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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is extravagant on storage. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. and I commend it to you. is open-source. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. However the book “Robotics. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . 6 . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . ianimate . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . istretch . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono .

. . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . lambda2xy . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . .

. . . . . . upq poly . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . zncc . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

That’s what you your teachers. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. tutors. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. and you will be suitably acknowledged.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You need to signup in order to post. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.google.com.

1. Month = nov.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. The ﬁle robot. the table of content to functions.I. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1.3. 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).petercorke. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. 1.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Number = {4}. Corke}. Volume = {12}.html on a server for class use. type of organization and application. and the “See also” functions to each other.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.1. Year = {2005}.zip).gz) or zip format (. Author = {P. The details are @article{Corke05f.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.

1. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.I. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. pp 16–25. Twente. Vincent Lepetit. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. but not least.. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. MSER. Coimbra. 1994 University of British Columbia. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . November 2005. Corke.S. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.R. 12(4). P.1.6. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. and there are hundreds of modules available.7 Acknowledgements Last.vlfeat. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.7.Functions such as SURF. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. 1. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.mathworks. VLFeat http://www.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. N ‘image’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. Options ‘name’. S ‘centre’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. P ‘pixel’. Camera. T ‘color’. IM ‘resolution’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane.CHAPTER 2. S ‘noise’. used by all subclasses.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. SIGMA ‘pose’.

CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. SphericalCamera Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.display Display value C. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.centre Get camera position p = C.clf Clear the image plane C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.char Convert to string s = C. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.

and off if H is false (or 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.u + b. Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. See also Camera. otherwise false (0).ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.char Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.v + c = 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.

Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. uv = C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. y.plot. Camera.mesh(x. See also mesh. z. sphere.plot(p.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). cylinder. Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.CHAPTER 2. mkcube. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.T. y. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. y.plot Plot points on image plane C. Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. z to the image plane and plots them. Camera. The matrices x.clf Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.hold.

S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.clf Camera. ‘Tcam’. T See also Camera. ‘Tobj’.hold. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.mesh.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. T ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. Camera. Camera. Options ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. ‘fps’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. p. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.CHAPTER 2.rpy(R. C. that is. a subclass of Camera. The image is not inverted.y].rpy Set camera attitude C.p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

IM ‘resolution’. D ‘default’ ‘image’.CHAPTER 2.8]) See also Camera. optical axis is z-axis. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. CatadioptricCamera. Reference Y. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. SIGMA ‘pose’. T ‘color’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). E = C. S ‘centre’. camera at origin. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.and y-axes respectively. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S. J.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. F ‘distortion’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Springer.and v-axes parallel to x. “An invitation to 3D”. CentralCamera. E = C.E Essential matrix E = C.Soatto. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. S.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ma. 10um pixels.Kosecka. P ‘pixel’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. 2003.Sastry. N ‘sensor’. p. S ‘noise’. u.177 See also CentralCamera. N ‘focal’. f=8mm.F. ﬁsheyecamera.

Springer.H CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003.H(T. “An invitation to 3D”.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.Kosecka.F Fundamental matrix F = C.177 See also CentralCamera.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).H Homography matrix H = C. F = C. S. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. J. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.Soatto. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Reference Y.Ma. S.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.E CentralCamera. from two viewpoints.Sastry. p.

vol.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. See also quiver CentralCamera.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Int.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. 2009. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. 155-166.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Lepetit. V. CentralCamera. a = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .estpose(xyz. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. 81.CHAPTER 2. and P. Journal on Computer Vision. Moreno-Noguer. Fua.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. CentralCamera. F. Feb. pp.

Sastry. p116. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Soatto. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “Multiview Geometry”.Ma.Soatto. “An invitation to 3D”. Springer. section 5. Chap 9. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). p.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sastry. J. 259 Y. Reference Y.Kosecka.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.invE(E. 2003. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. s. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. s.Kosecka. See also CentralCamera. 2003.CHAPTER 2. translation not to scale • n. J.E CentralCamera. Springer.

plot epiline(f. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.H CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. one per line. C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. See also Hough CentralCamera. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.T.project(p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. H = C. ‘Tcam’.plot epiline(f. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. p.

“A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. 313-326. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. F.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and P. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.plot CentralCamera. Espiau.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Chaumette. June 1992.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Reference B.b. 8.visjac e(E.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. pp. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. vol. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.c. Rives. See also Camera.

visjac p(uv.visjac p. Espiau. Reference B. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac l CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. and P. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.b. Hutchinson.c. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Chaumette. Vol 12(5). z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Oct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l(L. 8. Hager & Corke. F. Rives.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. vol. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. June 1992. IEEE Trans. 1996. CentralCamera. 313-326. pp. CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.visjac p polar.CHAPTER 2.visjac p. R&A.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. pp 651-670. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera.

visjac l. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.CHAPTER 2. in Proc. Corke. CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. pp. Louis). Oct. Int. I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. 5962-5967. F.visjac p polar. CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt. 2009.visjac l.visjac p. radius and theta. (St. See also CentralCamera. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Spindler. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Chaumette. and F. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.

vol. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .SIFT. 2004. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.60.CHAPTER 2.Lowe. Int. ScalePointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. PointFeature. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. pp. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Nov. See README. D.91-110. See also isift.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Journal on Computer Vision.

match(f2. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 1=opaque. f = PointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.match Match SIFT point features m = F. F. See also isift SiftPointFeature.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 0=transparent (default 0. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.plot scale(options. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.

support(im.CHAPTER 2. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F.support(images.support(images.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. [out. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support Support region of feature out = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.project(p. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. T ‘Tcam’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. Overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘name’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.T. See also SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘pose’.

image plane size and desired feature locations.01) .center of the target in world coords (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. camera pose. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.CHAPTER 2. error.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The camera view. of 4-vector.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .0.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera view. defaults in parentheses: target size .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .depth of points to use for Jacobian. Jacobian condition number.5) target center . The external view. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. scalar for If null take actual value all points. error norm. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.gain. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.

defaults in parentheses: target size .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. for all points. error norm. 5550-5555. CentralCamera. of 4-vector. (Anchorage).a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Robotics and Automation.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .0.01) .visjac p(pt.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.visjac p polar. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. See also CentralCamera. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.gain. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . error. The external view. I.visjac l. Conf. in Proc. IEEE Int.CHAPTER 2.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .depth of points to use for Jacobian.5) target center . Jacobian condition number. scalar for If null take actual value all points. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Corke. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. image plane size and desired feature locations. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). May 3-7 2010. P.center of the target in world coords (0. CentralCamera. pp. camera pose.the side length of the target in world units (0.

2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Andreas Ess. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 3. 110.CHAPTER 2. pp.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Luc Van Gool. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Tinne Tuytelaars. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 346–359. Vol. No. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.

options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.match(f2. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Options ‘thresh’. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2. f = PointFeature(u. [m. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2.match Match SURF point features m = F.C] = F. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. ScalePointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. F.plot scale(options. F.support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.2) SurfPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 0=transparent (default 0.T] = F. out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘alpha’. [out.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2.

Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. S ‘resolution’. Video AxisWebCamera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com) web camera. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].

Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close Close the image source A. AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.display AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.char Convert to string A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also AxisWebCamera.

CHAPTER 2.Zisserman. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. 2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Ninth IEEE Int. on Computer Vision. b = BagOfWords(f. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. in Proc. pp. Conf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f can also be a cell array.Sivic and A. Oct.1470-1477. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.org). The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.

CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.exemplars(w. images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. isurf BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars display exemplars of words B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B.display Display value B.char BagOfWords.

Options ‘ncolumns’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.n] = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.isword Features from words f = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. M ‘width’. N ‘maxperimage’.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

S ‘noise’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.and v-axes parallel to x. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. u.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. ‘sine’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. f=8mm. ﬁsheyecamera. A ‘resolution’.and y-axes respectively. K ‘maxangle’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. See also Camera. optical axis is z-axis. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’. N ‘sensor’. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. ‘equisolid’.T.project(p. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). 10um pixels. N ‘focal’. M ‘k’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. CatadioptricCamera. S ‘centre’. camera at origin. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. See also Camera.

SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. such as ScalePointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. See also PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.

f2. one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.char Convert to string s = M.display Display value M.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

v2]. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1.inlier.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.u2.outlier. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.ransac FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch.

p1.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p FeatureMatch.p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.plot Show corresponding points M. See also FeatureMatch.im2}) m.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot() M.FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p FeatureMatch. These are the (u.

f2 = isurf(im2). Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac( @fmatrix. See also idisp FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m.ransac Apply RANSAC M.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. See also fmatrix.ransac(func. Example f1 = isurf(im1).match(f2). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. ransac FeatureMatch. 1e-4). m = f1.CHAPTER 2. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. homography. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.

Y This camera model assumes central projection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.CHAPTER 2. v. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted.

Options ‘name’. S ‘centre’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. K ‘resolution’. f=8mm. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. M ‘k’. ‘equisolid’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.and v-axes are parallel to x.axes respectively. S ‘noise’. N ‘sensor’. u. ‘sine’. 10um pixels.CHAPTER 2. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. optical axis is z-axis. camera at origin. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).and y. P ‘pixel’.

CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.T. See also Camera.project(p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tobj’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. See also FishEyeCamera.

For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. A horizontal line has theta = 0.0) and the line. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.CHAPTER 2.H). Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. See also LineFeature Hough. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The voting array is 2-dimensional. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.

Hough. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Nrho].char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .houghThresh (default 0. T ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display Display value HT.edgeThresh (default 0. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh.5) Set ht. Set ht.CHAPTER 2. W ‘houghthresh’.char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘nbins’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. See also Hough.1).char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Hough.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Default 400 × 401. else N = [Ntheta. T ‘edgethresh’.

Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough.lines Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision. LineFeature Hough.plot(n. See also Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot Plot line features HT. then all elements in an HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.lines Find lines L = HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. The process is repeated for all peaks.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. H = HT. HT. L = HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. The highest peak is found.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.

PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.

L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. strength.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LENGTH is undeﬁned.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. theta.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(rho. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(rho. theta. See also LineFeature. LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = L.display Display value L. LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.

See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.CHAPTER 2.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.seglength(edge. less than gap pixels are tolerated. l2 = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. Small gaps. l2 = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.points Return points on line segments p = L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot Plot line L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also icanny LineFeature.

options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.close Close the image source M. Movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.char Convert to string M. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S ‘skip’. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie.axis.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.com).

vid • edges are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph create an n-d. S ‘frame’. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.CHAPTER 2. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. planar. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. F Skip frames.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.

closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.edges(e) g.add node(coord) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .next(v) g.CHAPTER 2. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.add edge(v1.coord(v) g. Object properties (read/write) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.component(v) g.distance(v1.cost(e) g. v2) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().goal(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.plot() g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.connectivity() g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.neighbours(v) g.add node(coord. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.clear() add vertex.

options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. and returns the edge id E. v.CHAPTER 2. PGraph. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v2. Options ‘distance’.add edge(v1. v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. E = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. where x is D × 1. PGraph.add node(x.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add node(x. and returns the node id v. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge(v1. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.

d] = G. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. and the distance d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.clear Clear the graph G. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.char Convert graph to string s = G. edges and components.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. of node id v.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.closest Find closest node v = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G. [v. D × 1. PGraph.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also ScalePointFeature. PointFeature.display Display value F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.char Convert to string s = F. SurfPointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. v.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Options ‘thresh’.char PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match Match point features m = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2.C] = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. PointFeature. [m. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. where 1 is perfect match.match(f2. the norm of the Euclidean distance.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot feature F.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. Polygon . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.

so use with care. Polygon. http://puddle.area Area of polygon a = P. HEIGHT]. kirill@plume.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.char String representation s = P.mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. p = Polygon(C. difference. union.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. intersection.html and require a licence.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. one column per vertex. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pankratov.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). returns coordinates of P.difference Difference of polygons d = P.display Display polygon P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.char Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon. else 0.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. See also Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

y1 y2]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. returns empty polygon.CHAPTER 2.moments(p. See also mpq poly Polygon. Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. each column is [x y]’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.plot() plot the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P. Polygon. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.CHAPTER 2. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.

unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.E] = R.char Convert to string s = R. [x. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Ray3D.E] = R.display Display value R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. See also Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. [x. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Ray3D.

horizontal coordinate centroid.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.c. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.0) 1 for a circle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.b. vertical coordinate bounding box.

boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.box Return bounding box b = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. See also iblobs. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Convert to string s = R.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.xmax.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. For example R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.CHAPTER 2. ymin. RegionFeature. RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. imoments RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax].th] = R. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. one per element.

Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.display Display value R.plot Plot centroid R. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.char RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R.and xmarkers.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. It is indicated with overlaid o.

CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box Plot bounding box R. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 1=opaque. See also PointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. v. ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. C ‘alpha’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale Plot feature scale F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. strength. 0=transparent (default 0. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. v.plot scale(options.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.CHAPTER 2. options) is a new tracker object. See also PointFeature Tracker.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. R ‘nslots’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘movie’. N ‘thresh’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. one per active track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Options ‘radius’.

char Tracker. See also Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display Display value T.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.plot Show feature trajectories T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Tracker.

Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. AxisWebCamera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. G ‘scale’. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.CHAPTER 2. and their characteristics is displayed. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. Movie Video. otherwise the result is not predictable. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char Convert to string V.close Close the image source V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.CHAPTER 2. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.

and the right image is cyan. If th1 is a column vector. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. By default the left image is red. the ﬁrst for left. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. right.CHAPTER 2. right. the second for right. if negative it is reduced. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left.

See also RegionFeature. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].y1) to (x2. [x. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. If lambda is a column vector. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.CHAPTER 2. 6500).y2]. p2) as above but p1=[x1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y1. % emission of sun plot(l. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.y2).boundary. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.y1] and p2=[x2. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. p = bresenham(p1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. x2. Endpoints must be integer.s] = boundmatch(R1.

The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. [C.Y.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.

d1] = closest(a. k = closest(a. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [k. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. green and blue primaries respectively.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.CHAPTER 2. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. Options ‘n’. x = circle(C. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that is. and x is N × 3. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R.

See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).ac.ucl.d2] = closest(a. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. and 22500 (444. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. (Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].32).) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . while Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.5.5.ioo.5. 335 of Table 1(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.CHAPTER 2. As noted in footnote a on p.d1.16). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. • From Table I(5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. they were measured directly. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. 19000 (526. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.5. since.

Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.uk See also cmfrgb.M). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. out = col2im(pix.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ac. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.

g] to every pixel in the color image im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

func. k. and returns a per-pixel logical result. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. [L. eg. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. @isnan. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.G. icolor. im<100. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. See also imono. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.C] = colorkmeans(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. mask. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. out = colorize(im. @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.

“?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. eg.R] = colorkmeans(im. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. k) as above but also returns the residual R. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(XYZ. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.CHAPTER 2. XYZ = colorname(name. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. low is good.C.

colorspace(s.CHAPTER 2. s = ‘src->dest’. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. s = ‘dest<-src’. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.o3] = colorspace(s. or alternatively.i2. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. i1. [o1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.txt. it can be omitted. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • Color space names are case insensitive.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.o2. double data is the natural choice.

The distance d is M × N and element d(I. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. However.200).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out will also have size M × 3. d = distance(A. Example A = rand(400. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .100).b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. for memory and computational performance.B). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. B = rand(400.2*A. like a colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. • If im is an M × 3 array. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.CHAPTER 2.

not image frame. University of Amsterdam. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. E = edgelist(im. seed. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.CHAPTER 2. tel.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.(+31)20-5257524. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tested: PC Matlab v5. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.3. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. non-zero is an object. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. The result E is a matrix. non zero is counter-clockwise.y). bunschot@wins. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.uva. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.j). Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. in matrix coordinate frame.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.

CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. epiline(f. See also fmatrix.R. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. I. 1998. p1.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). one per line drawn. Coimbra. p. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. H = epiline(f. Oct 27. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Author Based on fmatrix code by.S. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. See also epiline. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

that is. page 270. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. See also ransac. Notes • The points must be corresponding. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. homography. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.edu.csse. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. p2. c. it is singular.au/. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. The University of Western Australia. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. • Contains a RANSAC driver.uwa. http://www. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. epiline. which means it can be passed to ransac(). k is (2W+1) x (2W+1).CHAPTER 2. • f is a rank 2 matrix. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. no outlier rejection is performed.

y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.y2). Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. x2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y1) and (x2. ithin.CHAPTER 2. See also imorph. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . itriplepoint. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.

uwa. Notes • The points must be corresponding.au/.edu. no outlier rejection is performed.csse. The University of Western Australia. http://www. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . invhomog. which means it can be passed to ransac(). School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. See also ransac.

T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. S ‘dimension’. See also e2h. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. ie.offs] = homwarp(H.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. D ‘size’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. V ‘roi’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. R ‘scale’. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im. im. itrim. [out. that is tp=T*T1. See also homography.CHAPTER 2. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.

options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. ’gs’). features. ianimate(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 1962. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. on Information Theory. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 179-187. features. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. IT-8:pp. IRE Trans. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). Hu. ianimate(seq. 200). ’nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method.

CHAPTER 2. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. isurf. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. iharris. YMIN YMAX]. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. M ‘npoints’. N ‘only’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.

options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. horizontal coordinate centroid. C set connectivity. ilabel. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.0) 1 for a circle. vertical coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. [A1.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [S1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. default 1.0 ‘connect’. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.CHAPTER 2.

n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. T ‘th1’.CHAPTER 2. Tel Aviv University. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. See also iopen. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. 1996-7. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. See also isobel. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. out = iclose(im.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. S ‘th0’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.

color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. D ‘bgval’. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. Options ‘dir’.CHAPTER 2. [0 1 1]). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. See also imono.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. iconcat(im. colorize. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = icolor(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. [C. The images do not have to be of the same size.u] = iconcat(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image.CHAPTER 2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. options) convolves im1 with im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.

CM ‘cminthresh’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. D ‘sigma’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CT ‘edgegap’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. R ‘nfeat’. E ‘suppress’. N ‘detector’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm.CHAPTER 2. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. S ‘deriv’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). D ‘k’. K ‘patch’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.J. with a delay of 0. p2. Proc. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. J. Stephens. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. T ‘distthresh’. IEEE Computer Society.G. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.121-128. Options ‘dplot’. pp. where * denotes squared and smoothed. 1994. Manchester. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. pp. • “Finding corners”.6. J. C.5 [sec]. • “Good features to track”. Image and Vision Computing. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. T ‘maxiter’. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1..05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Proc. with a delay of d [sec]. vol.Noble. [T. p2.CHAPTER 2. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Tomasi.d] = icp(p1. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. 593-593.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. pp 147-151. May 1988. Shi and C. See also PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. N ‘mindelta’. Harris and M. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. 1988.

Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.McKay. 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. P. each plane is decimated. s = idecimate(im. Intell. 239-256. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. 1992.or 3-dimensional. Mach. m.CHAPTER 2.Besl and H. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. IEEETrans. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. pp. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. See also iscale. Feb. 14. no. vol. m. Pattern Anal. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. s = idecimate(im.

linear proﬁle. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. zero is white color map: random values. darker than ‘grey’. C ‘xydata’. negative is red. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. positive is blue. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide.and y-axes respectively. histogram and zooming. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. Options ‘ncolors’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed.CHAPTER 2. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. negative is red. If the image is zoomed. XY ‘colormap’. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. If im is a cell array of images. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. positive is blue. zero is white. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x.

colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labelimage. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. caxis. See also iblobs. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labels. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisplabel(im. colormap. icolorize. See also image. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im.CHAPTER 2. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels.

2. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).CHAPTER 2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.45. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. See also itriplepoint. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. out = igamma(im.

sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.jpg’). pp. k. k. 2004. Int. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.5). 100. Journal on Computer Vision. k is the scale parameter.m] = igraphseg(im. See also ithresh. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. L = igraphseg(im. vol. Example im = iread(’58060. 167181. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = igraphseg(im. min. Sept. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.5). P. min is the minimum region size (pixels). k. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 1500. min. [l. Huttenlocher. 0. [L. 2006. 59. Felzenszwalb and D.

x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. options) displays the image histogram. [h.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. ’normcdf’). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. plot(x.x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. [H. bar(x.x] = ihist(im). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.h).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. [L. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.y1) and bottom-right (x2.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. y2. [L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. same size as im. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.CHAPTER 2. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.y2). ii is a precomputed integral image. y1. x1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.m.

v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. each a 2-vector [X.Y].edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. ilabel(im. p2. See also iblobs. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.maxlabel.parents.parents. • This is a “low level” function. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. p1. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.maxlabel. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iproﬁle.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.class.CHAPTER 2. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p1. out = iline(im. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. 8). [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. eg. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. otherwise it does not. The pixels on the line are set to 1.

Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. -s. y. The template in im1 is centred at (x. im2.y) and its half-width is H.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax] relative to (x. and columns the vertical position. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). w2. s] % relative to (x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. The return value is xm=[DX. x. ymin.CC] where (DX. x.CHAPTER 2. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. [xm.DY. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. xmax. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. H. im2. centred at (x. • ZNCC matching is used. y.y).DY) are the x.y) and of size s. s.and y-offsets relative to (x.y).score] = imatch(im1. a perfect match score is 1.

CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. v. [u. effectively a binary image. H) as above but the domain is w × H.u) = u and v(v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(w.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. effectively a greyscale image.u) = v. f = imoments(u. f = imoments(u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All pixels are equally weighted. [u. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.

m01. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. the elements are m00. m11. m02.CHAPTER 2. or its area. m10. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. See also RegionFeature. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. • This function does not perform connectivity. ilabel. m20. Different conversion functions are supported. horizontal coordinate centroid. icolor. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst.

org). Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.m] = imser(im. O. and T. 2004. vol. ’grey’. Matas. m. ’light’). Chum.m] = imser(im.png’. part of VLFeat (vlfeat.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. ’double’). Image and Vision Computing. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. [label. Urban. Sept. Pajdla. se. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. pp. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. J. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. The labels [L. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. 761767. 22.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.CHAPTER 2. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.

se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. sides. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. See also iclose. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. sides. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. This is an erosion followed by dilation. out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. n.

255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. otherwise im2 is selected. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’t’. ’tblr’. im2. p. 20. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero.CHAPTER 2. im1. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.V]. 10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.

CHAPTER 2. p1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. See also bresenham. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).v) for the corresponding row of p.uv] = iproﬁle(im. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [p.

The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. sigma. hence output image had reduced dimensions. is order=1. order.2) = 0. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the maximum. 12. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. op. ones(5. out = imorph(image. 1. se. se). se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. idecimate.5)). Notes • Works for greyscale images only. nbins. im > irank(im.CHAPTER 2. out = imorph(image. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. See also iscalespace. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. out = ipyramid(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The highest rank. out = ipyramid(im. se.3). op. se(2. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.

Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. where R=[umin umax. ivar. G ‘reduce’. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). See also imorph. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. vmin vmax]. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. R ‘roi’. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. im = iread(ﬁle.

Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im1. homwarp.out2] = irectify(f. [out1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).h1. igamma. imwrite. See also FeatureMatch. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. Notes • Color images are not supported.h2] = irectify(f. m. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. istereo. imono.CHAPTER 2.out2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. • The resulting images may have negative disparity.

iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.umax. S ‘extrapval’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. angle.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. [out. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.vmin vmax]. V ‘smooth’.CHAPTER 2. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. Options ‘outsize’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.H] return central part of image. vmin. See also idisp.vmax].

s>1 makes the image larger. s ‘extrapval’.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. bias<0. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.5 is symmetric cropping.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. while bias>0. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. im2. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. V ‘smooth’. Options ‘outsize’. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = isamesize(im1. bias=0.CHAPTER 2. s<1 makes it smaller. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.

s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.L. [g.L.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). in space and scale.CHAPTER 2. See also iscalespace. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. corresponding to each step of the sequence. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). idecimate.s] = iscalespace(im. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. n) as above but sigma=1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. it its third dimension is equal to three. that is. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else false (0).CHAPTER 2. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ismooth. ilaplace. See also isrot. ‘valid’) as above. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog(T.

• Features are returned in descending strength order. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.CHAPTER 2. pp. 91-110. isurf. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 60. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Lowe. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 2 (2004).org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. International Journal of Computer Vision. N ‘suppress’. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. See also SiftPointFeature. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. Reference David G.

zsad. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. s = isimilarity(T. [w. im. @ssd. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma.H. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zssd. See also imatch. and these output pixels are set to NaN. ncc. @ncc. @zsad. ssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. @zssd.CHAPTER 2. sad. s is same size as im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.

CHAPTER 2. then converted back to integer.gy] = isobel(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. See also iconv. sigma. [gx. [gx.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. convolved. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.

isrot(R. imr. the disparity d=d(v. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. range. w. imr. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. H. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range is the disparity search range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. See also ksobel. ‘valid’) as above. else false (0). • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. That is. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).M] for an N × M window. See also ishomog.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.CHAPTER 2. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. range. H is the half size of the matching window. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.u) means that imr(v. [d. icanny. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.sim] = istereo(iml. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.u).

The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.sim. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.sim. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). That is. imr. w. range. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. p. range.5). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘metric’.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. 3) See also irectify. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.dsi] = istereo(iml. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. p. w. [d. out = istretch(im.5 to +0. dx. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. • sim = max(dsi.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. imr.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.A and p.CHAPTER 2.p] = istereo(iml. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). [d. ‘ncc’. B. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.

each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Notes • Color images. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Kroon (U. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘thresh’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained.CHAPTER 2. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. or sequences. T ‘octaves’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale.

isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Vol. either a row. out = ithin(im. else false (0). See also ishomog.CHAPTER 2.or columnvector. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isvec(v. 346–359. isift. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. See also hitormiss. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 3. 110. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. itriplepoint. No. Luc Van Gool. Tinne Tuytelaars. Andreas Ess. pp. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Otherwise false (0).

im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. a lower value will include more. Notes • Greyscale image only. The same cropping is applied to each input image. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. [out1. See also homwarp.CHAPTER 2. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.out2] = itrim(im1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.im2.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.5. ithresh(im. The default is 0.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.

The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. op. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ithin. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. See also iendpoint. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.CHAPTER 2. se.

The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions.3). se. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. @max). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. out = iwindow(image. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. See also ivar. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. func. ones(5.5). se. ones(3. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. @std). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

is k’.CHAPTER 2. k = kdgauss(sigma. dG/dx. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. See also kgauss. See also ones. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. ktriangle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dy. k = kcircle(R. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. kdog.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. • The vertical derivative. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones.

KGAUSS(SIGMA2). Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma2. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. See also kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma. k = kdog(sigma1.6*sigma1. kdgauss. See also kgauss. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . By default SIGMA2 = 1. kdog. k = kdog(sigma1. klog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1.

iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = klog(sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdgauss. iconv. and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss. See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. kdog.CHAPTER 2.

C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. it is assumed to have been completed previously. L = kmeans(x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.C] = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Pattern Recognition Principles. k.CHAPTER 2. and D is the dimension. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [L.C] = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). k.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.y. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.z] = mkcube(s.CHAPTER 2. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. [x. The points are the columns of p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘T’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. See also cylinder. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated.z] = mkcube(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. Options ‘T’. ‘edge’. [x. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.y. symmetric about the origin.

{labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. npq. MPLOT(t.y). Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.yq . n) MPLOT(t. the sum of I(x. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. or y(:. or y(:. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. See also mpq poly.2)).CHAPTER 2. y. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. n. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. n) MPLOT(y. That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y) MPLOT(t.2)). y. p. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.xp .

See also mpq. p. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq poly. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. npq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered to be a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v.

W. -0. T has the same dimensions as im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Prentice-Hall. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. See also zncc. • A common choice of k=-0. idisp(im >= t). the height of a character.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. 1986.s] = niblack(im.2. for example. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in text segmentation. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. k. sad. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. ssd.m. 20). k. Example t = niblack(im. [T.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. niblack. where W=2*w2+1.

q)/MPQ(im.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. mpq. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. p. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. That is UPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.0). See also npq poly.p.CHAPTER 2. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

npq. upq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. so centroids will be still be correct. mpq. See also mpq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. they are considered as a single vertex.

T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Example t = otsu(im). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Systems. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. [yp. otsu IEEE Trans. Jan 1979. [yp.i] = peak(y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. idisp(im >= t). Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). pp 62-66 See also niblack. x. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.CHAPTER 2.xp] = peak(y. N.

N ‘scale’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. [zp.S points. S ‘interp’.ij] = peak2(z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.CHAPTER 2. Typically choose N to be odd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. N ‘scale’. use peak(-V). See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V).

pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plot2(p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. If p has three dimensions. See also pnmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.CHAPTER 2. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ie.

Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.y1) and (x2. r. plot_circle(c. P. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. 1=solid. PLOT BOX(x1. P.CHAPTER 2. ‘size’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. r. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. W. ‘r’.y2. ’g’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. plot_circle(c.y1. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. r. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. or a set of name. ’LineWidth’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’r’). R. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. W.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ‘size’. x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . value pairs that are passed to plot. ’edgecolor’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’fillcolor’. 5). If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’b’).y2). options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. Examples plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(’centre’.

Y]. with Matlab line style ls. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles. centred at the origin. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. c Specify color of the axes. C. xc. current plot. If C=[X. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.Y. Options ‘color’. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.

trplot( T. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ‘framename’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ’r’. ’color’. Options ‘textcolor’. fmt. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. n ‘text opts’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T.X = 0. ’color’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ’r’).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ‘printf’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’name’. to ‘view’.

options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. See also plot. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. NOTES • The sphere is always added. color. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. The default is 1. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. R. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. 1=solid. patch. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. either a letter or 3-vector. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque.

plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pgmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. See also plot. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plotp(p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.

See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.CHAPTER 2. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im.

ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.in] = ransac(func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.resid] = ransac(func. x. T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.CHAPTER 2. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x. x typically contains corresponding point data. Options ‘maxTrials’. x. one column per point pair. [m.in. T. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. T. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. d) as above but elements increment by d. N ‘maxDataTrials’. [m. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.

x and returns the best model out. Comm.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.misc private data (cell array) out. Mach. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. they detect a structure argument.s out. that is they will produce a model.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.theta and the subset of R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta.x. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta = [].x data to work on. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. Vol 24. that is.x. Boles.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. pp 381-395. pp 101-113. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x that best supports (most inliers) that model.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.R. If multiple models are found out.. References • m.resid] = EST(R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. Assoc.theta = DECONDITION(R.theta is a cell array.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.A.x) condition the point data out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.CHAPTER 2. Fishler and R.inlier.theta to the points R. [out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.theta] = ERR(R.C. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.t threshold (1 × 1) R. No 6. Cambridge University Press.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x = CONDITION(R.misc element.out. [out. Comp.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.

See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uwa.CHAPTER 2. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.csse. If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.edu.

rotz. roty. See also roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. yaw. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. T = rpy2tr(roll. • many texts (Paul. Z axes respectively. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Y. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. pitch. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R.CHAPTER 2. See also tr2rpy.

y. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. theta) as above where xy=[x. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. r2t. ssd.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. y. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. See also zsad. ncc.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and rotation theta in the plane.CHAPTER 2.

isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image.CHAPTER 2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Two cross-hairs are created. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsdd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. c. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.bar = false. tr2rt. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. then R is 3 × 3. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. ’that’. It supports options that have an assigned value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .blah = []. then R is 2 × 2. ’other’}. The software pattern is: function(a. b.CHAPTER 2. opt. opt. – If T is 3 × 3. varargin) opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).foo = true.choose = {’this’.

Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. If neither of ‘this’. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. ’#yes’}.select <.select <.N sets opt <.false ‘blah’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.y sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.blah <. varargin).blah <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. varargin). 3 sets opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. x.foo <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.debug <.select = {’#no’.1.‘this’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image.x. N ‘setopt’.choose <.y ‘that’ sets opt. w. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.choose <. opt = tb_optparse(opt.foo <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.3 ‘blah’. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.verbose <.true sets opt.

sd. 2). binary square pattern. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. sd and sdd are n-vectors. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sf. 25). square side length. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. binary dot pattern. The trajectory s. args is the number of cycles. args are pitch (distance between centres). sf. 256. 50. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. intercept. a line. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles.sd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles. 256. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd.sdd] = tpoly(s0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.CHAPTER 2. args are theta (rad). Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. [s. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args are dot pitch (distance between centres).sdd] = tpoly(s0. dot diameter.

X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Y.CHAPTER 2. Y and Z axes respectively. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. [theta.P. The 3 angles rpy=[R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. See also angvec2r.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.

If T has three dimensions. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. r2t.z]. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. • The validity of R is not checked. ie. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. See also rt2tr.y. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. – If TR is 3 × 3. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. See also rpy2tr.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.:.

or x and y.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. [c1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. each N × 1. An historical anomaly. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g.CHAPTER 2. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). [o1.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.CHAPTER 2. troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. f ‘label’. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotx.CHAPTER 2. and displays in RPY format. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trprint T is the command line form of above. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotx.

the sum of I(x. That is. p.CHAPTER 2. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. See also upq poly. mpq.y0) is the centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.(y-y0)q where (x0.y). upq Central image moments m = upq(im.(x-x0)p . npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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ssd. See also sad. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. ssd. ncc. sad. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. See also ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.

isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc. sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd.CHAPTER 2.