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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This is extravagant on storage. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. However the book “Robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. is open-source. and I commend it to you. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . epiline . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . niblack . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . loadspectrum . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . plot point . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . numrows . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . ssd . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lecturers and professors are paid to do.google. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tutors. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. That’s what you your teachers.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. You need to signup in order to post. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and you will be suitably acknowledged.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.com.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.

type of organization and application.html on a server for class use. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. and the “See also” functions to each other. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.1. 1. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. The ﬁle robot. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.zip). 1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Corke}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.I. Volume = {12}. 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. The details are @article{Corke05f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.gz) or zip format (.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Number = {4}. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).petercorke.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. the table of content to functions. Year = {2005}.3.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Month = nov.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Author = {P.

IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.1. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. VLFeat http://www. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.I.R. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.S. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.7. Corke. MSER.mathworks. 12(4).1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.6. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1994 University of British Columbia. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.Functions such as SURF.. Vincent Lepetit.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.vlfeat. pp 16–25. 1. and there are hundreds of modules available.7 Acknowledgements Last. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. Twente. 1. P. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. November 2005. Coimbra.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. but not least.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. IM ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. Options ‘name’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. T ‘color’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘noise’. N ‘image’. Camera.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘centre’. N ‘sensor’. used by all subclasses.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display Display value C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera. Camera.char Convert to string s = C. Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. CatadioptricCamera.delete Camera object destructor C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. SphericalCamera Camera.centre Get camera position p = C.clf Clear the image plane C.CHAPTER 2.

char Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. C. Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).u + b.v + c = 0.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. otherwise false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. See also Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2.

The matrices x. Camera.clf Camera. z to the image plane and plots them. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.mesh(x.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. y. See also mesh. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Options ‘Tobj’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. y. uv = C. cylinder. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.plot(p. T ‘Tcam’.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).T. z.plot Plot points on image plane C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. sphere. Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. y.CHAPTER 2.hold.plot. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. mkcube.

C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.T.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’. T See also Camera.mesh. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tcam’. Camera. ‘fps’.clf Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘scale’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.CHAPTER 2. Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Overrides the current camera pose C.hold.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. ‘Tcam’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Camera.

v Y This camera model assumes central projection.CHAPTER 2.rpy(R.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.p. a subclass of Camera. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. C.y].rpy Set camera attitude C. p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. The image is not inverted.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

CentralCamera.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). D ‘default’ ‘image’.CHAPTER 2.Kosecka. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. P ‘pixel’. ﬁsheyecamera. Reference Y. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IM ‘resolution’. camera at origin.E Essential matrix E = C. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. N ‘sensor’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. 2003. E = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. N ‘focal’.Sastry. S ‘centre’.Soatto.8]) See also Camera.Ma. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. E = C.and y-axes respectively.and v-axes parallel to x. F ‘distortion’. CatadioptricCamera. J. optical axis is z-axis. p. “An invitation to 3D”. T ‘color’.F. 10um pixels. SIGMA ‘pose’. S. S ‘noise’. f=8mm.177 See also CentralCamera. u. Springer.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.

T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. 2003. from two viewpoints.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. n. “An invitation to 3D”. See also CentralCamera. Springer.H(T. S.Kosecka.H CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.F Fundamental matrix F = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Reference Y. F = C.Sastry. J.H Homography matrix H = C.E CentralCamera. S.Ma.Soatto. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.177 See also CentralCamera.

Fua. a = C. Int. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. and P.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. See also quiver CentralCamera. V. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Feb. 155-166. F.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.estpose(xyz. 2009. Journal on Computer Vision. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. pp.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Moreno-Noguer. 81.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. CentralCamera. Lepetit.

E CentralCamera.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. “Multiview Geometry”. section 5.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. s. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Soatto. translation not to scale • n. See also CentralCamera.Sastry. 2003. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Soatto. J. s. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “An invitation to 3D”. Reference Y.Ma. 259 Y. p116. Chap 9. 2003. s.Kosecka.Kosecka. Springer. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).CHAPTER 2. “An invitation to 3D”.invE(E.Sastry. p.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Springer. J.Ma.

plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. one per line. H = C. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.CHAPTER 2. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Hough CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p.H CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. C. ‘Tobj’.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.

313-326.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Reference B. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pp.visjac e(E. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. 8. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Rives. “Multiview Geometry”. Espiau. Chaumette. and P.plot CentralCamera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.c. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. June 1992.CHAPTER 2. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. vol. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. See also Camera. F.b.

pp. Rives. R&A. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. June 1992. CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 313-326. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Espiau. Hutchinson. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. pp 651-670. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.c. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac p polar. Chaumette.visjac p(uv.visjac p. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac p. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. Vol 12(5).visjac l(L. vol. Reference B.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.b. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Hager & Corke. and P. 8.visjac l CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac e CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. F. 1996. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. Oct.

The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . (St. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Int. 5962-5967. in Proc. Oct. F. 2009. P.visjac p.visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac e CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). I. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Louis).visjac l.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. Spindler. and F. radius and theta. See also CentralCamera. Chaumette.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Corke. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.visjac p polar. pp. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac p polar(rt.

You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp.91-110.60. See also isift.Lowe. PointFeature. vol.CHAPTER 2. Journal on Computer Vision. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Nov. D. 2004. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. ScalePointFeature.SIFT. See README. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Int. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

SiftPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. C ‘alpha’. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. See also isift SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 1=opaque. f = PointFeature(u.

[out. out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im.T] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im.support(images.support Support region of feature out = F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

project Project world points to image plane pt = C.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. See also SphericalCamera. Options ‘name’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). S ‘pose’. Overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.T.project(p. T ‘Tcam’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. N ‘pixel’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ﬁsheyecamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.

Two windows are shown and animated: 1. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. scalar for If null take actual value all points. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.5) target center .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. defaults in parentheses: target size . The camera view. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.gain. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera view.the side length of the target in world units (0.0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. image plane size and desired feature locations. error.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . error norm.01) . camera pose. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The external view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.depth of points to use for Jacobian.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.CHAPTER 2.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. of 4-vector. Jacobian condition number.center of the target in world coords (0.

Robotics and Automation. Conf.gain.5) target center . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also CentralCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.CHAPTER 2. image plane size and desired feature locations. camera pose. defaults in parentheses: target size . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. pp.01) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . May 3-7 2010. P. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. Jacobian condition number. error norm. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The external view. in Proc. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. (Anchorage).the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . for all points. of 4-vector. error. 5550-5555. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). IEEE Int.visjac p(pt.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the side length of the target in world units (0.visjac l. Corke. I.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.depth of points to use for Jacobian.0.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . CentralCamera.visjac p polar.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . CentralCamera.center of the target in world coords (0. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 346–359. No. Luc Van Gool. Andreas Ess. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 3. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 110. Tinne Tuytelaars. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Vol. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.CHAPTER 2. pp. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.

v. Options ‘thresh’. f = PointFeature(u. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match Match SURF point features m = F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u.C] = F.match(f2.match(f2. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. ScalePointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. [m.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

w) as above but the support region is displayed.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.T] = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. 1=opaque. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images.support Support region of feature out = F. C ‘alpha’.support(images. F.2) SurfPointFeature. F.support(im.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. [out.support(im. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Video AxisWebCamera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.CHAPTER 2.axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’.axis.com) web camera. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. otherwise the result is not predictable.com). • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char Convert to string A. AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.display AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.

b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Oct. pp.Zisserman.org). in Proc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. b = BagOfWords(f. on Computer Vision. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.1470-1477. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Conf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Ninth IEEE Int. f can also be a cell array.CHAPTER 2.Sivic and A. 2003. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.

images. See also BagOfWords.char BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. BagOfWords.display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. isurf BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.char Convert to string s = B.CHAPTER 2.exemplars(w.exemplars display exemplars of words B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. Options ‘ncolumns’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. M ‘width’. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. N ‘maxperimage’.remove stop Remove stop words B.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords.n] = B.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Camera CatadioptricCamera.

The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. ﬁsheyecamera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. S ‘noise’. S ‘centre’. M ‘k’. T ‘Tcam’. camera at origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and v-axes parallel to x. optical axis is z-axis. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. P ‘pixel’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. K ‘maxangle’. See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘sine’. u.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. ‘equisolid’. N ‘focal’. 10um pixels. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).CHAPTER 2. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. SIGMA ‘pose’.T. A ‘resolution’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. f=8mm. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. CatadioptricCamera. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Options ‘Tobj’.and y-axes respectively. See also Camera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.

If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SurfPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.

See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. m = FeatureMatch(f1. FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. SurfPointFeature. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.display Display value M.char Convert to string s = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. f2. See also PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.outlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.v2]. FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v1.inlier. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.u2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.

p FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.im2}) m.p1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.FeatureMatch.p1. for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p2.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot() M. These are the (u. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. These are the (u. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.

show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. f2 = isurf(im2).match(f2). inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac Apply RANSAC M. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. m. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. 1e-4). ransac FeatureMatch.ransac( @fmatrix. m = f1.CHAPTER 2.ransac(func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also idisp FeatureMatch. Example f1 = isurf(im1). homography. See also fmatrix.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted. Y This camera model assumes central projection.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. v.CHAPTER 2.

M ‘k’. camera at origin.and y. K ‘resolution’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘noise’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. f=8mm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘sensor’. S ‘centre’.axes respectively. Options ‘name’.and v-axes are parallel to x. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis. u. SIGMA ‘pose’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. ‘equisolid’.CHAPTER 2. ‘sine’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘default’ ‘projection’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. 10um pixels. P ‘pixel’.

CHAPTER 2. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FishEyeCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also Camera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CentralCamera.T. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. CatadioptricCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.project(p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T ‘Tcam’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Options ‘Tobj’.

Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.0) and the line. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. A horizontal line has theta = 0. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. See also LineFeature Hough. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).CHAPTER 2. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.H). The voting array is 2-dimensional. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.

CHAPTER 2. Default 400 × 401.display Display value HT. See also Hough. T ‘edgethresh’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. else N = [Ntheta.5) Set ht.houghThresh (default 0. W ‘houghthresh’. Nrho]. Hough. Hough.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1). Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. T ‘suppress’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. W ‘nbins’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.char Convert to string s = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. N All edge pixels have equal weight.edgeThresh.

plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. then all elements in an HT.CHAPTER 2.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.lines Find lines L = HT.plot.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. H = HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(n.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot Plot line features HT. The process is repeated for all peaks.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. LineFeature Hough. See also Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. HT. The highest peak is found. reﬁned to subpixel precision.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines Hough. L = HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. See also Hough. HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.

RegionFeature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2.

See also LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LineFeature. LineFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. L = LineFeature(rho.display Display value L.char Convert to string s = L. strength. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . LENGTH is undeﬁned. theta.

plot() overlay the line on current plot. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.points Return points on line segments p = L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. l2 = L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). l2 = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. LineFeature. Small gaps.CHAPTER 2.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. less than gap pixels are tolerated.plot Plot line L.seglength(edge. L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. S ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.char Convert to string M.axis.close Close the image source M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Movie.com). Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. S ‘frame’. undirected graph create an n-d. planar.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. F Skip frames.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.

component(v) g.connectivity() g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.path(v) set goal vertex.clear() add vertex. v) g. v2) g.add node(coord. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(coord) g.goal(v) g.CHAPTER 2. Object properties (read/write) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.add edge(v1.next(v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.neighbours(v) g.coord(v) g.edges(e) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.plot() g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.distance(v1.cost(e) g.

PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add edge(v1.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. where x is D × 1.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node(x. Options ‘distance’. v. PGraph. PGraph.add edge(v1. v = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. and returns the node id v. and returns the edge id E. E = G.add node(x.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.CHAPTER 2. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. v2.

connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. D × 1. and the distance d. edges and components.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph. of node id v.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G. PGraph. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. [v.coord(v) return coordinate vector.closest Find closest node v = G.clear Clear the graph G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.CHAPTER 2. PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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v.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Convert to string s = F. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature. SurfPointFeature. one per element. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.display Display value F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where 1 is perfect match. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. PointFeature.match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. [m.match(f2.match Match point features m = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. Options ‘thresh’.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.char PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.C] = F.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.CHAPTER 2.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). If F is a vector then each element is plotted. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F.plot Plot feature F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.

area() is the area of the polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. http://puddle. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. kirill@plume.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . HEIGHT]. difference.mit.mit. Polygon. Polygon. intersection.CHAPTER 2.area Area of polygon a = P. Pankratov.edu.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Polygon. one column per vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. union.html and require a licence. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. so use with care. p = Polygon(C. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Polygon.char String representation s = P.

Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. See also Polygon.display Display polygon P. Polygon.char Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.CHAPTER 2.difference Difference of polygons d = P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). returns coordinates of P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. else 0.

i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. each column is [x y]’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. y1 y2]. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. returns empty polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.moments(p.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Polygon. P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.plot() plot the polygon.union Union of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.

See also Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. [x. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.display Display value R.char Ray3D. one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.E] = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. [x.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.

less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0) 1 for a circle. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.b. vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.c. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

imoments RegionFeature.th] = R. ymin.char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. For example R. ymax]. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.box Return bounding box b = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.uc will be a list not a vector. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.xmax. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. See also iblobs. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. one per element.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. RegionFeature. RegionFeature.

See also RegionFeature.char RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary plot boundary R. It is indicated with overlaid o.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value R.CHAPTER 2. R. RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers.

CHAPTER 2. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. RegionFeature.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.

f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options. f = ScalePointFeature(u. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. C ‘alpha’. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 1=opaque. v. strength. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.

Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. options) is a new tracker object. R ‘nslots’. Options ‘radius’.CHAPTER 2. See also PointFeature Tracker. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. T ‘movie’. one per active track. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. N ‘thresh’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. C. A complete history of all tracks is maintained.

display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Tracker.display Display value T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.CHAPTER 2. See also Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.

Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. otherwise the result is not predictable. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. G ‘scale’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. Movie Video. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. and their characteristics is displayed.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the camera.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source V.CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. Video.char Convert to string V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. color. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. If th1 is a column vector. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. right. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. the ﬁrst for left. right.CHAPTER 2. if negative it is reduced. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and the right image is cyan. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. the second for right. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). a = anaglyph(left. By default the left image is red.

p2) as above but p1=[x1.y1) to (x2. See also RegionFeature. If lambda is a column vector. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. y1. [x. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.CHAPTER 2. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y1] and p2=[x2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.y2). r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. 6500).s] = boundmatch(R1. x2. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.boundary. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % emission of sun plot(l. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Endpoints must be integer.y2]. p = bresenham(p1.

See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. [C. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].CHAPTER 2.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.

k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). k = closest(a. R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B).d1] = closest(a. [k. x = circle(C. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. Options ‘n’. and x is N × 3.CHAPTER 2. that is. green and blue primaries respectively.

rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5.16).ucl.5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. As noted in footnote a on p.5. 335 of Table 1(5. and 22500 (444. • From Table I(5.CHAPTER 2.ac.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). since. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. they were measured directly.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.32).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). The data are referred to as pilot data. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ioo.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).d2] = closest(a. while Table I(5. 19000 (526. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). (Table 1(5.d1. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.5.

uk See also cmfrgb. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . imsize is a 2-vector (N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ac.M). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo.ucl. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].

CHAPTER 2. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.

[L.G.CHAPTER 2. eg.C] = colorkmeans(im. out = colorize(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. @isnan. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. func. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. @isnan. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. icolor.B). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imono. im<100. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. k. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.

• The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(XYZ. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. k) as above but also returns the residual R. L = colorkmeans(im. low is good. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. XYZ = colorname(name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space.R] = colorkmeans(im. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.C. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming.CHAPTER 2. eg.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.i2. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. s = ‘dest<-src’.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. double data is the natural choice. s = ‘src->dest’. i1.CHAPTER 2. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Input and output images have 3 planes.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.o2. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. or alternatively. • Color space names are case insensitive. [o1. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o3] = colorspace(s. colorspace(s.txt. it can be omitted. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. As MATLAB’s native datatype. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.

Example A = rand(400. However. for memory and computational performance. • If im is an M × 3 array.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.2*A.B). The distance d is M × N and element d(I. d = distance(A.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.CHAPTER 2.100). B = rand(400. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. like a colormap.200). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out will also have size M × 3. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.

Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.y). direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.CHAPTER 2. non zero is counter-clockwise. The result E is a matrix. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. non-zero is an object. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. bunschot@wins. not image frame. Tested: PC Matlab v5.j).nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. E = edgelist(im. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.(+31)20-5257524.3. seed. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.uva. tel. in matrix coordinate frame. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. University of Amsterdam. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2 and Solaris Matlab v5.

R. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Coimbra. Oct 27. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p1. See also epiline. See also fmatrix. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. I.CHAPTER 2. p. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S. one per line drawn. Author Based on fmatrix code by. 1998. p.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). epiline(f. H = epiline(f.

options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. page 270. p2. homography. c.uwa. that is. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. that is.au/. which means it can be passed to ransac(). School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. no outlier rejection is performed.CHAPTER 2. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. http://www. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.csse. it is singular. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. epiline. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. Notes • The points must be corresponding. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. See also ransac. The University of Western Australia. • f is a rank 2 matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Contains a RANSAC driver. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1).edu.

See also imorph.y2). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2.y1) and (x2. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). ithin. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y1. itriplepoint.

See also ransac. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. no outlier rejection is performed. http://www. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. which means it can be passed to ransac(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.uwa.edu. The University of Western Australia.CHAPTER 2. invhomog. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.csse. Notes • The points must be corresponding.au/. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP.offs] = homwarp(H. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. S output image contains all the warped pixels. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W.CHAPTER 2. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R ‘scale’. V ‘roi’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. itrim. ie. im. D ‘size’. that is tp=T*T1. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im. See also e2h. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. [out. S ‘dimension’. See also homography.

Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. 1962. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ianimate(seq. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Hu. ianimate(im. IRE Trans. IT-8:pp. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 179-187. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. on Information Theory. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. 200).CHAPTER 2. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. ’nfeat’. features. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ’gs’).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. iharris. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. N ‘only’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. M ‘npoints’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im.CHAPTER 2. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. isurf. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. YMIN YMAX]. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [S1. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.0) 1 for a circle. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. vertical coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. default 1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. [A1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.0 ‘connect’.CHAPTER 2. ilabel. A set pixel aspect ratio. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. C set connectivity.

See also iopen. 1996-7. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. se. S ‘th0’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. T ‘th1’. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. This is an dilation followed by erosion. out = iclose(im. See also isobel. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Tel Aviv University. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2.

u] = iconcat(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [0 1 1]). D ‘bgval’. [C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). The images do not have to be of the same size.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).CHAPTER 2.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. C = icolor(im. See also imono. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Options ‘dir’. colorize.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.

options) convolves im1 with im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. im2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.

K ‘patch’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector.CHAPTER 2. S ‘deriv’. R ‘nfeat’. E ‘suppress’. D ‘sigma’. N ‘detector’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. D ‘k’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. CM ‘cminthresh’. CT ‘edgegap’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’.

options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. pp. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Harris and M. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. May 1988.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. with a delay of d [sec]. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Image and Vision Computing.J. Options ‘dplot’. vol. C. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp 147-151. [T. • “Finding corners”. T ‘distthresh’. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. with a delay of 0. Tomasi. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Manchester. pp.5 [sec]. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. 1988.6.G. N ‘mindelta’. J. Shi and C. J.d] = icp(p1.. Stephens. p2. • “Good features to track”. 1994.121-128. See also PointFeature. T ‘maxiter’. Proc. IEEE Computer Society. p2.CHAPTER 2. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Proc.Noble. 593-593.

Mach. Intell. m. IEEETrans. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. m. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .McKay. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. vol. pp.CHAPTER 2. 2. each plane is decimated.or 3-dimensional. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Feb. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. P. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. no.Besl and H. s = idecimate(im. Pattern Anal. s = idecimate(im. 14. 239-256. 1992. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. See also iscale..

zero is black color map: greyscale signed. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. darker than ‘grey’. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. XY ‘colormap’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. negative is red. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. positive is blue. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. zero is white. zero is black. zero is white color map: random values. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. Options ‘ncolors’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. If the image is zoomed. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). If im is a cell array of images. positive is blue. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top.CHAPTER 2.and y-axes respectively. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. negative is red. C ‘xydata’. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. linear proﬁle. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. histogram and zooming.

colormap. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labelimage. See also iblobs. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. icolorize. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labels. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also image. labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. caxis. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. idisplabel(im. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map.

2.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. See also itriplepoint. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).45. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.

imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. pp. 167181. [l. [L. Journal on Computer Vision. k. 0.m] = igraphseg(im. Int. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. L = igraphseg(im. k. 2004. P. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. Sept. min. k is the scale parameter. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.jpg’).5). min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. Felzenszwalb and D. See also ithresh. Example im = iread(’58060. k.5). vol. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Huttenlocher. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. min. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.m] = igraphseg(im. 100. 1500. 59. 2006.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). [h. plot(x. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.x] = ihist(im. options) displays the image histogram.x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H.h). bar(x.CHAPTER 2. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’normcdf’).

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and bottom-right (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. y1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. [L.y2).CHAPTER 2. [L. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. ii is a precomputed integral image. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. same size as im.m. y2. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. x1. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.

p2. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. The pixels on the line are set to 1.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.maxlabel. [L. ilabel(im. p1. eg. otherwise it does not. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. p1.parents.maxlabel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. each a 2-vector [X. out = iline(im. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.class.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. See also iblobs.parents. iproﬁle.CHAPTER 2. • This is a “low level” function. 8).Y]. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

im2.y) and of size s.CHAPTER 2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. s] % relative to (x.and y-offsets relative to (x.CC] where (DX. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. y. H. w2. -s. a perfect match score is 1.DY) are the x. The return value is xm=[DX. y. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. The template in im1 is centred at (x.DY. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. x.y). s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. centred at (x. ymin. x. • Is a MEX ﬁle. • ZNCC matching is used. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). xmax.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y). and columns the vertical position. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. ymax] relative to (x. [xm. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.score] = imatch(im1.y) and its half-width is H. im2.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.

v] = imeshgrid(w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. effectively a greyscale image. effectively a binary image. v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. H) as above but the domain is w × H.u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u. f = imoments(u. [u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The element u(v.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. All pixels are equally weighted. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. the elements are m00. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m01.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m10. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. • This function does not perform connectivity. horizontal coordinate centroid. See also RegionFeature. m11. Different conversion functions are supported. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m20. m02. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst.CHAPTER 2. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. or its area. icolor. ilabel. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

org). options) as above but m is the number of regions found. m. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Pajdla. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. vol. The labels [L. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. and T.CHAPTER 2. ’double’). Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.m] = imser(im. 2004. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. [label. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . part of VLFeat (vlfeat. se. ’grey’. Matas. O.m] = imser(im. J. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. pp.png’. ’light’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. 22. Image and Vision Computing. Sept. Urban. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. 761767. Chum.

Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.CHAPTER 2. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.ˆ2).

se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. out = iopen(im. n. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is n erosions followed by n dilations. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. sides. sides. This is an erosion followed by dilation. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also iclose.

If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.V]. im1. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. otherwise im2 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ’tblr’. p. im2. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 20. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero.CHAPTER 2. ’t’. 10.

p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). [p. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1.CHAPTER 2.uv] = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.

Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. im > irank(im. nbins. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im.3). se. se. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. op. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5)). n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. the maximum. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. hence output image had reduced dimensions. See also iscalespace. out = ipyramid(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The highest rank. 1. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. se). out = imorph(image. is order=1. sigma. order. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = ipyramid(im. idecimate. ones(5. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. out = imorph(image. op.2) = 0. 12.CHAPTER 2. se(2.

return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. where R=[umin umax. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. im = iread(ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. ivar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. vmin vmax]. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. See also imorph. R ‘roi’. G ‘reduce’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix.

path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m.out2] = irectify(f. See also FeatureMatch. igamma.out2. m. Notes • Color images are not supported. imono. im1. imwrite.h2] = irectify(f. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. [out1. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im1. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homwarp. istereo.CHAPTER 2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.h1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.

vmin vmax].umax. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. S ‘extrapval’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. angle.H] return central part of image. See also idisp. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. V ‘smooth’. vmin.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. Options ‘outsize’. [out. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmax].CHAPTER 2.

im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 is symmetric cropping.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s ‘extrapval’. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. V ‘smooth’. while bias>0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘outsize’. out = isamesize(im1. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. im2. s<1 makes it smaller. bias<0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias=0.CHAPTER 2. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s>1 makes the image larger. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.

L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. in space and scale. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.s] = iscalespace(im. n) as above but sigma=1.s] = iscalespace(im. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. idecimate.L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. corresponding to each step of the sequence. n. [g. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. See also iscalespace. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.

‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.CHAPTER 2. See also isrot. ismooth. that is. else false (0). it its third dimension is equal to three. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image.

91-110. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. Lowe. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. pp. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • Features are returned in descending strength order. International Journal of Computer Vision. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.vlfeat. 2 (2004). Reference David G. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.CHAPTER 2. N ‘suppress’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. 60. isurf. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. See also SiftPointFeature.

@zssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. s = isimilarity(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. s is same size as im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. ssd.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H. im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. @ncc. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. See also imatch. @ssd. [w. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. ncc. sad. zssd. @zsad. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. and these output pixels are set to NaN. [w. zsad.

kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. then converted back to integer. [gx.gy] = isobel(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. See also iconv. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma. [gx. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.CHAPTER 2.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. convolved.

M] for an N × M window.sim] = istereo(iml.u). H is the half size of the matching window. range is the disparity search range. ‘valid’) as above. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.u) means that imr(v. See also ksobel. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. w. range. [d. That is. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. the disparity d=d(v. imr. imr. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. See also ishomog. H. else false (0). or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. isrot(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. icanny.CHAPTER 2. range.

For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. out = istretch(im.dsi] = istereo(iml. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.p] = istereo(iml. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. p. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). ‘ncc’. imr.A and p. Options ‘metric’. dx. [d.5 to +0. w. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. imr. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. B. p. range. 3) See also irectify.5). options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. That is.sim. [d. w.CHAPTER 2. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. • sim = max(dsi. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.sim.

T ‘octaves’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Kroon (U. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. or sequences. Notes • Color images. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘thresh’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.

110. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. pp. Luc Van Gool. either a row. itriplepoint. See also ishomog. No. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Otherwise false (0). isvec(v.or columnvector. Vol. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 346–359. isift. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Tinne Tuytelaars. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. else false (0). See also hitormiss.CHAPTER 2. 3. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. out = ithin(im.

This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. Notes • Greyscale image only.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1.CHAPTER 2. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. See also homwarp.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. ithresh(im. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The same cropping is applied to each input image. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. The default is 0.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.5.im2.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. a lower value will include more. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.

that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. See also iendpoint. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. se. op.CHAPTER 2. hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point.

@std). func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. @max). hence output image had reduced dimensions. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ones(3. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. See also ivar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. out = iwindow(image. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. se. ones(5. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.5).3). edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled.CHAPTER 2.

iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kcircle(R. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. • The vertical derivative. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. dG/dx. kdog. is k’.CHAPTER 2. ktriangle. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. dG/dy. See also ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.

H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma. k = kdog(sigma1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly.6*sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma2. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. kdog. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2).

See also kgauss. kdog.CHAPTER 2. iconv. k = klog(sigma. See also ilaplace. kdgauss. and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.

c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. [L. and D is the dimension.CHAPTER 2.C] = kmeans(x. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Pattern Recognition Principles. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.C] = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. it is assumed to have been completed previously. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. L = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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The points are the columns of p. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. symmetric about the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. ‘edge’.CHAPTER 2. See also cylinder. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.y. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. [x.z] = mkcube(s. [x. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.z] = mkcube(s. C ‘T’.y. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. Options ‘T’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).

y. That is. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. the sum of I(x. n) MPLOT(t. See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.2)). y) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(t. n. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. or y(:. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.CHAPTER 2.2)). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. n) MPLOT(y.xp . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.yq . or y(:. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. npq. y.y).

p. upq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. so centroids will be still be correct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity.CHAPTER 2. npq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq. they are considered to be a single vertex. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

k.m.2.s] = niblack(im. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. See also zncc. k. Example t = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. idisp(im >= t). • A common choice of k=-0. sad. [T. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. for example. niblack. the height of a character. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. where W=2*w2+1. in text segmentation. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. Prentice-Hall. 20). Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. -0.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. 1986. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. W. T has the same dimensions as im.

See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.0. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. p.CHAPTER 2.q)/MPQ(im.0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. mpq. That is UPQ(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. so centroids will be still be correct. upq. npq. mpq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered as a single vertex. See also mpq poly.

options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im). [yp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms.i] = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. pp 62-66 See also niblack. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. idisp(im >= t). Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).xp] = peak(y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Systems. Jan 1979. N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x. otsu IEEE Trans.

Typically choose N to be odd.S points.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. use peak2(-V). S ‘interp’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.S points. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. [zp. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.ij] = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak(-V). S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘scale’.

p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plot2(p. ie. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak.CHAPTER 2. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also pnmﬁlt. If p has three dimensions. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

y2. or a set of name. plot_circle(c. W. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Examples plot_circle(c. 5). ’fillcolor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) draws a box with corners at (x1.y2). YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. 1=solid. ‘r’. value pairs that are passed to plot.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ’b’).CHAPTER 2. ’edgecolor’. P.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. r. ‘size’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R.y1. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ‘size’. ’g’. PLOT BOX(x1. r. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. PLOT BOX(’centre’. W. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. P. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. plot_circle(c. ’LineWidth’. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ’r’). x2.y1) and (x2.

Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . current plot. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. with Matlab line style ls. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. Options ‘color’. xc. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y]. centred at the origin.CHAPTER 2. ls) ls is the standard line styles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. If C=[X. c Specify color of the axes. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. C. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.Y.

v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. fmt. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T.CHAPTER 2. ‘framename’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’.X = 0. ’name’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ’r’). ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. n ‘text opts’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. trplot( T. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ’color’. to ‘view’. ’color’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ’r’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. Options ‘textcolor’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. options) adds point markers to a plot. ‘printf’.

irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. 1=solid. patch. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque.CHAPTER 2. NOTES • The sphere is always added. either a letter or 3-vector. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. The default is 1. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.

centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.CHAPTER 2. [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gt] = radgrad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.

ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. N ‘maxDataTrials’. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.resid] = ransac(func. [m. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one column per point pair. x. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated.CHAPTER 2. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. Options ‘maxTrials’. T. T. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. x typically contains corresponding point data.in] = ransac(func. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x. T.in. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. [m.

x = CONDITION(R.theta = [].misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.x data to work on.t threshold (1 × 1) R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.misc private data (cell array) out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Boles. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. pp 101-113. they detect a structure argument.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. References • m.theta is a cell array.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.inlier.A.x. Mach.theta.s out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . that is they will produce a model.theta to the points R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.misc element. [out.out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x.theta.. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Cambridge University Press. that is. Vol 24. Comm.resid] = EST(R.out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.theta = DECONDITION(R.theta and the subset of R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.R.C. No 6.s sample size (1 × 1) out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta] = ERR(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. [out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x and returns the best model out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.x) condition the point data out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.CHAPTER 2. Fishler and R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. Assoc. pp 381-395. Comp. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. If multiple models are found out.

See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.csse. If lambda is a vector. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.au/ pk See also fmatrix. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.CHAPTER 2. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uwa.

CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. See also rotx. rotz. See also roty. rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

See also tr2rpy. yaw. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Z axes respectively. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy.CHAPTER 2. Y. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. T = rpy2tr(roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. If roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. • many texts (Paul.

y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. theta) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. See also zsad. ncc. y. and rotation theta in the plane.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. ssd.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. r2t.

CHAPTER 2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also zsdd. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

’other’}. opt. then R is 2 × 2.choose = {’this’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt. ’that’. c. The software pattern is: function(a.blah = []. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.foo = true.bar = false.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. It supports options that have an assigned value. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. then R is 3 × 3. b. opt. varargin) opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. tr2rt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. – If T is 3 × 3.CHAPTER 2.

x. 3 sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.blah <.select <.‘this’.3 ‘blah’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. varargin). The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. w.blah <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.true sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.verbose <. ’#yes’}. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.select <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.false ‘blah’.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.y sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt.1.choose <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.CHAPTER 2.N sets opt <.x.select = {’#no’.foo <.foo <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. args) creates a test pattern image.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. If neither of ‘this’.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. N ‘setopt’. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. varargin).debug <.

args is the number of cycles. 50. a line. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 2). [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are theta (rad). The trajectory s. args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . square side length. sf. 256. 256. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. dot diameter. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. binary dot pattern. binary square pattern. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args is the number of cycles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. sd and sdd are n-vectors. 25). n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args are pitch (distance between centres).sd.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sd. args is the number of cycles. sf.CHAPTER 2. intercept. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’.

If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. [theta.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also angvec2r. Y. The 3 angles rpy=[R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Y and Z axes respectively.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.

ie. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2t. See also rt2tr. See also rpy2tr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. • The validity of R is not checked. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. – If TR is 3 × 3.y. If T has three dimensions. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.CHAPTER 2. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. y.z].t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.:.

If tri is RGB then cc is rg. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. An historical anomaly. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).CHAPTER 2. each N × 1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [c1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or x and y. [o1.

CHAPTER 2. troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. and displays in RPY format. f ‘label’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotx. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trotx. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line.CHAPTER 2. trprint T is the command line form of above. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.

See also upq poly.CHAPTER 2. mpq. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. the sum of I(x.(x-x0)p . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.y0) is the centroid. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. p. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.y).(y-y0)q where (x0. That is.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. ssd. See also ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ssd. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ncc. See also sad. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2.

isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. See also sdd. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

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