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LGPL http://www.petercorke.com/vision http://groups.google.com.au/group/robotics-tool-box

Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . However the book “Robotics. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This is extravagant on storage. and I commend it to you. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . kcircle . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . r2t . . . . . . plot circle . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . ncc . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . roty . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . trotz . upq poly . . . . . . . . zssd . . . t2r . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 1 Introduction 1.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. That’s what you your teachers.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. tutors.google. and you will be suitably acknowledged. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You need to signup in order to post.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.com. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.

Volume = {12}. 1. The ﬁle robot.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Number = {4}.I. 1.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Corke}. 1.petercorke. Month = nov. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.zip). INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.3. 1. the table of content to functions.gz) or zip format (.1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .html on a server for class use. and the “See also” functions to each other. type of organization and application.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Author = {P. Year = {2005}. The details are @article{Corke05f.

and there are hundreds of modules available.7 Acknowledgements Last. MSER. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. P. pp 16–25. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.1.I. Coimbra. Vincent Lepetit. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.mathworks. 1. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.Functions such as SURF. 1994 University of British Columbia. Corke. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. but not least. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.R. VLFeat http://www.S. Twente. November 2005. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.6.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.7. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. 12(4). 1..vlfeat.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. P ‘pixel’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. N ‘image’. T ‘color’. Options ‘name’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. S ‘centre’. used by all subclasses. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. SIGMA ‘pose’. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IM ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.

char Convert to string s = C. Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.CHAPTER 2.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.clf Clear the image plane C. SphericalCamera Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.centre Get camera position p = C.display Display value C. Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).delete Camera object destructor C. Camera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.

otherwise false (0).ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. See also Camera.CHAPTER 2. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.u + b.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).v + c = 0.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.

z.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Options ‘Tobj’. Camera. Camera.mesh(x. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. sphere.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. cylinder. See also mesh. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. y.T. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. y. mkcube. y. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. uv = C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. T ‘Tcam’. Camera. The matrices x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot points on image plane C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot(p.plot.hold. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). Camera.clf Camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. z to the image plane and plots them.

T.clf Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.mesh. T ‘scale’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. ‘Tcam’. ‘fps’. T See also Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. Camera.hold. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Options ‘Tcam’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

rpy Set camera attitude C. a subclass of Camera.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. The image is not inverted. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. C. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.y].CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.p. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.rpy(R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C Camera matrix C = C.

D ‘distortion-bouguet’.CHAPTER 2.Ma.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).8]) See also Camera. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F ‘distortion’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’.177 See also CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. CatadioptricCamera. Reference Y.and v-axes parallel to x. D ‘default’ ‘image’. 2003.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. camera at origin. T ‘color’. S. SIGMA ‘pose’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Springer.Kosecka. E = C. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.Sastry. u. 10um pixels.E Essential matrix E = C. S. “An invitation to 3D”.F. CentralCamera.and y-axes respectively. E = C. N ‘sensor’. J. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. f=8mm.Soatto. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. p. IM ‘resolution’. ﬁsheyecamera.

177 See also CentralCamera. F = C. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. 2003. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. S.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. from two viewpoints. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.H(T.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.H CentralCamera. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. See also CentralCamera.E CentralCamera.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.F Fundamental matrix F = C. Springer. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Soatto.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). J.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.H Homography matrix H = C.Kosecka.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Sastry. Reference Y.CHAPTER 2. n.

ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). V. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol.estpose(xyz.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 2009. and P. a = C. 155-166. Feb.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. See also quiver CentralCamera.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Fua. Journal on Computer Vision. CentralCamera. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. 81. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Int.CHAPTER 2. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Lepetit. F. Moreno-Noguer.

Kosecka. Reference Y. s.Ma. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Soatto.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. p116. p. s. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. “An invitation to 3D”. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. See also CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. Chap 9.CHAPTER 2. 259 Y.Ma. “Multiview Geometry”. section 5.E CentralCamera. 2003.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Springer.Kosecka. J. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.invE(E. translation not to scale • n.Soatto. s. 2003. J. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Sastry.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer. s.Sastry.

Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Hough CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline(f.T. one per line. ‘Tcam’. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p.plot epiline(f.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). CentralCamera.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.H CentralCamera. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.CHAPTER 2. H = C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. C.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.

See also Camera. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. 313-326. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.CHAPTER 2.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac e(E.plot CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. vol. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference B. and P. Espiau.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Rives. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pp. 8. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.b. June 1992.c. Chaumette. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. F.

Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac l CentralCamera. 1996. pp. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. CentralCamera. F.visjac p.b.visjac p(uv. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Hutchinson. Reference B. Hager & Corke. IEEE Trans. pp 651-670. Rives. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac l(L. Oct. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). CentralCamera. CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. CentralCamera. vol. 8. and P. June 1992. See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. Chaumette.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Espiau. 313-326. Vol 12(5).visjac p polar. R&A.visjac p. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.c.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

Oct. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Corke. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. pp. in Proc. 5962-5967. radius and theta. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac p. CentralCamera. F.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Int.visjac l.CHAPTER 2. Louis). I. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. 2009. (St.visjac l. Spindler. CentralCamera. P.visjac p polar(rt. and F. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Chaumette.

You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.Lowe. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. ScalePointFeature.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. vol. 2004.CHAPTER 2.SIFT. See README.60. Journal on Computer Vision. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. pp.91-110. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. Nov. D. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. Int. See also isift. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. F.match(f2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 1=opaque. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. C ‘alpha’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match Match SIFT point features m = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. See also isift SiftPointFeature.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.CHAPTER 2. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(im. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed.T] = F. out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. [out.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im.support(images.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Overrides the current camera pose C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. S ‘pose’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.project(p.T. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Options ‘name’. N ‘pixel’. ﬁsheyecamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. See also SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’.

gain. Jacobian condition number.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera view. camera pose.5) target center .center of the target in world coords (0.0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.depth of points to use for Jacobian.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera view. error norm. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. of 4-vector.01) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.the side length of the target in world units (0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The external view. defaults in parentheses: target size . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations.CHAPTER 2. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.

visjac p(pt. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.5) target center .3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.center of the target in world coords (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.gain. Corke. IEEE Int. Robotics and Automation.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I. scalar for If null take actual value all points. CentralCamera. in Proc.0.depth of points to use for Jacobian. error norm. error.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Conf. defaults in parentheses: target size . z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). (Anchorage).the side length of the target in world units (0. for all points. See also CentralCamera. May 3-7 2010. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.CHAPTER 2.visjac l. The external view. 5550-5555. pp. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . image plane size and desired feature locations.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . of 4-vector. Jacobian condition number. camera pose. P. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac p polar.01) .

If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Luc Van Gool. Andreas Ess. 3. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Vol.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 110. Tinne Tuytelaars. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). pp. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 346–359. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. No.CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘thresh’.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match(f2.match Match SURF point features m = F. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. [m. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u.C] = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. ScalePointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. v. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

T] = F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(images.plot scale Plot feature scale F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. [out.plot scale(options.support Support region of feature out = F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) SurfPointFeature.support(im.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. 0=transparent (default 0. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. C ‘alpha’. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 1=opaque.

axis. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. otherwise the result is not predictable. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.com).com) web camera. Video AxisWebCamera. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.axis.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].

AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.CHAPTER 2. See also AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.char Convert to string A.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.display AxisWebCamera.

1470-1477.CHAPTER 2. Conf.org). f can also be a cell array. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. in Proc.Zisserman.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.Sivic and A. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. b = BagOfWords(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Oct. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. on Computer Vision. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. pp. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.

contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.display Display value B.contains Find images containing word k = B.char BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .exemplars(w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.char Convert to string s = B.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. isurf BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. See also BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. images.

Options ‘ncolumns’. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. N ‘maxperimage’.isword Features from words f = B.remove stop Remove stop words B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.n] = B.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords. M ‘width’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.CHAPTER 2. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

f=8mm. N ‘focal’. M ‘k’.T. See also Camera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. N ‘sensor’. u. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. See also Camera. optical axis is z-axis. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. camera at origin. ‘sine’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project(p. S ‘noise’. 10um pixels. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. ‘equisolid’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. A ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. ﬁsheyecamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. T ‘Tcam’. K ‘maxangle’.and v-axes parallel to x.and y-axes respectively.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). F ‘default’ ‘projection’. P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.display Display value M. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f2.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. m = FeatureMatch(f1. FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SurfPointFeature. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1.v2]. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.outlier.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.u2. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.CHAPTER 2.inlier. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.im2}) m. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. These are the (u.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.plot() M.p1.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.plot Show corresponding points M.CHAPTER 2. for example by: idisp({im1.p2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p1.FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.

f2 = isurf(im2).CHAPTER 2. Example f1 = isurf(im1). m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). homography.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. 1e-4).ransac Apply RANSAC M. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ransac FeatureMatch. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. See also fmatrix. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.ransac(func. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.match(f2). See also idisp FeatureMatch. m = f1.ransac( @fmatrix.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.

The image is not inverted. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. v. Y This camera model assumes central projection. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f=8mm.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. SIGMA ‘pose’.CHAPTER 2. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis.and y. 10um pixels.axes respectively. S ‘centre’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. M ‘k’. camera at origin. u. K ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘sine’.and v-axes are parallel to x. P ‘pixel’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. N ‘sensor’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Options ‘name’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. S ‘noise’. ‘equisolid’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.

Options ‘Tobj’. CatadioptricCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.T. See also Camera. CentralCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.CHAPTER 2. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. See also FishEyeCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. T ‘Tcam’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.

Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. A horizontal line has theta = 0.H). By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. See also LineFeature Hough. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.0) and the line.CHAPTER 2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. The voting array is 2-dimensional. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).

edgeThresh. See also Hough.houghThresh (default 0.display Display value HT. Hough.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘suppress’. W ‘houghthresh’.edgeThresh (default 0. Default 400 × 401. T ‘edgethresh’. Hough. W ‘nbins’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.char Convert to string s = HT. Nrho].CHAPTER 2.5) Set ht. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Set ht. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. else N = [Ntheta. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.1). Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.

where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. See also Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot. HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. reﬁned to subpixel precision. L = HT.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. LineFeature Hough. then all elements in an HT. H = HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.plot Plot line features HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. The highest peak is found. HT.lines Find lines L = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.lines Hough.

Note • LineFeature is a reference object. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. RegionFeature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.

strength.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. one per element. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . theta. LENGTH is undeﬁned. LineFeature.char Convert to string s = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value L. theta. See also LineFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(rho. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.CHAPTER 2.

points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge. l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also icanny LineFeature.plot Plot line L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. Small gaps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. less than gap pixels are tolerated.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay the line on current plot. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).

char Convert to string M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source M.com). S ‘skip’. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.axis.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

CHAPTER 2. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. S ‘frame’. F Skip frames. planar. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Options ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. undirected graph create an n-d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.

CHAPTER 2.coord(v) g.connectivity() g. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.distance(v1.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.plot() g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.cost(e) g.component(v) g.goal(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clear() add vertex.next(v) g. v2) g.edges(e) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().add edge(v1.add node(coord) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. v) g.neighbours(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.

add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add node(x. v = G. and returns the node id v. and returns the edge id E.CHAPTER 2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add edge(v1. v2. v = G.add node(x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. PGraph. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. E = G.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add edge(v1. where x is D × 1. PGraph.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. Options ‘distance’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

coord(v) return coordinate vector.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.CHAPTER 2.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G. of node id v. edges and components. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. [v.d] = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph. and the distance d.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.clear Clear the graph G. D × 1. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.display Display value F. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. PointFeature. PointFeature. one per element.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = F.

If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.C] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.match(f2.char PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match Match point features m = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance. where 1 is perfect match. [m.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot Plot feature F.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.

Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. p = Polygon(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. kirill@plume. Polygon. HEIGHT].CHAPTER 2.char String representation s = P. one column per vertex.edu. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. http://puddle.area Area of polygon a = P.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Polygon. intersection. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon. so use with care.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit. Polygon. union. Pankratov. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .html and require a licence.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. difference. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.mit.

inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. else 0. Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.char Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).difference Difference of polygons d = P.display Display polygon P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. returns coordinates of P. See also Polygon.CHAPTER 2.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon.

i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.moments(p.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.CHAPTER 2. each column is [x y]’.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. y1 y2]. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns empty polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.

Polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2.union Union of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.plot Plot polygon P. P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.

Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.

See also Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Ray3D. one per element. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.E] = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.char Convert to string s = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Ray3D. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.CHAPTER 2.display Display value R.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.c.0) 1 for a circle.b. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2.

box Return bounding box b = R. For example R. imoments RegionFeature.char Convert to string s = R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. See also iblobs.uc will be a list not a vector.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. ymax]. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.xmax. RegionFeature.th] = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. ymin. one per element.

display Display value R. R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. It is indicated with overlaid o. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R. See also RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature. R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Plot centroid R.CHAPTER 2.

plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.

1=opaque. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. strength. ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. N ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A complete history of all tracks is maintained.CHAPTER 2. T ‘movie’. options) is a new tracker object. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. one per active track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. See also PointFeature Tracker.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. C. Options ‘radius’. R ‘nslots’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot Show feature trajectories T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tracker.CHAPTER 2.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Tracker. See also Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.display Display value T.char Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

otherwise the result is not predictable. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. and their characteristics is displayed.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Movie Video. S ‘resolution’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. G ‘scale’.

grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.char Convert to string V.close Close the image source V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the camera.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.

and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. and the right image is cyan. a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). the second for right. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. right. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. By default the left image is red.CHAPTER 2. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If th1 is a column vector. the ﬁrst for left. right. color.

For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p = bresenham(p1. p2) as above but p1=[x1.y2].CHAPTER 2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. If lambda is a column vector. 6500).boundary. [x. % emission of sun plot(l. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. y1. See also RegionFeature. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. x2.y1) to (x2.s] = boundmatch(R1.y2). % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.y1] and p2=[x2. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. Endpoints must be integer.

Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. [C.Y.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].

k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). and x is N × 3. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. [k. that is. R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D.CHAPTER 2. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. k = closest(a. green and blue primaries respectively.d1] = closest(a. R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘n’. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. x = circle(C.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.

d2] = closest(a.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5.ucl.5. and 22500 (444. they were measured directly. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.ac.5. since. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. 335 of Table 1(5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.d1. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. • From Table I(5. As noted in footnote a on p. (Table 1(5.CHAPTER 2. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).16). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].32).ioo. while Table I(5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. 19000 (526. The data are referred to as pilot data.

out = col2im(pix.ucl.ioo.M). Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ac. imsize is a 2-vector (N.CHAPTER 2. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].uk See also cmfrgb. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im.

See also imono. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.CHAPTER 2. [L. out = colorize(im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. func. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. icolor. im<100. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.G. k. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. mask. and returns a per-pixel logical result.B). @isnan. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. @isnan. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. eg. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.

• Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. eg. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities.C. k) as above but also returns the residual R. XYZ = colorname(name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(XYZ. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.R] = colorkmeans(im. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. low is good.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.

im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o3] = colorspace(s. i1. double data is the natural choice. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. or alternatively. it can be omitted.i2.o2. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.txt. s = ‘dest<-src’. s = ‘src->dest’. [o1. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • Color space names are case insensitive.CHAPTER 2. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. colorspace(s. As MATLAB’s native datatype.

• If im is an M × 3 array.2*A.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). out will also have size M × 3. for memory and computational performance.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. B = rand(400.B). However.200). like a colormap.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Example A = rand(400. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. d = distance(A.100). Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.

The result E is a matrix.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. in matrix coordinate frame. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.3.j). Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.CHAPTER 2.uva.(+31)20-5257524. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. tel.y). each row is one edge point coordinate (x. University of Amsterdam. not image frame.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. non-zero is an object. Tested: PC Matlab v5. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. E = edgelist(im. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. bunschot@wins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. non zero is counter-clockwise. seed. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. See also fmatrix.R. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Author Based on fmatrix code by. p. H = epiline(f.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. I. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. Oct 27.CHAPTER 2. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p1. See also epiline. one per line drawn. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. 1998. Coimbra. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. epiline(f. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p.S.

Reference Hartley and Zisserman. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.edu. See also ransac.au/. that is. p2. epiline. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. which means it can be passed to ransac(). no outlier rejection is performed.csse. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). c. Notes • The points must be corresponding. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. homography.uwa. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. that is. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. page 270. • f is a rank 2 matrix. http://www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it is singular. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. The University of Western Australia. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. • Contains a RANSAC driver.

y1) and (x2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. x2. itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2). y1. See also imorph. ithin. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.CHAPTER 2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.

The University of Western Australia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.uwa. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.edu.csse. which means it can be passed to ransac(). p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. Notes • The points must be corresponding. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. invhomog.au/. no outlier rejection is performed. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. See also ransac. http://www. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.CHAPTER 2.

H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. [out. itrim. im. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. See also e2h. S ‘dimension’. im. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. that is tp=T*T1.CHAPTER 2. ie. D ‘size’. V ‘roi’.offs] = homwarp(H. R ‘scale’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. See also homography. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. S output image contains all the warped pixels.

features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. IT-8:pp. features. ’nfeat’. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. 179-187.CHAPTER 2. Hu. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 1962. IRE Trans. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’gs’). on Information Theory. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). features. ianimate(im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. 200). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ianimate(seq. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence.

box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iharris. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. YMIN YMAX]. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. M ‘npoints’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). N ‘only’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf.CHAPTER 2.

less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.0 ‘connect’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.CHAPTER 2. C set connectivity. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. default 1. [S1. A set pixel aspect ratio.0) 1 for a circle. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. vertical coordinate bounding box. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. horizontal coordinate centroid. [A1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. ilabel.

Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. out = iclose(im. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. Tel Aviv University. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. See also iopen. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.CHAPTER 2. T ‘th1’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. This is an dilation followed by erosion. S ‘th0’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1996-7. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also isobel. se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.

Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. See also imono. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.CHAPTER 2.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The images do not have to be of the same size. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. [C. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). [0 1 1]). D ‘bgval’. C = icolor(im. iconcat(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. Options ‘dir’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.u] = iconcat(im. colorize.

See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. im2. options) convolves im1 with im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.

• The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. S ‘deriv’. E ‘suppress’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘sigma’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. R ‘nfeat’. CT ‘edgegap’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). K ‘patch’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. N ‘detector’.CHAPTER 2. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CM ‘cminthresh’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. D ‘k’.

Harris and M. May 1988. T ‘distthresh’.5 [sec]. Tomasi. 593-593. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. p2. IEEE Computer Society. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. where * denotes squared and smoothed. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Options ‘dplot’. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. [T.G. with a delay of d [sec].J. • “Finding corners”. C. pp.CHAPTER 2. Proc.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. T ‘maxiter’. J. Shi and C. pp. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.d] = icp(p1. p2. 1988. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. 1994.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. J.Noble. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.121-128. See also PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘mindelta’. with a delay of 0.6. pp 147-151. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Manchester. Image and Vision Computing. • “Good features to track”. Stephens. Proc.

m.. 2. Intell. vol. no. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Feb.McKay. P. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Mach.CHAPTER 2. pp. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. See also iscale. s = idecimate(im. each plane is decimated. Pattern Anal. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. 1992.Besl and H. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 239-256. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .or 3-dimensional. 14. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. m. IEEETrans. s = idecimate(im.

the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. negative is red. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. C ‘xydata’.CHAPTER 2. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. darker than ‘grey’. If im is a cell array of images. zero is white. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. histogram and zooming. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. negative is red. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned.and y-axes respectively. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. linear proﬁle. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. Options ‘ncolors’. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. If the image is zoomed. positive is blue. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. positive is blue. XY ‘colormap’. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. zero is black. zero is white color map: random values.

CHAPTER 2. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. labels. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. idisplabel(im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. icolorize. colormap. labelimage. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. See also iblobs. caxis. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. See also image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class.

ithin.2. out = igamma(im.45. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also itriplepoint. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.CHAPTER 2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.

sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0. min is the minimum region size (pixels).CHAPTER 2. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 2004. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. k. k. 100. [l. Felzenszwalb and D. pp. L = igraphseg(im. k. Int. 59.5). sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. 1500.5).m] = igraphseg(im. min. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. See also ithresh. P. k is the scale parameter. [L. min. Example im = iread(’58060. vol.m] = igraphseg(im. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Sept. Journal on Computer Vision. 167181. Huttenlocher.jpg’). 2006.

Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.x] = ihist(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. options) displays the image histogram. H = ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.CHAPTER 2. [H. plot(x.h).h).x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. ’normcdf’). [h. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. bar(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.

y1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.m.y1) and bottom-right (x2.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. [L. same size as im. y2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.CHAPTER 2. [L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. ii is a precomputed integral image.y2). x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.

The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.parents.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. otherwise it does not. iproﬁle.parents.class. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.Y]. See also iblobs. • This is a “low level” function.maxlabel.maxlabel. 8). IBLOBS is a higher level interface. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. p1. p1.CHAPTER 2. eg. out = iline(im.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. p2. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. The pixels on the line are set to 1. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. ilabel(im. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. each a 2-vector [X. [L.

H. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.DY. s] % relative to (x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. s. • ZNCC matching is used. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. centred at (x. [xm. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. im2. w2. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. ymax] relative to (x.y) and its half-width is H. and columns the vertical position. y.y). xmax.y) and of size s.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymin.score] = imatch(im1. The template in im1 is centred at (x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.and y-offsets relative to (x. The return value is xm=[DX.y). y. x. a perfect match score is 1.CHAPTER 2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.DY) are the x.CC] where (DX. im2. -s. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). x.

The element u(v.u) = u and v(v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].CHAPTER 2. [u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. effectively a greyscale image.u) = v. f = imoments(u. [u. effectively a binary image.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. H) as above but the domain is w × H. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v. All pixels are equally weighted.

horizontal coordinate centroid. Different conversion functions are supported. m01. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. ilabel. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m20. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. See also RegionFeature. the elements are m00. m11. m10. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. • This function does not perform connectivity. or its area. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im.CHAPTER 2. icolor. m02.

Matas. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. vol. Urban. Chum. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing. Pajdla. Sept. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The labels [L.CHAPTER 2.org). ’double’). and T. [label. 761767.m] = imser(im. J. O. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. ’grey’. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. ’light’). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. 22. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.png’. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. m. pp. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. 2004. se.

Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ˆ2). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).CHAPTER 2. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

sides. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. sides.CHAPTER 2. n. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iclose. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. se. out = iopen(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.

255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 20. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. otherwise im2 is selected. im1. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. im2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ’t’. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 10. ’tblr’. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. p.V]. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected.

iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. [p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.uv] = iproﬁle(im. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.CHAPTER 2.v) for the corresponding row of p. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). See also bresenham.

the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. The highest rank.3). 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. op. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. out = imorph(image. se. se). ones(5. nbins. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.5)). out = imorph(image. idecimate. op. se. se(2. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. order.CHAPTER 2. is order=1. See also iscalespace. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. 12. out = ipyramid(im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. sigma. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. hence output image had reduced dimensions. out = ipyramid(im. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. the maximum.2) = 0. 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im > irank(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. R ‘roi’.CHAPTER 2. See also imorph. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. G ‘reduce’. vmin vmax]. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. ivar. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. where R=[umin umax. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. im = iread(ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.

m.h1.out2. imwrite. See also FeatureMatch. istereo. [out1. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.h2] = irectify(f. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. m.out2] = irectify(f. igamma. homwarp. imono. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. Notes • Color images are not supported. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.CHAPTER 2. im1.

[out.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. See also idisp.CHAPTER 2. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘outsize’. S ‘extrapval’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.vmax]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.umax. V ‘smooth’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.H] return central part of image. angle. vmin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmin vmax].

bias<0. while bias>0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s<1 makes it smaller.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s ‘extrapval’. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. V ‘smooth’. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. im2. s>1 makes the image larger.5 is symmetric cropping. Options ‘outsize’. out = isamesize(im1.CHAPTER 2. bias=0.

s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.L. See also iscalespace. corresponding to each step of the sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.CHAPTER 2. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n. in space and scale. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). idecimate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.L. [g.s] = iscalespace(im. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. n) as above but sigma=1. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.CHAPTER 2. that is. ishomog(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it its third dimension is equal to three. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ismooth. See also isrot. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ‘valid’) as above. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ilaplace. else false (0).

International Journal of Computer Vision. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. isurf. 2 (2004). “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 60. See also SiftPointFeature. 91-110.vlfeat. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. pp. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.CHAPTER 2. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘suppress’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • Features are returned in descending strength order. Reference David G. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. Lowe.

p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @ncc. and these output pixels are set to NaN. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. zssd.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. s is same size as im. @zsad. [w. s = isimilarity(T. @ssd. im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. @zssd. ncc.H. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. See also imatch.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. ssd. zsad. sad. [w.CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. then converted back to integer. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. convolved. sigma. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.gy] = isobel(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. [gx.CHAPTER 2. See also iconv. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. [gx.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.

H is the half size of the matching window.u) means that imr(v. See also ishomog. [d. imr.u). else false (0). imr.sim] = istereo(iml.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.M] for an N × M window. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. icanny. range is the disparity search range. See also ksobel. range.CHAPTER 2. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. ‘valid’) as above. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. range. the disparity d=d(v. w. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). H. isrot(R. That is.

A and p.CHAPTER 2.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). Options ‘metric’.sim.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.5). dx. imr. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. B. [d. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. p.sim. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. p. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.dsi] = istereo(iml. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.p] = istereo(iml. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. range. [d. • sim = max(dsi. w. range. imr. w. out = istretch(im.5 to +0. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. That is.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. ‘ncc’. 3) See also irectify.

options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. T ‘octaves’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. N ‘thresh’. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Notes • Color images. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Kroon (U.CHAPTER 2. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or sequences. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D.

Andreas Ess. Tinne Tuytelaars. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. See also ishomog. either a row. Luc Van Gool. Otherwise false (0). 3. itriplepoint. 110. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. else false (0). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). out = ithin(im. See also hitormiss.or columnvector. No. isvec(v. isift. 346–359.CHAPTER 2. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. pp. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines.

When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.im2. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.5. The default is 0. Notes • Greyscale image only. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.out2] = itrim(im1. The same cropping is applied to each input image. See also homwarp. ithresh(im.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. a lower value will include more.out2] = itrim(im1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.CHAPTER 2.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.CHAPTER 2. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. se. op. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. See also iendpoint. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.

edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also ivar. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. ones(5. func. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank.5). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. out = iwindow(image. ones(3. @max). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se.3). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. @std).CHAPTER 2. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• This kernel is an effective edge detector. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. klog. k = kdgauss(sigma. ktriangle. dG/dy. kdog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. • The vertical derivative. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. k = kcircle(R. See also ones. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. dG/dx. is k’. See also kgauss.

Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdog. See also kgauss. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly.6*sigma1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. klog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. klog. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2.CHAPTER 2. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kgauss(sigma. See also kdgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2).

and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. kdog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also ilaplace. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. kdgauss. k = klog(sigma.

[L. and D is the dimension. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. it is assumed to have been completed previously. Pattern Recognition Principles. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.C] = kmeans(x. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. k. L = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).C] = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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CHAPTER 2. See also cylinder. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. [x.z] = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.y. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). C ‘T’. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. ‘edge’. The points are the columns of p.z] = mkcube(s. Options ‘T’. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . symmetric about the origin. s.

xp . n) MPLOT(t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. That is.y). n) MPLOT(y. y. p. or y(:. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. the sum of I(x.CHAPTER 2.yq . or y(:. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. MPLOT(t. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. y.2)). q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y) MPLOT(t. npq. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also mpq poly.

they are considered to be a single vertex. npq poly. See also mpq. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. upq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. so centroids will be still be correct.

isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. idisp(im >= t). Example t = niblack(im.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. k.CHAPTER 2. the height of a character. -0. [T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. See also zncc. k. where W=2*w2+1. niblack. 1986. in text segmentation. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. ssd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for example.s] = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. sad. T has the same dimensions as im.m. Prentice-Hall. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. W. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. 20).2. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.

q)/MPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.0.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.0). See also npq poly. That is UPQ(im.p. mpq. p.

See also mpq poly. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. mpq.CHAPTER 2. they are considered as a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). upq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t). Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Jan 1979. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Systems.xp] = peak(y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. N. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. x. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. [yp.CHAPTER 2. [yp. otsu IEEE Trans.i] = peak(y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. use peak2(-V).S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘scale’. [zp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’.ij] = peak2(z. Typically choose N to be odd. S ‘interp’. use peak(-V). See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.

See also pnmﬁlt. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. plot2(p. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ie. If p has three dimensions.

’edgecolor’. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. plot_circle(c. ’g’. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’r’). ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. plot_circle(c.y2. r. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ‘size’. W. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].CHAPTER 2. value pairs that are passed to plot. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ’fillcolor’. ‘size’. ’b’). P. r. ‘r’. or a set of name.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. r.y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ’LineWidth’. Examples plot_circle(c. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. 5). P.y2). PLOT BOX(’centre’. PLOT BOX(x1. 1=solid. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1.y1. R. W. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.

Y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. centred at the origin. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. If C=[X. c Specify color of the axes.Y. C. xc. current plot. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. Options ‘color’. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. with Matlab line style ls. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. ls) ls is the standard line styles.

’r’. Options ‘textcolor’. trplot( T. ’r’). w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ‘framename’.X = 0. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L.CHAPTER 2. fmt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’name’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ‘printf’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. options) adds point markers to a plot. to ‘view’. ’color’. ’color’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. n ‘text opts’.

See also plot. either a letter or 3-vector. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. R. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. patch. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns.CHAPTER 2. color. The default is 1. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. R. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. NOTES • The sphere is always added. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. 1=solid. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state.

See also plot.CHAPTER 2. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. See also pgmﬁlt. plotp(p. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.CHAPTER 2. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. [gr. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.

d) as above but elements increment by d. x. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. one column per point pair. [m.in] = ransac(func. T.in. [m. x typically contains corresponding point data.CHAPTER 2. T. x. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.resid] = ransac(func. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. N ‘maxDataTrials’. x. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. Options ‘maxTrials’. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.

theta. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.x data to work on.out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.A. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. Boles.out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x and returns the best model out. References • m.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. Mach. Cambridge University Press. pp 381-395..resid] = EST(R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .x) condition the point data out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.s sample size (1 × 1) out. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. [out.s out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.theta] = ERR(R.theta = []. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. they detect a structure argument. No 6.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta and the subset of R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. [out. pp 101-113.theta. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. If multiple models are found out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.misc element.misc private data (cell array) out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. Assoc. Comp.theta is a cell array. Comm. that is they will produce a model. Vol 24.CHAPTER 2.theta to the points R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.x.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.x = CONDITION(R. that is.inlier.C.x. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .debug display what’s going on (logical) R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. Fishler and R.theta = DECONDITION(R.

edu. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.csse. If lambda is a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.uwa. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. See also rotx. roty. rotz.

T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Z axes respectively. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. If roll.CHAPTER 2. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Y. pitch. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. yaw. See also tr2rpy. • many texts (Paul. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll.

tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ncc. ssd.CHAPTER 2. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. r2t.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. and rotation theta in the plane.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. y.y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . theta) as above where xy=[x. See also zsad.

isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also zsdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Two cross-hairs are created. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. sad. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image.

opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. then R is 3 × 3. ’that’. varargin) opt. tr2rt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. then R is 2 × 2. The software pattern is: function(a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. opt. ’other’}. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.blah = [].bar = false. – If T is 3 × 3. c.CHAPTER 2. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). b. It supports options that have an assigned value. opt.choose = {’this’.foo = true. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.

‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.false ‘blah’.N sets opt <.select = {’#no’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.foo <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.verbose <.blah <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). args) creates a test pattern image. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. x. varargin). If neither of ‘this’. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.foo <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.true sets opt. N ‘setopt’.‘this’. ’#yes’}. varargin).x. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. w. opt = tb_optparse(opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.3 ‘blah’.select <.select <.debug <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. 3 sets opt.blah <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.y sets opt.1.choose <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.choose <.CHAPTER 2. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.

50.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 2). sf. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. 25). args is the number of cycles. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. 256. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). binary dot pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. square side length. args are theta (rad). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sf. [s. dot diameter.sd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sd and sdd are n-vectors. The trajectory s. a line. intercept. 256. args are pitch (distance between centres).CHAPTER 2. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.sd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. binary square pattern.

CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y and Z axes respectively. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). See also angvec2r.P. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. The 3 angles rpy=[R.

r2t. ie.y. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.CHAPTER 2. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.z]. – If TR is 3 × 3. y. If T has three dimensions. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. See also rpy2tr. See also rt2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. • The validity of R is not checked.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.:. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.

or x and y. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). each N × 1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. An historical anomaly. [o1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3).CHAPTER 2. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [c1.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . troty.

trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.CHAPTER 2. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. and displays in RPY format. trprint T is the command line form of above. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. f ‘label’.

tr2rpy. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also upq poly. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.(y-y0)q where (x0.(x-x0)p .y0) is the centroid. p. mpq. the sum of I(x. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. That is.y). tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. sad. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. See also sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. ncc. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ncc. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.

i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sdd. ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad.

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