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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. and I commend it to you. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This is extravagant on storage. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. However the book “Robotics. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . 1. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. about . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . homography . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . R . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . .

. . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . isize . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . .

. . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . trotx . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

tutors.com.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. That’s what you your teachers.google. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. and you will be suitably acknowledged. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You need to signup in order to post.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.

The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Author = {P.I. the table of content to functions. Month = nov. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the “See also” functions to each other. 1.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. type of organization and application. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.petercorke. 1. 1.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. The ﬁle robot. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Number = {4}.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Year = {2005}. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Volume = {12}.zip).gz) or zip format (. Corke}.1.html on a server for class use.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.3.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. The details are @article{Corke05f.

contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. Twente. Coimbra. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.vlfeat. Corke. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. pp 16–25.7 Acknowledgements Last. VLFeat http://www.I.6.1. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Vincent Lepetit. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.Functions such as SURF.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. and there are hundreds of modules available.. MSER.R. 1. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. 1994 University of British Columbia.mathworks. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.7. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.S. 12(4). IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 1.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. P. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. but not least. November 2005.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

N ‘image’. used by all subclasses.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. T ‘color’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘noise’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. P ‘pixel’. N ‘sensor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. Options ‘name’.

Camera. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display Display value C.clf Clear the image plane C.centre Get camera position p = C. Camera. CatadioptricCamera. SphericalCamera Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

otherwise false (0). See also Camera. C.u + b. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.v + c = 0.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.CHAPTER 2.char Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. and off if H is false (or 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.

The matrices x. mkcube. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Camera.T. Options ‘Tobj’. y. See also mesh. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. sphere.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Camera.plot(p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot.mesh(x. cylinder. y. y. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.hold. z. Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. z to the image plane and plots them.clf Camera. Camera. uv = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot Plot points on image plane C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.CHAPTER 2.

T. Camera. ‘fps’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Overrides the current camera pose C. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tcam’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Camera.mesh. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. ‘Tobj’.hold.clf Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.CHAPTER 2. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. T ‘scale’. ‘Tcam’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.

p. C.rpy Set camera attitude C. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy(R.y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. a subclass of Camera.CHAPTER 2.p. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera.

p. S. SIGMA ‘pose’. ﬁsheyecamera. P ‘pixel’. T ‘color’.Sastry.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). “An invitation to 3D”. CentralCamera. E = C. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. camera at origin. E = C. u. J.and v-axes parallel to x. IM ‘resolution’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. F ‘distortion’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. 2003.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F. S ‘noise’.E Essential matrix E = C. N ‘focal’. S. 10um pixels. Reference Y.Ma.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera.Soatto. S ‘centre’. D ‘default’ ‘image’. f=8mm.Kosecka.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. Springer. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. N ‘sensor’.8]) See also Camera.and y-axes respectively. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. optical axis is z-axis. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.177 See also CentralCamera.

CHAPTER 2.H Homography matrix H = C. S.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). See also CentralCamera.Ma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. J.H CentralCamera. 2003. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.E CentralCamera. F = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.Kosecka.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. “An invitation to 3D”. p.177 See also CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C. from two viewpoints.Soatto.Sastry. Springer.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. n.H(T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S. Reference Y.

V. CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.CHAPTER 2. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. 155-166.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. F.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 2009.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Feb.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Fua. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Moreno-Noguer. pp. Lepetit. vol. and P. a = C. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. See also quiver CentralCamera. 81. Int. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .estpose(xyz.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Journal on Computer Vision.

“An invitation to 3D”. “Multiview Geometry”. See also CentralCamera.E CentralCamera. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.CHAPTER 2. 2003. Reference Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Kosecka. p116. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Sastry. Springer. s. s.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Ma.Soatto. Springer. translation not to scale • n.Sastry. J. section 5. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Kosecka. s.Soatto.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.invE(E. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. “An invitation to 3D”. 2003. 259 Y. s.Ma. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Chap 9. p. J.

project(p. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f. one per line. H = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.CHAPTER 2. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. ‘Tobj’. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).H CentralCamera.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. ‘Tcam’. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot epiline(f. See also Hough CentralCamera. p.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Chaumette. Rives. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.CHAPTER 2. June 1992. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. 8.plot CentralCamera. Espiau. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. pp. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.b.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. See also Camera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. “Multiview Geometry”.c. 313-326.visjac e(E. F. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Reference B. and P. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac l(L. F. June 1992. Hager & Corke. 1996.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). CentralCamera. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). pp. CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Vol 12(5). IEEE Trans. vol. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Espiau. and P.visjac p polar. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. 8.visjac p.visjac p. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Chaumette. Oct. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.b. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac p(uv.c. CentralCamera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. See also CentralCamera. Hutchinson. Rives. pp 651-670.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. R&A. Reference B. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 313-326.

Oct. radius and theta. CentralCamera. in Proc. F. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. I. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. P.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac l. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). and F. (St.visjac p polar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Corke. CentralCamera. 2009. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Louis). Chaumette. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Spindler. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. 5962-5967.visjac e CentralCamera. pp.visjac p. Int.

SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. See also isift. pp. Journal on Computer Vision. vol. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. See README. ScalePointFeature.60.CHAPTER 2.91-110. 2004. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.Lowe. D. Int. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. PointFeature. Nov.SIFT.

Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match(f2.CHAPTER 2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. SiftPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = PointFeature(u. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. 1=opaque.match Match SIFT point features m = F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. C ‘alpha’. v. F. See also isift SiftPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options.

out = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. [out. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.CHAPTER 2.support(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F.support(images.support(im. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also SphericalCamera. S ‘pose’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘name’. N ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Options ‘Tobj’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.T. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ﬁsheyecamera. Overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2.project(p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.

The external view. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. image plane size and desired feature locations. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.01) . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. camera pose.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. scalar for If null take actual value all points.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The camera view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.0.the side length of the target in world units (0.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.CHAPTER 2.center of the target in world coords (0.gain. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . error norm.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.depth of points to use for Jacobian. of 4-vector.5) target center . defaults in parentheses: target size .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. error. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. Jacobian condition number.

for all points. See also CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Corke.01) . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. error norm. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . CentralCamera. pp. of 4-vector.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the side length of the target in world units (0. in Proc. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Robotics and Automation. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).visjac p polar. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. 5550-5555. May 3-7 2010.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . IEEE Int.depth of points to use for Jacobian. image plane size and desired feature locations.visjac p(pt.gain. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The external view. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. camera pose. Jacobian condition number. CentralCamera.0.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac l.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . scalar for If null take actual value all points. (Anchorage). Conf.center of the target in world coords (0.5) target center . error. P. I. defaults in parentheses: target size . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.

“SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Vol. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. pp. 110. 346–359. Luc Van Gool. Andreas Ess. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . No. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.

v.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Options ‘thresh’.C] = F. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match Match SURF point features m = F. [m.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.

w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. 0=transparent (default 0. F.support(im. 1=opaque.T] = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. C ‘alpha’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. [out.2) SurfPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(images.support(images. out = F.

options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis. G ‘scale’. otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.com) web camera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Video AxisWebCamera.axis.com).AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’.

close() closes the connection to the web camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.display AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. See also AxisWebCamera.

Oct. Ninth IEEE Int. pp. b = BagOfWords(f.Zisserman. 2003.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. in Proc.1470-1477. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.org). f can also be a cell array. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Conf. on Computer Vision.Sivic and A.

display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. images.CHAPTER 2.char BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.exemplars(w.exemplars display exemplars of words B.contains Find images containing word k = B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. isurf BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

isword Features from words f = B.CHAPTER 2. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.remove stop Remove stop words B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.n] = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’. M ‘width’.

subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.

CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2.

10um pixels.and v-axes parallel to x. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.and y-axes respectively. P ‘pixel’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T.project(p. S ‘centre’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ﬁsheyecamera. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘sine’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. S ‘noise’. See also Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. f=8mm. T ‘Tcam’. N ‘sensor’. See also Camera. ‘equisolid’. Options ‘Tobj’. N ‘focal’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. M ‘k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. K ‘maxangle’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.CHAPTER 2. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. A ‘resolution’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. optical axis is z-axis. u. CatadioptricCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. camera at origin.

p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. See also PointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. such as ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SurfPointFeature.

FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. See also PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.char Convert to string s = M. FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.CHAPTER 2.display Display value M.

p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.u2.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier.v1. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.v2]. FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.outlier. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.ransac FeatureMatch.

See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. for example by: idisp({im1. See also FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. These are the (u.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2 FeatureMatch.im2}) m.p1.plot() M.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p1. FeatureMatch.

ransac(func.CHAPTER 2.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac( @fmatrix.match(f2).ransac Apply RANSAC M. Example f1 = isurf(im1).show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. f2 = isurf(im2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. See also fmatrix. 1e-4). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. m. m = f1. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). See also idisp FeatureMatch. ransac FeatureMatch. homography.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. that is. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.

‘sine’.and v-axes are parallel to x. P ‘pixel’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘name’. f=8mm. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.axes respectively. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). camera at origin. SIGMA ‘pose’. u. ‘equisolid’. 10um pixels. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].CHAPTER 2. S ‘centre’. optical axis is z-axis. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. S ‘noise’. K ‘resolution’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. M ‘k’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].and y. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. N ‘sensor’.

For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.CHAPTER 2. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project(p. CentralCamera. See also FishEyeCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.T.

a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. A horizontal line has theta = 0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. See also LineFeature Hough. The voting array is 2-dimensional.H).Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.0) and the line. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Hough. See also Hough.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.display Display value HT. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Convert to string s = HT.houghThresh (default 0.edgeThresh. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.1).edgeThresh (default 0. Nrho]. Hough. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. W ‘houghthresh’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘suppress’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Default 400 × 401.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. else N = [Ntheta. W ‘nbins’. N All edge pixels have equal weight.5) Set ht. T ‘edgethresh’. Set ht.

lines Find lines L = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks. reﬁned to subpixel precision.plot Plot line features HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. H = HT. See also Hough.lines Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. HT. LineFeature Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.plot(n.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. The highest peak is found. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot. HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.CHAPTER 2. then all elements in an HT. L = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.

If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.

strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta. LENGTH is undeﬁned.char Convert to string s = L.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. one per element. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. theta. See also LineFeature. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. L = LineFeature(rho.display Display value L. strength.

Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot Plot line L. l2 = L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the line on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Small gaps. l2 = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also icanny LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge. L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. less than gap pixels are tolerated.

com).close() closes the connection to the movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S ‘skip’. Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. Movie.char Convert to string M.axis. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.

grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. planar. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. F Skip frames.CHAPTER 2. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. undirected graph create an n-d. S ‘frame’. Options ‘skip’. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. v2) g.clear() add vertex.next(v) g.goal(v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.edges(e) g.cost(e) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add edge(v1.neighbours(v) g. v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.component(v) g.add node(coord. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord) g.distance(v1. return vid add vertex and edge to v.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().plot() g.CHAPTER 2.connectivity() g.coord(v) g.

and returns the node id v. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. and returns the edge id E. v = G.add edge(v1. v. where x is D × 1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. PGraph. v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. PGraph. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.CHAPTER 2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. E = G.add node(x.add edge(v1. Options ‘distance’. v2. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add node(x.

CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the distance d. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G. of node id v.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph. D × 1.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.d] = G.CHAPTER 2.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. [v.clear Clear the graph G. edges and components.coord(v) return coordinate vector.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Convert to string s = F.CHAPTER 2. v.display Display value F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. See also ScalePointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. one per element. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. SurfPointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.

match(f2. Options ‘thresh’. [m.C] = F.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where 1 is perfect match. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.CHAPTER 2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. PointFeature.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. the norm of the Euclidean distance.char PointFeature.match Match point features m = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.

F. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot Plot feature F.CHAPTER 2. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. Polygon .

Pankratov. one column per vertex. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. http://puddle. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.CHAPTER 2. kirill@plume. p = Polygon(C. intersection.mit. so use with care. difference.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.char String representation s = P. union.edu.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.html and require a licence. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Polygon. HEIGHT]. Polygon. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P.mit.area() is the area of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.

• If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. See also Polygon. returns coordinates of P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.char Polygon. Polygon. else 0.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).display Display polygon P. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.difference Difference of polygons d = P.

moments Moments of polygon a = P.CHAPTER 2.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. y1 y2]. returns empty polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. each column is [x y]’.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.moments(p.

union Union of polygons i = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.CHAPTER 2. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.plot Plot polygon P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.

deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2.

char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. [x. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.char Convert to string s = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value R.char Ray3D. [x. Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.E] = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.CHAPTER 2. See also Ray3D. Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. one per element. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.

Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.b. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.c.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. vertical coordinate bounding box.

boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.uc will be a list not a vector. RegionFeature. ymin. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also iblobs.th] = R. one per element. imoments RegionFeature.xmax.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example R. ymax].box Return bounding box b = R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.char Convert to string s = R.

plot boundary plot boundary R. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display Display value R. See also RegionFeature.char RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot Plot centroid R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.and xmarkers. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.

Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box Plot bounding box R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.CHAPTER 2.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale Plot feature scale F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. C ‘alpha’. v. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature. v. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. See also PointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. 0=transparent (default 0. 1=opaque. strength. F.

R ‘nslots’.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘radius’. C.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. options) is a new tracker object. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. N ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per active track. See also PointFeature Tracker.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. T ‘movie’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.

char Convert to string s = T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. See also Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char Tracker.display Display value T.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. otherwise the result is not predictable.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’. and their characteristics is displayed. AxisWebCamera. Movie Video.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. S ‘resolution’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

grab() acquires an image from the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close Close the image source V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2. Video. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char Convert to string V.

Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. By default the left image is red. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. right. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. right. If th1 is a column vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. the second for right.CHAPTER 2. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). a = anaglyph(left. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. color. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased. if negative it is reduced. and the right image is cyan. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. the ﬁrst for left.

6500). x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. [x. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. If lambda is a column vector. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. p = bresenham(p1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].y1) to (x2. x2. y1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. % emission of sun plot(l. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y2).s] = boundmatch(R1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y2]. See also RegionFeature. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y1] and p2=[x2. Endpoints must be integer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.CHAPTER 2.boundary. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. p2) as above but p1=[x1.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [C. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.Y. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.

y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.d1] = closest(a. x = circle(C.CHAPTER 2. and x is N × 3. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. R. k = closest(a. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). that is. Options ‘n’. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). green and blue primaries respectively. [k.

3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. The data are referred to as pilot data. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. while Table I(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).d1. 19000 (526. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.32).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.ioo.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). since.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.CHAPTER 2.5.5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. (Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ucl. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.16). 335 of Table 1(5. they were measured directly. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. and 22500 (444.d2] = closest(a.5. As noted in footnote a on p.ac. • From Table I(5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

out = col2im(pix. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ac.M). xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ioo. imsize is a 2-vector (N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.CHAPTER 2. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.uk See also cmfrgb. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.ucl. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .g] to every pixel in the color image im.

CHAPTER 2. mask. See also imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = colorize(im. icolor.G. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. k.C] = colorkmeans(im. eg. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. and returns a per-pixel logical result. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.B). @isnan. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. @isnan. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. im<100. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. func. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. [L. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.

“?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.R] = colorkmeans(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. k) as above but also returns the residual R.C. L = colorkmeans(im. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. XYZ = colorname(name. eg. name = colorname(XYZ. low is good. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.CHAPTER 2.

s = ‘dest<-src’. it can be omitted.txt.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.o2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. • Color space names are case insensitive. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. double data is the natural choice.CHAPTER 2. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. colorspace(s. i1.i2. [o1. or alternatively.o3] = colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. s = ‘src->dest’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. As MATLAB’s native datatype.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.100).200).J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).2*A. • If im is an M × 3 array. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. However.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.B). for memory and computational performance. B = rand(400. d = distance(A.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example A = rand(400. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. out will also have size M × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. like a colormap. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .

direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. The result E is a matrix.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. bunschot@wins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.(+31)20-5257524. Tested: PC Matlab v5. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.y). non-zero is an object. not image frame. University of Amsterdam. tel. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . seed. non zero is counter-clockwise.j). each row is one edge point coordinate (x.3.uva. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. in matrix coordinate frame. E = edgelist(im. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.CHAPTER 2.

ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.CHAPTER 2.S. epiline(f. p1. Author Based on fmatrix code by. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Coimbra. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. I. one per line drawn. p. 1998. p. Oct 27.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). See also epiline. H = epiline(f.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.csse. See also ransac. which means it can be passed to ransac(). • f is a rank 2 matrix. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. page 270. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.edu. homography.au/. no outlier rejection is performed. epiline. c. it is singular. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. http://www. The University of Western Australia. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. p2. Notes • The points must be corresponding. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.uwa. that is. • Contains a RANSAC driver. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. that is.CHAPTER 2.

Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.y1) and (x2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).CHAPTER 2. itriplepoint. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x2. y1. ithin. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. See also imorph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.y2).

http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.edu. which means it can be passed to ransac(). The University of Western Australia. no outlier rejection is performed.uwa.au/. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. Notes • The points must be corresponding. See also ransac.CHAPTER 2. invhomog.csse. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.

See also e2h. S ‘dimension’. ie. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. im. [out. D ‘size’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions.CHAPTER 2. itrim. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.offs] = homwarp(H. V ‘roi’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. R ‘scale’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. that is tp=T*T1. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. S output image contains all the warped pixels. im. See also homography.

1962. on Information Theory.CHAPTER 2. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ’nfeat’. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. features. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Hu. ianimate(seq. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 200). IRE Trans. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features. ’gs’). 179-187. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. IT-8:pp. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. ianimate(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. M ‘npoints’. YMIN YMAX]. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. N ‘only’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). isurf. iharris. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.

minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. [S1. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.CHAPTER 2.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. horizontal coordinate centroid.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. A set pixel aspect ratio. [A1.0) 1 for a circle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . default 1. vertical coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.0 ‘connect’. ilabel. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.CHAPTER 2. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. S ‘th0’. See also iopen. 1996-7. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also isobel. se. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Tel Aviv University. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. T ‘th1’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. out = iclose(im. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.

The images do not have to be of the same size. C = icolor(im. [C.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. colorize. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).CHAPTER 2. See also imono. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Options ‘dir’. [0 1 1]). D ‘bgval’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. iconcat(im.u] = iconcat(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. im2.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. options) convolves im1 with im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. CM ‘cminthresh’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. R ‘nfeat’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. N ‘detector’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. D ‘k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. CT ‘edgegap’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. S ‘deriv’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. E ‘suppress’. D ‘sigma’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. K ‘patch’.

Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Shi and C. where * denotes squared and smoothed.d] = icp(p1. See also PointFeature.5 [sec]. Tomasi.121-128. Image and Vision Computing.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. May 1988. • “Good features to track”. Options ‘dplot’. 1994. • “Finding corners”.Noble. C. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Stephens. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Harris and M. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. J.G. Proc.. IEEE Computer Society.J. vol. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. J. N ‘mindelta’. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. T ‘distthresh’. T ‘maxiter’. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with a delay of 0. 593-593. 1988.6. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. p2. Manchester. pp 147-151.CHAPTER 2.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. with a delay of d [sec]. [T. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. p2. Proc. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.

• For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Feb. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. 1992. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. each plane is decimated.. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 239-256. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. m. See also iscale. Pattern Anal.Besl and H. no. pp. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Intell. vol. 14. P. Mach.or 3-dimensional. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. IEEETrans. s = idecimate(im. s = idecimate(im.CHAPTER 2. m.McKay. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. 2.

useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. zero is black. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. If the image is zoomed. darker than ‘grey’. If im is a cell array of images. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. XY ‘colormap’. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. positive is blue. negative is red. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view.and y-axes respectively. C ‘xydata’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. linear proﬁle. negative is red. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). zero is white color map: random values. histogram and zooming. Options ‘ncolors’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. zero is white. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. positive is blue. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points.

icolorize. labelimage. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage. caxis. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class.CHAPTER 2. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. See also iblobs. colormap. See also image. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labels. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.2. out = igamma(im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. See also itriplepoint. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.45. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). ithin.

k. 167181.CHAPTER 2. 0.m] = igraphseg(im. [L. 2006. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. min is the minimum region size (pixels).5). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 59. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. 1500. pp. 100. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. P. k.jpg’). vol. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. k is the scale parameter. Int. min. min. Journal on Computer Vision. Huttenlocher. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. 2004. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.m] = igraphseg(im.5). k. Example im = iread(’58060. Felzenszwalb and D. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = igraphseg(im. See also ithresh. Sept. [l.

CHAPTER 2. ’normcdf’). bar(x. [H.x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [h.x] = ihist(im. options) displays the image histogram. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. plot(x. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.x] = ihist(im). For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. H = ihist(im.h).

CHAPTER 2. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. y1. same size as im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.y1) and bottom-right (x2. y2.m. [L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. ii is a precomputed integral image. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. x1.y2).

edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.maxlabel.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. 8). • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y]. ilabel(im. See also iblobs. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. out = iline(im.maxlabel. [L. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. eg. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p2. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. The pixels on the line are set to 1. otherwise it does not. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. iproﬁle.CHAPTER 2.parents. each a 2-vector [X.class.parents. p1. • This is a “low level” function. p1.

ymax] relative to (x. The return value is xm=[DX.y).y) and of size s. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.and y-offsets relative to (x. -s.CHAPTER 2. [xm.DY. centred at (x. and columns the vertical position. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.y).score] = imatch(im1.DY) are the x.CC] where (DX. y. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. s. im2. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). a perfect match score is 1.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. xmax. ymin. x. s] % relative to (x. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. w2.y) and its half-width is H. • ZNCC matching is used. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. im2. x. • Is a MEX ﬁle. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. y. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The template in im1 is centred at (x. H. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. All pixels are equally weighted. f = imoments(u. f = imoments(u. effectively a greyscale image. v.u) = u and v(v.u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [u. effectively a binary image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. [u. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. H) as above but the domain is w × H. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.

the elements are m00. Different conversion functions are supported.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m20. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m11. m01.CHAPTER 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. m10. See also RegionFeature. • This function does not perform connectivity. horizontal coordinate centroid. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or its area. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. icolor. m02. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. ilabel.

J.CHAPTER 2. se. ’light’).m] = imser(im.org). The labels [L. Chum. pp. Matas. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. 2004. 761767. and T.m] = imser(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Urban. ’grey’. options) as above but m is the number of regions found.png’. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. vol. Sept. Image and Vision Computing. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Pajdla. [label. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. O. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’double’). m. 22.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.ˆ2). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.

se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. out = iopen(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. n. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. sides. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. See also iclose. This is an erosion followed by dilation.

255) Notes • Not a tablet computer.CHAPTER 2. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.V]. im1. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 20. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ’t’. p. otherwise im2 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ’tblr’. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.

p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).CHAPTER 2. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. See also bresenham. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.uv] = iproﬁle(im. [p. p1.v) for the corresponding row of p.

sigma. out = imorph(image. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. out = ipyramid(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. ones(5. the maximum. 1. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. 12. The highest rank. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.5)). See also iscalespace. nbins. se(2.CHAPTER 2. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im.3). 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. op. se. im > irank(im. se. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. order. out = imorph(image. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. op. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = ipyramid(im.2) = 0. is order=1. se). hence output image had reduced dimensions. idecimate.

im = iread(ﬁle. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. where R=[umin umax. See also imorph. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image.CHAPTER 2. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. ivar. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. R ‘roi’. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin vmax]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix.

imwrite. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. [out1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. istereo. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). • The resulting images may have negative disparity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h2] = irectify(f. See also FeatureMatch.h1. imono. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. im1.out2] = irectify(f. m. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. homwarp.out2. igamma. m. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.CHAPTER 2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Notes • Color images are not supported.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.umax. vmin. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘extrapval’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.vmax]. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. [out.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. Options ‘outsize’.vmin vmax]. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. See also idisp. V ‘smooth’.H] return central part of image.CHAPTER 2. angle.

bias=0. s ‘extrapval’. out = isamesize(im1. s>1 makes the image larger. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. while bias>0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s<1 makes it smaller. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. im2. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. bias<0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. Options ‘outsize’.5 is symmetric cropping. V ‘smooth’. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.

See also iscalespace. n) as above but sigma=1. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. in space and scale.s] = iscalespace(im. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. [g. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).L. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. corresponding to each step of the sequence. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im.L. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.CHAPTER 2. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. idecimate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. n. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.

CHAPTER 2. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ismooth. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ilaplace. ‘valid’) as above. it its third dimension is equal to three. See also isrot. that is. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog(T. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. else false (0).

each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • Features are returned in descending strength order. isurf. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. Reference David G. 91-110. See also SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 2 (2004). International Journal of Computer Vision. Lowe. 60. N ‘suppress’. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .vlfeat. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. pp.

ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. [w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. zssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. and these output pixels are set to NaN. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @ncc. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [w. @zssd. @ssd. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. See also imatch. sad. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.H. im. @zsad. zsad. s is same size as im.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. s = isimilarity(T. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one.

options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.CHAPTER 2.gy] = isobel(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. then converted back to integer. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx. sigma. See also iconv. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gx.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. convolved.

which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. range. range is the disparity search range. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. H is the half size of the matching window.sim] = istereo(iml. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.CHAPTER 2. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.u). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. the disparity d=d(v. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). imr. H. imr. range. That is. else false (0). iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. [d. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘valid’) as above. w.u) means that imr(v. See also ishomog.M] for an N × M window. See also ksobel.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. isrot(R. icanny. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.

3) See also irectify. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.CHAPTER 2. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.sim. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. Options ‘metric’. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. imr.A and p. B. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. dx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). [d. imr. p.dsi] = istereo(iml.sim. That is. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. • sim = max(dsi. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).p] = istereo(iml. w.5 to +0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. [d. w.5). range. ‘ncc’. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. range. out = istretch(im.

Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Notes • Color images. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. or sequences. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. N ‘thresh’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Kroon (U. T ‘octaves’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).CHAPTER 2.

110. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 346–359. Otherwise false (0). pp. isvec(v. itriplepoint. 3. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Tinne Tuytelaars.or columnvector. either a row. else false (0). isift. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Andreas Ess.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Vol. No. Luc Van Gool. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).CHAPTER 2. out = ithin(im. See also ishomog. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. See also hitormiss.

a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.im2. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. The default is 0. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. See also homwarp.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. Notes • Greyscale image only.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. a lower value will include more.out2] = itrim(im1. The same cropping is applied to each input image. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.out2] = itrim(im1.5. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. [out1.CHAPTER 2. ithresh(im. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.

hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. See also iendpoint.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. se. op. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. hence output image had reduced dimensions. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.

Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled.5).CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. func. @max). @std). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. se. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. ones(5. out = iwindow(image.3). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. ones(3. See also ivar. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions.

• This kernel is an effective edge detector. is k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. k = kdgauss(sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ktriangle.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. See also ones. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. • The vertical derivative. klog. dG/dx. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. k = kcircle(R. kdog. dG/dy. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. See also kgauss.

iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kgauss(sigma. klog.6*sigma1. klog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. kdog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default SIGMA2 = 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . k = kdog(sigma1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. kdgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). See also kgauss. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. See also kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. sigma2.

kdgauss. k = klog(sigma. iconv. and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog.CHAPTER 2. See also ilaplace.

CHAPTER 2. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.C] = kmeans(x. [L. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Reference Tou and Gonzalez. and D is the dimension. Pattern Recognition Principles. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. k. L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. it is assumed to have been completed previously. k.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. See also cylinder. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.CHAPTER 2. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. C ‘T’.y.z] = mkcube(s. The points are the columns of p. [x. ‘edge’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.y. [x. symmetric about the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. s. Options ‘T’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).z] = mkcube(s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.

or y(:. y.CHAPTER 2. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. the sum of I(x.y). Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. MPLOT(t.2)). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. or y(:. n) MPLOT(t. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. p. npq. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(y. y) MPLOT(t. n. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.xp . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y.yq . n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). See also mpq poly. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. See also mpq. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. so centroids will be still be correct. p. npq poly. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. upq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). they are considered to be a single vertex. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity.

W. Example t = niblack(im.s] = niblack(im. [T. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. k.m. niblack. the height of a character. 1986. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.CHAPTER 2. T has the same dimensions as im. • A common choice of k=-0. where W=2*w2+1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented.2. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. See also zncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ssd. Prentice-Hall. for example. idisp(im >= t). sad. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. in text segmentation.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. 20). -0.

q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. See also npq poly. That is UPQ(im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. p. p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p.0. mpq. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.CHAPTER 2.q)/MPQ(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.0).

CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. so centroids will be still be correct. mpq. See also mpq poly. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. npq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered as a single vertex. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). upq.

i] = peak(y. [yp. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. N. otsu IEEE Trans. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. idisp(im >= t). T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Example t = otsu(im). [yp.xp] = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Systems. pp 62-66 See also niblack.

• The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. S ‘interp’.S points. Typically choose N to be odd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. use peak2(-V). N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.ij] = peak2(z. [zp.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘scale’.S points. use peak(-V). N ‘scale’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. plot2(p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. ie. See also pnmﬁlt. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. If p has three dimensions.

P. r. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. R. Examples plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. PLOT BOX(x1. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. PLOT BOX(’centre’. 5). Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ‘r’. ’b’).y2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’g’. value pairs that are passed to plot. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. or a set of name. ’r’). If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ‘size’. ’LineWidth’. ’edgecolor’. W. x2. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ‘size’. P. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.y1) and (x2. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X.y2). 1=solid. plot_circle(c. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. r. W. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. plot_circle(c. r.y1.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’fillcolor’.

Options ‘color’. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. If C=[X.CHAPTER 2. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. centred at the origin. ls) ls is the standard line styles.Y]. with Matlab line style ls. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. current plot. xc. C. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. c Specify color of the axes.Y.

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘textcolor’. trplot( T. ‘framename’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. fmt. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’r’). ’name’. ’color’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ’r’.X = 0. n ‘text opts’. ‘printf’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. to ‘view’.

color. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. either a letter or 3-vector. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. The default is 1. R. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. patch. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. See also plot. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. 1=solid.

See also pgmﬁlt. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. See also plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. plotp(p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. [gr.

T.CHAPTER 2. x typically contains corresponding point data. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. T. x. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated.resid] = ransac(func.in. one column per point pair. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. x. N ‘maxDataTrials’. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. [m.in] = ransac(func. T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. [m. d) as above but elements increment by d. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.

Vol 24.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model..CHAPTER 2. No 6.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.R. they detect a structure argument.misc private data (cell array) out. Boles.theta = [].valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.x) condition the point data out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .theta] = ERR(R.theta. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. [out.x. Comm.resid] = EST(R.theta to the points R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta = DECONDITION(R. pp 381-395. Mach.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.x data to work on. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.misc element.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x. If multiple models are found out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. Fishler and R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .x = CONDITION(R.theta. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. Cambridge University Press. that is. that is they will produce a model.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.x and returns the best model out.A. Assoc. [out. pp 101-113.t threshold (1 × 1) R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.s sample size (1 × 1) out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta and the subset of R.theta is a cell array.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.C.out.inlier. References • m. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. Comp.s out.

Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.edu. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .csse. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.uwa. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.

See also rotx. rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. roty. rotz.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

See also tr2rpy. • many texts (Paul. If roll. T = rpy2tr(roll. Y. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. yaw. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Z axes respectively. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.CHAPTER 2. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch.

r2t. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and rotation theta in the plane. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsad. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ssd.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. y. theta) as above where xy=[x.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector.CHAPTER 2. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. sad. Two cross-hairs are created. See also zsdd. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. c.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’that’.choose = {’this’. then R is 3 × 3. opt. – If T is 3 × 3.foo = true. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. It supports options that have an assigned value. The software pattern is: function(a. ’other’}.bar = false. opt. opt.CHAPTER 2. then R is 2 × 2. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. varargin) opt.blah = []. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). tr2rt.

2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. varargin). which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.choose <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.‘this’. N ‘setopt’. If neither of ‘this’.y sets opt.N sets opt <. x.blah <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. args) creates a test pattern image. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.debug <.blah <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.foo <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. w. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.verbose <.CHAPTER 2. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.select <. opt = tb_optparse(opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.foo <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). 3 sets opt.3 ‘blah’.true sets opt.select <.choose <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.x.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. varargin). Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.1.false ‘blah’. ’#yes’}.select = {’#no’.

args is the number of cycles. 2). 25). args are theta (rad). 256. sf.CHAPTER 2. binary square pattern. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. sd and sdd are n-vectors. sf. a line.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 50. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). [s. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. 256. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial.sd. The trajectory s. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. binary dot pattern. dot diameter. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args is the number of cycles.sd. square side length. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. intercept. args are pitch (distance between centres).

Y and Z axes respectively. rpy = tr2rpy(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.P.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Y. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.CHAPTER 2. [theta. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). See also angvec2r.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The 3 angles rpy=[R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.

4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. See also rpy2tr. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.CHAPTER 2.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. r2t. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. • The validity of R is not checked.:.y. See also rt2tr. – If TR is 3 × 3. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. If T has three dimensions.z]. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. ie. y. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.

out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. or x and y. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [c1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).CHAPTER 2. An historical anomaly. each N × 1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. [o1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.

CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.

troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. and displays in RPY format. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format.CHAPTER 2. f ‘label’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trprint T is the command line form of above. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotx.

(x-x0)p .CHAPTER 2. tr2rpy. See also upq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.y). Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. mpq.y0) is the centroid. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.(y-y0)q where (x0. That is. the sum of I(x. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. p.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. ssd. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale).CHAPTER 2. See also ncc. ncc. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

ncc.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. See also sdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

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