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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . However the book “Robotics. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This is extravagant on storage. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.

. . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . Polygon .1 Other toolboxes . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . RegionFeature . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . colnorm . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . mpq poly . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . plot box . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . rt2tr . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . t2r . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. lecturers and professors are paid to do.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.com. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. tutors. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.google. and you will be suitably acknowledged.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You need to signup in order to post. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. That’s what you your teachers. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.

and the “See also” functions to each other. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. the table of content to functions. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3. The ﬁle robot. Number = {4}. Volume = {12}. 1.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.petercorke. The details are @article{Corke05f. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.zip).6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Month = nov.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Author = {P. Corke}.I.gz) or zip format (.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. 1.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Year = {2005}.html on a server for class use. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). type of organization and application.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. 1. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.1. 1.

7 Acknowledgements Last.1. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.6. 1. pp 16–25.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. Coimbra. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. but not least. and there are hundreds of modules available. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.Functions such as SURF. 12(4). Corke.7. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. Vincent Lepetit. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. MSER. 1994 University of British Columbia.vlfeat.R.S. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. November 2005. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. Twente. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. P.mathworks.I. 1. VLFeat http://www..com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘noise’. used by all subclasses. SIGMA ‘pose’. Options ‘name’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. N ‘image’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘sensor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. IM ‘resolution’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S ‘centre’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. P ‘pixel’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. T ‘color’.

ﬁsheyecamera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. SphericalCamera Camera.display Display value C. CatadioptricCamera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).centre Get camera position p = C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera. Camera.clf Clear the image plane C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.

ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. and off if H is false (or 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Camera. otherwise false (0). See also Camera.CHAPTER 2. C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.u + b.char Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v + c = 0.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

T ‘Tcam’. y.plot Plot points on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. sphere.plot. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). cylinder.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. z. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. mkcube.T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Camera.clf Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.mesh(x. uv = C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Camera. Camera. Camera.hold.plot(p. z to the image plane and plots them. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. y. The matrices x. Options ‘Tobj’. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. See also mesh. y.

Camera.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Overrides the current camera pose C.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.mesh. Camera.clf Camera.hold. ‘Tcam’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. T ‘scale’.T. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Tobj’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. T See also Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.CHAPTER 2. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tcam’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘fps’.

rpy(R.rpy Set camera attitude C. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.y]. a subclass of Camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.p. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. that is. p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. The image is not inverted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2.C Camera matrix C = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

u. p. P ‘pixel’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). CentralCamera. camera at origin. D ‘default’ ‘image’. “An invitation to 3D”.F.and y-axes respectively. N ‘focal’. CatadioptricCamera. F ‘distortion’. 10um pixels. S. S ‘noise’. S ‘centre’. ﬁsheyecamera.and v-axes parallel to x. 2003. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.E Essential matrix E = C. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. T ‘color’. Reference Y.Sastry. E = C. SIGMA ‘pose’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.Soatto. J. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ma. S. f=8mm.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. optical axis is z-axis.177 See also CentralCamera. IM ‘resolution’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. E = C.8]) See also Camera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. N ‘sensor’.Kosecka. Springer.

E CentralCamera. Reference Y.Soatto.H Homography matrix H = C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Ma.H CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. 2003.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. S.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. F = C. See also CentralCamera. Springer.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.177 See also CentralCamera. J. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. from two viewpoints.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. n.H(T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry.Kosecka. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. p.

CHAPTER 2.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Journal on Computer Vision. See also quiver CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. a = C.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Lepetit. Int. F. V. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. 81. CentralCamera. pp.estpose(xyz. Feb.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. vol. Fua. Moreno-Noguer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and P. 155-166. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. 2009. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. CentralCamera.

Kosecka.Kosecka. Chap 9. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”.E CentralCamera. Reference Y. translation not to scale • n. p. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Soatto. section 5.invE(E. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. s. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Soatto. s.Ma. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p116.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. 2003. “Multiview Geometry”. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Ma. See also CentralCamera. Springer. 259 Y. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). J. J. s.CHAPTER 2.Sastry. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry.

plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.CHAPTER 2.T.H CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. one per line. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f. C.plot epiline(f. ‘Tcam’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).project(p. See also Hough CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. p.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f. H = C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.

Rives.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Multiview Geometry”.CHAPTER 2. 8. Reference B. F. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.b. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. June 1992. Chaumette. and P.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.c.plot CentralCamera. vol.visjac e(E. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Espiau. 313-326. See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. pp.

pp 651-670. 8.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. vol. See also CentralCamera. Reference B.c. Vol 12(5).visjac p(uv.CHAPTER 2. Hager & Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. F.visjac p. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. Espiau.visjac p polar.visjac l(L. Hutchinson.b. June 1992. Rives. Chaumette. Oct. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.visjac p polar. R&A.visjac p. and P. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. pp. 313-326. IEEE Trans.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1996.

Int. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac l. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. P. Chaumette. Corke. Spindler.visjac p polar. radius and theta.visjac p. F. I.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 2009.CHAPTER 2. (St.visjac p polar(rt. See also CentralCamera. and F. Louis). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. 5962-5967. pp.visjac e CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Oct. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac l. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. in Proc.

pp. D. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.Lowe. PointFeature. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. 2004. Nov. vol. Journal on Computer Vision. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. See README.SIFT.91-110. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.60.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Int. See also isift. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also isift SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 0=transparent (default 0.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. C ‘alpha’. v.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. SiftPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2.plot scale(options. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. F.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.T] = F.support(im. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. [out.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im. F.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). N ‘pixel’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. ﬁsheyecamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.project(p. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.T. T ‘Tcam’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘name’. See also SphericalCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘pose’. Overrides the current camera pose C. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

the side length of the target in world units (0. defaults in parentheses: target size . camera pose. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.5) target center . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .center of the target in world coords (0. error norm.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera view.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . image plane size and desired feature locations. Jacobian condition number. of 4-vector.gain. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.depth of points to use for Jacobian. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The external view. The camera view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.01) .CHAPTER 2. scalar for If null take actual value all points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.

May 3-7 2010. I. Corke. error norm.CHAPTER 2. The external view.0.depth of points to use for Jacobian.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . 5550-5555. CentralCamera. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. (Anchorage). Robotics and Automation.the side length of the target in world units (0. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . defaults in parentheses: target size . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Conf. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. in Proc.center of the target in world coords (0.5) target center . IEEE Int.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac p(pt.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.visjac p polar. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. image plane size and desired feature locations. See also CentralCamera. Jacobian condition number. scalar for If null take actual value all points. pp. of 4-vector.01) . CentralCamera. for all points. camera pose.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .gain. P.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. error. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.

CHAPTER 2. Tinne Tuytelaars. pp. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Vol. 3. No. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Luc Van Gool. 110. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Andreas Ess. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 346–359.

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SURF point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.C] = F. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match(f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature. [m.match(f2. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. f = PointFeature(u.

plot scale(options. F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(images. 1=opaque.CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F.plot scale Plot feature scale F.support(im. 0=transparent (default 0.2) SurfPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. out = F. C ‘alpha’.support(images. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support Support region of feature out = F. [out.T] = F.

S ‘resolution’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Video AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . G ‘scale’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.axis.com).axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.com) web camera. otherwise the result is not predictable.CHAPTER 2. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.

display AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.close() closes the connection to the web camera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close Close the image source A.char Convert to string A.

pp. on Computer Vision. 2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature BagOfWords. b = BagOfWords(f. f can also be a cell array.org).Zisserman. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Conf.Sivic and A.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Ninth IEEE Int. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. in Proc.1470-1477. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Oct.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.

CHAPTER 2.contains Find images containing word k = B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.exemplars(w. isurf BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords. BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char Convert to string s = B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. images.display Display value B.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.

isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. Options ‘ncolumns’. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. N ‘maxperimage’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.remove stop Remove stop words B.n] = B. M ‘width’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. BagOfWords. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.isword Features from words f = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.

wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2. subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera.

Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).CHAPTER 2. ﬁsheyecamera.project(p. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. f=8mm. 10um pixels.and y-axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. K ‘maxangle’. CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera. optical axis is z-axis. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘sine’. ‘equisolid’. P ‘pixel’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. T ‘Tcam’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.T. u. camera at origin. A ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.and v-axes parallel to x. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. M ‘k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. N ‘focal’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

CHAPTER 2. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. See also PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.

one per element. f2. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M.display Display value M.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature.

inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.v1. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.u2.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch.outlier.v2].ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot Show corresponding points M.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. for example by: idisp({im1.FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p FeatureMatch. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.plot() M.p2.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.im2}) m. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1.p1.p FeatureMatch.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac( @fmatrix. m = f1.ransac(func.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.match(f2). f2 = isurf(im2). homography. See also fmatrix. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. 1e-4).CHAPTER 2. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. m.ransac Apply RANSAC M. ransac FeatureMatch. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also idisp FeatureMatch.

v. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The image is not inverted. Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘name’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’. 10um pixels. P ‘pixel’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘equisolid’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.and y.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. f=8mm. K ‘resolution’.axes respectively. S ‘centre’. optical axis is z-axis. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. M ‘k’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. SIGMA ‘pose’.and v-axes are parallel to x. u. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘sine’.CHAPTER 2. camera at origin.

project(p. See also FishEyeCamera. See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. CatadioptricCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.

options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. See also LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.0) and the line. A horizontal line has theta = 0. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. The voting array is 2-dimensional. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.H).

N All edge pixels have equal weight.5) Set ht. See also Hough.1).display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Hough. Default 400 × 401.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Nrho].CHAPTER 2. W ‘nbins’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. T ‘suppress’. Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. W ‘houghthresh’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.display Display value HT. T ‘edgethresh’. else N = [Ntheta.houghThresh (default 0. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.edgeThresh (default 0.edgeThresh. Hough. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. See also Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. then all elements in an HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks.lines Find lines L = HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision. HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.lines Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. H = HT.plot Plot line features HT.CHAPTER 2. L = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot(n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. LineFeature Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot. The highest peak is found. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. HT.

rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.CHAPTER 2. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. RegionFeature.

L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(rho. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. theta. LENGTH is undeﬁned.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. strength. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. LineFeature. theta. one per element.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.display Display value L. LineFeature.char Convert to string s = L. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.

seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot() overlay the line on current plot. less than gap pixels are tolerated.points Return points on line segments p = L. l2 = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also icanny LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. l2 = L. Small gaps.seglength(edge. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot Plot line L. LineFeature. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

com).close() closes the connection to the movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.axis.close Close the image source M.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. S ‘skip’. G ‘scale’.char Convert to string M. Movie.CHAPTER 2.

undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. planar.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. S ‘frame’.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph create an n-d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. F Skip frames. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Options ‘skip’. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.

v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.CHAPTER 2.connectivity() g.clear() add vertex.coord(v) g.add node(coord.goal(v) g.distance(v1. return vid add vertex and edge to v.add node(coord) g.plot() g.edges(e) g.neighbours(v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.next(v) g. Object properties (read/write) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). return vid add edge from v1 to v2. v2) g.add edge(v1. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.path(v) set goal vertex.cost(e) g.component(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. E = G. Options ‘distance’. v.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v = G. and returns the edge id E.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. v = G.add node(x.add node(x. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. PGraph. where x is D × 1. PGraph.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. and returns the node id v. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge(v1.add edge(v1.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2.

coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clear Clear the graph G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. PGraph.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. edges and components.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. [v.char Convert graph to string s = G. D × 1. PGraph. of node id v. PGraph. and the distance d.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. one per element.char Convert to string s = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.display Display value F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. v.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.

ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. PointFeature.match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. Options ‘thresh’.C] = F.match Match point features m = F.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match(f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.char PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance. [m.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. where 1 is perfect match. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot Plot feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. Polygon .CHAPTER 2. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).

difference. Polygon.edu.area Area of polygon a = P.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.area() is the area of the polygon. so use with care. Polygon. Pankratov.mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.mit.html and require a licence. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. http://puddle. Polygon.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. kirill@plume. Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. intersection. HEIGHT]. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. union. p = Polygon(C.char String representation s = P.CHAPTER 2. one column per vertex.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

else 0.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.CHAPTER 2.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon.char Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. returns coordinates of P.display Display polygon P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. See also Polygon. Polygon.

moments(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. y1 y2].intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon. each column is [x y]’.CHAPTER 2.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. See also mpq poly Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns empty polygon. Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.

union Union of polygons i = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.plot Plot polygon P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot() plot the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.CHAPTER 2.

closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. [x. See also Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.E] = R. Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Ray3D.E] = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value R. one per element.char Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2. [x.

If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.b. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.c. vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. For example R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. See also iblobs. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. ymax].CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = R.xmax. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. RegionFeature. ymin.box Return bounding box b = R. imoments RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector. one per element.th] = R. RegionFeature.

char RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot Plot centroid R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. See also RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.display Display value R.and xmarkers. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot boundary plot boundary R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. It is indicated with overlaid o.

plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box Plot bounding box R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. R.

0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. See also PointFeature. 1=opaque.plot scale Plot feature scale F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength. ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options. v. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. v.

im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. options) is a new tracker object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. one per active track. Options ‘radius’. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.CHAPTER 2. R ‘nslots’. See also PointFeature Tracker. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. N ‘thresh’. T ‘movie’. C.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.

plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.display Display value T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char Tracker.CHAPTER 2. Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.

Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. otherwise the result is not predictable. and their characteristics is displayed. AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Movie Video.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’.

close Close the image source V. Video.char Convert to string V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.close() closes the connection to the camera. Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.

If th1 is a column vector. right. right. color. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). the ﬁrst for left. the second for right. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images.CHAPTER 2. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. By default the left image is red. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. and the right image is cyan. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. if negative it is reduced. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. a = anaglyph(left. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1.

e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.boundary. % emission of sun plot(l. If lambda is a column vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Endpoints must be integer.y1) to (x2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. p = bresenham(p1.y2].y2).y1] and p2=[x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. 6500). r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.CHAPTER 2. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. x2. [x. y1. p2) as above but p1=[x1.s] = boundmatch(R1. See also RegionFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. [C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.Y. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.

that is. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. [k. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.d1] = closest(a. Options ‘n’. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).CHAPTER 2.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. and x is N × 3. x = circle(C. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. k = closest(a. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). green and blue primaries respectively. R.

but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. while Table I(5.5. 335 of Table 1(5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.16). If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). they were measured directly. 19000 (526.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).d1.ac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). since.ucl.5.5. and 22500 (444.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). (Table 1(5. As noted in footnote a on p.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.32).ioo. • From Table I(5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.d2] = closest(a.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. The data are referred to as pilot data.CHAPTER 2.

ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.M). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ioo.ac.ucl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .uk See also cmfrgb. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = col2im(pix.

g] to every pixel in the color image im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.CHAPTER 2. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .

[1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. im<100. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. and returns a per-pixel logical result. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. eg. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.CHAPTER 2.G. k. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. func. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. [L. @isnan.C] = colorkmeans(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. mask. out = colorize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imono.B). @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. icolor.

R] = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.CHAPTER 2. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. k) as above but also returns the residual R. XYZ = colorname(name. name = colorname(XYZ. L = colorkmeans(im. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. eg. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. low is good. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.C. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.

colorspace(s.txt.o2. or alternatively. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. • Color space names are case insensitive. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. it can be omitted. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Input and output images have 3 planes. double data is the natural choice. [o1. i1. s = ‘src->dest’.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. s = ‘dest<-src’. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. As MATLAB’s native datatype. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o3] = colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.CHAPTER 2.i2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.200). • If im is an M × 3 array. B = rand(400.2*A. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. for memory and computational performance. However. out will also have size M × 3.100). d = distance(A. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.B). Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. Example A = rand(400. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. like a colormap.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).

not image frame. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. seed. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.(+31)20-5257524. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. in matrix coordinate frame. E = edgelist(im.y). non-zero is an object.uva. non zero is counter-clockwise. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.3. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.j).CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tested: PC Matlab v5. bunschot@wins. The result E is a matrix.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. tel. University of Amsterdam. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.

S. See also fmatrix. Author Based on fmatrix code by. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2.R. H = epiline(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. epiline(f. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. Oct 27.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i).CHAPTER 2. I. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Coimbra. p. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. See also epiline. one per line drawn. p1. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. 1998.

The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. Notes • The points must be corresponding. http://www. The University of Western Australia. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). it is singular. c. no outlier rejection is performed.au/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.CHAPTER 2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. which means it can be passed to ransac(). epiline. homography. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. page 270. that is. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. that is.csse. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. • f is a rank 2 matrix. p2.edu. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. • Contains a RANSAC driver.uwa. See also ransac.

x2.y2). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.CHAPTER 2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. itriplepoint. y1.y1) and (x2. See also imorph. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). ithin. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.

The University of Western Australia.CHAPTER 2. which means it can be passed to ransac(). fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. See also ransac. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be corresponding.au/.csse. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.uwa.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. invhomog. http://www. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. no outlier rejection is performed.

ie. S output image contains all the warped pixels. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. itrim.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R ‘scale’. im. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. D ‘size’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. See also homography.CHAPTER 2. V ‘roi’. See also e2h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP.offs] = homwarp(H. S ‘dimension’. im. that is tp=T*T1. [out.

See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features. 200). Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. IT-8:pp. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. IRE Trans. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. Hu. ’gs’). Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. ianimate(im.CHAPTER 2. 179-187. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. features. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. on Information Theory. 1962. ianimate(seq. ’nfeat’.

M ‘npoints’. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. YMIN YMAX]. isurf.CHAPTER 2. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). iharris. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. N ‘only’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.

S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. vertical coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. A set pixel aspect ratio. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.CHAPTER 2. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. [A1. horizontal coordinate centroid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. ilabel. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.0 ‘connect’. C set connectivity.0) 1 for a circle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. [S1. default 1.

Tel Aviv University. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. See also iopen. 1996-7. out = iclose(im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. See also isobel. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se. S ‘th0’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. This is an dilation followed by erosion. T ‘th1’. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.

C = icolor(im. [C. The images do not have to be of the same size. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. D ‘bgval’. See also imono.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. Options ‘dir’. iconcat(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.u] = iconcat(im. [0 1 1]).options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. colorize.CHAPTER 2. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.

If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. options) convolves im1 with im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.CHAPTER 2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image.

K ‘patch’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). R ‘nfeat’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest.CHAPTER 2. S ‘deriv’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. D ‘k’. E ‘suppress’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. D ‘sigma’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector has zero mean and unit norm. N ‘detector’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. CM ‘cminthresh’. CT ‘edgegap’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

with a delay of d [sec]. 1994. Harris and M. with a delay of 0. J. T ‘distthresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. See also PointFeature. vol.Noble. Options ‘dplot’. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Image and Vision Computing.d] = icp(p1. 1988. • “Finding corners”. J. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Stephens. 593-593. Proc.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. T ‘maxiter’.G.CHAPTER 2. C. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.J. Shi and C. where * denotes squared and smoothed. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. pp. Proc. [T.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.. N ‘mindelta’. Tomasi. Manchester. IEEE Computer Society. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. pp 147-151. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2.6. p2. pp. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. • “Good features to track”. May 1988. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.5 [sec]. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.121-128.

Besl and H. Feb. 1992. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Intell. 239-256. 14. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.. s = idecimate(im. each plane is decimated. m. See also iscale. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. vol. IEEETrans. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. 2. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging.or 3-dimensional. P. s = idecimate(im.CHAPTER 2. no. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Pattern Anal. pp.McKay. Mach. m.

highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . negative is red. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. zero is black. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. zero is white.and y-axes respectively. darker than ‘grey’. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. negative is red. If the image is zoomed. positive is blue. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. linear proﬁle. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. C ‘xydata’. positive is blue. XY ‘colormap’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. zero is white color map: random values. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. Options ‘ncolors’. histogram and zooming. If im is a cell array of images. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.

labelimage.CHAPTER 2. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. idisplabel(im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. colormap. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage. See also image. See also iblobs. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. caxis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labels. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. icolorize.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin.45. See also itriplepoint. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. out = igamma(im. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.CHAPTER 2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.

sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 100. P. k. min. Int. [L. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.m] = igraphseg(im.jpg’). Example im = iread(’58060.m] = igraphseg(im.5). k. [l. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 1500. See also ithresh.CHAPTER 2. Sept. Felzenszwalb and D.5). 2004. Huttenlocher. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. 0. pp. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Journal on Computer Vision. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 59. min. 167181. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. L = igraphseg(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. k is the scale parameter. vol. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2006.

h). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. bar(x. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. H = ihist(im. ’normcdf’). plot(x. [h. [H.x] = ihist(im). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.h).

Region labels are in the range 1 to M. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. y1.y1) and bottom-right (x2.CHAPTER 2. [L.y2).parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. same size as im. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. y2. ii is a precomputed integral image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x1. [L.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.

otherwise it does not.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. p2. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. eg.maxlabel.maxlabel. out = iline(im. [L. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. ilabel(im.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.parents. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.parents. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. iproﬁle. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.class. The pixels on the line are set to 1. p1. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. each a 2-vector [X. See also iblobs. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. • This is a “low level” function. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.CHAPTER 2. 8).Y].

y) and its half-width is H.y). The template in im1 is centred at (x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. [xm. -s.and y-offsets relative to (x. x. The return value is xm=[DX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). centred at (x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. s. a perfect match score is 1.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.y) and of size s. • ZNCC matching is used.DY.DY) are the x. x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xmax. im2. y. and columns the vertical position. ymax] relative to (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. H.score] = imatch(im1. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.CHAPTER 2.CC] where (DX. ymin. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. w2. y. s] % relative to (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. • Is a MEX ﬁle. im2.y). s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.

v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [u. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(w. f = imoments(u. The element u(v. effectively a greyscale image.u) = u and v(v. [u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image.u) = v.CHAPTER 2.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. H) as above but the domain is w × H. v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.

options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m02. • This function does not perform connectivity. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m20. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. See also RegionFeature. ilabel. m01. the elements are m00. or its area. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. icolor. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. horizontal coordinate centroid. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m10. Different conversion functions are supported. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. m11.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.m] = imser(im. The labels [L. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. se. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. vol. Image and Vision Computing. and T. 2004. 761767. Sept. ’double’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im.org). [label. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. O. m. Pajdla. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. pp. 22. ’grey’. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.png’. Chum.m] = imser(im. Matas. Urban. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. ’light’).CHAPTER 2. J.

See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.ˆ2).CHAPTER 2. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. out = iopen(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. sides. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iclose. sides. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.CHAPTER 2. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se. n. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v.

otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. im1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 20. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ’tblr’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer.CHAPTER 2. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im2. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ’t’. 10. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. p. otherwise im2 is selected. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.V]. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.

v) for the corresponding row of p. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).CHAPTER 2. p1. p1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.uv] = iproﬁle(im. [p. See also bresenham. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.

ones(5. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.5)). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. out = imorph(image. se(2.2) = 0. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. idecimate. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. out = ipyramid(im. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. op. 12.CHAPTER 2. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im.3). im > irank(im. nbins. out = ipyramid(im. the maximum. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. See also iscalespace. 1. hence output image had reduced dimensions. out = imorph(image. sigma. order. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. is order=1. se). The highest rank. op.

convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. See also imorph. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. ivar. G ‘reduce’.CHAPTER 2. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. vmin vmax]. R ‘roi’. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. im = iread(ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. where R=[umin umax.

out2.CHAPTER 2. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). igamma. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im1.out2] = irectify(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.h2] = irectify(f. m. homwarp. imwrite. istereo. Notes • Color images are not supported.h1. See also FeatureMatch. imono. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. [out1. m. im1.

angle. See also idisp. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. Options ‘outsize’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. V ‘smooth’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H] return central part of image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. vmin.vmax]. S ‘extrapval’. [out. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2.umax.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.

out = isamesize(im1. s ‘extrapval’. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. bias=0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.5 is symmetric cropping. s>1 makes the image larger. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias<0. while bias>0. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. V ‘smooth’. s<1 makes it smaller. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. Options ‘outsize’. im2. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.

At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . [g. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.L. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. See also iscalespace. n) as above but sigma=1. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). corresponding to each step of the sequence.CHAPTER 2.s] = iscalespace(im. in space and scale. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. idecimate.L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.

isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. else false (0). See also isrot. it its third dimension is equal to three. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog(T. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. that is. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ismooth. ‘valid’) as above. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ilaplace.CHAPTER 2.

icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. 60. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.vlfeat.CHAPTER 2. • Features are returned in descending strength order.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. N ‘suppress’. Reference David G. Lowe. 2 (2004). • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. See also SiftPointFeature. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 91-110. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. International Journal of Computer Vision. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. pp. isurf.

See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. @zssd.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. ssd.H. ncc. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. @zsad. zssd. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imatch.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. s = isimilarity(T. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. im. [w. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.CHAPTER 2. and these output pixels are set to NaN. zsad. @ncc. s is same size as im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. sad. @ssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. [w.

See also iconv. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.gy] = isobel(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. [gx. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. convolved. [gx.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. then converted back to integer. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.CHAPTER 2. sigma. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .dx) as above but returns the gradient images.

M] for an N × M window. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. icanny. See also ksobel. the disparity d=d(v. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.sim] = istereo(iml. else false (0). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. w. H.u) means that imr(v. That is. See also ishomog. range. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). [d. ‘valid’) as above. range. imr.u). imr.CHAPTER 2. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. isrot(R. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range is the disparity search range. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. H is the half size of the matching window.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.

3) See also irectify.5 to +0. p. imr. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). [d. [d. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.dsi] = istereo(iml. p.A and p. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sim. w. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. • sim = max(dsi. Options ‘metric’.CHAPTER 2. dx.5).sim. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.p] = istereo(iml. That is.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. imr. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. ‘ncc’.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. range. w. B. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. out = istretch(im.

R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark.CHAPTER 2. N ‘thresh’. or sequences. Kroon (U. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. T ‘octaves’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Color images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im.

out = ithin(im. Otherwise false (0).or columnvector. isvec(v. isift. itriplepoint. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Luc Van Gool. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 346–359.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. See also hitormiss. See also ishomog. Vol. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).CHAPTER 2. either a row. 110. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 3. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. else false (0). Andreas Ess. Tinne Tuytelaars. No.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.5. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.im2. [out1. ithresh(im. See also homwarp.out2] = itrim(im1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.out2] = itrim(im1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. a lower value will include more. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. The same cropping is applied to each input image. Notes • Greyscale image only.CHAPTER 2. The default is 0. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.

The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. op. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. See also iendpoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ithin. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. se.CHAPTER 2. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im.

Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. ones(3. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. @std).CHAPTER 2. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. se. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. See also ivar. @max). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. ones(5. se.5). out = iwindow(image. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im.

dG/dy. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ktriangle. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. See also ones. k = kcircle(R. See also kgauss. k = kdgauss(sigma. klog. • The vertical derivative. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. kdog. is k’. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. dG/dx.

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. klog. kdog. kdgauss. By default SIGMA2 = 1. See also kdgauss. sigma2.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). where sigma1 > SIGMA2. See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .6*sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. k = kgauss(sigma. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation.

kdog. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. kdgauss. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. and W=2 × H+1. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ilaplace. iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. k = klog(sigma.CHAPTER 2.

options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. Reference Tou and Gonzalez.CHAPTER 2. [L. and D is the dimension. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).C] = kmeans(x. k. Pattern Recognition Principles. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.C] = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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C ‘T’.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. See also cylinder. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). The points are the columns of p. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.y. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘T’. ‘edge’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. [x. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).z] = mkcube(s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.z] = mkcube(s.y. symmetric about the origin. s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. [x.

Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. the sum of I(x.xp . Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. npq. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. or y(:.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. p. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. y. n) MPLOT(y. That is.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. or y(:. y) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(t. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. y.y). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2)).yq .

The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. See also mpq. p. they are considered to be a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. upq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. npq poly.

m. W. 20). ssd.2.CHAPTER 2. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. the height of a character. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. [T. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. in text segmentation. where W=2*w2+1. T has the same dimensions as im. 1986. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = niblack(im. -0.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.s] = niblack(im. k. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. k. niblack. See also zncc. sad. • A common choice of k=-0. Prentice-Hall. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. idisp(im >= t). for example.

0). q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p. See also npq poly. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.0. mpq. That is UPQ(im.q)/MPQ(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2.

See also mpq poly. mpq. they are considered as a single vertex. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). upq.CHAPTER 2. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.

otsu IEEE Trans. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. [yp. N. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Jan 1979. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Systems. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t).i] = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. x. pp 62-66 See also niblack.xp] = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms.

• The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.S points. N ‘scale’.ij] = peak2(z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.S points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak(-V). Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. S ‘interp’. [zp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . use peak2(-V). N ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. Typically choose N to be odd.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.CHAPTER 2. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. If p has three dimensions. plot2(p. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pnmﬁlt.

1=solid. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. plot_circle(c.y1. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. Examples plot_circle(c. r. PLOT BOX(x1. ’edgecolor’. ’fillcolor’. value pairs that are passed to plot. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ‘r’. ‘size’.CHAPTER 2. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. P. W. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. or a set of name. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. plot_circle(c. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. 5). ’b’). r. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ’LineWidth’.y1) and (x2.y2). ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ’r’). R. W. r. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. PLOT BOX(’topleft’.y2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ’g’. x2. P.

ls) ls is the standard line styles.Y. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. c Specify color of the axes. C.CHAPTER 2.Y]. with Matlab line style ls. centred at the origin. xc. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. Options ‘color’. If C=[X. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. current plot. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.

w ‘arrow’ ’length’. options) adds point markers to a plot. ‘printf’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate.X = 0. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. fmt. to ‘view’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’r’.CHAPTER 2. ‘framename’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘textcolor’. ’color’. trplot( T. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. n ‘text opts’. ’name’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’color’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ’r’). ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’.

H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. patch. NOTES • The sphere is always added.CHAPTER 2. 1=solid. either a letter or 3-vector. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. The default is 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R. R. color. R. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. See also plot.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. See also pgmﬁlt. plotp(p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.gt] = radgrad(im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.

ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. N ‘maxDataTrials’. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.resid] = ransac(func.in. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. T. one column per point pair. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. d) as above but elements increment by d. x. Options ‘maxTrials’. T. x. x typically contains corresponding point data. [m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. [m. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated.CHAPTER 2.in] = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.

cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Assoc.x. Boles.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. If multiple models are found out.CHAPTER 2. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta = []. pp 381-395. No 6.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta.theta and the subset of R.out.theta] = ERR(R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.t threshold (1 × 1) R. Mach.R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. they detect a structure argument.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.out.s out. [out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. that is they will produce a model.theta is a cell array. pp 101-113.misc private data (cell array) out.resid] = EST(R. Comm.x) condition the point data out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. that is.x = CONDITION(R.C. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. References • m.A. Vol 24. Fishler and R.x.theta. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Comp.x and returns the best model out.theta = DECONDITION(R.misc element.inlier. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.x data to work on.theta to the points R.. Cambridge University Press. [out.s sample size (1 × 1) out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.

then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.uwa. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. If lambda is a vector.edu.csse.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. rotz. rotz. See also rotx. See also roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx.

yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. See also tr2rpy. pitch. yaw.CHAPTER 2. Z axes respectively. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. • many texts (Paul. pitch. pitch. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. T = rpy2tr(roll. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Y. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. If roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

theta) as above where xy=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy.y.CHAPTER 2. ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. y. and rotation theta in the plane. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. r2t.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsad. ncc. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.

Two cross-hairs are created. sad. ncc. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. See also zsdd. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector.

It supports options that have an assigned value. tr2rt.foo = true. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. opt. ’that’. ’other’}. – If T is 3 × 3. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. The software pattern is: function(a. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. b.choose = {’this’.CHAPTER 2.blah = []. c. opt. opt. varargin) opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .bar = false. then R is 3 × 3. then R is 2 × 2.

blah <.true sets opt.‘this’.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. x. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args) creates a test pattern image. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.N sets opt <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.verbose <.y sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.1.choose <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.y ‘that’ sets opt.false ‘blah’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.debug <.select <. 3 sets opt. varargin). w.choose <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). opt = tb_optparse(opt. ’#yes’}.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.x. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. If neither of ‘this’. N ‘setopt’. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.blah <.select = {’#no’. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.CHAPTER 2.foo <.select <. varargin). If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.foo <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.

sdd] = tpoly(s0. binary square pattern. args are pitch (distance between centres). binary dot pattern. intercept. 25). square side length. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. 50. dot diameter.sd. The trajectory s. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. a line. 2). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles. 256. sf. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args are theta (rad). 256. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sf.sd. sd and sdd are n-vectors. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.CHAPTER 2. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. [s.

See also angvec2r. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. The 3 angles rpy=[R. rpy = tr2rpy(R. [theta. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .P. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Y and Z axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.

T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. – If TR is 3 × 3. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.CHAPTER 2.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. r2t. See also rt2tr. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.:. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. See also rpy2tr. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. • The validity of R is not checked. If T has three dimensions. y. ie.z]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.y.

See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). or x and y. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. each N × 1. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3).o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).CHAPTER 2. An historical anomaly. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. [c1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [o1.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. troty.

trotx.CHAPTER 2. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotx. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f ‘label’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trprint T is the command line form of above. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. and displays in RPY format.

See also upq poly. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.y0) is the centroid.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.y). p.(y-y0)q where (x0. the sum of I(x. tr2rpy. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.(x-x0)p . mpq. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. That is.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ncc. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also ncc. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. See also sad. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. See also sdd. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2.