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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. However the book “Robotics. is open-source. and I commend it to you. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This is extravagant on storage.

. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . CatadioptricCamera . .Contents Introduction . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . .6. . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . col2im . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . colorname . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . kmeans . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . testpattern . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . zncc . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. That’s what you your teachers. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and you will be suitably acknowledged.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. lecturers and professors are paid to do.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.com. You need to signup in order to post. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. tutors.google. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.

I.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. and the “See also” functions to each other. Number = {4}. Corke}. The details are @article{Corke05f.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.gz) or zip format (. Author = {P. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. type of organization and application. 1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.petercorke.zip). 1.html on a server for class use. Year = {2005}.3. Volume = {12}. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.1. The ﬁle robot. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1. 1. Month = nov.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. the table of content to functions.

1.6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. Corke. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. November 2005.. Twente. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.R. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. pp 16–25.Functions such as SURF. Coimbra. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. and there are hundreds of modules available. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. MSER. Vincent Lepetit.I. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. VLFeat http://www.7.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1. 1994 University of British Columbia.mathworks. but not least. 12(4). See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.7 Acknowledgements Last.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.S. P. 1.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

Options ‘name’. IM ‘resolution’. Camera. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. used by all subclasses.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘image’. N ‘sensor’. T ‘color’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.CHAPTER 2. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. P ‘pixel’. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. S ‘noise’.

clf Clear the image plane C. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera. CatadioptricCamera. Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2.centre Get camera position p = C. ﬁsheyecamera.char Convert to string s = C.delete Camera object destructor C. SphericalCamera Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.display Display value C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.

u + b. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.v + c = 0. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.char Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. otherwise false (0). See also Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.CHAPTER 2.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).

Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. y. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. mkcube. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Camera.clf Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.hold. Options ‘Tobj’.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.plot. z.plot(p. cylinder. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. The matrices x.CHAPTER 2.T. y. uv = C. sphere. z to the image plane and plots them. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. T ‘Tcam’. See also mesh.mesh(x. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.clf Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.mesh.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Camera.CHAPTER 2. T ‘scale’. ‘Tobj’. Options ‘Tcam’.T.hold.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. T See also Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Overrides the current camera pose C. ‘fps’. Camera. ‘Tcam’.

rpy Set camera attitude C. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. The image is not inverted. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.y]. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.rpy(R.p.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. a subclass of Camera. C. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.

177 See also CentralCamera. J. E = C. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.8]) See also Camera.Kosecka. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.and v-axes parallel to x.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘sensor’.Soatto. u. p.E Essential matrix E = C. SIGMA ‘pose’.Ma. Springer. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). E = C.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.Sastry. D ‘default’ ‘image’. camera at origin. f=8mm. N ‘focal’.F. S ‘noise’. IM ‘resolution’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.and y-axes respectively. S. “An invitation to 3D”. S. optical axis is z-axis. S ‘centre’. F ‘distortion’.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. CentralCamera. Reference Y. P ‘pixel’. 2003. 10um pixels. T ‘color’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.

S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.H CentralCamera. p. from two viewpoints.E CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C. F = C. S.H Homography matrix H = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.177 See also CentralCamera. Reference Y. 2003.H(T.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Springer.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Soatto.Ma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. “An invitation to 3D”. See also CentralCamera.Sastry. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). n.Kosecka.CHAPTER 2. J.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.

fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. pp. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Lepetit. Moreno-Noguer. a = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision. 2009. vol. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Fua.CHAPTER 2. 81. Feb. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. F. V.estpose(xyz. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. 155-166. and P.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Int.

Sastry.Ma. J.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sastry. Reference Y.Soatto.E CentralCamera. s.Kosecka. “An invitation to 3D”. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). 2003.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. Springer.Kosecka. 259 Y. section 5. J.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Springer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. translation not to scale • n. Chap 9. s.Soatto. p. See also CentralCamera. s.CHAPTER 2. “Multiview Geometry”. p116.Ma. 2003.invE(E. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. s. “An invitation to 3D”. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.

p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.H CentralCamera. p.T. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. one per line. ‘Tcam’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘Tobj’. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot epiline(f.project(p.CHAPTER 2. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also Hough CentralCamera. CentralCamera. H = C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).

June 1992.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. vol. Chaumette.b.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac e(E. Espiau.c. See also Camera. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. and P. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. F. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. 313-326.CHAPTER 2. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Reference B. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.plot CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Rives.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. pp. 8.

Hager & Corke.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). CentralCamera. vol. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. pp 651-670.b. June 1992. R&A. Reference B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Chaumette. pp. Oct.visjac l(L.visjac p(uv. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. F.c. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. 313-326. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.visjac p.visjac p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. 8. Vol 12(5). IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera. Hutchinson. Rives. 1996. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Espiau. and P.CHAPTER 2.visjac p polar.visjac p polar.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. See also CentralCamera.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. IEEE Trans.

Spindler. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac p polar(rt. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). and F.visjac e CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Int.visjac l. pp. in Proc. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. 2009. Oct.visjac p. Chaumette. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2. 5962-5967. (St.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera. P. Corke. I. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. F. radius and theta. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac l. Louis).

• SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. PointFeature. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. D. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.91-110.SIFT. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 2004. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.60.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature.Lowe. Journal on Computer Vision. vol. Int. See also isift. See README. pp. Nov.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. F. See also isift SiftPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.match(f2. C ‘alpha’. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match Match SIFT point features m = F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. SiftPointFeature. v.CHAPTER 2. 1=opaque. 0=transparent (default 0. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F. F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed. out = F.T] = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. [out.CHAPTER 2.support(images.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.project(p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.T. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘pose’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. N ‘pixel’. Options ‘name’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. See also SphericalCamera. T ‘Tcam’. ﬁsheyecamera. CentralCamera.

gain. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera view. image plane size and desired feature locations.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.center of the target in world coords (0. The external view. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. scalar for If null take actual value all points.depth of points to use for Jacobian.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .01) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. error norm. of 4-vector.5) target center .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera view.CHAPTER 2. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. camera pose. defaults in parentheses: target size . error. Jacobian condition number. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.

The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Robotics and Automation.center of the target in world coords (0.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac l. error norm.5) target center . in Proc.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Jacobian condition number. defaults in parentheses: target size .0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.gain. Corke.CHAPTER 2. 5550-5555. P. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. error.the side length of the target in world units (0.01) .visjac p(pt. pp. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.visjac p polar. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Conf. I. CentralCamera. May 3-7 2010. (Anchorage). See also CentralCamera. for all points.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The external view. CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Int. camera pose. of 4-vector. image plane size and desired feature locations.

Tinne Tuytelaars. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 110.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Luc Van Gool. Vol. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. pp. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 346–359. 3. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. No.

options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. ScalePointFeature. PointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. v. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.C] = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.CHAPTER 2.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.match(f2.match Match SURF point features m = F. Options ‘thresh’. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. [m. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

support(im.2) SurfPointFeature. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 1=opaque. 0=transparent (default 0. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. [out.support(images.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale(options. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. out = F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.T] = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im. C ‘alpha’. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com).axis. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. S ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the result is not predictable. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. G ‘scale’. Video AxisWebCamera.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com) web camera.

char Convert to string A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. See also AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.close() closes the connection to the web camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close Close the image source A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.display AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

in Proc. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Ninth IEEE Int. on Computer Vision. Conf. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. f can also be a cell array. b = BagOfWords(f. Oct.1470-1477. pp. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.CHAPTER 2. 2003. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.Zisserman. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.org).BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sivic and A.

See also BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B. images. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .contains Find images containing word k = B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = B.exemplars(w.display Display value B. isurf BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char BagOfWords. BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.

M ‘width’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. BagOfWords. N ‘maxperimage’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.n] = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.isword Features from words f = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘ncolumns’. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.

wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. M ‘k’. S ‘noise’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. ﬁsheyecamera. Options ‘Tobj’. 10um pixels. optical axis is z-axis. P ‘pixel’. u. T ‘Tcam’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. K ‘maxangle’. N ‘focal’. f=8mm. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Camera.and y-axes respectively.project(p.and v-axes parallel to x. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). CatadioptricCamera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. See also Camera. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. S ‘centre’. N ‘sensor’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].project Project world points to image plane uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. A ‘resolution’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘equisolid’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sine’. camera at origin.T.CHAPTER 2. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. such as ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.

one per element. See also FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M.CHAPTER 2. m = FeatureMatch(f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.display Display value M. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. See also PointFeature. FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SurfPointFeature. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.v2].u2.inlier. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier.v1. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

These are the (u. These are the (u.CHAPTER 2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot() M.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.im2}) m.p FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. for example by: idisp({im1.p1.p FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p2. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.

1e-4).ransac( @fmatrix. f2 = isurf(im2). ransac FeatureMatch. See also fmatrix. m.match(f2). Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. m = f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and an error is created if this UserData is not found.ransac(func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. See also idisp FeatureMatch.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. Example f1 = isurf(im1). inliers and outliers (and their percentages). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.ransac Apply RANSAC M. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.CHAPTER 2.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. homography.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted. v.CHAPTER 2.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y This camera model assumes central projection. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.

S ‘centre’. camera at origin. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sine’. ‘equisolid’.CHAPTER 2. K ‘resolution’.and y. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. 10um pixels.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. SIGMA ‘pose’.axes respectively. f=8mm. S ‘noise’. M ‘k’. P ‘pixel’. u. N ‘sensor’. optical axis is z-axis. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.and v-axes are parallel to x. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Options ‘name’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.

In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Options ‘Tobj’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.T. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project(p. T ‘Tcam’. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. See also FishEyeCamera. See also Camera.

The voting array is 2-dimensional. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line. See also LineFeature Hough. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. A horizontal line has theta = 0. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.H). Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.CHAPTER 2. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.

T ‘suppress’. Hough.char Convert to string s = HT.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.1). The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Nrho]. Hough.display Display value HT. See also Hough.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Default 400 × 401. T ‘edgethresh’. W ‘houghthresh’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. W ‘nbins’.5) Set ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. else N = [Ntheta.houghThresh (default 0.edgeThresh. Set ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh (default 0.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. then all elements in an HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. The highest peak is found.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot Plot line features HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. H = HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.CHAPTER 2.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. See also Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision. L = HT.plot.lines Hough.lines Find lines L = HT. LineFeature Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . HT. The process is repeated for all peaks. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot(n.

PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. LineFeature. strength. L = LineFeature(rho.char Convert to string s = L. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2.display Display value L. LENGTH is undeﬁned. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. one per element. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. theta.

seglength(edge.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.points Return points on line segments p = L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. L. See also icanny LineFeature. Small gaps.plot Plot line L. LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. l2 = L. l2 = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.

axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source M.close() closes the connection to the movie.char Convert to string M. Movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.com). Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. G ‘scale’. S ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.

S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. planar. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph create an n-d.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. F Skip frames. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.

v2) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.goal(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.connectivity() g.cost(e) g.edges(e) g.neighbours(v) g. v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.plot() g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().distance(v1.CHAPTER 2. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.coord(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add node(coord) g.component(v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .next(v) g.add node(coord. Object properties (read/write) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.clear() add vertex.add edge(v1. return vid add vertex and edge to v.

v = G. E = G. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add node(x. v.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node(x.add edge(v1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. Options ‘distance’. and returns the edge id E. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. where x is D × 1. and returns the node id v. v2.add edge(v1. v = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. PGraph. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.

coord Coordinate of node x = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.char Convert graph to string s = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. of node id v.d] = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CHAPTER 2.clear Clear the graph G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph. and the distance d. D × 1.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. edges and components. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G. [v. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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See also ScalePointFeature. v.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.display Display value F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SurfPointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.

C] = F. PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match Match point features m = F.char PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. [m.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2.CHAPTER 2. where 1 is perfect match. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. the norm of the Euclidean distance. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2.

one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. F. Polygon .plot Plot feature F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

html and require a licence.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. difference.mit. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. one column per vertex. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. intersection. kirill@plume. Polygon. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.mit.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so use with care.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.area Area of polygon a = P.edu. p = Polygon(C. union. Polygon. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. HEIGHT].char String representation s = P. http://puddle. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Pankratov.

char Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. returns coordinates of P. See also Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).display Display polygon P.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Polygon. Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.CHAPTER 2. else 0.

• If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon. y1 y2].CHAPTER 2. Polygon.moments(p. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. returns empty polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. each column is [x y]’.

plot Plot polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.union Union of polygons i = P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot() plot the polygon. Polygon. P.

Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.CHAPTER 2.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char Ray3D. [x. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.E] = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. See also Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. [x.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. one per element.E] = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.

maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.

imoments RegionFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.th] = R. RegionFeature. one per element. RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. See also iblobs.xmax. For example R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.box Return bounding box b = R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax].char Convert to string s = R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector. ymin.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. It is indicated with overlaid o. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R.display Display value R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. See also RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary plot boundary R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.and xmarkers.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature.plot box Plot bounding box R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R. R.

ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 0=transparent (default 0.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. 1=opaque. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. ScalePointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F.CHAPTER 2. v. v. strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. C ‘alpha’. See also PointFeature. F. SurfPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.

During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. T ‘movie’. Options ‘radius’.CHAPTER 2. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. N ‘thresh’. C. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. one per active track. See also PointFeature Tracker. R ‘nslots’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. options) is a new tracker object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2.plot Show feature trajectories T.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Tracker. Tracker.display Display value T. See also Tracker.char Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Movie Video. and their characteristics is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. AxisWebCamera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. otherwise the result is not predictable.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close Close the image source V.grab() acquires an image from the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.char Convert to string V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera.CHAPTER 2. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. If th1 is a column vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. color. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. the ﬁrst for left. and the right image is cyan. By default the left image is red. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. right. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right.CHAPTER 2. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. a = anaglyph(left. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle.

r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. [x. p = bresenham(p1.y2]. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y1] and p2=[x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. 6500). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also RegionFeature. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. % emission of sun plot(l. x2. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y2).y1) to (x2.boundary. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. p2) as above but p1=[x1. If lambda is a column vector. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Endpoints must be integer.CHAPTER 2. y1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.s] = boundmatch(R1.

E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.CHAPTER 2.Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. [C. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.

opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red.CHAPTER 2. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. Options ‘n’. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). x = circle(C. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B).y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. [k. green and blue primaries respectively. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. and x is N × 3. R. k = closest(a.d1] = closest(a. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. that is. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.

rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).d2] = closest(a.d1. and 22500 (444. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.ucl.CHAPTER 2.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.5. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).5.32). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.5. 335 of Table 1(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ioo. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.ac.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Data from http://cvrl.16).5. 19000 (526. • From Table I(5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. As noted in footnote a on p.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. they were measured directly. while Table I(5. since. (Table 1(5.

Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ioo. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.M). imsize is a 2-vector (N. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.uk See also cmfrgb. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.CHAPTER 2.ucl.ac. out = col2im(pix. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.

colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

@isnan. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. See also imono. @isnan. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. [L. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.CHAPTER 2. mask.C] = colorkmeans(im. icolor. im<100.G.B). options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. func. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. k. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. eg. out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. and returns a per-pixel logical result. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.

the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eg. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. L = colorkmeans(im. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.CHAPTER 2. low is good.R] = colorkmeans(im. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. k) as above but also returns the residual R. XYZ = colorname(name. name = colorname(XYZ. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.C. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.

txt. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. As MATLAB’s native datatype. [o1. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. • Color space names are case insensitive. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o3] = colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. s = ‘dest<-src’. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. double data is the natural choice. it can be omitted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. Input and output images have 3 planes.i2. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. colorspace(s.o2.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. s = ‘src->dest’. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. or alternatively. i1.CHAPTER 2.

distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. for memory and computational performance. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out will also have size M × 3. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .200).CHAPTER 2. B = rand(400.B).b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. However. • If im is an M × 3 array. Example A = rand(400. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.100). d = distance(A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.2*A. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). like a colormap.

not image frame.y).2 and Solaris Matlab v5.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. in matrix coordinate frame. bunschot@wins. University of Amsterdam.uva.(+31)20-5257524. seed. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.j). See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. E = edgelist(im. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. non zero is counter-clockwise. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. The result E is a matrix. tel. Tested: PC Matlab v5. non-zero is an object.3.

fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Coimbra. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. I. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. epiline(f. 1998. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also epiline.S. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.R.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p. See also fmatrix. Author Based on fmatrix code by.CHAPTER 2. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Oct 27. p1. one per line drawn. H = epiline(f.

epiline.au/. no outlier rejection is performed. See also ransac. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Notes • The points must be corresponding.uwa. • f is a rank 2 matrix. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. http://www. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. p2. homography. page 270. that is. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. c. that is. it is singular. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.edu. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. • Contains a RANSAC driver. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. The University of Western Australia. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.csse.

CHAPTER 2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. ithin. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. y1. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). itriplepoint. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph. x2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.y2).

• If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be corresponding. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. invhomog.edu. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. no outlier rejection is performed. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. which means it can be passed to ransac().au/. The University of Western Australia. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.uwa.CHAPTER 2. See also ransac. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.csse. http://www.

ie. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs.offs] = homwarp(H. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. See also homography. D ‘size’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. V ‘roi’. S ‘dimension’. R ‘scale’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. [out. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is tp=T*T1. im.CHAPTER 2. See also e2h. im. itrim.

Hu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 200). features. on Information Theory. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ianimate(seq. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features. 1962. ianimate(im. ’nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. 179-187. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. IRE Trans. ’gs’). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. IT-8:pp. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq).

idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘only’. M ‘npoints’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. YMIN YMAX]. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.

4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. [A1. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0 ‘connect’. default 1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. ilabel. [S1. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. A set pixel aspect ratio. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. horizontal coordinate centroid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C set connectivity.CHAPTER 2.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. vertical coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.

T ‘th1’. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. 1996-7. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also isobel.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. S ‘th0’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. Tel Aviv University.CHAPTER 2. See also iopen. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. out = iclose(im.

C = icolor(im. [C.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. D ‘bgval’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). [0 1 1]). Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘dir’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.u] = iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. iconcat(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. The images do not have to be of the same size.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. colorize. See also imono.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2.CHAPTER 2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. options) convolves im1 with im2. im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image.

• If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. D ‘sigma’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CT ‘edgegap’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. E ‘suppress’. N ‘detector’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. D ‘k’. CM ‘cminthresh’. R ‘nfeat’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. K ‘patch’. S ‘deriv’.

pp. May 1988. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. See also PointFeature. pp. Stephens. Proc.Noble. T ‘maxiter’.121-128. • “Finding corners”.5 [sec]. N ‘mindelta’. IEEE Computer Society.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. C. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. J. where * denotes squared and smoothed. J. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. • “Good features to track”. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Shi and C. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Manchester. 1988. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with a delay of d [sec]. Harris and M. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. pp 147-151. Tomasi. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Options ‘dplot’.CHAPTER 2. with a delay of 0. T ‘distthresh’. Image and Vision Computing.. vol. 1994. Proc. [T.J. p2. 593-593. p2. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.6.d] = icp(p1.G.

or 3-dimensional. Mach. 1992. m. See also iscale. m. s = idecimate(im. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. 2.Besl and H. 14. 239-256. Feb.CHAPTER 2.. Pattern Anal. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. IEEETrans. pp. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . no. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. P. Intell. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. s = idecimate(im. each plane is decimated.McKay. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. vol. Notes • If the image has multiple planes.

image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. If the image is zoomed. histogram and zooming. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. zero is white. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘ncolors’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. If im is a cell array of images. C ‘xydata’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. positive is blue. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. negative is red. negative is red. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. positive is blue. darker than ‘grey’. zero is black. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. zero is white color map: random values. XY ‘colormap’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.and y-axes respectively. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. linear proﬁle. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’.CHAPTER 2. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally).

caxis. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labelimage. idisplabel(im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. icolorize. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. See also iblobs. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. colormap. See also image. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labelimage. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labels. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin.CHAPTER 2. out = igamma(im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. See also itriplepoint.45. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.2.

0. min. k.m] = igraphseg(im. 2004. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. min. Journal on Computer Vision. Felzenszwalb and D. Huttenlocher.jpg’). [L. L = igraphseg(im. See also ithresh. vol.5). [l. min is the minimum region size (pixels). k is the scale parameter. 1500. Sept. k. 2006. Example im = iread(’58060. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. P.5). sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.m] = igraphseg(im.CHAPTER 2. 167181. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Int. pp. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 100. 59. k.

[H. options) displays the image histogram. H = ihist(im. [h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2. plot(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h). bar(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im).h).

Region labels are in the range 1 to M. [L. y2. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. [L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ii is a precomputed integral image. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.y2).CHAPTER 2.y1) and bottom-right (x2. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. same size as im. x1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.m. y1.

ilabel(im. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. 8).class.Y].parents.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. See also iblobs. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p2. otherwise it does not. each a 2-vector [X.maxlabel. iproﬁle. [L. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The pixels on the line are set to 1.CHAPTER 2.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. • This is a “low level” function.maxlabel. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.parents. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. p1. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. out = iline(im. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1. eg.

The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. x.score] = imatch(im1. a perfect match score is 1.CHAPTER 2. s] % relative to (x.CC] where (DX.y). If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.DY. ymin.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. H. [xm. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). • Is a MEX ﬁle. and columns the vertical position. -s. • ZNCC matching is used. centred at (x. ymax] relative to (x. x. The return value is xm=[DX.y). s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. xmax.y) and of size s.DY) are the x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y) and its half-width is H. im2.and y-offsets relative to (x. The template in im1 is centred at (x. s. y. im2. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. w2. y.

CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. H) as above but the domain is w × H.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. effectively a greyscale image.v] = imeshgrid(w. v. [u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) = u and v(v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. All pixels are equally weighted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image. [u. f = imoments(u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. The element u(v.u) = v.

Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. icolor.CHAPTER 2. ilabel. m02. the elements are m00. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m10. Different conversion functions are supported. horizontal coordinate centroid. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. or its area. m11. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m20. m01. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. • This function does not perform connectivity.

’double’). Pajdla. Chum. The labels [L. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. ’grey’. Matas.org). ’light’). [label. and T. Image and Vision Computing. 22. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. pp. se. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.png’. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.CHAPTER 2. 761767. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im.m] = imser(im. 2004. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. J. Sept. Urban. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. O.m] = imser(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.CHAPTER 2. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.ˆ2). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.

imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. This is an erosion followed by dilation. sides. n. See also iclose. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. se. sides. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. out = iopen(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v.

If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected.CHAPTER 2.V]. im1. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im2. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. ’t’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ’tblr’. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. p. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 10. otherwise im2 is selected. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 20. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.

p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. p1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.uv] = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2.v) for the corresponding row of p. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. [p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also bresenham. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.

sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. se). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. out = imorph(image. nbins. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = ipyramid(im. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size.5)). Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. 1. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. ones(5. See also iscalespace. op. se. se. idecimate. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. The highest rank. sigma. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. 12.CHAPTER 2. im > irank(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. the maximum. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. out = ipyramid(im.2) = 0. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. se(2. out = imorph(image. is order=1. order. op.3). hence output image had reduced dimensions.

where R=[umin umax. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. vmin vmax]. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. G ‘reduce’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. im = iread(ﬁle. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. ivar. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R ‘roi’.CHAPTER 2. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. See also imorph. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix.

imono. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .out2] = irectify(f. im1. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. imwrite. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. See also FeatureMatch. m.out2. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.h2] = irectify(f.CHAPTER 2. im1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). istereo. [out1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Notes • Color images are not supported. homwarp. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. m. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. igamma. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.h1.

H] return central part of image. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. vmin. See also idisp. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmin vmax].R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.CHAPTER 2. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘outsize’. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S ‘extrapval’.vmax]. angle.umax. V ‘smooth’.

s<1 makes it smaller. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s ‘extrapval’. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias=0. out = isamesize(im1.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s>1 makes the image larger. Options ‘outsize’.CHAPTER 2. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.5 is symmetric cropping. V ‘smooth’. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. while bias>0. im2. bias<0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.

s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. corresponding to each step of the sequence. in space and scale.L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n) as above but sigma=1. [g.s] = iscalespace(im. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). idecimate.CHAPTER 2. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .s] = iscalespace(im. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. See also iscalespace. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.

‘valid’) as above. See also isrot. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ishomog(T. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.CHAPTER 2. ismooth. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ilaplace. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. that is. it its third dimension is equal to three. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. else false (0).

isurf. N ‘suppress’. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also SiftPointFeature.vlfeat. pp. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. 2 (2004). • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. 60. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. Lowe. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. International Journal of Computer Vision. 91-110. Reference David G.

ssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @ssd.CHAPTER 2. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. zssd. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.H. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imatch. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. ncc. @zssd. s is same size as im. @zsad. [w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. zsad. and these output pixels are set to NaN. sad. im. [w. @ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. s = isimilarity(T.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.

This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. See also iconv. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. [gx. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. [gx. sigma. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. convolved. then converted back to integer.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.gy] = isobel(im. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.

isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.sim] = istereo(iml. isrot(R. the disparity d=d(v. range. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. else false (0).u).CHAPTER 2. imr. [d. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u) means that imr(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. icanny. See also ishomog. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. range.M] for an N × M window. ‘valid’) as above.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. range is the disparity search range. That is. w. H. imr. H is the half size of the matching window. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). See also ksobel. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.

‘ncc’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. That is. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. p.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. [d. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.sim. imr. range. w.dsi] = istereo(iml.p] = istereo(iml. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).5 to +0. range. w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • sim = max(dsi. B.A and p. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. 3) See also irectify. out = istretch(im.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. Options ‘metric’.CHAPTER 2.5).sim. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. dx. imr. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). [d. p.

Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). N ‘thresh’. Kroon (U. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. or sequences. Notes • Color images. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. T ‘octaves’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold.

See also ishomog. isvec(v. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Otherwise false (0). isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 110.or columnvector. See also hitormiss. either a row. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. 3. No. isift. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tinne Tuytelaars. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. out = ithin(im. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. itriplepoint.CHAPTER 2. Luc Van Gool. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Andreas Ess. else false (0). L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 346–359.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration.

out2] = itrim(im1. See also homwarp. The default is 0. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. Notes • Greyscale image only. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The same cropping is applied to each input image.out2] = itrim(im1. a lower value will include more.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.5.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.im2. ithresh(im.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. se. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. See also iendpoint. ithin. op.CHAPTER 2. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.

The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. out = iwindow(image.CHAPTER 2. ones(5.3). func. @std). se. See also ivar. @max). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. se. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.5). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. hence output image had reduced dimensions.

k = kdgauss(sigma.CHAPTER 2. ktriangle. See also ones. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. kdog. klog. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. k = kcircle(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. • The vertical derivative. dG/dx. See also kgauss. is k’. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. dG/dy. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.

k = kdog(sigma1. k = kgauss(sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .6*sigma1. k = kdog(sigma1. kdog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. See also kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. See also kgauss. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). klog. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. sigma2. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. kdgauss. By default SIGMA2 = 1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed.

iconv. See also ilaplace. kdgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = klog(sigma. kdog. and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.

C] = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez.C] = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. it is assumed to have been completed previously. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Pattern Recognition Principles. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. and D is the dimension. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.CHAPTER 2. L = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. k. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. [L. k.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.y. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. symmetric about the origin.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘T’.z] = mkcube(s. [x. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. See also cylinder. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.y. ‘edge’. The points are the columns of p.z] = mkcube(s. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s. C ‘T’. [x. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.

mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.yq . Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. y. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. npq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.xp . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. p. the sum of I(x. n) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.y). MPLOT(t. That is. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. or y(:. y) MPLOT(t. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). See also mpq poly. or y(:.CHAPTER 2. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n.2)). y.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. so centroids will be still be correct. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also mpq. npq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. upq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex.

• w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. See also zncc. 1986. where W=2*w2+1. niblack.2.m. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. T has the same dimensions as im. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.CHAPTER 2. in text segmentation.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. -0. Example t = niblack(im. sad. 20). k. the height of a character. idisp(im >= t). Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. [T. k. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Prentice-Hall. for example. • A common choice of k=-0.s] = niblack(im. W. ssd. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.

mpq. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. That is UPQ(im.CHAPTER 2. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p. See also npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .q)/MPQ(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.0).p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.0.

See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq. See also mpq poly. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. mpq. npq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). they are considered as a single vertex.

Systems. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.xp] = peak(y. Example t = otsu(im). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979.i] = peak(y. otsu IEEE Trans. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. x. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. [yp. [yp.CHAPTER 2. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. N. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. idisp(im >= t).

ij] = peak2(z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. N ‘scale’.S points. use peak2(-V).S points.CHAPTER 2. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’. use peak(-V). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.

CHAPTER 2. plot2(p. If p has three dimensions. ie. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also pnmﬁlt. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im.

ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. 1=solid. P. r. PLOT BOX(’centre’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.y2). options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. 5). r. ’LineWidth’. ’fillcolor’. plot_circle(c. r. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ’edgecolor’. x2. ’r’). ’b’). ‘size’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PLOT BOX(x1. W.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. plot_circle(c. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.CHAPTER 2. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. P.y1. W. ‘size’. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. or a set of name. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Examples plot_circle(c. R.y2. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ‘r’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y1) and (x2. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’g’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.

Y]. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. with Matlab line style ls.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.Y. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.CHAPTER 2. xc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. If C=[X. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c Specify color of the axes. ls) ls is the standard line styles. C. Options ‘color’. centred at the origin. current plot. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.

The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’r’. ‘framename’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’r’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. Options ‘textcolor’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ‘printf’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. to ‘view’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L.X = 0. ’color’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ’color’.CHAPTER 2. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. trplot( T. ’name’. fmt. n ‘text opts’.

patch. NOTES • The sphere is always added. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. 1=solid.CHAPTER 2. The default is 1. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . either a letter or 3-vector. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. R. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. See also plot. R.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plotp(p. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p can be N × 2 or N × 3. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also plot.CHAPTER 2. See also pgmﬁlt. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. [gr. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.

in. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. x typically contains corresponding point data. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.CHAPTER 2. one column per point pair. T. T. x. x. x. N ‘maxDataTrials’. [m.resid] = ransac(func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. Options ‘maxTrials’. [m. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .in] = ransac(func. T. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.

fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. Boles. Mach. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.s out.x.out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. If multiple models are found out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .t threshold (1 × 1) R. Fishler and R.misc private data (cell array) out.theta = DECONDITION(R.. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. pp 381-395. Cambridge University Press. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.x and returns the best model out. that is. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.A. Assoc.inlier.CHAPTER 2. [out.theta.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.theta.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.R.C. Comm.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. they detect a structure argument. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. [out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. References • m.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. Vol 24.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.s sample size (1 × 1) out.misc element.theta and the subset of R. Comp.theta to the points R.x data to work on.resid] = EST(R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x. No 6.x) condition the point data out.x = CONDITION(R.theta] = ERR(R.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta = []. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. pp 101-113. that is they will produce a model.theta is a cell array.

See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.edu.csse. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.au/ pk See also fmatrix. If lambda is a vector. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.

CHAPTER 2. roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. See also rotx. See also roty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Z axes respectively. yaw. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. T = rpy2tr(roll.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. See also tr2rpy. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch. pitch. If roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. • many texts (Paul. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Y. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.

tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. ssd.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.y. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsad. ncc. theta) as above where xy=[x.CHAPTER 2. and rotation theta in the plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. r2t. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. y. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.

ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Two cross-hairs are created. sad. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also zsdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt.CHAPTER 2. opt.choose = {’this’. b.blah = []. c. opt. then R is 2 × 2. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. The software pattern is: function(a. tr2rt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. ’that’. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. It supports options that have an assigned value.foo = true. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). varargin) opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . – If T is 3 × 3. then R is 3 × 3.bar = false. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. ’other’}.

false ‘blah’. If neither of ‘this’. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. args) creates a test pattern image. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.blah <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).N sets opt <. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. varargin). The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. x. w. 3 sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.foo <.y sets opt. N ‘setopt’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.CHAPTER 2.‘this’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.verbose <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.blah <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.1.foo <. ’#yes’}. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.3 ‘blah’. varargin). which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.select <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.debug <.x.select <. opt = tb_optparse(opt.choose <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.true sets opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.select = {’#no’.choose <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.

intercept. 256. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.sd. sd and sdd are n-vectors. args are pitch (distance between centres). binary square pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0. binary dot pattern. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. 256. dot diameter. args are theta (rad). 50. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.CHAPTER 2. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 25).sd. The trajectory s. args is the number of cycles. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sf. 2). a line. [s. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sf. square side length. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args is the number of cycles.

options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.CHAPTER 2. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). The 3 angles rpy=[R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Y. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. rpy = tr2rpy(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Y and Z axes respectively.P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [theta. See also angvec2r. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.

y. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. – If TR is 3 × 3.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. ie. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. r2t. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. • The validity of R is not checked. See also rpy2tr. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. If T has three dimensions.z].CHAPTER 2. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.y. See also rt2tr.:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.

If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [o1. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). An historical anomaly.CHAPTER 2. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. each N × 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. [c1.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. or x and y. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. troty. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers.CHAPTER 2. trotx. trprint T is the command line form of above. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f ‘label’. trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

the sum of I(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. mpq. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.y).y0) is the centroid. tr2rpy.CHAPTER 2.(y-y0)q where (x0. p. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. See also upq poly. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(x-x0)p . That is. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sad. ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also ncc.CHAPTER 2. ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. See also sdd. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.

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