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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This is extravagant on storage. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. is open-source. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. However the book “Robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. and I commend it to you.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . 1. . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . Polygon . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . 1 Introduction 1. CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . icorner . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . icp . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . ithin . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . imser . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . rluminos . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . npq poly . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . .

I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. That’s what you your teachers.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.google. tutors. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and you will be suitably acknowledged.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You need to signup in order to post. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.com. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.

I. type of organization and application. 1. Corke}. 1. Volume = {12}. Author = {P. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. and the “See also” functions to each other. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. The details are @article{Corke05f.html on a server for class use. Year = {2005}. 1.1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Month = nov. 1.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Number = {4}. the table of content to functions.gz) or zip format (. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. The ﬁle robot.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.3.petercorke.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.zip).

Vincent Lepetit. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.1. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. but not least. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.mathworks. VLFeat http://www.S.Functions such as SURF.6.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. pp 16–25. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. P. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. 1.7 Acknowledgements Last. Coimbra. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. MSER. Twente.I. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R. 1.. and there are hundreds of modules available. November 2005.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.7. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. 12(4). 1994 University of British Columbia. Corke. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.vlfeat.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Camera. P ‘pixel’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Options ‘name’. N ‘image’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. used by all subclasses. S ‘noise’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. T ‘color’. N ‘sensor’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. S ‘centre’. IM ‘resolution’.

CHAPTER 2. Camera. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.centre Get camera position p = C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.char Convert to string s = C.display Display value C. ﬁsheyecamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. CatadioptricCamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. SphericalCamera Camera.clf Clear the image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.

ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera.CHAPTER 2.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Camera.u + b.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. otherwise false (0). See also Camera. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.v + c = 0.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.

plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. y. Camera.CHAPTER 2.T. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. z. T ‘Tcam’. z to the image plane and plots them. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . cylinder. See also mesh. y. Options ‘Tobj’.hold.plot. The matrices x.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.plot(p.mesh(x. y. Camera.clf Camera. mkcube. sphere. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. uv = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot Plot points on image plane C.

‘Tcam’. T ‘scale’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. ‘fps’.hold. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. T See also Camera.CHAPTER 2. ‘Tobj’.T. Overrides the current camera pose C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clf Camera. Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Options ‘Tcam’. Camera.mesh. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.

The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.CHAPTER 2. that is. C. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.p.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rpy Set camera attitude C. The image is not inverted.y].rpy(R. p. a subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.Kosecka.and y-axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. E = C.8]) See also Camera. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. 10um pixels.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “An invitation to 3D”. S.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.CHAPTER 2. p. camera at origin. IM ‘resolution’. CatadioptricCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. J.E Essential matrix E = C. N ‘focal’.Ma. ﬁsheyecamera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Soatto. S ‘centre’. S.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). F ‘distortion’. D ‘default’ ‘image’.F. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. S ‘noise’. T ‘color’.Sastry. f=8mm. optical axis is z-axis.and v-axes parallel to x. P ‘pixel’. Reference Y. E = C. CentralCamera. SIGMA ‘pose’. 2003. Springer.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.

Soatto.H(T. p.H Homography matrix H = C. F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Reference Y. S.Sastry.177 See also CentralCamera. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”.F Fundamental matrix F = C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. from two viewpoints.Kosecka.Ma.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. n.E CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. J.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.CHAPTER 2.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera. S. Springer.

ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). CentralCamera. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Journal on Computer Vision.estpose(xyz. Int. Feb.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. See also quiver CentralCamera. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. 81. pp. vol. a = C.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. 155-166. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. 2009. V. Lepetit. Moreno-Noguer. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.CHAPTER 2. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Fua. F. and P.

“Multiview Geometry”. 2003.Ma. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s.Soatto. p.Soatto. translation not to scale • n.Sastry.E CentralCamera.Kosecka. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. 2003.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. s. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. J.Sastry. J. Reference Y. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). See also CentralCamera. section 5.invE(E. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.CHAPTER 2. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. “An invitation to 3D”. Chap 9. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer. p116. s. 259 Y. s. Springer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Kosecka.

Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project(p. C.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. p. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot epiline(f. H = C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.CHAPTER 2. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. CentralCamera. one per line. See also Hough CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.T.plot epiline(f.

p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also Camera. Espiau. June 1992. and P.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. F. 8.b. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Reference B. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. vol.plot CentralCamera. Rives.visjac e(E.c. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. “Multiview Geometry”. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. 313-326. Chaumette. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. pp.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .

b. vol. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. pp 651-670. R&A. Chaumette. Reference B.visjac p. CentralCamera.visjac l(L. CentralCamera. Espiau.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. 1996. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac l CentralCamera. IEEE Trans.visjac e CentralCamera. Oct. See also CentralCamera.visjac p(uv. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac p polar. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. 8. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. 313-326. Vol 12(5).c.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Hager & Corke. Rives. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.CHAPTER 2. June 1992. Hutchinson. F. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac p polar. and P. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pp.

visjac l. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. See also CentralCamera. 5962-5967.visjac p polar(rt. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. pp.visjac p.visjac e CentralCamera. I. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Louis). CentralCamera. F. Int. in Proc. and F. Chaumette. 2009. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac l.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Corke. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. radius and theta. Oct.visjac p polar.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). CentralCamera. (St.CHAPTER 2. Spindler. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

PointFeature. See README. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Nov. Int. 2004. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. pp. Journal on Computer Vision. vol. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .91-110. See also isift. ScalePointFeature.SIFT. D.Lowe. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.CHAPTER 2. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.60. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.

match Match SIFT point features m = F. f = PointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match(f2. See also isift SiftPointFeature. 1=opaque. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. v.plot scale Plot feature scale F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options. f = PointFeature(u. C ‘alpha’.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. SiftPointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support(images.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.T] = F. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im.support(im. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. out = F.support Support region of feature out = F. [out.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

S ‘pose’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Options ‘Tobj’. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.T.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘name’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Overrides the current camera pose C. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. ﬁsheyecamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T ‘Tcam’.project(p. See also SphericalCamera.

The camera view. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.the side length of the target in world units (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . camera pose. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.CHAPTER 2.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The external view. Jacobian condition number.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . image plane size and desired feature locations. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.center of the target in world coords (0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .01) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. of 4-vector.depth of points to use for Jacobian. error norm. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error. defaults in parentheses: target size . scalar for If null take actual value all points.0.gain.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera view.5) target center .

center of the target in world coords (0. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. CentralCamera.5) target center . IEEE Int.the side length of the target in world units (0. Jacobian condition number. camera pose.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . image plane size and desired feature locations. defaults in parentheses: target size . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. May 3-7 2010. CentralCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. The external view. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . I. of 4-vector.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Corke. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).visjac p polar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.gain.CHAPTER 2.visjac p(pt. for all points.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. See also CentralCamera. (Anchorage).01) . or a vector (N × 1) for each point. error. pp. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. error norm. Conf. in Proc.0. Robotics and Automation. 5550-5555.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . P.visjac l.

Luc Van Gool. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 3. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Andreas Ess. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. No. Vol. 110. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. 346–359. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. pp. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tinne Tuytelaars.

[m.match(f2. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u.C] = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. v. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match Match SURF point features m = F.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].match(f2. Options ‘thresh’.

F.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale(options.T] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.2) SurfPointFeature.support(im. out = F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. C ‘alpha’. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.plot scale Plot feature scale F.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. [out.support(im. 1=opaque.

axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. otherwise the result is not predictable. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis.CHAPTER 2. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Video AxisWebCamera. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’.com). • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.com) web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.

AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close() closes the connection to the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.display AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.close Close the image source A.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.

1470-1477. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. f can also be a cell array. Ninth IEEE Int. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. on Computer Vision.org). k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.Zisserman. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Conf. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. in Proc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. 2003.Sivic and A.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Oct. b = BagOfWords(f.

display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value B.exemplars(w.contains Find images containing word k = B. See also BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .exemplars display exemplars of words B.char Convert to string s = B.char BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. isurf BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.

The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. M ‘width’. BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.n] = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. N ‘maxperimage’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.isword Features from words f = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘ncolumns’.

CHAPTER 2.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Camera CatadioptricCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Camera. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. optical axis is z-axis. SIGMA ‘pose’.and v-axes parallel to x.and y-axes respectively. P ‘pixel’. ‘sine’. M ‘k’. A ‘resolution’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. T ‘Tcam’. N ‘focal’. 10um pixels.T. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘noise’. camera at origin. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. S ‘centre’. See also Camera. K ‘maxangle’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. f=8mm. N ‘sensor’. ﬁsheyecamera. u. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. CatadioptricCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].CHAPTER 2.project(p. ‘equisolid’.

SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SurfPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.

display Display value M.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. SurfPointFeature. one per element. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f2. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Convert to string s = M.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.

p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.v2].inlier.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.u2.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.

p FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2.p1.p2 FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1. These are the (u.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.plot Show corresponding points M.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot() M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.im2}) m.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. These are the (u. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.

ransac Apply RANSAC M.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homography.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. Example f1 = isurf(im1).match(f2). ransac FeatureMatch. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.CHAPTER 2. m = f1. f2 = isurf(im2). 1e-4). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.ransac(func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac( @fmatrix. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. See also fmatrix. See also idisp FeatureMatch.

X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y This camera model assumes central projection. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. that is. v. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.CHAPTER 2. The image is not inverted.

T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. camera at origin. S ‘centre’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. P ‘pixel’.axes respectively. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. ‘equisolid’. 10um pixels. M ‘k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].and v-axes are parallel to x. Options ‘name’. K ‘resolution’. optical axis is z-axis. u. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘sensor’.and y.CHAPTER 2. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘sine’. S ‘noise’. f=8mm.

CentralCamera.T. See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. T ‘Tcam’. See also FishEyeCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.

options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.CHAPTER 2. The voting array is 2-dimensional. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. A horizontal line has theta = 0.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).0) and the line. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.H). Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also LineFeature Hough.

CHAPTER 2. T ‘edgethresh’. Hough.edgeThresh.1).display Display value HT. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.houghThresh (default 0. Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. See also Hough. W ‘houghthresh’. Nrho]. T ‘suppress’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. else N = [Ntheta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.5) Set ht. W ‘nbins’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Default 400 × 401.

Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. L = HT.lines Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. HT. then all elements in an HT.plot(n.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. reﬁned to subpixel precision. HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot Plot line features HT. LineFeature Hough.plot.lines Find lines L = HT. See also Hough. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The process is repeated for all peaks. See also Hough.CHAPTER 2. H = HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. The highest peak is found.

CHAPTER 2. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. RegionFeature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. LENGTH is undeﬁned. L = LineFeature(rho. theta. L = LineFeature(rho. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. theta.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.display Display value L. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. See also LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LineFeature.char Convert to string s = L. strength.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.CHAPTER 2.

LineFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge. L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.points Return points on line segments p = L. l2 = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).plot Plot line L.CHAPTER 2. Small gaps.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. l2 = L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. less than gap pixels are tolerated.plot() overlay the line on current plot.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. See also icanny LineFeature.

Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source M.char Convert to string M.com). options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S ‘skip’. Movie.axis.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. G ‘scale’.

grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. F Skip frames.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph create an n-d. Options ‘skip’. S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. planar. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.CHAPTER 2. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.

Object properties (read/write) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.add node(coord. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) g.goal(v) g.plot() g.path(v) set goal vertex. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add edge(v1.next(v) g.cost(e) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.add node(coord) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.clear() add vertex.component(v) g. v2) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().distance(v1.coord(v) g.edges(e) g.connectivity() g.neighbours(v) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.CHAPTER 2.

add edge(v1. Options ‘distance’. v = G.CHAPTER 2.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. where x is D × 1. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. PGraph.add node(x. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add edge(v1. and returns the edge id E. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. E = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v2.add node(x. and returns the node id v. v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest Find closest node v = G. edges and components. [v.coord Coordinate of node x = G.clear Clear the graph G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. and the distance d. PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph. PGraph. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord(v) return coordinate vector.CHAPTER 2.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. of node id v.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.d] = G. D × 1.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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SiftPointFeature PointFeature. PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u.display Display value F. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.char Convert to string s = F. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.char PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.match Match point features m = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match(f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2.C] = F. PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. the norm of the Euclidean distance. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. where 1 is perfect match.CHAPTER 2. [m.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon .plot Plot feature F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.

char String representation s = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. union.area() is the area of the polygon.area Area of polygon a = P. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit. p = Polygon(C.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Polygon. kirill@plume. http://puddle. HEIGHT].centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. one column per vertex. Pankratov. Polygon.html and require a licence. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.mit.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. difference.CHAPTER 2. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. so use with care. Polygon. intersection.edu.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.

• If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. returns coordinates of P.char Polygon.CHAPTER 2.difference Difference of polygons d = P. else 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. Polygon. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.display Display polygon P. See also Polygon.

intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.moments(p. y1 y2]. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. each column is [x y]’.CHAPTER 2. returns empty polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.

xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. P. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union Union of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.plot Plot polygon P.plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.

d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.

intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. See also Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. one per element. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. Ray3D.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.char Ray3D. [x. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.display Display value R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.E] = R.CHAPTER 2.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Ray3D.E] = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = R.

0) 1 for a circle.c. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.b. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.

box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.xmax.uc will be a list not a vector. See also iblobs.th] = R. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature.char Convert to string s = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. ymin. For example R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. one per element.box Return bounding box b = R. ymax].

RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.and xmarkers. See also RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char RegionFeature. R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.CHAPTER 2.display Display value R.plot Plot centroid R.plot boundary plot boundary R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o. R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box Plot bounding box R. R.CHAPTER 2.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R. RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = ScalePointFeature(u. See also PointFeature. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. v.plot scale(options.CHAPTER 2. F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0. ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. See also PointFeature Tracker. one per active track. N ‘thresh’. Options ‘radius’. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. options) is a new tracker object. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. C.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A complete history of all tracks is maintained.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. T ‘movie’. R ‘nslots’.

char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char Convert to string s = T.display Display value T. Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.CHAPTER 2. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Tracker.char Tracker.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Movie Video. and their characteristics is displayed.CHAPTER 2. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. G ‘scale’. AxisWebCamera. otherwise the result is not predictable. S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close Close the image source V.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char Convert to string V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.

By default the left image is red. color. right. If th1 is a column vector. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). the ﬁrst for left. a = anaglyph(left. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. and the right image is cyan. right. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. the second for right. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors.CHAPTER 2. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle.

then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. Endpoints must be integer. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. p = bresenham(p1. If lambda is a column vector. p2) as above but p1=[x1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. y1. [x. 6500). % emission of sun plot(l.s] = boundmatch(R1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y1) to (x2.y2]. See also RegionFeature. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1] and p2=[x2. x2.boundary.CHAPTER 2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y. [C. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.CHAPTER 2.

circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.CHAPTER 2. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).d1] = closest(a. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . green and blue primaries respectively. Options ‘n’. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. k = closest(a.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. x = circle(C. that is. R. and x is N × 3. [k.

(Table 1(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. As noted in footnote a on p. • From Table I(5. The data are referred to as pilot data. while Table I(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.d2] = closest(a. since.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2.32).ioo. 335 of Table 1(5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 19000 (526. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. they were measured directly. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. and 22500 (444.d1. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.ac.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5.16).5.ucl.

M). Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. out = col2im(pix. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize is a 2-vector (N. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo.

d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.CHAPTER 2. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.

out = colorize(im. See also imono. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. @isnan. im<100.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. icolor.B). eg.CHAPTER 2. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @isnan. k. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. and returns a per-pixel logical result. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. [L. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. func.G.

Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . low is good. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.CHAPTER 2.C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.R] = colorkmeans(im. L = colorkmeans(im. XYZ = colorname(name. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(XYZ. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. k) as above but also returns the residual R. eg. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities.

• Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. or alternatively.CHAPTER 2. it can be omitted. As MATLAB’s native datatype. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.o3] = colorspace(s. double data is the natural choice. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. colorspace(s. [o1.o2. i1. • Color space names are case insensitive.txt. Input and output images have 3 planes.i2. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = ‘src->dest’.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. s = ‘dest<-src’. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.

200). Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . • If im is an M × 3 array. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. d = distance(A. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).2*A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. out will also have size M × 3. like a colormap. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. However. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. for memory and computational performance. B = rand(400.B). Example A = rand(400.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.100).

not image frame. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.y). seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.3. E = edgelist(im. Tested: PC Matlab v5. University of Amsterdam.CHAPTER 2. non zero is counter-clockwise.j).uva.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. in matrix coordinate frame.(+31)20-5257524. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bunschot@wins. seed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. tel. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. non-zero is an object. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. The result E is a matrix. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.

R. Coimbra. Author Based on fmatrix code by. I. H = epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also epiline. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). 1998. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p1. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Oct 27. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. one per line drawn. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.S. epiline(f. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.CHAPTER 2. See also fmatrix.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p.

page 270. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. p2. it is singular.edu. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Reference Hartley and Zisserman. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. • f is a rank 2 matrix. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views.au/. The University of Western Australia. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. no outlier rejection is performed. • Contains a RANSAC driver.csse. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. epiline. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. http://www. that is. c.uwa. homography. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. Notes • The points must be corresponding. See also ransac.CHAPTER 2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. that is.

iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. y1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). ithin.CHAPTER 2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. See also imorph. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. x2. itriplepoint.

Notes • The points must be corresponding. The University of Western Australia. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.uwa.CHAPTER 2. See also ransac. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. invhomog.au/. http://www. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac().edu. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. no outlier rejection is performed.csse. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.

if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. im. that is tp=T*T1. D ‘size’. V ‘roi’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. S ‘dimension’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. itrim. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. ie. [out.offs] = homwarp(H. See also homography. See also e2h. R ‘scale’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.CHAPTER 2. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S output image contains all the warped pixels. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. im. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.

ianimate(seq. IT-8:pp. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 200).CHAPTER 2. IRE Trans. 1962. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. on Information Theory. ’gs’). Hu. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. features. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ’nfeat’. features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. 179-187. ianimate(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. isurf. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. YMIN YMAX]. N ‘only’. iharris. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.CHAPTER 2. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. M ‘npoints’. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’.

0 ‘connect’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle. ilabel. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. C set connectivity.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. horizontal coordinate centroid. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. [S1. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.CHAPTER 2. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. [A1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. default 1.

out = iclose(im. See also isobel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. T ‘th1’. See also iopen.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. se. S ‘th0’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. 1996-7. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tel Aviv University. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.

See also imono. [C.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘dir’. iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. [0 1 1]). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.u] = iconcat(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. colorize. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. D ‘bgval’. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).CHAPTER 2.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.

Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. options) convolves im1 with im2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.CHAPTER 2. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.

This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). E ‘suppress’. D ‘k’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. R ‘nfeat’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘deriv’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. K ‘patch’. CM ‘cminthresh’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. CT ‘edgegap’. N ‘detector’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘sigma’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned.

6.d] = icp(p1.Noble. 593-593.5 [sec]. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Shi and C.J. Proc.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. IEEE Computer Society. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. p2. where * denotes squared and smoothed. p2. Image and Vision Computing. T ‘distthresh’. pp 147-151. See also PointFeature. pp. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. with a delay of 0. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Proc. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition..CHAPTER 2. N ‘mindelta’. J. • “Finding corners”. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. T ‘maxiter’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Options ‘dplot’. J. May 1988. pp.121-128. Harris and M. [T. vol. 1994. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. Manchester. 1988.G. Tomasi.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. • “Good features to track”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Stephens. with a delay of d [sec].

s = idecimate(im. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. 14. m. pp. s = idecimate(im. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.CHAPTER 2. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. See also iscale. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.or 3-dimensional.. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 2. Intell. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. each plane is decimated. IEEETrans. Pattern Anal. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Mach. 239-256. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im.McKay. vol. no. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. P. 1992. Feb.Besl and H. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. histogram and zooming. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). positive is blue. negative is red. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view.CHAPTER 2. C ‘xydata’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. linear proﬁle. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. Options ‘ncolors’. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value.and y-axes respectively. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. If im is a cell array of images. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. darker than ‘grey’. zero is white. zero is black. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zero is black color map: greyscale signed. If the image is zoomed. zero is white color map: random values. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. positive is blue. negative is red. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. XY ‘colormap’.

Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. icolorize. colormap. See also iblobs.CHAPTER 2. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. See also image. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. caxis. labelimage. labelimage. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labels. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. idisplabel(im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). out = igamma(im.45. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.CHAPTER 2. See also itriplepoint. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.

2006.m] = igraphseg(im. Int. 100. k is the scale parameter. Felzenszwalb and D. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 1500. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. min.5). sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. P. [L. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.CHAPTER 2. Sept. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Huttenlocher. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Journal on Computer Vision. pp. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 2004. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. k. k. L = igraphseg(im. k. 0.jpg’). [l.5). See also ithresh. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. vol. Example im = iread(’58060. 59. min. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.m] = igraphseg(im. 167181.

x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. [H. plot(x. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. bar(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h).h). options) displays the image histogram.x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. ’normcdf’). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. [h.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.

[L. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.y1) and bottom-right (x2.m. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. y1. x1.y2). [L. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. ii is a precomputed integral image. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. same size as im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.CHAPTER 2.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. y2.

To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1. p2. ilabel(im. • This is a “low level” function. p1. each a 2-vector [X. iproﬁle. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. out = iline(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.parents. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.Y].edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. 8). IBLOBS is a higher level interface. The pixels on the line are set to 1. otherwise it does not.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.class.maxlabel. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. [L. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.CHAPTER 2.parents. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iblobs.maxlabel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. eg.

CHAPTER 2. y.and y-offsets relative to (x. y. [xm. a perfect match score is 1. s. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The template in im1 is centred at (x. ymax] relative to (x.y) and its half-width is H. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. -s.y).y) and of size s. xmax.CC] where (DX. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.DY. • ZNCC matching is used. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. and columns the vertical position. s] % relative to (x. im2. centred at (x. The return value is xm=[DX. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.DY) are the x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. x.y). • Is a MEX ﬁle. x.score] = imatch(im1. im2. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. w2.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. H.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymin.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. The element u(v.CHAPTER 2. [u.u) = v. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image.v] = imeshgrid(w. [u. effectively a greyscale image. All pixels are equally weighted. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the domain is w × H.u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u. v.

icolor. m11. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. ilabel. the elements are m00.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also RegionFeature. • This function does not perform connectivity. horizontal coordinate centroid. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m01. m02. m20.CHAPTER 2. Different conversion functions are supported. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. or its area. m10.

Image and Vision Computing. m. 2004. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. and T. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. se. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. 22. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. ’grey’. J. Matas. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. [label. Sept. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’double’). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. The labels [L. 761767.m] = imser(im. O.CHAPTER 2. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. ’light’). Chum.m] = imser(im. vol. pp. Pajdla. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im.png’.org). Urban.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.ˆ2). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.CHAPTER 2. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.

se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides. This is an erosion followed by dilation.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iopen(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also iclose. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. sides.

by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 10. im1. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 20. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. im2. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected.CHAPTER 2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. otherwise im2 is selected.V]. ’t’. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ’tblr’.

v) for the corresponding row of p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.uv] = iproﬁle(im. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. See also bresenham. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1. p1. [p.

1.3). The highest rank. ones(5. See also iscalespace. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. is order=1. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. nbins. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. im > irank(im. 12. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se(2. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. sigma. idecimate. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. order. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. out = ipyramid(im. the maximum. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se.5)). op. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. out = imorph(image. se). op. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = ipyramid(im. se. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.2) = 0. out = imorph(image. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3.

If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2. R ‘roi’. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. ivar. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. im = iread(ﬁle. where R=[umin umax. See also imorph. G ‘reduce’. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix.

m. igamma. Notes • Color images are not supported. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. [out1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.CHAPTER 2. im1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im1.out2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. See also FeatureMatch. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. m. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.out2] = irectify(f. imwrite.h1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. istereo. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. homwarp.h2] = irectify(f. imono.

vmin vmax]. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.umax. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. angle. S ‘extrapval’. See also idisp.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmax]. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. V ‘smooth’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. Options ‘outsize’. [out. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.CHAPTER 2. vmin. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.H] return central part of image.

H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. out = isamesize(im1. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. im2.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s>1 makes the image larger. s ‘extrapval’.5 is symmetric cropping. Options ‘outsize’. while bias>0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s<1 makes it smaller. bias=0.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.CHAPTER 2. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. V ‘smooth’. bias<0.

idecimate. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.L.s] = iscalespace(im. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).L. See also iscalespace. corresponding to each step of the sequence. [g. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . n. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. in space and scale. n) as above but sigma=1. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.

ishomog(T. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ‘valid’) as above. that is. else false (0). ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ilaplace. ismooth. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. it its third dimension is equal to three.CHAPTER 2. See also isrot.

Reference David G. International Journal of Computer Vision. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.CHAPTER 2. Lowe.vlfeat. 91-110. pp. See also SiftPointFeature. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 2 (2004). “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. 60. • Features are returned in descending strength order. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. isurf. N ‘suppress’.

zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. ncc. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. zsad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. ssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. @zssd.CHAPTER 2. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. [w. sad.H. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. s is same size as im. See also imatch. @zsad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = isimilarity(T. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zssd. [w. @ssd. and these output pixels are set to NaN.

[gx. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. convolved.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. See also iconv. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.gy] = isobel(im. sigma.CHAPTER 2.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. [gx. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. then converted back to integer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.

range is the disparity search range.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. See also ksobel.u) means that imr(v. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H. else false (0). range. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.u). That is. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.CHAPTER 2. w. ‘valid’) as above. See also ishomog. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. [d. H is the half size of the matching window. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).sim] = istereo(iml. isrot(R. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. icanny. range.M] for an N × M window. imr. the disparity d=d(v. imr.

a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. dx. imr.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. range. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. w. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 to +0. range. imr.sim. That is. 3) See also irectify.5). p. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).sim. w. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. out = istretch(im.dsi] = istereo(iml.p] = istereo(iml.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. B.A and p. ‘ncc’. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.CHAPTER 2. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. [d. p. [d. Options ‘metric’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. • sim = max(dsi.

Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Kroon (U. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark.CHAPTER 2. or sequences. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. N ‘thresh’. T ‘octaves’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Notes • Color images.

3. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). either a row. See also hitormiss. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. Vol. else false (0). icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. See also ishomog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Otherwise false (0). No. out = ithin(im. 110. isvec(v. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Andreas Ess. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Luc Van Gool. pp.or columnvector.CHAPTER 2.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. itriplepoint. isift. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.

It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. See also homwarp.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. The same cropping is applied to each input image.im2. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.CHAPTER 2. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. a lower value will include more. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.5.out2] = itrim(im1. ithresh(im. Notes • Greyscale image only. The default is 0.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.

the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ithin.CHAPTER 2. See also iendpoint. op. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.

edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. se.5).3). ones(5. @std). @max). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. se. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ivar. func. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hence output image had reduced dimensions.CHAPTER 2. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. out = iwindow(image.

dG/dy. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. k = kdgauss(sigma. kdog.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. klog. k = kcircle(R. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. • The vertical derivative. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. See also kgauss. ktriangle. See also ones. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dx. is k’.

where sigma1 > SIGMA2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .KGAUSS(SIGMA2). sigma2. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kgauss(sigma. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. See also kgauss.6*sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. klog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1.CHAPTER 2. kdog. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. kdgauss. See also kdgauss. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. klog. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1.

kdgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. iconv. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog. k = klog(sigma.

L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.C] = kmeans(x. [L. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.C] = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Pattern Recognition Principles. k.CHAPTER 2. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. and D is the dimension. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. k. it is assumed to have been completed previously.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. See also cylinder. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. ‘edge’.y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘T’. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. [x. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.z] = mkcube(s. symmetric about the origin. Options ‘T’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. The points are the columns of p. s.y. [x.z] = mkcube(s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.

labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2)). y. y) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. n) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(t. n. p. npq. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.xp . n) MPLOT(y.2)).y). That is. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.yq . or y(:. the sum of I(x. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. or y(:. y. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.CHAPTER 2.

upq poly. See also mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. so centroids will be still be correct.CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. p. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1.

the height of a character. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. See also zncc. in text segmentation. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. 1986. [T.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Prentice-Hall. niblack. 20). T has the same dimensions as im. -0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. sad. for example. where W=2*w2+1. Example t = niblack(im. W.2. • A common choice of k=-0. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.s] = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. idisp(im >= t). ssd. k.CHAPTER 2.m. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.

ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.q)/MPQ(im. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. That is UPQ(im. p.CHAPTER 2. mpq.0).

so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. upq. they are considered as a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). mpq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also mpq poly. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m.

Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. x. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. Example t = otsu(im). Jan 1979. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. otsu IEEE Trans. N. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).i] = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.xp] = peak(y. Systems. idisp(im >= t).

options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S points. N ‘scale’. N ‘scale’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. [zp. use peak(-V). use peak2(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.CHAPTER 2. S ‘interp’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.S points.

p can be N × 2 or N × 3. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ie. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. If p has three dimensions. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. plot2(p. See also pnmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

plot_circle(c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ’g’. W. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. P. r. or a set of name.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Examples plot_circle(c. ’b’).y1. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ’LineWidth’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.y2. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. plot_circle(c.CHAPTER 2. ’fillcolor’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. R. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. r. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’r’). r. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. 1=solid. P. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. W. 5). ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.y1) and (x2. x2.y2). ’edgecolor’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. PLOT BOX(x1. ‘size’. ‘r’. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ‘size’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Options ‘color’. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. C.Y].Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c Specify color of the axes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.CHAPTER 2. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. If C=[X. current plot. with Matlab line style ls. centred at the origin. xc.Y. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.

n ‘text opts’.X = 0. ‘printf’. ’color’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. Options ‘textcolor’. to ‘view’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T.CHAPTER 2. options) adds point markers to a plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’r’). ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’r’. fmt. ‘framename’. ’name’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’color’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. trplot( T.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. color. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. patch. R. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also plot. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. The default is 1. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R.CHAPTER 2. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. 1=solid. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. either a letter or 3-vector.

The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. plotp(p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. See also plot. See also pgmﬁlt.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.gt] = radgrad(im.CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘maxTrials’. T. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. x typically contains corresponding point data. x. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.in. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. one column per point pair. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. d) as above but elements increment by d.resid] = ransac(func. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set.in] = ransac(func. x. x. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. [m. T. N ‘maxDataTrials’. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.CHAPTER 2. T. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.

Fishler and R.. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta. If multiple models are found out.s sample size (1 × 1) out. References • m.x) condition the point data out. that is they will produce a model. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. Mach.x data to work on.misc private data (cell array) out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta and the subset of R.x and returns the best model out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. that is. Comp.C.CHAPTER 2.out. pp 381-395. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta.theta to the points R.resid] = EST(R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. Assoc. Vol 24.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. pp 101-113.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.theta = DECONDITION(R.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.inlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. they detect a structure argument. Cambridge University Press.theta is a cell array.R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.t threshold (1 × 1) R. Comm.misc element.x.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.theta = [].x. Boles. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.x = CONDITION(R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.s out. [out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta] = ERR(R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. No 6. [out.A.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.

If lambda is a vector.uwa. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.au/ pk See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2.csse.

See also rotx. roty.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. rotz. See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty.

eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. If roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Z axes respectively. Y. • many texts (Paul. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. yaw. T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. See also tr2rpy. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX.

y. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ncc. See also zsad. r2t.CHAPTER 2. ssd. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. theta) as above where xy=[x.y. and rotation theta in the plane. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.

sad. See also zsdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Two cross-hairs are created. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.CHAPTER 2. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. varargin) opt. then R is 3 × 3. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rt. ’other’}. – If T is 3 × 3. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. opt. then R is 2 × 2.choose = {’this’. b. c.blah = []. It supports options that have an assigned value. The software pattern is: function(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.CHAPTER 2.foo = true. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).bar = false. opt. ’that’.

If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt. w. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.CHAPTER 2. args) creates a test pattern image.N sets opt <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.choose <. If neither of ‘this’. varargin).verbose <. x.choose <.x. ’#yes’}.select = {’#no’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. 3 sets opt.‘this’.y sets opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. N ‘setopt’. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. varargin).1.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.true sets opt.foo <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.blah <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.debug <.select <.foo <.y ‘that’ sets opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .select <.3 ‘blah’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.false ‘blah’.blah <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.

args is the number of cycles. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. sf. 256. [s. 25). a line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 256. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args is the number of cycles.CHAPTER 2.sdd] = tpoly(s0. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args is the number of cycles. 50. args are pitch (distance between centres).sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args is the number of cycles. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). binary square pattern. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. square side length. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. binary dot pattern.sd.sd. 2). sf. intercept. dot diameter. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sd and sdd are n-vectors. args are theta (rad). The trajectory s.

Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. rpy = tr2rpy(R. The 3 angles rpy=[R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.P.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. See also angvec2r. [theta.CHAPTER 2. Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Y and Z axes respectively.

See also rpy2tr. ie. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. If T has three dimensions.y. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. • The validity of R is not checked.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.z]. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. – If TR is 3 × 3.:. r2t. y. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. See also rt2tr. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.CHAPTER 2. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.

out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. An historical anomaly. each N × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). or x and y.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [o1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. [c1.

trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . troty.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. f ‘label’. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line.CHAPTER 2. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotx. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and displays in RPY format. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.

y). tr2rpy. See also upq poly. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. That is. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.CHAPTER 2. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. mpq. p. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.(y-y0)q where (x0.(x-x0)p . the sum of I(x.y0) is the centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. See also ncc. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). ssd. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ncc. ssd.

Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. ncc.

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