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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. is open-source. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. However the book “Robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual.

. . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . 1. CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . angdiff . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . iread . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . maxﬁlt . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . 8 . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . transl . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. You need to signup in order to post. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and you will be suitably acknowledged.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.com. tutors. That’s what you your teachers. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . lecturers and professors are paid to do. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.google. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.

petercorke.3. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.html on a server for class use.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Month = nov.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.gz) or zip format (. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. The details are @article{Corke05f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Corke}. The ﬁle robot. 1. Author = {P.I. and the “See also” functions to each other. Number = {4}. the table of content to functions. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Volume = {12}.1.zip). 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). type of organization and application. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Year = {2005}. 1. 1.

Coimbra. Twente. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.mathworks. Corke.vlfeat. VLFeat http://www.7. 1. 1. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. November 2005. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. MSER.6. but not least.I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.7 Acknowledgements Last. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.Functions such as SURF.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. pp 16–25. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. P. and there are hundreds of modules available. 12(4).1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. 1994 University of British Columbia. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.1.R..com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Vincent Lepetit.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. S ‘noise’. SIGMA ‘pose’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane.CHAPTER 2. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. P ‘pixel’. Camera. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. N ‘sensor’. T ‘color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. Options ‘name’. N ‘image’. used by all subclasses.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.

clf Clear the image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera. Camera. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). SphericalCamera Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display Display value C.delete Camera object destructor C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = C. Camera.centre Get camera position p = C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.

v + c = 0.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. See also Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).u + b. C.char Camera. Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. and off if H is false (or 0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. otherwise false (0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.

mkcube. The matrices x. Camera. cylinder.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. T ‘Tcam’. y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T. z. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot(p.plot Plot points on image plane C.plot.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).clf Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. y. sphere. uv = C. Options ‘Tobj’. y.mesh(x.hold. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. z to the image plane and plots them. Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera. See also mesh. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

CHAPTER 2.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. T ‘scale’.T. ‘fps’. T See also Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Camera. ‘Tobj’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.mesh.hold. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Overrides the current camera pose C.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera. ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tcam’.clf Camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. p.y]. that is.CHAPTER 2. a subclass of Camera.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted. C.rpy Set camera attitude C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(R. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.p. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.

J. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.F.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’.Soatto. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. D ‘default’ ‘image’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. S. F ‘distortion’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.8]) See also Camera. f=8mm. S ‘centre’. p.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. P ‘pixel’.Ma.and y-axes respectively. 2003. IM ‘resolution’.Sastry.Kosecka. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. optical axis is z-axis. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. camera at origin. S. Springer. E = C.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). CatadioptricCamera. T ‘color’. SIGMA ‘pose’.177 See also CentralCamera. 10um pixels. Reference Y. “An invitation to 3D”. ﬁsheyecamera.and v-axes parallel to x. N ‘sensor’. CentralCamera.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E = C. u.E Essential matrix E = C.

2003.F Fundamental matrix F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.H Homography matrix H = C.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E CentralCamera. p. Springer. S.Kosecka.H(T.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.Soatto.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.177 See also CentralCamera.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Reference Y. J. “An invitation to 3D”.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Ma.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H CentralCamera. F = C.Sastry. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. from two viewpoints. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. n. See also CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).

Lepetit. Moreno-Noguer. and P. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. a = C. 81. See also quiver CentralCamera. F. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. 2009.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. vol. Int. Feb. Journal on Computer Vision. Fua. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. pp. 155-166.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. V.estpose(xyz.

normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p116. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). See also CentralCamera. 2003. J. Reference Y.Soatto.Kosecka. s.E CentralCamera.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.invE(E. translation not to scale • n. p. Springer. Springer. 2003. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry.Kosecka.Soatto. s. Chap 9. s.CHAPTER 2. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Sastry. s.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. 259 Y. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. “Multiview Geometry”. section 5. J.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CentralCamera. H = C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.project(p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘Tcam’.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. one per line.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.plot epiline(f.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. C. ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f.H CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).T. See also Hough CentralCamera.

and P. “Multiview Geometry”.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Espiau. Chaumette.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. pp. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Reference B.plot CentralCamera.visjac e(E. F. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. vol. 8.b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.CHAPTER 2.c. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . June 1992. Rives. 313-326. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.

Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Oct. F.visjac p polar.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. vol. Reference B. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. pp.visjac p. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.c.visjac l(L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac p. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. Rives. Hager & Corke. 313-326. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. 1996. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. June 1992. and P. CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Chaumette.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Espiau. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. pp 651-670.visjac l CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Vol 12(5).visjac e CentralCamera.visjac p(uv. IEEE Trans.b. R&A. 8. Hutchinson.

pp.visjac p polar(rt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and F. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. 5962-5967. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. CentralCamera.visjac l. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. See also CentralCamera. Louis).visjac p polar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. Oct. P. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. in Proc. (St. CentralCamera. radius and theta. Spindler. Int. 2009.CHAPTER 2.visjac p.visjac l.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. CentralCamera. Corke. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. I. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Chaumette. F. CentralCamera.

PointFeature. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. See README.91-110. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.Lowe. Journal on Computer Vision. Int. Nov. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.SIFT. D. pp. vol. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.60. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. See also isift. 2004. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot scale Plot feature scale F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. C ‘alpha’. SiftPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.match(f2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 0=transparent (default 0. See also isift SiftPointFeature. v. 1=opaque.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.match Match SIFT point features m = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. [out.support(im. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.T] = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support Support region of feature out = F. F.CHAPTER 2.support(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.T. S ‘pose’.project(p.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T ‘Tcam’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. See also SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Overrides the current camera pose C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Options ‘name’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. N ‘pixel’. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Jacobian condition number.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. of 4-vector.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera view. scalar for If null take actual value all points. error. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.gain.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. image plane size and desired feature locations.center of the target in world coords (0.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error norm.0. The external view.the side length of the target in world units (0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera view. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.5) target center . camera pose. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. defaults in parentheses: target size . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.depth of points to use for Jacobian.01) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .

showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Conf. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . error. of 4-vector. IEEE Int.gain. I. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. in Proc. Corke. error norm.depth of points to use for Jacobian. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac p polar. defaults in parentheses: target size . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. P. for all points.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . pp. camera pose. Jacobian condition number.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .visjac l. See also CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.0. CentralCamera.visjac p(pt. The external view. CentralCamera.center of the target in world coords (0. image plane size and desired feature locations.5) target center .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. (Anchorage). can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). 5550-5555.CHAPTER 2.the side length of the target in world units (0. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.01) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . or a vector (N × 1) for each point. May 3-7 2010. Robotics and Automation.

110. No. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Vol. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 3.CHAPTER 2. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Luc Van Gool. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. pp. 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Andreas Ess.

SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F.match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Options ‘thresh’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. [m. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.match(f2. v. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = F. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.

C ‘alpha’. [out.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 1=opaque.support Support region of feature out = F. F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images.plot scale(options. w) as above but the support region is displayed.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.T] = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(im.CHAPTER 2.2) SurfPointFeature. out = F. 0=transparent (default 0.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. G ‘scale’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Video AxisWebCamera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. otherwise the result is not predictable.axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis.com).com) web camera.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. S ‘resolution’.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.display AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A.close() closes the connection to the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char Convert to string A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. See also AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.

Sivic and A. b = BagOfWords(f. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. pp. f can also be a cell array.org). The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Conf. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Ninth IEEE Int. Oct. on Computer Vision.1470-1477.Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in Proc. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.CHAPTER 2. 2003. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.exemplars(w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. isurf BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.char BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars display exemplars of words B. See also BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.char Convert to string s = B.display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. BagOfWords. images.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop Remove stop words B. N ‘maxperimage’.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords. M ‘width’. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.isword Features from words f = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.n] = B.

subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.

Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

S ‘noise’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’.project(p. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).T. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. A ‘resolution’. T ‘Tcam’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. SIGMA ‘pose’.and v-axes parallel to x. ﬁsheyecamera. u. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘sine’. K ‘maxangle’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera. M ‘k’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. optical axis is z-axis.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. 10um pixels. N ‘focal’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.and y-axes respectively. camera at origin.CHAPTER 2. P ‘pixel’. f=8mm. See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. S ‘centre’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘equisolid’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.

A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. such as ScalePointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.

s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.char Convert to string s = M. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. FeatureMatch. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f2.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. See also FeatureMatch.display Display value M. See also PointFeature. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.

v1.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch.outlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.CHAPTER 2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. FeatureMatch.v2].ransac FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.u2. FeatureMatch.

plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2 FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p1. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.plot() M.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Show corresponding points M.p FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.im2}) m.p1.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m = f1. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). and an error is created if this UserData is not found. See also fmatrix. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.match(f2).ransac( @fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. 1e-4).ransac Apply RANSAC M. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. homography. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also idisp FeatureMatch. f2 = isurf(im2).show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. m. Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac(func.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Y This camera model assumes central projection.CHAPTER 2. v.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. that is. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. The image is not inverted. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

‘sine’. camera at origin. N ‘default’ ‘projection’.CHAPTER 2. 10um pixels. S ‘centre’. u. P ‘pixel’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘noise’.and v-axes are parallel to x. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. SIGMA ‘pose’. M ‘k’.axes respectively. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Options ‘name’. ‘equisolid’. K ‘resolution’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis. f=8mm.and y. N ‘sensor’.

T ‘Tcam’.project(p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Camera. See also FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Options ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.T. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. CatadioptricCamera.

Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.0) and the line. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. The voting array is 2-dimensional. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. A horizontal line has theta = 0.H). By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. See also LineFeature Hough. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.

T ‘edgethresh’. W ‘nbins’. Hough.5) Set ht. else N = [Ntheta.CHAPTER 2.display Display value HT. Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. See also Hough.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.edgeThresh. T ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Nrho].char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘houghthresh’. N All edge pixels have equal weight.edgeThresh (default 0.houghThresh (default 0. Default 400 × 401.1). Hough.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. See also Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The highest peak is found.plot.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. L = HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. HT.CHAPTER 2.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. H = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. The process is repeated for all peaks.lines Find lines L = HT. LineFeature Hough.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. HT.lines Hough.plot(n. then all elements in an HT.plot Plot line features HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. reﬁned to subpixel precision. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. See also Hough.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. one per element. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. theta. LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value L.char Convert to string s = L. LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. L = LineFeature(rho. strength. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. L = LineFeature(rho.CHAPTER 2.

See also icanny LineFeature. LineFeature. L.seglength(edge. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.plot Plot line L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l2 = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Small gaps.CHAPTER 2.points Return points on line segments p = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot() overlay the line on current plot.

Movie.char Convert to string M.close Close the image source M.com). options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.axis. Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the movie. S ‘skip’.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. undirected graph create an n-d. S ‘frame’.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. F Skip frames. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. planar.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. Options ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.

goal(v) g. v2) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.component(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex. Object properties (read/write) g.clear() add vertex.plot() g.add node(coord) g.distance(v1.neighbours(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.connectivity() g.add edge(v1.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return vid add vertex and edge to v.edges(e) g.next(v) g.cost(e) g.coord(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.add node(coord.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.CHAPTER 2. v) g.

options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v = G.add node(x. and returns the edge id E. PGraph. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Options ‘distance’. v = G. PGraph.add edge(v1.CHAPTER 2. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. E = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where x is D × 1. and returns the node id v.add node(x.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v2. v.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add edge(v1.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.

clear Clear the graph G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D × 1. and the distance d.CHAPTER 2.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. edges and components. of node id v. PGraph. PGraph.d] = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.char Convert graph to string s = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. [v.closest Find closest node v = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.display Display value F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. one per element. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature. PointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = F.

Options ‘thresh’. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.char PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. [m.match(f2. the norm of the Euclidean distance.match Match point features m = F. where 1 is perfect match. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.C] = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.CHAPTER 2.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F.plot Plot feature F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon .

area Area of polygon a = P. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.edu. http://puddle. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. difference. intersection. so use with care. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Pankratov.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Polygon. Polygon. union. kirill@plume. Polygon.mit. HEIGHT]. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. one column per vertex.html and require a licence.area() is the area of the polygon.char String representation s = P.CHAPTER 2. p = Polygon(C.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mit.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display polygon P. else 0.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. See also Polygon.char Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. returns coordinates of P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.difference Difference of polygons d = P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .moments(p.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns empty polygon. each column is [x y]’. Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. y1 y2]. See also mpq poly Polygon.

transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. P.union Union of polygons i = P.plot() plot the polygon.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.

d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.CHAPTER 2.

If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. [x. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.CHAPTER 2.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.char Convert to string s = R.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. See also Ray3D. Ray3D.E] = R.E] = R. Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. [x.display Display value R.

If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b.CHAPTER 2. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.c. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. vertical coordinate bounding box.

These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. RegionFeature. For example R. See also iblobs.char Convert to string s = R. imoments RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.th] = R.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. ymax]. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. RegionFeature. ymin.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.box Return bounding box b = R.uc will be a list not a vector. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.xmax. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.

CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot boundary plot boundary R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. It is indicated with overlaid o.char RegionFeature.and xmarkers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.

CHAPTER 2. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F.plot scale(options. SurfPointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. 1=opaque. See also PointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. C ‘alpha’. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. v. F.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ScalePointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.

Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. options) is a new tracker object. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Options ‘radius’. N ‘thresh’. C. one per active track. T ‘movie’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature Tracker. R ‘nslots’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.CHAPTER 2. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = T. Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. See also Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display Display value T.char Tracker.

options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. and their characteristics is displayed. AxisWebCamera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Movie Video.

Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video.char Convert to string V.close Close the image source V. Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.

and the right image is cyan. right. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). The result is in the interval [-pi pi). a = anaglyph(left. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. the ﬁrst for left.CHAPTER 2. right. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. If th1 is a column vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. By default the left image is red. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. the second for right. color.

CHAPTER 2. [x. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].y1) to (x2.s] = boundmatch(R1.y2]. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. See also RegionFeature. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. If lambda is a column vector. % emission of sun plot(l. 6500). p2) as above but p1=[x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. x2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. Endpoints must be integer. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.boundary. y1.y1] and p2=[x2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y2). Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. p = bresenham(p1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.

d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.Y.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. [C.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.

and x is N × 3.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).d1] = closest(a. R. Options ‘n’. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. k = closest(a. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B).CHAPTER 2. x = circle(C. that is. [k. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. green and blue primaries respectively. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.

(Table 1(5.CHAPTER 2. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].32).5. • From Table I(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ac.5. since.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.d2] = closest(a. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. and 22500 (444.d1.ioo.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. they were measured directly.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 19000 (526.5. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ucl. while Table I(5. 335 of Table 1(5. As noted in footnote a on p.16). b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).

out = col2im(pix. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. imsize is a 2-vector (N. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ioo.ucl.ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .M).uk See also cmfrgb.

d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.g] to every pixel in the color image im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2.

The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. out = colorize(im. eg. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. [L. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. See also imono. @isnan. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. im<100.G. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. @isnan.C] = colorkmeans(im. func. icolor.B). mask.

• The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. low is good. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. XYZ = colorname(name.CHAPTER 2. L = colorkmeans(im.R] = colorkmeans(im. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.C. k) as above but also returns the residual R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. eg. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.

• When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. i1.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. [o1. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = ‘dest<-src’. As MATLAB’s native datatype.o2. • Color space names are case insensitive. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. s = ‘src->dest’. Input and output images have 3 planes.txt. or alternatively.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. double data is the natural choice. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. it can be omitted. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.CHAPTER 2. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.o3] = colorspace(s.i2. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. colorspace(s.

some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. However.200).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example A = rand(400. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.CHAPTER 2. for memory and computational performance. • If im is an M × 3 array. B = rand(400. d = distance(A. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.B).2*A. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.100). The distance d is M × N and element d(I. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. out will also have size M × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. like a colormap.

bunschot@wins. University of Amsterdam. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background.j). The result E is a matrix.(+31)20-5257524. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. E = edgelist(im. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. in matrix coordinate frame. not image frame. seed. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tested: PC Matlab v5.CHAPTER 2. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. tel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.3. non-zero is an object. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.y). non zero is counter-clockwise.uva. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.

d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Coimbra. Author Based on fmatrix code by. See also epiline. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).S. Oct 27.CHAPTER 2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. epiline(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. one per line drawn. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p1. p. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. H = epiline(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.R. See also fmatrix. I. 1998. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. c.edu. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Notes • The points must be corresponding.CHAPTER 2. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). epiline. The University of Western Australia.csse. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. that is. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.uwa. • f is a rank 2 matrix. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. homography. • Contains a RANSAC driver. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. it is singular. See also ransac. p2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im.au/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. that is. page 270. no outlier rejection is performed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.

se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. See also imorph. ithin. x2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. itriplepoint. y1.CHAPTER 2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.y2).y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).

See also ransac. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.CHAPTER 2.edu. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. The University of Western Australia.csse. no outlier rejection is performed. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. invhomog.au/. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. which means it can be passed to ransac(). p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.uwa. Notes • The points must be corresponding. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.

See also e2h. im. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W.offs] = homwarp(H. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. im. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. that is tp=T*T1. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. See also homography. R ‘scale’. D ‘size’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. ie. S output image contains all the warped pixels.CHAPTER 2. itrim. V ‘roi’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. S ‘dimension’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.

IT-8:pp. 200). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). IRE Trans. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ’gs’). 1962. Hu.CHAPTER 2. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. ianimate(im. ianimate(seq. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. features. on Information Theory. 179-187. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ’nfeat’. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects.

F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. isurf. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). YMIN YMAX]. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. N ‘only’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.CHAPTER 2. M ‘npoints’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.

C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. C set connectivity. A set pixel aspect ratio.0) 1 for a circle.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. [S1. default 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. [A1.0 ‘connect’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. vertical coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. ilabel. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. horizontal coordinate centroid. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.

the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2. This is an dilation followed by erosion. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. 1996-7.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Tel Aviv University. See also isobel. T ‘th1’. See also iopen. S ‘th0’. out = iclose(im. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.

u] = iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. colorize. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. See also imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). [C. Options ‘dir’. [0 1 1]). Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). The images do not have to be of the same size. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. D ‘bgval’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. options) convolves im1 with im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image.CHAPTER 2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. CT ‘edgegap’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. CM ‘cminthresh’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. E ‘suppress’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. K ‘patch’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. N ‘detector’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). S ‘deriv’. D ‘k’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. R ‘nfeat’. D ‘sigma’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. 1988. Stephens. T ‘distthresh’. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.CHAPTER 2. pp 147-151. Proc. 593-593. where * denotes squared and smoothed. See also PointFeature. with a delay of d [sec].5 [sec]. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. vol. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. pp. J. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘mindelta’. Proc. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Options ‘dplot’. Tomasi. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.6. Image and Vision Computing. C. J. pp.J. Manchester. with a delay of 0. T ‘maxiter’. p2. p2. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. 1994..Noble. IEEE Computer Society. • “Finding corners”. Harris and M.d] = icp(p1. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. [T.121-128.G. May 1988. • “Good features to track”. Shi and C.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.

idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. See also iscale. pp. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.McKay. s = idecimate(im. P. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 2. Feb.CHAPTER 2. 14. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. 1992. s = idecimate(im. IEEETrans.Besl and H. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 239-256. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Pattern Anal. each plane is decimated. m. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. no. vol. Intell.. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Mach. m. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .or 3-dimensional. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.

C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. zero is black. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. Options ‘ncolors’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. If the image is zoomed. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. zero is white. darker than ‘grey’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. XY ‘colormap’. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). negative is red. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. negative is red. linear proﬁle. positive is blue. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. C ‘xydata’. If im is a cell array of images. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. histogram and zooming. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. zero is white color map: random values.and y-axes respectively. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. zero is black color map: greyscale signed.

iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. labels. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. caxis. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. icolorize. idisplabel(im. colormap. See also image. See also iblobs.CHAPTER 2. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage.

‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.CHAPTER 2. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.45. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. out = igamma(im. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. See also itriplepoint. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.

5). vol. 1500. P. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. min is the minimum region size (pixels). idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Int.5). k is the scale parameter. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 0. k. Journal on Computer Vision. min. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [l. 2004. L = igraphseg(im. min. pp.jpg’). k. 2006. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. [L. Huttenlocher. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im.m] = igraphseg(im. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 167181. 100. Example im = iread(’58060. k.CHAPTER 2. 59. See also ithresh. Felzenszwalb and D.m] = igraphseg(im. Sept.

For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. options) displays the image histogram. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. plot(x.h).x] = ihist(im).CHAPTER 2. [h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. bar(x.x] = ihist(im.h). H = ihist(im. [H. ’normcdf’).

parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.y2). x1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.y1) and bottom-right (x2. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. y2. same size as im. [L.m. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. [L. ii is a precomputed integral image.CHAPTER 2. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. y1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.

The pixels on the line are set to 1.Y].maxlabel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. p1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. • This is a “low level” function. each a 2-vector [X. 8). otherwise it does not. p2. See also iblobs. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.class. ilabel(im. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. out = iline(im. p1. eg.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. iproﬁle.CHAPTER 2.parents.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.parents. [L.maxlabel. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.

DY) are the x. s.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). [xm. centred at (x. im2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y). and columns the vertical position.and y-offsets relative to (x. x.score] = imatch(im1.y).y) and of size s.y) and its half-width is H. im2. x. ymax] relative to (x.CC] where (DX. • ZNCC matching is used.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a perfect match score is 1.CHAPTER 2. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The return value is xm=[DX. H. s] % relative to (x. ymin. • Is a MEX ﬁle. y. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. w2. y. -s. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. The template in im1 is centred at (x. xmax. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.DY.

v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. effectively a binary image.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.v] = imeshgrid(w. The element u(v. All pixels are equally weighted. H) as above but the domain is w × H. v.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.u) = u and v(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. [u. effectively a greyscale image. [u. f = imoments(u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = imoments(u.

imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. or its area.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. the elements are m00. icolor. m10. m02. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m11. Different conversion functions are supported.CHAPTER 2. m20. horizontal coordinate centroid. See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. • This function does not perform connectivity. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m01. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. ilabel.

se. J.org). part of VLFeat (vlfeat.png’. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. vol. O.CHAPTER 2. Chum. 2004. The labels [L. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. ’grey’. 761767. Image and Vision Computing. pp. m. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Sept. Urban. Pajdla. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. [label. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. 22. ’double’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.m] = imser(im. Matas. ’light’).m] = imser(im. and T.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.ˆ2).CHAPTER 2. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. out = iopen(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. n. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. sides. This is an erosion followed by dilation.CHAPTER 2. sides. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. See also iclose. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.

p. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 20. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. ’t’. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask.CHAPTER 2. otherwise im2 is selected.V]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ’tblr’. im2. im1. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected.

[p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.CHAPTER 2.uv] = iproﬁle(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.v) for the corresponding row of p. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p1. p1. See also bresenham.

order. out = imorph(image. 12. im > irank(im. se). se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. The highest rank. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5)). sigma. ones(5. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. 1. See also iscalespace. op. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. op. out = imorph(image.2) = 0. idecimate. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. out = ipyramid(im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. the maximum. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.CHAPTER 2. se(2. se. nbins. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. out = ipyramid(im.3). is order=1.

iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. See also imorph. R ‘roi’.CHAPTER 2. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. im = iread(ﬁle. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. vmin vmax]. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. where R=[umin umax. ivar.

m. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. imono. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. istereo. imwrite. m. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. See also FeatureMatch.out2] = irectify(f. homwarp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h2] = irectify(f. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. im1.CHAPTER 2. im1. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Notes • Color images are not supported. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.out2.h1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). [out1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. igamma.

H] return central part of image. S ‘extrapval’.umax. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. angle.vmax].CHAPTER 2. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. [out. Options ‘outsize’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘smooth’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. See also idisp.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.vmin vmax]. vmin. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.

bias<0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. Options ‘outsize’.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.CHAPTER 2. bias=0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s<1 makes it smaller. V ‘smooth’. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s>1 makes the image larger. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s ‘extrapval’.5 is symmetric cropping. out = isamesize(im1. im2. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. while bias>0.

ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. n) as above but sigma=1. [g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.L. See also iscalespace. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .L. in space and scale. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. n. corresponding to each step of the sequence. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.CHAPTER 2.s] = iscalespace(im.s] = iscalespace(im. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. idecimate. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.

it its third dimension is equal to three.CHAPTER 2. else false (0). ‘valid’) as above. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ishomog(T. that is. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ismooth. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ilaplace. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. See also isrot.

2 (2004). 91-110. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. See also SiftPointFeature. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. isurf. 60. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Lowe. • Features are returned in descending strength order.CHAPTER 2.vlfeat. N ‘suppress’. pp. Reference David G. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. International Journal of Computer Vision. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. ssd. See also imatch. zssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.H. zsad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. @ssd. im. and these output pixels are set to NaN.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. [w. sad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @ncc. s is same size as im. [w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. @zsad.CHAPTER 2. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. s = isimilarity(T. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @zssd.

dx) as above but returns the gradient images.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. [gx. then converted back to integer. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. [gx. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.gy] = isobel(im. See also iconv. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.CHAPTER 2. convolved. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.

iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. icanny. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. H is the half size of the matching window. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. H. ‘valid’) as above. [d. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).M] for an N × M window. range. the disparity d=d(v. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. isrot(R. See also ksobel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. w. else false (0). imr.CHAPTER 2.u) means that imr(v. range. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.u). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. range is the disparity search range. imr. See also ishomog.sim] = istereo(iml.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.

[d. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.sim.dsi] = istereo(iml. w. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.sim. imr. dx. 3) See also irectify. range.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. p.5 to +0. range. • sim = max(dsi. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. [d. w.p] = istereo(iml. p. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. out = istretch(im. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘metric’. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.5).A and p. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘ncc’. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. That is. B. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. imr.

each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. T ‘octaves’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.CHAPTER 2. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Notes • Color images. or sequences. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. N ‘thresh’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Kroon (U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Otherwise false (0). Vol. 110. pp. else false (0). Luc Van Gool. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3. isift. See also hitormiss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay.or columnvector. Andreas Ess.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. No. out = ithin(im.CHAPTER 2. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isvec(v. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. 346–359. See also ishomog. itriplepoint. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. either a row. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).

a lower value will include more.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. The default is 0.im2. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. ithresh(im. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.5. See also homwarp.CHAPTER 2.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.out2] = itrim(im1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. The same cropping is applied to each input image. Notes • Greyscale image only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.

hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. op. See also iendpoint. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se.CHAPTER 2. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se.

5). @std). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. func. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. ones(3. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im.CHAPTER 2. @max). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. out = iwindow(image. ones(5. See also ivar. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. se.3). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. • The vertical derivative. See also ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. k = kcircle(R. dG/dy. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog. kdog. ktriangle. is k’. dG/dx. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii.

CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). where sigma1 > SIGMA2. sigma2. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. klog.6*sigma1. See also kgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. kdog. By default SIGMA2 = 1. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kdog(sigma1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . See also kdgauss.

k = klog(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. kdog. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. iconv.

CHAPTER 2. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. [L. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. and D is the dimension. L = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. k. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Pattern Recognition Principles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). k.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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‘edge’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.CHAPTER 2. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. [x. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. C ‘T’. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. The points are the columns of p. Options ‘T’.y. [x.y. See also cylinder.z] = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. symmetric about the origin. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).

MPLOT(t.xp . Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. p. n) MPLOT(y.2)). See also mpq poly. npq.y). q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.yq . y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or y(:. That is. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.2)). or y(:. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.CHAPTER 2. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n. y) MPLOT(t. the sum of I(x. n) MPLOT(t. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.

The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. they are considered to be a single vertex. See also mpq. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. upq poly. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. p. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also zncc. k.CHAPTER 2. [T. where W=2*w2+1. -0. ssd. niblack. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.m. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Example t = niblack(im. in text segmentation. 1986.2. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. Prentice-Hall. k.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. 20). idisp(im >= t). the height of a character. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.s] = niblack(im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. sad. for example. • A common choice of k=-0. W. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0. See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. p.p. That is UPQ(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2.q)/MPQ(im.0). mpq. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). npq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. See also mpq poly. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.CHAPTER 2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered as a single vertex. so centroids will be still be correct. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. mpq. upq.

Example t = otsu(im). N. [yp. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.xp] = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. [yp. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. otsu IEEE Trans.i] = peak(y. Systems. Jan 1979. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.CHAPTER 2. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. idisp(im >= t). Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).

use peak(-V).S points. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. [zp.CHAPTER 2. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. N ‘scale’.ij] = peak2(z. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. S ‘interp’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . use peak2(-V). N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.

ie. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. If p has three dimensions. plot2(p.CHAPTER 2. See also pnmﬁlt. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.y2. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. W. plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ‘size’. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ‘r’.y1.y2). r. r. 1=solid.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. or a set of name. ’b’). R. W.CHAPTER 2. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’LineWidth’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and (x2. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(x1. x2. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. value pairs that are passed to plot. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ’edgecolor’. Examples plot_circle(c. ’g’. ’fillcolor’. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. P. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ‘size’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. P. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. r. 5). ’r’).

Y]. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. Options ‘color’. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. c Specify color of the axes. C. with Matlab line style ls. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.CHAPTER 2. If C=[X. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. xc. current plot. centred at the origin.

The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’r’). colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. to ‘view’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ‘framename’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. n ‘text opts’. ’r’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’color’. options) adds point markers to a plot. Options ‘textcolor’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’color’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’name’. fmt. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L.X = 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trplot( T. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ‘printf’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T.CHAPTER 2.

Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. NOTES • The sphere is always added. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. patch. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. R. color. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. See also plot. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. 1=solid. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. The default is 1. either a letter or 3-vector. R.

plotp(p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. See also plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also pgmﬁlt.CHAPTER 2. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.CHAPTER 2. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.

one column per point pair. x. T. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘maxTrials’. x typically contains corresponding point data. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. [m. T. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. [m. x.CHAPTER 2. N ‘maxDataTrials’. x. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated.resid] = ransac(func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. d) as above but elements increment by d.in] = ransac(func. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T.in.

pp 101-113. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. [out. No 6. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .misc element. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.theta = []. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. Comp.x.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.A.s out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.theta] = ERR(R.theta.CHAPTER 2. pp 381-395.R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. Fishler and R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.s sample size (1 × 1) out.out.out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta and the subset of R..x = CONDITION(R. Comm.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. Boles.misc private data (cell array) out.x) condition the point data out. that is they will produce a model. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x data to work on. that is.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. [out. Mach. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.inlier. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.resid] = EST(R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. References • m. Assoc.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. Cambridge University Press.theta to the points R.theta = DECONDITION(R.theta is a cell array.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x. If multiple models are found out.x and returns the best model out. they detect a structure argument.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Vol 24.

If lambda is a vector. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.uwa. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.csse.au/ pk See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.CHAPTER 2. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.edu.

angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2. roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx. rotz. See also rotx.

pitch. See also tr2rpy. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. • many texts (Paul. If roll. T = rpy2tr(roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Y. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. pitch. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Z axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. yaw.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. and rotation theta in the plane. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. theta) as above where xy=[x. y.y.CHAPTER 2.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. r2t. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. ssd. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. See also zsad. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Two cross-hairs are created.CHAPTER 2. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. sad. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. ncc. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. See also zsdd.

args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. then R is 3 × 3. – If T is 3 × 3.choose = {’this’. then R is 2 × 2.blah = []. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .bar = false. The software pattern is: function(a. ’that’. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. varargin) opt.CHAPTER 2. b. tr2rt. opt. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. It supports options that have an assigned value.foo = true. ’other’}. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. opt. c.

choose <. N ‘setopt’.true sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.blah <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. x.‘this’. If neither of ‘this’.3 ‘blah’.1.verbose <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.x. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .foo <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. varargin). 3 sets opt.debug <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.select <.y sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image.foo <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. w.choose <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.y ‘that’ sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.select <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.CHAPTER 2. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.N sets opt <.false ‘blah’.blah <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.select = {’#no’. opt = tb_optparse(opt. ’#yes’}.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. varargin). if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).

sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.CHAPTER 2. args is the number of cycles. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args are pitch (distance between centres). The trajectory s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. [s. binary dot pattern. args is the number of cycles. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. 25). sf. square side length. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. a line. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.sdd] = tpoly(s0. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles. 2).sd. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. binary square pattern. sf. 256. sd and sdd are n-vectors. 256.sd. 50. intercept. args are theta (rad). n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args is the number of cycles. dot diameter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. See also angvec2r. Y. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. The 3 angles rpy=[R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y and Z axes respectively.P. [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.

p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. See also rt2tr.z]. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.CHAPTER 2. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. • The validity of R is not checked. If T has three dimensions. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.:. – If TR is 3 × 3. r2t. y. See also rpy2tr. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. ie.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.y.

each N × 1. [c1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. or x and y.CHAPTER 2. An historical anomaly. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). [o1.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.

trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotx. trprint T is the command line form of above. and displays in RPY format. f ‘label’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line.

y0) is the centroid.(x-x0)p . npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y). Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.(y-y0)q where (x0. That is. p. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. See also upq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. mpq. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. the sum of I(x.CHAPTER 2. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2rpy.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also sad. See also ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. sad. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.

ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2.

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