g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.goal(v) g.add node(coord) g. v2) g.path(v) set goal vertex.cost(e) g.add node(coord.edges(e) g.distance(v1.CHAPTER 2.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().component(v) g.neighbours(v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node(x. PGraph. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. PGraph. and returns the edge id E.add edge(v1.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. where x is D × 1.add node(x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. and returns the node id v. v2. Options ‘distance’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add edge(v1. v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.CHAPTER 2.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v = G. v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E = G.

edges and components. [v. PGraph. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.clear Clear the graph G.CHAPTER 2.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. of node id v.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.char Convert graph to string s = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph. D × 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord Coordinate of node x = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f = PointFeature(u.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also ScalePointFeature.display Display value F. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.char Convert to string s = F.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature. one per element.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2.

If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance. where 1 is perfect match. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. [m.match Match point features m = F. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.char PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.C] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Polygon . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot Plot feature F.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).

html and require a licence.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. so use with care. p = Polygon(C.char String representation s = P. Polygon. difference. Pankratov. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.CHAPTER 2.area() is the area of the polygon.mit. union. http://puddle. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. intersection.mit. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. kirill@plume. Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.edu. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. HEIGHT].area Area of polygon a = P. one column per vertex.

char Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.CHAPTER 2. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. See also Polygon. else 0. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. returns coordinates of P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).display Display polygon P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also mpq poly Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. y1 y2].perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. returns empty polygon. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.moments(p. each column is [x y]’. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.

returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. P. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot Plot polygon P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.plot() plot the polygon.

Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.

Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.E] = R.char Convert to string s = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. [x. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. one per element.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also Ray3D.display Display value R. Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.

b.c.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. vertical coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.0) 1 for a circle. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. horizontal coordinate centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.

imoments RegionFeature.th] = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uc will be a list not a vector. See also iblobs. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.box Return bounding box b = R. For example R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.char Convert to string s = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.xmax. ymax]. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. ymin.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. one per element.

plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. See also RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.and xmarkers. R.plot boundary plot boundary R.char RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.display Display value R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

plot box Plot bounding box R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2. R. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. RegionFeature. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = ScalePointFeature(u.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. v.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.plot scale(options. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. strength. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘alpha’. F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. SurfPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. 1=opaque.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.

The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. R ‘nslots’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. T ‘movie’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature Tracker. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. options) is a new tracker object.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. one per active track. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘radius’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. C. N ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.

char Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Tracker. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = T.display Display value T. See also Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. and their characteristics is displayed. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. otherwise the result is not predictable. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.CHAPTER 2. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. AxisWebCamera. S ‘resolution’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Movie Video.

grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() acquires an image from the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera.CHAPTER 2. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char Convert to string V.close Close the image source V. Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. right. By default the left image is red. If disp is positive the disparity is increased.CHAPTER 2. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. the ﬁrst for left. a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. and the right image is cyan. If th1 is a column vector. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. color. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. if negative it is reduced.

[x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. % emission of sun plot(l.s] = boundmatch(R1.y1] and p2=[x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y1) to (x2. y1. x2. See also RegionFeature. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. Endpoints must be integer. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. If lambda is a column vector.boundary. p2) as above but p1=[x1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.y2]. 6500). For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y2). p = bresenham(p1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.

CHAPTER 2.Y. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. [C.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.

and x is N × 3.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. Options ‘n’. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.CHAPTER 2. R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.d1] = closest(a. green and blue primaries respectively. that is. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = closest(a. x = circle(C. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. [k. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).

unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Data from http://cvrl. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.d2] = closest(a. and 22500 (444. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.d1. (Table 1(5.ioo.5. 335 of Table 1(5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. while Table I(5. they were measured directly. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 19000 (526.16). since. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.32).ac. The data are referred to as pilot data. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.CHAPTER 2. • From Table I(5.ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. As noted in footnote a on p.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.uk See also cmfrgb. imsize is a 2-vector (N. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.CHAPTER 2. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ac.M).ioo.ucl. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2.g] to every pixel in the color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.

C] = colorkmeans(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. icolor. im<100. @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. eg. [L. out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. mask. @isnan. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. func.CHAPTER 2. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.B). color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.G. See also imono.

low is good. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. L = colorkmeans(im. k) as above but also returns the residual R. XYZ = colorname(name. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. eg.C. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.CHAPTER 2. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.R] = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(XYZ. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.

or alternatively.txt. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • Color space names are case insensitive. s = ‘src->dest’. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. As MATLAB’s native datatype. i1.o2. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. colorspace(s.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. double data is the natural choice. Input and output images have 3 planes.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.o3] = colorspace(s. [o1.i2. s = ‘dest<-src’. it can be omitted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.CHAPTER 2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.

out will also have size M × 3.200).J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. for memory and computational performance. d = distance(A.2*A.B). Example A = rand(400.CHAPTER 2. • If im is an M × 3 array. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. However. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B = rand(400.100). like a colormap.

non zero is counter-clockwise.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.j). not image frame. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background.CHAPTER 2. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. seed. non-zero is an object.3.uva. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. tel. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. University of Amsterdam. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Tested: PC Matlab v5. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. bunschot@wins.y). • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. in matrix coordinate frame. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.(+31)20-5257524. The result E is a matrix. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. E = edgelist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.

j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. p1. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. p. Coimbra. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f.S. epiline(f. See also fmatrix. H = epiline(f. p. Oct 27.R. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.CHAPTER 2. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I. Author Based on fmatrix code by. See also epiline. 1998. one per line drawn.

CHAPTER 2. • f is a rank 2 matrix. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. The University of Western Australia. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. that is. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.au/. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. epiline. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.edu.uwa. http://www. page 270. it is singular. homography. no outlier rejection is performed. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. Notes • The points must be corresponding. See also ransac. • Contains a RANSAC driver.csse. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which means it can be passed to ransac(). c. p2. that is.

itriplepoint. See also imorph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).y2). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.y1) and (x2.CHAPTER 2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. x2. ithin. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y1.

p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. which means it can be passed to ransac(). no outlier rejection is performed. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Notes • The points must be corresponding. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. See also ransac. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.csse. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. The University of Western Australia. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.edu.CHAPTER 2.au/. invhomog.uwa. http://www.

offs] = homwarp(H.CHAPTER 2. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. See also homography. R ‘scale’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. im. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. S ‘dimension’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. See also e2h. S output image contains all the warped pixels. V ‘roi’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. [out. itrim. im. that is tp=T*T1. D ‘size’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.

The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. features. ianimate(seq. IRE Trans. 1962. ’gs’). ’nfeat’. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 179-187. features. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. IT-8:pp. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. on Information Theory. ianimate(im. 200). % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Hu. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im.CHAPTER 2. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants.

options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. isurf. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. N ‘only’. iharris.CHAPTER 2. M ‘npoints’. YMIN YMAX]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.

vertical coordinate bounding box. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. ilabel. default 1. horizontal coordinate centroid. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. [A1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. A set pixel aspect ratio. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.0) 1 for a circle. C set connectivity.CHAPTER 2.0 ‘connect’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. [S1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.

S ‘th0’. Tel Aviv University.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iclose(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. See also iopen. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.CHAPTER 2. See also isobel. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. 1996-7. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. T ‘th1’. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se.

[0 1 1]). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. Options ‘dir’. colorize. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. [C. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). The images do not have to be of the same size. See also imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).CHAPTER 2. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. iconcat(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.u] = iconcat(im. D ‘bgval’. C = icolor(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.

If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. options) convolves im1 with im2. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.

P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. D ‘k’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector has zero mean and unit norm.CHAPTER 2. E ‘suppress’. N ‘detector’. CM ‘cminthresh’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. D ‘sigma’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. R ‘nfeat’. S ‘deriv’. CT ‘edgegap’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. K ‘patch’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

T ‘maxiter’.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. [T. with a delay of d [sec]. See also PointFeature. pp. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.. May 1988.121-128. vol.Noble. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Options ‘dplot’. p2. • “Good features to track”. pp. Harris and M. • “Finding corners”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. 1994. J.J.d] = icp(p1. Manchester.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. with a delay of 0. IEEE Computer Society. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. J. N ‘mindelta’. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Proc. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.5 [sec]. Stephens. pp 147-151. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.6. 1988. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. p2.G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Image and Vision Computing. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. where * denotes squared and smoothed. T ‘distthresh’. C. 593-593. Tomasi. Proc. Shi and C.

or 3-dimensional. 14. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Pattern Anal. pp. P. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. IEEETrans. m. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. s = idecimate(im. 239-256. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Intell. See also iscale. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .McKay. s = idecimate(im. 1992. Feb. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. each plane is decimated. vol.Besl and H. 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. m.. Mach.CHAPTER 2. no.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. XY ‘colormap’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally).and y-axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. If the image is zoomed. If im is a cell array of images. zero is black. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. zero is white color map: random values. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. darker than ‘grey’. negative is red. negative is red. positive is blue. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. zero is white. linear proﬁle. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. histogram and zooming. Options ‘ncolors’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. C ‘xydata’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value.

labelimage. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. colormap. caxis. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. icolorize. labelimage. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. See also image. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labels. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. See also iblobs. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class.CHAPTER 2. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.2. out = igamma(im. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). See also itriplepoint.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.45. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.

167181. Int.CHAPTER 2. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 100. min is the minimum region size (pixels). L = igraphseg(im. Sept. k. pp. 59. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. See also ithresh. Example im = iread(’58060. k. min. vol.jpg’). sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. [l. Felzenszwalb and D. [L.5).m] = igraphseg(im. 1500. P. 2006. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. k is the scale parameter.m] = igraphseg(im. 2004. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im.5). min. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Journal on Computer Vision. 0. k. Huttenlocher. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.

H = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. ’normcdf’). options) displays the image histogram. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h). bar(x. [h. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h).CHAPTER 2. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. plot(x. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.x] = ihist(im.

for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. same size as im. y1.CHAPTER 2. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.m.y1) and bottom-right (x2. y2. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. [L. ii is a precomputed integral image. x1. [L.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.

• The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .parents. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p2.maxlabel.parents. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. ilabel(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. [L. The pixels on the line are set to 1.class.CHAPTER 2. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. p1. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.maxlabel.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. each a 2-vector [X. 8). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.Y]. eg. • This is a “low level” function. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. iproﬁle. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. See also iblobs. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p1. otherwise it does not. out = iline(im.

s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.DY.y). s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. im2. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. [xm. xmax.score] = imatch(im1.y) and its half-width is H. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. ymax] relative to (x. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. -s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. The return value is xm=[DX.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y. im2.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.CHAPTER 2. • ZNCC matching is used. x. ymin. • Is a MEX ﬁle. w2. and columns the vertical position. s] % relative to (x. centred at (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. a perfect match score is 1. x.and y-offsets relative to (x. y. The template in im1 is centred at (x.CC] where (DX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. H.y).y) and of size s.DY) are the x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. s.

H) as above but the domain is w × H. f = imoments(u. f = imoments(u. v. [u. effectively a binary image.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. effectively a greyscale image.u) = u and v(v. All pixels are equally weighted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(w.u) = v. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.

vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m20. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. icolor. or its area. horizontal coordinate centroid. ilabel. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m11. the elements are m00. m10. Different conversion functions are supported. • This function does not perform connectivity.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m01. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. See also RegionFeature. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m02.

png’. J. 22. se. O. Pajdla. Urban. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. ’double’). Image and Vision Computing. Sept.m] = imser(im.m] = imser(im. ’grey’. Matas. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. The labels [L. m. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.CHAPTER 2. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. [label. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. pp. and T. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Chum.org). ’light’). 761767. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. vol. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2004.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.ˆ2).CHAPTER 2. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

out = iopen(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. n. See also iclose. sides.

V]. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im1. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. im2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. otherwise im2 is selected.CHAPTER 2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. ’tblr’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 20. ’t’. 10. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.

See also bresenham. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p1.CHAPTER 2. [p. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1.uv] = iproﬁle(im. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p.

The highest rank.3). 12. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im.5)). edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se). se. op.CHAPTER 2. out = imorph(image. idecimate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscalespace. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. se. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. the maximum. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. out = ipyramid(im. out = imorph(image. nbins. is order=1. sigma. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ones(5. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. im > irank(im. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op. order. out = ipyramid(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.2) = 0. 1. se(2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.

G ‘reduce’. See also imorph. R ‘roi’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. im = iread(ﬁle. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. ivar. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. vmin vmax]. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where R=[umin umax. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256).

Notes • Color images are not supported. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. imono. See also FeatureMatch. igamma.out2] = irectify(f. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. istereo. [out1.out2. homwarp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im1. im1.h1. imwrite. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.CHAPTER 2. • The resulting images may have negative disparity.h2] = irectify(f. m. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.

vmin. V ‘smooth’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. See also idisp. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.vmax]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. Options ‘outsize’. S ‘extrapval’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.CHAPTER 2.umax. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. [out.H] return central part of image. angle.vmin vmax]. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. bias=0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. im2. Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’. s<1 makes it smaller. s>1 makes the image larger. bias<0.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s ‘extrapval’.5 is symmetric cropping.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. out = isamesize(im1. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.CHAPTER 2. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. while bias>0.

n) as above but sigma=1. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. [g. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).L. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.s] = iscalespace(im. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. in space and scale. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. n.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. corresponding to each step of the sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .s] = iscalespace(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idecimate. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. See also iscalespace.

else false (0). it its third dimension is equal to three. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ishomog(T. See also isrot. ilaplace. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ‘valid’) as above. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ismooth. that is.CHAPTER 2.

• The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.CHAPTER 2. International Journal of Computer Vision. N ‘suppress’.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. pp. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • Features are returned in descending strength order. 91-110. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. 2 (2004). 60. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. Lowe. isurf. See also SiftPointFeature. Reference David G.vlfeat.

• The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. [w. s = isimilarity(T. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. @ssd. im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. s is same size as im. zsad. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. See also imatch.CHAPTER 2. sad. [w. @ncc. @zsad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ncc. zssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.H.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. @zssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. and these output pixels are set to NaN.

See also iconv. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.gy] = isobel(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. [gx. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.CHAPTER 2.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. then converted back to integer.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. convolved. [gx. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. sigma. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. isrot(R. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. icanny. else false (0). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).M] for an N × M window.sim] = istereo(iml. w. ‘valid’) as above.u). the disparity d=d(v. See also ishomog. range is the disparity search range. H. [d. range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.u) means that imr(v. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. H is the half size of the matching window.CHAPTER 2.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. imr. range. See also ksobel. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr.

That is. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.sim. imr. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. • sim = max(dsi. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.sim. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. B. w. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. range. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. p.p] = istereo(iml. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. p. out = istretch(im. range. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. w. Options ‘metric’. dx. imr.5 to +0. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). 3) See also irectify.5).dsi] = istereo(iml. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.A and p. ‘ncc’. [d. [d. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.

or sequences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. N ‘thresh’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Notes • Color images. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. T ‘octaves’.CHAPTER 2. Kroon (U. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

itriplepoint. Luc Van Gool. Tinne Tuytelaars. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). See also ishomog. See also hitormiss. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Otherwise false (0). iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Vol. isvec(v.CHAPTER 2. pp. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Andreas Ess. out = ithin(im. either a row. 346–359. 110. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 3.or columnvector. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. else false (0).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. isift. No.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • Greyscale image only.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.5.out2] = itrim(im1. The default is 0.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. ithresh(im. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .im2. a lower value will include more. [out1.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. The same cropping is applied to each input image. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. See also homwarp.

se. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. op. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.CHAPTER 2. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. See also iendpoint. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.

se. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. out = iwindow(image. func. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5). See also ivar. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.3). se. @max). func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ones(3. ones(5. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. @std).CHAPTER 2. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.

is k’. dG/dx. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. See also ones.CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. See also kgauss. dG/dy. k = kcircle(R.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. k = kdgauss(sigma. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • This kernel is an effective edge detector. ktriangle. kdog. • The vertical derivative. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian.

kdgauss. sigma2.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). By default SIGMA2 = 1. kdog. klog. klog. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kdog(sigma1.6*sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. See also kgauss. See also kdgauss. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . where sigma1 > SIGMA2. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kgauss(sigma.

iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also ilaplace. k = klog(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv. and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog.

it is assumed to have been completed previously.C] = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Pattern Recognition Principles. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. [L. k. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = kmeans(x.CHAPTER 2. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. and D is the dimension. L = kmeans(x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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The points are the columns of p.y. [x. C ‘T’. [x. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. See also cylinder.z] = mkcube(s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘edge’. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.CHAPTER 2. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).z] = mkcube(s.y. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. Options ‘T’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). symmetric about the origin. s. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.

n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). the sum of I(x. n.yq . n) MPLOT(y.xp . p.2)). MPLOT(t. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.y). mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. n) MPLOT(t. npq. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or y(:. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. See also mpq poly. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. or y(:. y) MPLOT(t. y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. That is.

so centroids will be still be correct. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also mpq. they are considered to be a single vertex. npq poly. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. p. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.CHAPTER 2. upq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v.

s] = niblack(im. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. [T. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. T has the same dimensions as im. 20). w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. the height of a character.2. -0. Example t = niblack(im.CHAPTER 2. sad. for example. • A common choice of k=-0. ssd. niblack. in text segmentation. Prentice-Hall. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. k. where W=2*w2+1. 1986. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. See also zncc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp(im >= t). k. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.m.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. W.

CHAPTER 2. That is UPQ(im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.0. p.q)/MPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. mpq.0). p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. See also npq poly.p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

upq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. npq. mpq. they are considered as a single vertex. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq poly.CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.

i] = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Jan 1979.CHAPTER 2.xp] = peak(y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp 62-66 See also niblack. otsu IEEE Trans. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Systems. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. x. N. idisp(im >= t). [yp. Example t = otsu(im). ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. [yp.

Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘scale’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.S points. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. use peak(-V).CHAPTER 2. use peak2(-V). [zp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ij] = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. S ‘interp’. Typically choose N to be odd.S points.

sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. If p has three dimensions. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2(p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also pnmﬁlt. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.

x2. P. ‘size’. P. ’r’). PLOT BOX(x1. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.y1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’fillcolor’. plot_circle(c. ’g’. ’b’). Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. r. W. PLOT BOX(’centre’.y1) and (x2. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X.CHAPTER 2. r. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. r. W.y2. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. value pairs that are passed to plot. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ’LineWidth’. ‘size’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.y2). 5). YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. R. Examples plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. or a set of name. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ’edgecolor’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘r’. 1=solid. plot_circle(c.

If C=[X. with Matlab line style ls.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. xc. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. c Specify color of the axes. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. ls) ls is the standard line styles. centred at the origin. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.CHAPTER 2. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y]. current plot. Options ‘color’.Y. C. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.

See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. fmt. ’color’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’name’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. options) adds point markers to a plot. n ‘text opts’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’.X = 0.CHAPTER 2. ’r’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ’r’). trplot( T. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ‘printf’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘framename’. to ‘view’. Options ‘textcolor’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame.

text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior.CHAPTER 2. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. NOTES • The sphere is always added. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. patch. 1=solid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. See also plot. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R. The default is 1. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. either a letter or 3-vector. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure.

CHAPTER 2. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. See also pgmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. plotp(p. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im.

• translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im. [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.

options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. x.in. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. N ‘maxDataTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. T. [m. one column per point pair. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. x typically contains corresponding point data. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. d) as above but elements increment by d.in] = ransac(func. x. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .resid] = ransac(func.CHAPTER 2. T. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. [m. T.

theta to the points R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta is a cell array. Boles.x.x and returns the best model out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. that is they will produce a model.CHAPTER 2.theta. they detect a structure argument..debug display what’s going on (logical) R.x data to work on. [out.x. Comp.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. Vol 24.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.theta = DECONDITION(R.s sample size (1 × 1) out. Assoc.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.x) condition the point data out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. Mach.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.x = CONDITION(R. Comm.inlier.resid] = EST(R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.theta] = ERR(R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. No 6.theta.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. pp 381-395. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.misc private data (cell array) out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. Cambridge University Press. [out. References • m.theta = [].s out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .misc element.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. that is.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. pp 101-113.A.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. Fishler and R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . If multiple models are found out.C.theta and the subset of R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.

Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. If lambda is a vector. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.csse. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.edu.au/ pk See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.

See also roty. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. roty. See also rotx. See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz.CHAPTER 2.

pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX.CHAPTER 2. T = rpy2tr(roll. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. See also tr2rpy. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. Y. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. If roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. yaw. • many texts (Paul. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Z axes respectively. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1.

tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. and rotation theta in the plane.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2.y. ncc. ssd. See also zsad. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. r2t. theta) as above where xy=[x.

isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. See also zsdd. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. sad.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc.

then R is 2 × 2.CHAPTER 2. opt. tr2rt. – If T is 3 × 3. c. opt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. It supports options that have an assigned value. ’other’}.bar = false. then R is 3 × 3. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.blah = []. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt.choose = {’this’. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. The software pattern is: function(a. b. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t.foo = true. ’that’.

which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.foo <. If neither of ‘this’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.select = {’#no’. args) creates a test pattern image.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. 3 sets opt.3 ‘blah’. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).verbose <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.blah <.select <. N ‘setopt’.select <. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. w. opt = tb_optparse(opt.N sets opt <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.false ‘blah’.blah <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.y ‘that’ sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.choose <.true sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. varargin). ’#yes’}.y sets opt.choose <.debug <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.‘this’. varargin).foo <. x. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.x.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.CHAPTER 2. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.1.

CHAPTER 2. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. The trajectory s. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. intercept. 50. args are dot pitch (distance between centres).sdd] = tpoly(s0. sf. args is the number of cycles. dot diameter. 256. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles. binary square pattern. sd and sdd are n-vectors. square side length. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sf. args are theta (rad).sdd] = tpoly(s0.sd. args are pitch (distance between centres).sd. args is the number of cycles. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. 25). See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 256. a line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. binary dot pattern. 2). [s.

options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. The 3 angles rpy=[R. [theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rpy = tr2rpy(R.CHAPTER 2. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.P. See also angvec2r. Y. Y and Z axes respectively.

:. ie. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. • The validity of R is not checked. r2t. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. See also rt2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. – If TR is 3 × 3. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.CHAPTER 2. See also rpy2tr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. If T has three dimensions.y.z]. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. y.

or x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. An historical anomaly. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [o1.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. each N × 1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. [c1.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.

trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . troty.CHAPTER 2.

l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. f ‘label’. and displays in RPY format. trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. trprint T is the command line form of above.

p. mpq. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.y). See also upq poly.(y-y0)q where (x0. the sum of I(x. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.(x-x0)p . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. That is. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.y0) is the centroid. tr2rpy.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also ncc. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. See also sad. ncc. ssd. ssd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. See also sdd. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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