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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

However the book “Robotics. is open-source. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This is extravagant on storage. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. and I commend it to you.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . 1. . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . about . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . cmfxyz . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . R . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . ihist . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . .

. . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.google. and you will be suitably acknowledged.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You need to signup in order to post. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.com. tutors. That’s what you your teachers.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.

It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Number = {4}. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).gz) or zip format (. 1. 1. The ﬁle robot. type of organization and application.3.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Month = nov. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.I. the table of content to functions. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. 1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Author = {P.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Corke}. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. and the “See also” functions to each other.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Volume = {12}.zip). This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. The details are @article{Corke05f.1.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1.html on a server for class use. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.petercorke. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Year = {2005}.

this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. 1. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. 1. P. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.7. and there are hundreds of modules available. Vincent Lepetit.S. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.I. Corke. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.1. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. 12(4). VLFeat http://www.Functions such as SURF. pp 16–25.vlfeat. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.mathworks.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. 1994 University of British Columbia. November 2005. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.6. Coimbra. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. MSER. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.7 Acknowledgements Last. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.R. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Twente..org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. but not least.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.CHAPTER 2. used by all subclasses. S ‘centre’. S ‘noise’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘sensor’. Options ‘name’. T ‘color’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. N ‘image’. SIGMA ‘pose’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. IM ‘resolution’. Camera.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.CHAPTER 2. Camera.display Display value C. SphericalCamera Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).delete Camera object destructor C.centre Get camera position p = C. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clf Clear the image plane C.char Convert to string s = C. Camera. CatadioptricCamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.

v + c = 0. C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. Camera.char Camera. Camera.u + b.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. otherwise false (0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.CHAPTER 2.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). and off if H is false (or 0).ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.

If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.T. Camera.plot. mkcube. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Options ‘Tobj’. Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. uv = C. See also mesh.mesh(x.plot Plot points on image plane C. y. cylinder. y. The matrices x.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).clf Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. z to the image plane and plots them.hold. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot(p. z. sphere. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. y. Camera.

Options ‘Tcam’. T See also Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘scale’. Camera.hold. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.T. ‘fps’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.clf Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘Tobj’.mesh.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. ‘Tcam’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.

p.rpy Set camera attitude C. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.p.CHAPTER 2. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.y]. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. a subclass of Camera.rpy(R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.C Camera matrix C = C. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.

optical axis is z-axis.and v-axes parallel to x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.177 See also CentralCamera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. D ‘default’ ‘image’.E Essential matrix E = C. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. p. IM ‘resolution’. CentralCamera.8]) See also Camera. E = C. CatadioptricCamera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. S ‘centre’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.Kosecka. T ‘color’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.F. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. u. ﬁsheyecamera. N ‘sensor’. “An invitation to 3D”. E = C.Soatto. Reference Y.Sastry. P ‘pixel’. Springer. 10um pixels. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S ‘noise’. S. 2003.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Ma. J.CHAPTER 2. SIGMA ‘pose’.and y-axes respectively. f=8mm. camera at origin. F ‘distortion’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). N ‘focal’.

Soatto.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F = C. S.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. 2003. Springer. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. See also CentralCamera. from two viewpoints. J. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. p.F Fundamental matrix F = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. n.H CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Reference Y.E CentralCamera.H(T.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S.H Homography matrix H = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.177 See also CentralCamera. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Sastry.Kosecka.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma.

uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Fua.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. See also quiver CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Feb. V. Moreno-Noguer.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). a = C. 81. 155-166. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Lepetit. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. and P. Int.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 2009. vol. CentralCamera. pp.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.estpose(xyz.

E CentralCamera.Ma.invE(E.CHAPTER 2. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. p116. section 5. “An invitation to 3D”.Soatto.Ma. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. “Multiview Geometry”.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. J. 259 Y. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. See also CentralCamera.Kosecka. s. translation not to scale • n.Soatto. Chap 9. Springer. Springer. s. “An invitation to 3D”. p.Sastry. Reference Y. 2003. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. 2003. J.Sastry.Kosecka. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.T. p. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).CHAPTER 2. C.plot epiline(f. H = C. ‘Tcam’. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. one per line.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. See also Hough CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. ‘Tobj’.project(p.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.H CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Chaumette.b. 313-326.CHAPTER 2. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. See also Camera. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.c. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. and P. Espiau. 8.visjac e(E. June 1992. F. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Reference B.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. Rives. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.plot CentralCamera.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. “Multiview Geometry”.

Espiau.visjac e CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Chaumette. pp. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Oct. vol. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. R&A.b. 8. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. June 1992. 1996. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. Hager & Corke.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. Reference B.c. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.visjac l CentralCamera. pp 651-670.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. Vol 12(5).CHAPTER 2.visjac p.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Hutchinson. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). F. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac p polar.visjac p(uv. Rives. CentralCamera.visjac l(L. See also CentralCamera.visjac p. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). 313-326. and P. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.

pp.CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera.visjac p. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Oct.visjac l. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. in Proc.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Louis). Spindler. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Corke. Chaumette. I.visjac p polar. F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar(rt. 2009. P.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. 5962-5967. CentralCamera. Int. and F. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. (St.visjac e CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. radius and theta.

Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Int. See README. Journal on Computer Vision.SIFT. PointFeature. ScalePointFeature.60. D.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.Lowe.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.91-110. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. pp. See also isift. 2004. vol. Nov.

Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. See also isift SiftPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F. v.match(f2.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options.

support(images.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.T] = F.support(im.support(im. [out. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images. out = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.support Support region of feature out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Options ‘name’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p.T. Overrides the current camera pose C. N ‘pixel’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. See also SphericalCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. T ‘Tcam’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. S ‘pose’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).

The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. error.01) .gain. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. camera pose. of 4-vector. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number.5) target center . The external view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.the side length of the target in world units (0.0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.center of the target in world coords (0. defaults in parentheses: target size .depth of points to use for Jacobian. The camera view.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. error norm. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The camera view. image plane size and desired feature locations.CHAPTER 2. scalar for If null take actual value all points.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .

pp. P. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .depth of points to use for Jacobian. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac p(pt.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. I.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .01) .0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. of 4-vector. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. CentralCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. camera pose.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .5) target center .the side length of the target in world units (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. for all points. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. defaults in parentheses: target size . in Proc. The external view. IEEE Int. (Anchorage). May 3-7 2010.gain. error. Conf. Corke.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac p polar. error norm. Jacobian condition number. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).CHAPTER 2. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera.center of the target in world coords (0. image plane size and desired feature locations.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Robotics and Automation.visjac l. 5550-5555.

Luc Van Gool. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 110. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Tinne Tuytelaars. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 346–359. No. 3. pp. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. Vol. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match Match SURF point features m = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘thresh’.C] = F. f = PointFeature(u. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. [m. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.match(f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].match(f2. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v.

See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0=transparent (default 0.support(im. F. [out. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale(options. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.T] = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.2) SurfPointFeature.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(images. C ‘alpha’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 1=opaque. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.CHAPTER 2. out = F.support(images. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

S ‘resolution’.com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable.CHAPTER 2. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.axis. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com) web camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Video AxisWebCamera. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

close() closes the connection to the web camera. See also AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A.char Convert to string A.display AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.

See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Ninth IEEE Int.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. f can also be a cell array. in Proc. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. 2003.1470-1477. Conf. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. on Computer Vision. b = BagOfWords(f. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.Zisserman. Oct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.Sivic and A. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.org).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. isurf BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.exemplars(w. BagOfWords. images.display Display value B.char Convert to string s = B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.CHAPTER 2.n] = B. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.isword Features from words f = B. N ‘maxperimage’.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. M ‘width’. Options ‘ncolumns’.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.remove stop Remove stop words B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.

wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.CHAPTER 2.

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2.

N ‘sensor’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ﬁsheyecamera. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. camera at origin. See also Camera. K ‘maxangle’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.T. optical axis is z-axis.CHAPTER 2. f=8mm. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. M ‘k’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘focal’. P ‘pixel’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. 10um pixels. u. CatadioptricCamera. ‘equisolid’.project(p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.and v-axes parallel to x.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘centre’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.and y-axes respectively. A ‘resolution’. ‘sine’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. S ‘noise’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T ‘Tcam’.

See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. such as ScalePointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.

If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f2. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. one per element. SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. m = FeatureMatch(f1.display Display value M.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch. See also PointFeature.char Convert to string s = M. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.

Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. See also FeatureMatch.inlier. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch.v1.u2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v2]. FeatureMatch.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . These are the (u.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. These are the (u.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot Show corresponding points M.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p1.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.im2}) m.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.plot() M. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p1.p2.

The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. f2 = isurf(im2).match(f2).ransac( @fmatrix.CHAPTER 2. See also idisp FeatureMatch.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. See also fmatrix. 1e-4). inliers and outliers (and their percentages). homography.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.ransac Apply RANSAC M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Example f1 = isurf(im1). m = f1. ransac FeatureMatch. m.ransac(func. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.

X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.CHAPTER 2. Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. v. that is.

Options ‘name’. camera at origin. optical axis is z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.and y. ‘equisolid’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. N ‘sensor’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. 10um pixels. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). S ‘noise’. M ‘k’.axes respectively.and v-axes are parallel to x. P ‘pixel’. S ‘centre’. f=8mm. K ‘resolution’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. SIGMA ‘pose’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. u. ‘sine’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.

Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tobj’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera. T ‘Tcam’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.project(p. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.CHAPTER 2.T. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera. See also FishEyeCamera.

and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. The voting array is 2-dimensional. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. A horizontal line has theta = 0.H).0) and the line. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also LineFeature Hough.CHAPTER 2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.

N All edge pixels have equal weight. Hough. else N = [Ntheta.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.houghThresh (default 0. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT. Hough. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Set ht. See also Hough. Nrho]. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. W ‘nbins’.5) Set ht.1). if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. T ‘suppress’. Default 400 × 401.edgeThresh. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.edgeThresh (default 0. T ‘edgethresh’.display Display value HT.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . W ‘houghthresh’.

lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. H = HT.CHAPTER 2.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. HT. See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.plot Plot line features HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. L = HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.lines Find lines L = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. then all elements in an HT. The process is repeated for all peaks. See also Hough. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The highest peak is found. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. LineFeature Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot.

CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = LineFeature(rho. LENGTH is undeﬁned.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. strength. L = LineFeature(rho. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta.char Convert to string s = L. LineFeature. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.CHAPTER 2.

plot Plot line L. Small gaps. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. L. See also icanny LineFeature. l2 = L.points Return points on line segments p = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. LineFeature. l2 = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.plot() overlay the line on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength(edge.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.CHAPTER 2.

close() closes the connection to the movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S ‘skip’. G ‘scale’.axis. Movie.char Convert to string M.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source M. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.

grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. planar. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph create an n-d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. S ‘frame’. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. F Skip frames.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’.

return vid add vertex and edge to v. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. v) g. Object properties (read/write) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.distance(v1.component(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.goal(v) g.clear() add vertex.edges(e) g.next(v) g.connectivity() g.coord(v) g.CHAPTER 2.neighbours(v) g.add node(coord.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .cost(e) g.add node(coord) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add edge(v1.path(v) set goal vertex.plot() g. v2) g.

PGraph.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.CHAPTER 2. and returns the edge id E. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. and returns the node id v. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. E = G.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add node(x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add edge(v1.add node(x. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v. v = G. where x is D × 1. Options ‘distance’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph.add edge(v1.

CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph. PGraph. [v. of node id v. PGraph.clear Clear the graph G. edges and components.d] = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. and the distance d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph.CHAPTER 2.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. D × 1.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.closest Find closest node v = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.char Convert graph to string s = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector.coord Coordinate of node x = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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See also ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. one per element.CHAPTER 2.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.display Display value F. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Convert to string s = F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature. v. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SurfPointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.

match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. [m.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.C] = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. PointFeature.match Match point features m = F. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Options ‘thresh’.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. where 1 is perfect match. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char PointFeature.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).CHAPTER 2. Polygon .plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot Plot feature F.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. so use with care. one column per vertex. Polygon.mit. http://puddle. Pankratov. HEIGHT]. kirill@plume.mit.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. Polygon.html and require a licence.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. union.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. difference.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon.edu. intersection.char String representation s = P. p = Polygon(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.area() is the area of the polygon.

inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.difference Difference of polygons d = P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Polygon.char Polygon. else 0. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. See also Polygon. Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.display Display polygon P. returns coordinates of P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.

CHAPTER 2.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.moments(p. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each column is [x y]’. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. returns empty polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. See also mpq poly Polygon. y1 y2].perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.

CHAPTER 2.union Union of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot Plot polygon P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.plot() plot the polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.

d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.CHAPTER 2.

[x. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.E] = R.char Convert to string s = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. [x. Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. Ray3D.char Ray3D.display Display value R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. See also Ray3D. one per element.CHAPTER 2.E] = R.

less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. horizontal coordinate centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.0) 1 for a circle.b. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. vertical coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2.c. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.

• RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. See also iblobs. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. ymin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. one per element. ymax].box Return bounding box b = R.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.xmax.uc will be a list not a vector.th] = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Convert to string s = R. imoments RegionFeature. RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. RegionFeature. For example R.

plot boundary plot boundary R.char RegionFeature. RegionFeature.and xmarkers.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot centroid R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.display Display value R.CHAPTER 2. See also RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. R. R.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.

f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. F.CHAPTER 2. 0=transparent (default 0. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 1=opaque. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. SurfPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. C ‘alpha’. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. v. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also PointFeature.plot scale(options.

CHAPTER 2. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. R ‘nslots’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. N ‘thresh’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Options ‘radius’. See also PointFeature Tracker. one per active track. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. options) is a new tracker object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. T ‘movie’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.

See also Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.display Display value T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Show feature trajectories T.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Tracker. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Convert to string s = T.

If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Movie Video. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. and their characteristics is displayed.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera.

CHAPTER 2. Video.char Convert to string V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source V.

and the right image is cyan. if negative it is reduced.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. the second for right. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). If th1 is a column vector. a = anaglyph(left. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. right. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. By default the left image is red. the ﬁrst for left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. color. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. right.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also RegionFeature. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. y1.y2). Endpoints must be integer. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y1] and p2=[x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. % emission of sun plot(l. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. If lambda is a column vector. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. [x. 6500).s] = boundmatch(R1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.y2].boundary. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. p = bresenham(p1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.y1) to (x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1.CHAPTER 2. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.

See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.CHAPTER 2.Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [C.

Options ‘n’. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. [k. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. and x is N × 3. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).CHAPTER 2. k = closest(a. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D.d1] = closest(a. R. green and blue primaries respectively. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. that is. x = circle(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B).

3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. 19000 (526. they were measured directly. • From Table I(5.ioo. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. and 22500 (444.5. As noted in footnote a on p.ac. 335 of Table 1(5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.5.5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).32). while Table I(5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.16). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.5. (Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Data from http://cvrl.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. since. The data are referred to as pilot data.ucl.d1.CHAPTER 2.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.d2] = closest(a.

M). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb. out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ucl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ac.CHAPTER 2. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .

CHAPTER 2.g] to every pixel in the color image im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.

Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. See also imono. [L. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. @isnan. and returns a per-pixel logical result. icolor. @isnan. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.G. func. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. im<100. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. mask.CHAPTER 2.B). k.C] = colorkmeans(im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = colorize(im.

interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming.C. XYZ = colorname(name.R] = colorkmeans(im. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. eg. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. k) as above but also returns the residual R. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. low is good. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. L = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(XYZ. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. s = ‘src->dest’. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.i2.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. Input and output images have 3 planes. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. • Color space names are case insensitive.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. or alternatively.txt. i1. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . As MATLAB’s native datatype.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. it can be omitted. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.o3] = colorspace(s. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. [o1.o2. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. double data is the natural choice.

colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. like a colormap. Example A = rand(400.200). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.2*A.100). B = rand(400. for memory and computational performance. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. • If im is an M × 3 array.B). d = distance(A.CHAPTER 2.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. However.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . out will also have size M × 3. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.

non zero is counter-clockwise. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. in matrix coordinate frame.j). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. non-zero is an object. Tested: PC Matlab v5.uva. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. not image frame.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y). See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.(+31)20-5257524. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. bunschot@wins.3. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. The result E is a matrix. seed. E = edgelist(im. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. University of Amsterdam.CHAPTER 2. tel.

epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also fmatrix. Coimbra. p1.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). See also epiline. one per line drawn.R. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Author Based on fmatrix code by. Oct 27. epiline(f. p. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.S. H = epiline(f. I. p. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. 1998. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.

it is singular.CHAPTER 2. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. See also ransac. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1).edu. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views.au/. • f is a rank 2 matrix. Notes • The points must be corresponding. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. that is. p2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. page 270. epiline. homography. c. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac(). no outlier rejection is performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.csse.uwa. The University of Western Australia. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . http://www. that is.

ithin. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.y2). See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph.y1) and (x2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.CHAPTER 2. itriplepoint.

edu. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uwa. The University of Western Australia. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. See also ransac.au/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The points must be corresponding. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. invhomog. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. no outlier rejection is performed. http://www. which means it can be passed to ransac(). fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.

V ‘roi’. im. ie. im. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.offs] = homwarp(H. itrim. that is tp=T*T1. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. D ‘size’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. [out. See also e2h. S ‘dimension’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. See also homography. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. S output image contains all the warped pixels. R ‘scale’. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions.

% computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. features. on Information Theory. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Hu.CHAPTER 2. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ’gs’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. IT-8:pp. ianimate(seq. IRE Trans. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. ianimate(im. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. 179-187. 200). ’nfeat’. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 1962. features.

N ‘only’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). iblobs features f = iblobs(im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. M ‘npoints’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX.CHAPTER 2. YMIN YMAX]. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. isurf.

0 ‘connect’. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. C set connectivity. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. A set pixel aspect ratio. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. default 1.CHAPTER 2. vertical coordinate bounding box. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. [S1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. [A1. ilabel. horizontal coordinate centroid.

See also isobel. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. S ‘th0’. se. out = iclose(im. Tel Aviv University.CHAPTER 2. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also iopen.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is an dilation followed by erosion. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. 1996-7. T ‘th1’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).options) concatenates images from the cell array im.CHAPTER 2. D ‘bgval’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. [0 1 1]). [C. C = icolor(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. See also imono.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. The images do not have to be of the same size. iconcat(im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u] = iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. Options ‘dir’. colorize.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. options) convolves im1 with im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

S ‘deriv’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CM ‘cminthresh’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. K ‘patch’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. R ‘nfeat’. N ‘detector’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). The vector has zero mean and unit norm. E ‘suppress’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘k’. CT ‘edgegap’.CHAPTER 2. D ‘sigma’.

1994. J.121-128. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. T ‘maxiter’. p2.5 [sec]. 593-593. May 1988. T ‘distthresh’. Manchester.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.6. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. • “Finding corners”.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Options ‘dplot’. Image and Vision Computing. J.G. [T. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. • “Good features to track”.Noble. Stephens.d] = icp(p1. C. See also PointFeature. Tomasi. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. pp. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. IEEE Computer Society. p2.. with a delay of d [sec]. Harris and M. pp. N ‘mindelta’. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Shi and C. Proc. 1988. with a delay of 0. vol.J.CHAPTER 2. where * denotes squared and smoothed. pp 147-151. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Proc.

1992. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Pattern Anal.. 2. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. See also iscale. 14. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. IEEETrans. s = idecimate(im. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. m.CHAPTER 2. Feb. pp. no. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.or 3-dimensional. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each plane is decimated. P.Besl and H. 239-256. s = idecimate(im. Intell. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.McKay. Mach. vol.

maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. C ‘xydata’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. If im is a cell array of images. histogram and zooming. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. zero is white color map: random values. negative is red. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. Options ‘ncolors’. linear proﬁle. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. If the image is zoomed. darker than ‘grey’. positive is blue. positive is blue. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. zero is black.and y-axes respectively. negative is red. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view.CHAPTER 2. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white. XY ‘colormap’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure.

See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. idisplabel(im. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. icolorize. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. See also iblobs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colormap. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. caxis. labelimage. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class.CHAPTER 2. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. See also image. labelimage. labels.

CHAPTER 2. out = igamma(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. See also itriplepoint.45.

Example im = iread(’58060. L = igraphseg(im. 1500. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Huttenlocher. k. k. [L. pp. k is the scale parameter. Felzenszwalb and D.m] = igraphseg(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im.5). min. vol. min. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 100. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. See also ithresh. [l. Sept. 59. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. Journal on Computer Vision. P. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 0. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 167181. k. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. 2006.CHAPTER 2. Int. 2004.5). and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.jpg’).m] = igraphseg(im.

H = ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. options) displays the image histogram.h). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. ’normcdf’). For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [h. [H. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. plot(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. bar(x.CHAPTER 2.h).x] = ihist(im.

x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. y1.m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. y2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . same size as im. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.CHAPTER 2. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. [L.y1) and bottom-right (x2.y2). ii is a precomputed integral image. x1.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. [L.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.

eg.maxlabel. otherwise it does not. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.parents. [L. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IBLOBS is a higher level interface. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The pixels on the line are set to 1.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p2. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. iproﬁle. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.parents. 8).edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.class. each a 2-vector [X. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. See also iblobs. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. out = iline(im. ilabel(im. • This is a “low level” function.maxlabel. p1.Y].CHAPTER 2.

and y-offsets relative to (x. x. im2.CHAPTER 2. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. • Is a MEX ﬁle. xmax. s.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.CC] where (DX.score] = imatch(im1. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.DY) are the x. w2. ymax] relative to (x. -s. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x. s] % relative to (x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. y. [xm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).y) and of size s. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y) and its half-width is H. • ZNCC matching is used. and columns the vertical position.y). The return value is xm=[DX. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. The template in im1 is centred at (x. H. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. y. centred at (x.DY. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. im2. ymin. a perfect match score is 1.y).

The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v. f = imoments(u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.CHAPTER 2.u) = u and v(v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.u) = v. effectively a binary image. effectively a greyscale image. The element u(v. All pixels are equally weighted. H) as above but the domain is w × H. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(w. [u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. [u.

m01. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m10. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m02. • This function does not perform connectivity. ilabel. m20.CHAPTER 2. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. Different conversion functions are supported. See also RegionFeature. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. icolor. m11.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. horizontal coordinate centroid. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. or its area. the elements are m00. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize.

761767. and T. ’grey’.org). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.CHAPTER 2. 22. 2004. Image and Vision Computing. [label. Sept. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. m. ’light’). Urban. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. vol.m] = imser(im. The labels [L. Matas. se. O. pp. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Pajdla.m] = imser(im. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Chum. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’double’).png’. J.

Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).ˆ2). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. n. sides.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iclose. se. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. This is an erosion followed by dilation. out = iopen(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im.

otherwise im2 is selected. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im1. im2. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.CHAPTER 2. 20. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 10.V]. ’t’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. p. ’tblr’.

v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.v) for the corresponding row of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.uv] = iproﬁle(im. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1. [p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.CHAPTER 2. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). See also bresenham. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.

the maximum.5)). Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. out = imorph(image. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. See also iscalespace. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. im > irank(im. out = imorph(image. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. op. op. 12.CHAPTER 2. The highest rank. 1. se). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. se(2. ones(5. out = ipyramid(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma. se.3). is order=1. hence output image had reduced dimensions. order. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. nbins.2) = 0. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. idecimate. out = ipyramid(im.

iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. G ‘reduce’. im = iread(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. R ‘roi’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. where R=[umin umax. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. See also imorph. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). vmin vmax]. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. ivar. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names.

path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. homwarp. istereo. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. m.CHAPTER 2. m. imono. See also FeatureMatch. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. im1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.out2] = irectify(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imwrite. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.out2. [out1. igamma. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. Notes • Color images are not supported. im1.h1.h2] = irectify(f.

Options ‘outsize’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. angle. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.vmin vmax]. S ‘extrapval’.vmax].umax. V ‘smooth’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. vmin.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. [out.CHAPTER 2.H] return central part of image. See also idisp.

CHAPTER 2. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . while bias>0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s<1 makes it smaller. s ‘extrapval’. out = isamesize(im1. bias<0. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. V ‘smooth’. Options ‘outsize’. s>1 makes the image larger.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. bias=0.5 is symmetric cropping. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. im2.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.

Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. corresponding to each step of the sequence. [g. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.L. n. See also iscalespace.s] = iscalespace(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.L. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. in space and scale. n) as above but sigma=1.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). idecimate. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.

ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ishomog(T. See also isrot. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.CHAPTER 2. ilaplace. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. else false (0). that is. ‘valid’) as above. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it its third dimension is equal to three. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ismooth. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.

International Journal of Computer Vision. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. 91-110. pp. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘suppress’. isurf. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. • Features are returned in descending strength order. See also SiftPointFeature. 60. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. 2 (2004).CHAPTER 2. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Reference David G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. Lowe. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

H.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. @zsad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ncc. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. sad. @zssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. zsad. s is same size as im. [w. ssd. @ncc.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. im. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one.CHAPTER 2. and these output pixels are set to NaN. s = isimilarity(T. @ssd. zssd. See also imatch.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.gy] = isobel(im.CHAPTER 2. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. See also iconv. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. sigma.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. convolved. [gx. then converted back to integer.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. [gx. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.

M] for an N × M window. H is the half size of the matching window. That is. range. range is the disparity search range. [d. See also ishomog. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. the disparity d=d(v. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.u) means that imr(v. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.sim] = istereo(iml. imr. isrot(R. H. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.CHAPTER 2. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. range. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. See also ksobel. imr.u). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. icanny. else false (0). w. ‘valid’) as above.

dx. range. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. That is.5). ‘ncc’. imr. out = istretch(im. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.p] = istereo(iml. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.sim. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). • sim = max(dsi. p. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.A and p. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.CHAPTER 2. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.5 to +0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. w.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. w. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.sim. [d. p. 3) See also irectify. B. [d. imr. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .dsi] = istereo(iml. range. Options ‘metric’. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).

• The sign of the Laplacian is not retained.CHAPTER 2. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. T ‘octaves’. Kroon (U. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. N ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. or sequences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Notes • Color images. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.

CHAPTER 2. itriplepoint. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Tinne Tuytelaars. Otherwise false (0). out = ithin(im. either a row. Luc Van Gool. isvec(v. 3. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Vol. isift. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Andreas Ess. See also ishomog. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. See also hitormiss.or columnvector. else false (0). pp. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 110.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. No. 346–359.

a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. a lower value will include more. ithresh(im. The default is 0. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2.out2] = itrim(im1. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.im2. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.5. Notes • Greyscale image only.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. See also homwarp.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. The same cropping is applied to each input image.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. op. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. See also iendpoint. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. ithin.CHAPTER 2. hence output image had reduced dimensions.

See also ivar. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled.5). The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ones(5.3). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. out = iwindow(image. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. se. @max). se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. func.CHAPTER 2. ones(3. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. @std).

Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. • The vertical derivative. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • This kernel is an effective edge detector. See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. dG/dx. See also ones. kdog.CHAPTER 2. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. dG/dy. klog. is k’.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. ktriangle. k = kcircle(R.

Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .6*sigma1. See also kgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). klog. See also kdgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kdog(sigma1. k = kgauss(sigma. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. kdog. sigma2. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. klog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdgauss.

See also ilaplace. iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and W=2 × H+1. k = klog(sigma. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also kgauss.

CHAPTER 2. Pattern Recognition Principles. L = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Reference Tou and Gonzalez. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it is assumed to have been completed previously. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. k. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to.C] = kmeans(x. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.C] = kmeans(x. [L. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. and D is the dimension.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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Options ‘T’. [x. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. symmetric about the origin. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.CHAPTER 2. s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. C ‘T’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).z] = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.y. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). The points are the columns of p. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. ‘edge’. [x. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.z] = mkcube(s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also cylinder. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.

Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.CHAPTER 2. y.xp . Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. npq. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). or y(:. or y(:. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. That is. y) MPLOT(t. n) MPLOT(t. y.y). the sum of I(x. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. p. n) MPLOT(y. n. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. See also mpq poly.yq .

See also mpq.CHAPTER 2. p. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. upq poly. npq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered to be a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

ssd. -0. k. where W=2*w2+1. for example. niblack. Example t = niblack(im. 20). in text segmentation. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. k. Prentice-Hall. 1986. idisp(im >= t). w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. T has the same dimensions as im. sad.CHAPTER 2. the height of a character. See also zncc. • A common choice of k=-0.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. W.m. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.s] = niblack(im. [T. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented.

0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.q)/MPQ(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. p. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.0. That is UPQ(im. p.p.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.

so centroids will be still be correct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2. they are considered as a single vertex. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. upq. See also mpq poly. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. mpq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.

N. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Systems. pp 62-66 See also niblack.CHAPTER 2.xp] = peak(y. [yp. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms.i] = peak(y. idisp(im >= t). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. [yp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. x. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im). ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Jan 1979. otsu IEEE Trans.

options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.CHAPTER 2.S points. N ‘scale’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V). N ‘scale’. Typically choose N to be odd. S ‘interp’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.ij] = peak2(z. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. use peak(-V). [zp. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.

CHAPTER 2. ie. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. If p has three dimensions. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. plot2(p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pnmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak.

YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. 5). ’fillcolor’. ’LineWidth’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. x2. plot_circle(c.y2). P.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.CHAPTER 2. value pairs that are passed to plot. R. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ’b’). ’edgecolor’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. W. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X.y2. plot_circle(c. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’g’. ‘size’. ‘r’. ‘size’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. PLOT BOX(x1. Examples plot_circle(c. r. ’r’). P. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. or a set of name. PLOT BOX(’centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . W. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. 1=solid.y1) and (x2.y1. r.

Options ‘color’. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.Y].CHAPTER 2.Y. c Specify color of the axes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. ls) ls is the standard line styles. xc. centred at the origin. C. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. with Matlab line style ls. If C=[X. current plot.

options) adds point markers to a plot. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. n ‘text opts’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ’r’. ’r’). n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. trplot( T. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. to ‘view’.CHAPTER 2. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’color’. ’color’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. Options ‘textcolor’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’name’.X = 0. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ‘printf’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ‘framename’. fmt.

options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. See also plot. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. NOTES • The sphere is always added. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. color. 1=solid. either a letter or 3-vector. The default is 1.CHAPTER 2. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. R. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. R. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. patch. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also pgmﬁlt. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. See also plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column.CHAPTER 2. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.gt] = radgrad(im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.

resid] = ransac(func. x. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .in] = ransac(func. x typically contains corresponding point data. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. T. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. [m. T. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set.in. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. Options ‘maxTrials’.CHAPTER 2. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. [m. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x. d) as above but elements increment by d. one column per point pair. N ‘maxDataTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.

out. Fishler and R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. that is..debug display what’s going on (logical) R. Comp. [out.theta = [].theta is a cell array. If multiple models are found out.theta and the subset of R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta = DECONDITION(R. Boles. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.inlier. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x = CONDITION(R.s out. References • m. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. pp 101-113.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.misc element.x.x data to work on.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.A.resid] = EST(R.misc private data (cell array) out. Vol 24. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. pp 381-395.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Assoc. that is they will produce a model.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.out.x) condition the point data out.R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. [out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. No 6.theta.C.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. they detect a structure argument.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.theta] = ERR(R.x and returns the best model out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.s sample size (1 × 1) out. Comm.CHAPTER 2. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. Mach. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. Cambridge University Press.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.theta to the points R.

uwa.csse. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.au/ pk See also fmatrix. If lambda is a vector.CHAPTER 2. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.edu. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also roty. roty. rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. rotz. See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

yaw. T = rpy2tr(roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Y. • many texts (Paul. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. See also tr2rpy. Z axes respectively. pitch. If roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments.CHAPTER 2. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX.

isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. theta) as above where xy=[x. y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ssd. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.CHAPTER 2.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. and rotation theta in the plane. r2t.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Two cross-hairs are created. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. sad. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsdd. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows.

boolean or enumeration types (string or int). then R is 2 × 2. tr2rt. It supports options that have an assigned value. – If T is 3 × 3. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.foo = true. opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. c. opt. ’other’}.blah = []. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t.bar = false. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. b. then R is 3 × 3. opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.choose = {’this’. The software pattern is: function(a. ’that’.

varargin). Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.y ‘that’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. If neither of ‘this’. N ‘setopt’.blah <.select <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.true sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. ’#yes’}. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.select = {’#no’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.select <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.‘this’. varargin).foo <. 3 sets opt.false ‘blah’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.debug <.x. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.foo <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.blah <.1.CHAPTER 2.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image.choose <. x. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.verbose <.N sets opt <.choose <.3 ‘blah’. w.y sets opt.

sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. 50.sd. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. 256. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 2).sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). square side length. dot diameter. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sd and sdd are n-vectors. args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. sf. args is the number of cycles.CHAPTER 2. 25). binary dot pattern. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. sf. a line. binary square pattern. [s. args is the number of cycles. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. args are pitch (distance between centres). Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args are theta (rad).sd. intercept. 256.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. rpy = tr2rpy(R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. See also angvec2r. Y and Z axes respectively. The 3 angles rpy=[R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.P.CHAPTER 2. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Y. [theta.

tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.:. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. See also rpy2tr. See also rt2tr. y.z].y. • The validity of R is not checked. ie. If T has three dimensions. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. – If TR is 3 × 3. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.CHAPTER 2. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. r2t.

See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [o1.CHAPTER 2.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. or x and y. [c1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. each N × 1. An historical anomaly. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. troty.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f ‘label’. and displays in RPY format. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotx.CHAPTER 2. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line.

See also upq poly. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2rpy. mpq.(x-x0)p . npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. the sum of I(x. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.y0) is the centroid. p. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(y-y0)q where (x0. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. See also ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. ssd. ncc.

i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. See also sdd.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

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