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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. However the book “Robotics. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. and I commend it to you.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This is extravagant on storage. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . is open-source. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . 1. . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . igamma . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . intgimage . . . . kcircle . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . kmeans . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . zssd . . tr2rt . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . ssd . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lecturers and professors are paid to do. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. That’s what you your teachers. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. tutors. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. You need to signup in order to post.google.com. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.

The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Corke}. 1.3. the table of content to functions.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Volume = {12}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Author = {P.petercorke.I.zip).html on a server for class use. Number = {4}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. 1.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. 1. Month = nov. and the “See also” functions to each other. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1. Year = {2005}. type of organization and application.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). The ﬁle robot.1. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. The details are @article{Corke05f. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gz) or zip format (.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.

org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. pp 16–25.R. 1. but not least.7 Acknowledgements Last. 1994 University of British Columbia.S. MSER.I. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. P. VLFeat http://www. Twente. November 2005.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. Corke. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.1. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.Functions such as SURF.. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Vincent Lepetit. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.6.7. 12(4). Coimbra. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. and there are hundreds of modules available. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.vlfeat.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.mathworks. 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. Camera.CHAPTER 2. P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. N ‘sensor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘image’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. Options ‘name’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. used by all subclasses. SIGMA ‘pose’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. S ‘noise’. S ‘centre’. IM ‘resolution’. T ‘color’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters.

char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.centre Get camera position p = C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.clf Clear the image plane C. SphericalCamera Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera. Camera. Camera. Camera.display Display value C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. ﬁsheyecamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.delete Camera object destructor C.char Convert to string s = C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). CatadioptricCamera.

ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.u + b. and off if H is false (or 0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.CHAPTER 2. Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.char Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.v + c = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. See also Camera. otherwise false (0). C.

The matrices x.plot(p. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.hold. sphere. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. y. See also mesh. Camera. z to the image plane and plots them. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T.plot Plot points on image plane C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. y.CHAPTER 2. Camera. Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Options ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). T ‘Tcam’. Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. mkcube. uv = C.clf Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. z. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. y. cylinder.mesh(x.

point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.T. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘Tcam’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera.CHAPTER 2.mesh. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.hold.clf Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. T See also Camera. ‘Tobj’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. T ‘scale’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. ‘fps’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

v Y This camera model assumes central projection. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.p. C. The image is not inverted. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. a subclass of Camera. p.y]. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.rpy Set camera attitude C. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy(R.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

“An invitation to 3D”.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. Springer. S. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. ﬁsheyecamera.177 See also CentralCamera. F ‘distortion’. optical axis is z-axis.8]) See also Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. CatadioptricCamera. S. IM ‘resolution’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S ‘centre’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. T ‘color’. f=8mm. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.E Essential matrix E = C. N ‘focal’. J. camera at origin. S ‘noise’. E = C.and v-axes parallel to x. 10um pixels. Reference Y. u. 2003.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. p.Soatto. N ‘sensor’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.and y-axes respectively. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. D ‘default’ ‘image’.F.Kosecka. E = C. P ‘pixel’.Sastry.Ma. CentralCamera.

K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. p. from two viewpoints. 2003. Springer.Soatto.H CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S.Kosecka. n. Reference Y.CHAPTER 2.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma. See also CentralCamera.Sastry.H(T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. J. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F = C.E CentralCamera. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.177 See also CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).H Homography matrix H = C.

In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Feb. CentralCamera. and P. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Journal on Computer Vision. Int. vol. pp. 81. F.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. V.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Moreno-Noguer.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. See also quiver CentralCamera. a = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 155-166. 2009.estpose(xyz.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Lepetit. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Fua.

translation not to scale • n.Soatto. “An invitation to 3D”.Kosecka.invE(E. Springer. s. Reference Y.Soatto. See also CentralCamera. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s. 2003. p. Chap 9. J. 259 Y. Springer. s. p116.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. s. section 5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Kosecka. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.CHAPTER 2.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.E CentralCamera.Ma. J. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Sastry. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Sastry. 2003. “Multiview Geometry”.

plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot epiline(f. p. C. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.CHAPTER 2.project(p. ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).H CentralCamera. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. ‘Tobj’.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera.T. See also Hough CentralCamera. H = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot epiline(f. one per line.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .ray 3D ray for image point R = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. F. Reference B. pp.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac e(E. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.c. Rives. 313-326. Espiau. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b. “Multiview Geometry”.plot CentralCamera. Chaumette. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. and P. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. June 1992. See also Camera. 8. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.CHAPTER 2.

visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. pp 651-670. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Rives.visjac l CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Chaumette. F. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). pp.visjac p. 313-326.visjac p. Hager & Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac l(L. Reference B. IEEE Trans. Oct. R&A. CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac p(uv. and P. Vol 12(5). June 1992. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.c.visjac p polar. See also CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p polar. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). CentralCamera. 1996.CHAPTER 2. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Hutchinson. 8. vol. Espiau.b. CentralCamera.

visjac l. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). 2009. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. and F.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. radius and theta.CHAPTER 2.visjac l. Chaumette. Louis). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. I. CentralCamera. in Proc. Oct. F. Int.visjac p polar. 5962-5967. CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. Spindler. (St. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. P.visjac p polar(rt. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. pp. Corke.

References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See README. PointFeature.Lowe. D. Journal on Computer Vision.SIFT.91-110. pp. vol. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. 2004. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. ScalePointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. See also isift. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .60. Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Nov.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.

f = PointFeature(u. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. C ‘alpha’. See also isift SiftPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. f = PointFeature(u. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. 1=opaque. F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.match Match SIFT point features m = F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale Plot feature scale F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.match(f2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.

support(im. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(images. F.T] = F. out = F.support(images. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.CHAPTER 2. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support Support region of feature out = F. [out. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the support region is displayed. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. S ‘pose’. See also SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). CentralCamera. Options ‘name’. N ‘pixel’. Options ‘Tobj’.T. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Overrides the current camera pose C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. ﬁsheyecamera.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number. image plane size and desired feature locations.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The camera view. The camera view. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. defaults in parentheses: target size . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.the side length of the target in world units (0. of 4-vector.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .CHAPTER 2.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.5) target center . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The external view.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.center of the target in world coords (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. error norm. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.0.01) .gain. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. camera pose. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.

visjac l. See also CentralCamera. in Proc.5) target center . pp. error norm. camera pose. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. for all points. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. IEEE Int. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.0.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . image plane size and desired feature locations.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . of 4-vector. P. The external view.the side length of the target in world units (0. I. May 3-7 2010.visjac p polar. defaults in parentheses: target size .visjac p(pt.01) .center of the target in world coords (0.CHAPTER 2.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Robotics and Automation. error. CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). CentralCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Conf.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Jacobian condition number. (Anchorage). Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. 5550-5555. scalar for If null take actual value all points.gain. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .

No. pp. Vol. Luc Van Gool. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 3.CHAPTER 2. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 346–359.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 110. Tinne Tuytelaars. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.

See also isurf SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u. [m.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. PointFeature.C] = F. v. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match Match SURF point features m = F.

[out.support(im. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. out = F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.plot scale(options.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2.support(images. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 0=transparent (default 0. C ‘alpha’. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.2) SurfPointFeature.T] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. 1=opaque.

Video AxisWebCamera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com) web camera. S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. otherwise the result is not predictable.CHAPTER 2. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.axis. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.

display AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char Convert to string A.close Close the image source A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.

See also PointFeature BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. in Proc.org). b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . on Computer Vision. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.1470-1477. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int. pp. f can also be a cell array. Oct.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.Zisserman.Sivic and A. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Conf. 2003. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. b = BagOfWords(f. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.

display Display value B.exemplars(w. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.char BagOfWords. BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.exemplars display exemplars of words B. images.char Convert to string s = B. See also BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.

If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.n] = B.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. Options ‘ncolumns’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.remove stop Remove stop words B. N ‘maxperimage’.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. M ‘width’.

CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

S ‘centre’. P ‘pixel’.and y-axes respectively. CatadioptricCamera. camera at origin.CHAPTER 2. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ﬁsheyecamera. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. N ‘focal’. T ‘Tcam’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis.T. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. K ‘maxangle’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. 10um pixels. ‘sine’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.and v-axes parallel to x. SIGMA ‘pose’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘equisolid’.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. M ‘k’. N ‘sensor’. f=8mm. See also Camera. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘noise’. See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. u. A ‘resolution’.

p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.

f2. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = M. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. one per element. See also PointFeature. See also FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display Display value M. m = FeatureMatch(f1. SurfPointFeature. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.

outlier Outlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch.v2].inlier.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.v1. FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.outlier.u2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.

FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p1.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.im2}) m. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot Show corresponding points M.p1.p2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() M.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.CHAPTER 2. for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. These are the (u.

Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.ransac( @fmatrix. Example f1 = isurf(im1). See also fmatrix.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. m. ransac FeatureMatch. See also idisp FeatureMatch.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.ransac(func. f2 = isurf(im2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.match(f2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.CHAPTER 2. homography. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). 1e-4).ransac Apply RANSAC M. m = f1.

that is.CHAPTER 2. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. The image is not inverted.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. u. ‘sine’. S ‘noise’. P ‘pixel’.axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘sensor’. ‘equisolid’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10um pixels. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. camera at origin. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. K ‘resolution’. f=8mm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. SIGMA ‘pose’.and y. Options ‘name’. S ‘centre’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. M ‘k’.and v-axes are parallel to x.

CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. See also Camera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. See also FishEyeCamera.project(p.

0) and the line.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. See also LineFeature Hough. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.CHAPTER 2. A horizontal line has theta = 0. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. The voting array is 2-dimensional. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.H). For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Default 400 × 401. Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.char Convert to string s = HT.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. See also Hough. Nrho]. T ‘suppress’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value HT. Set ht.CHAPTER 2. T ‘edgethresh’.houghThresh (default 0.edgeThresh (default 0. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Hough. N All edge pixels have equal weight.5) Set ht.edgeThresh. else N = [Ntheta. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.1). W ‘houghthresh’. W ‘nbins’.

Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. H = HT.lines Find lines L = HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. HT.plot. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. L = HT. LineFeature Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.plot Plot line features HT. then all elements in an HT.CHAPTER 2.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. See also Hough.lines Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. HT. The highest peak is found. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . reﬁned to subpixel precision.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot(n. The process is repeated for all peaks.

If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. RegionFeature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.

char Convert to string s = L.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. strength.display Display value L.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LENGTH is undeﬁned. one per element. LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. L = LineFeature(rho.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. theta. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

plot() overlay the line on current plot. Small gaps. LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. L.seglength(edge. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l2 = L.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).plot Plot line L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also icanny LineFeature. l2 = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. less than gap pixels are tolerated. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.

S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie.char Convert to string M. Movie.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source M. Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.axis. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘skip’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.com). options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.

CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. undirected graph create an n-d. S ‘frame’.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. planar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F Skip frames.

v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.add edge(v1. Object properties (read/write) g. v2) g.add node(coord.edges(e) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.cost(e) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.distance(v1.next(v) g.plot() g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. v) g.component(v) g.neighbours(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.connectivity() g.clear() add vertex.path(v) set goal vertex.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.coord(v) g.goal(v) g.add node(coord) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().

E = G.add edge(v1. v = G. v = G.add node(x. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2. Options ‘distance’.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. where x is D × 1. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v. PGraph.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node(x. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add edge(v1. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. and returns the node id v. and returns the edge id E.CHAPTER 2.

CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. [v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .coord(v) return coordinate vector.CHAPTER 2. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. PGraph. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.clear Clear the graph G. D × 1. and the distance d.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. of node id v.d] = G. edges and components. PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.closest Find closest node v = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. See also ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.char Convert to string s = F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. one per element.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.display Display value F. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.

[m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance.CHAPTER 2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.char PointFeature.match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. where 1 is perfect match. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.C] = F.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match Match point features m = F.

General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot Plot feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

difference. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. union. p = Polygon(C. kirill@plume.edu.html and require a licence. Polygon.mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.char String representation s = P.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit.area() is the area of the polygon. Pankratov. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Polygon. HEIGHT]. http://puddle.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. one column per vertex.CHAPTER 2. so use with care. Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon. intersection.

inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. else 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.display Display polygon P.CHAPTER 2.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns coordinates of P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. See also Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.char Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.

y1 y2]. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.CHAPTER 2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns empty polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Polygon. each column is [x y]’.moments(p.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.moments Moments of polygon a = P.

returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union Union of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon. P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2.

Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.

display Display value R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element.char Ray3D. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.E] = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.CHAPTER 2.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. [x. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.E] = R. See also Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R. Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. Ray3D.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.

maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. horizontal coordinate centroid.0) 1 for a circle. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.c. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate bounding box.

boundary Boundary in polar form [d. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.xmax. ymin.th] = R. one per element.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. ymax]. See also iblobs.CHAPTER 2.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. RegionFeature. RegionFeature. For example R.uc will be a list not a vector. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.box Return bounding box b = R. imoments RegionFeature.char Convert to string s = R.

Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value R.plot Plot centroid R.and xmarkers.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. See also RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char RegionFeature. RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary plot boundary R. It is indicated with overlaid o. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. R. R. RegionFeature. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.

ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. v. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. 1=opaque.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’. F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = ScalePointFeature(u. See also PointFeature. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Options ‘radius’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. one per active track. N ‘thresh’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. T ‘movie’. C. See also PointFeature Tracker. options) is a new tracker object. R ‘nslots’.CHAPTER 2. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

display Display value T.plot Show feature trajectories T.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. See also Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .tracklengths Length of all tracks T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char Convert to string s = T. Tracker. Tracker.

Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. and their characteristics is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. AxisWebCamera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera.CHAPTER 2. Movie Video.

CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source V. Video.char Convert to string V. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.

d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased. If th1 is a column vector. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. By default the left image is red. right. right. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. color. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. a = anaglyph(left. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. the ﬁrst for left. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. The result is in the interval [-pi pi).CHAPTER 2. and the right image is cyan. if negative it is reduced. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. the second for right. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors.

If lambda is a column vector. % emission of sun plot(l. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. [x. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. y1.y1) to (x2.y2). x2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y1] and p2=[x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2]. p = bresenham(p1.boundary.s] = boundmatch(R1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. See also RegionFeature. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. 6500). Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. Endpoints must be integer.CHAPTER 2.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Y. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. [C. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.CHAPTER 2.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.

R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.CHAPTER 2.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. k = closest(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. x = circle(C. R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D.d1] = closest(a. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. Options ‘n’. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. [k. green and blue primaries respectively. and x is N × 3. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. that is.

If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. they were measured directly.ioo. 19000 (526.5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. since. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. (Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.5. while Table I(5. • From Table I(5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The data are referred to as pilot data.ac.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.d2] = closest(a. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5. As noted in footnote a on p.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d1.32).16). and 22500 (444.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ucl. 335 of Table 1(5.5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.

out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.uk See also cmfrgb. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. imsize is a 2-vector (N. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ioo.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ac.M).

colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also imono. [L.C] = colorkmeans(im. out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.CHAPTER 2. mask. eg. @isnan. func. and returns a per-pixel logical result. icolor. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. im<100. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k.B). @isnan.G. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to.

‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. name = colorname(XYZ. low is good. L = colorkmeans(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.CHAPTER 2. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.R] = colorkmeans(im. XYZ = colorname(name.C. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. eg. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. k) as above but also returns the residual R. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space.

i2. Input and output images have 3 planes.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. i1. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. it can be omitted. [o1.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.CHAPTER 2. colorspace(s. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.o2.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. • Color space names are case insensitive. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. s = ‘src->dest’. s = ‘dest<-src’. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o3] = colorspace(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. or alternatively. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.txt. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. As MATLAB’s native datatype. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . double data is the natural choice.

b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. • If im is an M × 3 array. for memory and computational performance. However.B). B = rand(400. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .200).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. like a colormap.CHAPTER 2. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. out will also have size M × 3. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).2*A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. d = distance(A. Example A = rand(400.100).

• The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.CHAPTER 2. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.3. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. The result E is a matrix. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.y).uva.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. tel. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. non zero is counter-clockwise. seed.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. bunschot@wins. in matrix coordinate frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. University of Amsterdam. not image frame. E = edgelist(im. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Tested: PC Matlab v5. non-zero is an object. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.j).(+31)20-5257524.

CHAPTER 2. H = epiline(f.R. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. epiline(f. See also fmatrix. p. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. See also epiline.S. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. Oct 27. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). one per line drawn. 1998. I. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Author Based on fmatrix code by. p. Coimbra. p1. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.

c.au/. homography. p2.csse. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. epiline. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Notes • The points must be corresponding.edu. • f is a rank 2 matrix. which means it can be passed to ransac(). The University of Western Australia. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. • Contains a RANSAC driver. that is. page 270. no outlier rejection is performed. See also ransac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. http://www.uwa. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. it is singular. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im.

y1) and (x2. ithin. y1. See also imorph. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x2. itriplepoint. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.

uwa. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. invhomog. no outlier rejection is performed. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/. See also ransac. The University of Western Australia.CHAPTER 2.edu. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Notes • The points must be corresponding. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. which means it can be passed to ransac().csse. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. that is tp=T*T1. R ‘scale’. ie. S ‘dimension’. [out.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. See also homography. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.offs] = homwarp(H. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. D ‘size’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im. itrim. See also e2h. im. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. S output image contains all the warped pixels.CHAPTER 2. V ‘roi’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.

’nfeat’. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ’gs’). features. 179-187. on Information Theory. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Hu. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. features. IT-8:pp. ianimate(seq. ianimate(im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 1962. 200). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). IRE Trans.

iblobs features f = iblobs(im. M ‘npoints’.CHAPTER 2. isurf. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘only’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. YMIN YMAX]. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. iharris. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.

0) 1 for a circle. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. [S1. C set connectivity. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0 ‘connect’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. [A1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. default 1.CHAPTER 2. ilabel. A set pixel aspect ratio. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also iopen. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. This is an dilation followed by erosion. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. See also isobel. T ‘th1’.CHAPTER 2. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. S ‘th0’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. 1996-7. out = iclose(im. Tel Aviv University.

Options ‘dir’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘bgval’. colorize.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [C.CHAPTER 2. [0 1 1]). The images do not have to be of the same size. C = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. iconcat(im.u] = iconcat(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. See also imono. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.

resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. options) convolves im1 with im2.CHAPTER 2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image.

The vector has zero mean and unit norm. D ‘k’. D ‘sigma’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘deriv’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. K ‘patch’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. CT ‘edgegap’. CM ‘cminthresh’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. N ‘detector’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. E ‘suppress’. R ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘dplot’.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. 1994. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. • “Good features to track”. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.CHAPTER 2. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Manchester. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Stephens.d] = icp(p1. 1988. vol. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. pp. with a delay of 0. J. N ‘mindelta’.. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Harris and M.J. p2. Proc. J. T ‘distthresh’. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. pp 147-151. May 1988.5 [sec]. Tomasi. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. [T. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. • “Finding corners”.Noble. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. 593-593. C. Shi and C. IEEE Computer Society. Proc. T ‘maxiter’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. pp.6.121-128. where * denotes squared and smoothed.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Image and Vision Computing. See also PointFeature. with a delay of d [sec].G. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. p2.

The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. m. Intell. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. s = idecimate(im. P. 14. each plane is decimated.. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. m.or 3-dimensional. pp. Feb. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. s = idecimate(im. 1992. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Mach. 239-256. See also iscale. Pattern Anal. 2.Besl and H. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. vol. no.McKay. IEEETrans.

F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. histogram and zooming. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. negative is red. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. C ‘xydata’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. positive is blue. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. zero is black. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. darker than ‘grey’. zero is white. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. If the image is zoomed. positive is blue. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. negative is red. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. XY ‘colormap’. Options ‘ncolors’. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. If im is a cell array of images.and y-axes respectively. linear proﬁle. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white color map: random values.

See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. colormap. idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labelimage. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. See also iblobs. See also image. caxis. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labels. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. icolorize. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labelimage.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.45. See also itriplepoint. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). out = igamma(im. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.CHAPTER 2. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.2. ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Felzenszwalb and D. 1500. 59. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.5). min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. Example im = iread(’58060.m] = igraphseg(im. k. Journal on Computer Vision. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 100. [L. Int. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. 2004. k is the scale parameter. pp. vol. min. k. Sept. [l. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. min. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. P.jpg’). 0. Huttenlocher. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. See also ithresh.CHAPTER 2.m] = igraphseg(im. k. 2006. L = igraphseg(im. min is the minimum region size (pixels).5). imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 167181.

• For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). [H. H = ihist(im. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) displays the image histogram. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [h.h).CHAPTER 2. ’normcdf’). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.x] = ihist(im.h). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. bar(x. plot(x.

ii is a precomputed integral image. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. [L. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. same size as im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Region labels are in the range 1 to M. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. [L.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.m.CHAPTER 2. y2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.y2).y1) and bottom-right (x2. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. y1. x1.

p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p2. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .maxlabel. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. [L. The pixels on the line are set to 1. p1.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. out = iline(im. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.parents. See also iblobs. p1. otherwise it does not. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.class. ilabel(im. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.Y].maxlabel. 8). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. • This is a “low level” function. iproﬁle. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. each a 2-vector [X.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.parents.

[xm. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. s] % relative to (x. -s. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.DY. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y). H. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. x. The return value is xm=[DX.DY) are the x. and columns the vertical position.y).and y-offsets relative to (x. w2. centred at (x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. ymax] relative to (x. s.CHAPTER 2. • ZNCC matching is used.y) and of size s.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.CC] where (DX. • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. im2.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x.score] = imatch(im1. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.y) and its half-width is H. im2. ymin. a perfect match score is 1. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The template in im1 is centred at (x. y. y. xmax.

f = imoments(u. The element u(v. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.CHAPTER 2. [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. All pixels are equally weighted. f = imoments(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.v] = imeshgrid(w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. effectively a greyscale image.u) = v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) = u and v(v. [u. v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. effectively a binary image.

icolor. horizontal coordinate centroid. m11. or its area. See also RegionFeature. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. the elements are m00. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im.CHAPTER 2. • This function does not perform connectivity. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m01. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. ilabel. m20. m10. Different conversion functions are supported. m02.

by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matas. vol. Pajdla. [label. O. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Chum. J. ’double’). ’grey’. Urban. The labels [L. pp. ’light’).org).m] = imser(im.m] = imser(im. 2004. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. se. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 22. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. Sept. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. options) as above but m is the number of regions found.png’. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Image and Vision Computing. and T. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. 761767. m.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.ˆ2). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. See also iclose. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. n. se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. sides. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sides. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. out = iopen(im.

’tblr’. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im1. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 20. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. otherwise im2 is selected. ’t’. im2. p. 10.V]. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.CHAPTER 2.

v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.CHAPTER 2. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p. p1. [p.uv] = iproﬁle(im. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. See also bresenham. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

is order=1. 1. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. op. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscalespace. 12. sigma. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. op. The highest rank. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. nbins. out = ipyramid(im. ones(5. out = imorph(image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. out = imorph(image. the maximum. order. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. im > irank(im.3).2) = 0.CHAPTER 2. out = ipyramid(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions.5)). idecimate. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. se). se. se. se(2.

On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. See also imorph. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). where R=[umin umax. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. R ‘roi’. G ‘reduce’.CHAPTER 2. ivar. vmin vmax]. im = iread(ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value.

im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. imono. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).h1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.h2] = irectify(f. Notes • Color images are not supported. im1. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. igamma. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. See also FeatureMatch.out2.CHAPTER 2.out2] = irectify(f. homwarp. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. istereo. [out1. m. im1. imwrite.

[out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. angle. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S ‘extrapval’.umax.H] return central part of image.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. vmin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. Options ‘outsize’.vmin vmax].R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. See also idisp. V ‘smooth’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmax].CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘outsize’.5 is symmetric cropping. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. out = isamesize(im1.5 moves the crop window up or to the left.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. bias<0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. while bias>0. V ‘smooth’. im2. bias=0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s>1 makes the image larger.CHAPTER 2. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s<1 makes it smaller. s ‘extrapval’.

Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. idecimate. See also iscalespace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). n) as above but sigma=1.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to each step of the sequence. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im.s] = iscalespace(im. [g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). n.L. in space and scale. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.L.

ishomog(T. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. it its third dimension is equal to three. ‘valid’) as above. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ilaplace. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. See also isrot. ismooth. that is. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image.

CHAPTER 2. isurf. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. N ‘suppress’.vlfeat. International Journal of Computer Vision. pp. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. Lowe. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. See also SiftPointFeature. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. 2 (2004). • Features are returned in descending strength order. 60. Reference David G. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. 91-110.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. [w. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zssd. zsad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. ssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. s is same size as im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. @zssd. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. @zsad.CHAPTER 2. See also imatch. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. @ssd.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. and these output pixels are set to NaN.H. ncc. @ncc. s = isimilarity(T. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.

The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. [gx. See also iconv. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx. sigma.gy] = isobel(im. then converted back to integer. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. convolved. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.

options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. H is the half size of the matching window.u) means that imr(v. ‘valid’) as above. See also ishomog. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. else false (0). imr. That is. w. range. imr. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.CHAPTER 2. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.M] for an N × M window. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sim] = istereo(iml. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.u). the disparity d=d(v. range is the disparity search range. [d. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. icanny. See also ksobel. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. range. isrot(R.

enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. out = istretch(im.5).B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. p.CHAPTER 2. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.dsi] = istereo(iml. w. dx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.5 to +0. imr.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. B. [d. [d. range. • sim = max(dsi. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. Options ‘metric’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.A and p. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. That is.sim. imr. range. w.p] = istereo(iml.sim. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. p. ‘ncc’. 3) See also irectify.

options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Notes • Color images. Kroon (U. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. N ‘thresh’. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. T ‘octaves’.CHAPTER 2. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. or sequences. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. See also hitormiss. 3.CHAPTER 2. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. isvec(v. Luc Van Gool. 346–359. Otherwise false (0).or columnvector. out = ithin(im. Vol. Andreas Ess. else false (0). isift. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). itriplepoint. either a row. 110. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Tinne Tuytelaars. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. pp. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. No. See also ishomog.

ithresh(im. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.im2. The default is 0. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The same cropping is applied to each input image.out2] = itrim(im1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.out2] = itrim(im1.5.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. [out1. See also homwarp. Notes • Greyscale image only. a lower value will include more. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.CHAPTER 2. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.

op. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. See also iendpoint. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin.CHAPTER 2.

See also ivar. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. se. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. ones(5.CHAPTER 2. hence output image had reduced dimensions. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.3). ones(3. @std). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. func. out = iwindow(image. se.5). @max). The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.

k = kdgauss(sigma. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. dG/dy.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. is k’. • The vertical derivative. k = kcircle(R. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ones. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. kdog. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. See also kgauss. klog. ktriangle. dG/dx.

See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. klog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. By default SIGMA2 = 1. kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. See also kdgauss. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). sigma2. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . kdog.6*sigma1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. klog.

iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. k = klog(sigma. kdog. See also ilaplace. and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdgauss. iconv.

L = kmeans(x. Pattern Recognition Principles. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. k.CHAPTER 2.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. [L.C] = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. and D is the dimension. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. k. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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[x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). The points are the columns of p. symmetric about the origin. See also cylinder. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. ‘edge’. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). s. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.z] = mkcube(s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated.y. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. Options ‘T’. [x. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.z] = mkcube(s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. C ‘T’. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.

the sum of I(x. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.yq . Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. or y(:. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. See also mpq poly. n) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. That is. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. p.y). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. or y(:. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(t. y. n) MPLOT(y.2)).xp .CHAPTER 2. y) MPLOT(t. npq. n. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. y.

npq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. so centroids will be still be correct. upq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. p. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also mpq.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v.

Example t = niblack(im.2. Prentice-Hall. the height of a character. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. niblack. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. where W=2*w2+1. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. 1986. T has the same dimensions as im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 20). -0.s] = niblack(im.m. for example. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. ssd. See also zncc. k.CHAPTER 2. k. idisp(im >= t). in text segmentation. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. W.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. [T. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. sad.

p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.CHAPTER 2. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. That is UPQ(im. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.q)/MPQ(im. mpq.0.0). b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). npq.CHAPTER 2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. See also mpq poly. they are considered as a single vertex. so centroids will be still be correct. upq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Systems. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. x. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. otsu IEEE Trans. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). [yp. idisp(im >= t). Jan 1979. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y.xp] = peak(y. N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.i] = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Example t = otsu(im). [yp. pp 62-66 See also niblack.

CHAPTER 2. use peak(-V). Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.S points. N ‘scale’. use peak2(-V). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. S ‘interp’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘scale’.S points.

plot2(p. See also pnmﬁlt. ie. If p has three dimensions. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

‘size’. ‘r’. ’edgecolor’. 5). R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. value pairs that are passed to plot. r. PLOT BOX(’centre’. plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. Examples plot_circle(c.y1. P.y2. x2. W. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. P. ’b’).CHAPTER 2. or a set of name. plot_circle(c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.y2). If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ‘size’. PLOT BOX(x1. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’g’. ’LineWidth’. ’fillcolor’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . W. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. r. ’r’). r.y1) and (x2. 1=solid.

with Matlab line style ls. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. If C=[X. xc. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. C.Y].Y. Options ‘color’. ls) ls is the standard line styles. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c Specify color of the axes. centred at the origin. current plot.CHAPTER 2. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.

ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ‘framename’. ’r’). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. options) adds point markers to a plot. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. n ‘text opts’.CHAPTER 2. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. to ‘view’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’name’.X = 0. ’color’. fmt. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ’color’. ‘printf’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. Options ‘textcolor’. trplot( T. ’r’.

R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. color. See also plot. The default is 1. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state.CHAPTER 2. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R. R. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. patch. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. 1=solid. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. either a letter or 3-vector.

iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. plotp(p. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also pgmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used.CHAPTER 2. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format.

• translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gt] = radgrad(im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.

N ‘maxDataTrials’. one column per point pair. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. Options ‘maxTrials’. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. d) as above but elements increment by d. x. x. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x typically contains corresponding point data. T. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T.CHAPTER 2.resid] = ransac(func. [m. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. x. T. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.in] = ransac(func. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .in. [m.

resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.misc element. pp 381-395. If multiple models are found out.out. [out.out. Boles.theta. Comp.theta = DECONDITION(R.CHAPTER 2. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.A. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. Cambridge University Press. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .theta to the points R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.. Comm.resid] = EST(R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.theta and the subset of R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.x.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.theta. [out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.theta] = ERR(R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. they detect a structure argument.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. that is. pp 101-113.x = CONDITION(R.x data to work on.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Mach.s out.x. Vol 24. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.R.x and returns the best model out.t threshold (1 × 1) R. No 6.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. Fishler and R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.inlier.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. References • m.theta = []. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.C. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.misc private data (cell array) out.theta is a cell array. that is they will produce a model. Assoc.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.x) condition the point data out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.

uwa.edu.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.csse. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. If lambda is a vector.

angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. See also roty.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz.

CHAPTER 2. pitch. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Y. See also tr2rpy. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. yaw. If roll. Z axes respectively. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. • many texts (Paul. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. T = rpy2tr(roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. pitch.

tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y. ssd.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. theta) as above where xy=[x. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. See also zsad.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. r2t. y. ncc. and rotation theta in the plane.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Two cross-hairs are created. ncc. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also zsdd.CHAPTER 2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. sad. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector.

boolean or enumeration types (string or int). opt.CHAPTER 2.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. then R is 3 × 3. opt. The software pattern is: function(a. ’other’}. – If T is 3 × 3. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.blah = []. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t.choose = {’this’.foo = true. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .bar = false. varargin) opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. tr2rt. It supports options that have an assigned value. then R is 2 × 2. opt. ’that’. b.

By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. varargin). The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.debug <.y sets opt. x.x.3 ‘blah’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.foo <. varargin). Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.1.select <. args) creates a test pattern image.foo <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.verbose <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.‘this’. ’#yes’}. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If neither of ‘this’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.choose <.blah <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt.select = {’#no’. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.select <. 3 sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. N ‘setopt’.choose <. w.N sets opt <.false ‘blah’.blah <.y ‘that’ sets opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).CHAPTER 2. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.true sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.

n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. 25). [s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 256. 2). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. args are pitch (distance between centres). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). binary square pattern. The trajectory s.sd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 256.sd. sf. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sd and sdd are n-vectors. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args are theta (rad). intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles. a line. binary dot pattern. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. square side length. sf. 50. dot diameter. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sdd] = tpoly(s0. intercept.CHAPTER 2.

[theta. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.CHAPTER 2. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. See also angvec2r.P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. The 3 angles rpy=[R. Y. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Y and Z axes respectively.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.

– If TR is 3 × 3.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.z].y. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. ie. See also rpy2tr. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. • The validity of R is not checked. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.CHAPTER 2. If T has three dimensions. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.:. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2t. See also rt2tr. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. y. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.

Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. [o1. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or x and y. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). An historical anomaly. [c1.CHAPTER 2. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. each N × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.

trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and displays in RPY format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. f ‘label’. trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trprint T is the command line form of above.CHAPTER 2.

(x-x0)p .(y-y0)q where (x0. tr2rpy. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the sum of I(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. mpq.y). p. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. See also upq poly.y0) is the centroid. That is. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 187

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Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. See also ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. See also sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.CHAPTER 2.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sdd. sad. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

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