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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This is extravagant on storage. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. However the book “Robotics. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. is open-source. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.

. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . idouble . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . distance . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . peak2 . . npq . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . klog . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and you will be suitably acknowledged. You need to signup in order to post. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. That’s what you your teachers. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. tutors.google. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. lecturers and professors are paid to do.com.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.

Corke}. the table of content to functions.zip).3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.I.1. type of organization and application. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. The details are @article{Corke05f. Month = nov. Year = {2005}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.gz) or zip format (.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. and the “See also” functions to each other.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Volume = {12}. 1.3.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Number = {4}. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Author = {P.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.html on a server for class use. 1. 1.petercorke. 1. The ﬁle robot.

1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. and there are hundreds of modules available.7. MSER. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi..I. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Twente.6. but not least. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.Functions such as SURF.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. VLFeat http://www. Corke.S. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. pp 16–25.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. Vincent Lepetit. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.1.7 Acknowledgements Last. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. P. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. 12(4).vlfeat. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. 1994 University of British Columbia. 1. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.R. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.mathworks.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. Coimbra. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. 1. November 2005.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. Options ‘name’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. P ‘pixel’. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. T ‘color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘sensor’. used by all subclasses. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned.CHAPTER 2. IM ‘resolution’. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. N ‘image’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S ‘centre’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.

char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.char Convert to string s = C. Camera.clf Clear the image plane C.display Display value C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. ﬁsheyecamera. CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).centre Get camera position p = C. Camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C. SphericalCamera Camera.

and off if H is false (or 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.char Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.u + b. Camera. See also Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. Camera. C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.CHAPTER 2.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.v + c = 0. otherwise false (0).

plot Plot points on image plane C.hold.CHAPTER 2. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. Options ‘Tobj’. y.mesh(x. z. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. uv = C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). sphere. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. cylinder.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. y. Camera. Camera. The matrices x. See also mesh. mkcube.T. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot. T ‘Tcam’. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.clf Camera. z to the image plane and plots them. y.

‘fps’. Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘Tcam’. Overrides the current camera pose C.hold.mesh.CHAPTER 2.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T.clf Camera. Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘Tobj’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T See also Camera. T ‘scale’.

y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. The image is not inverted.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. p.p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. a subclass of Camera. C. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.CHAPTER 2. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy Set camera attitude C.y]. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy(R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C.

optical axis is z-axis. T ‘color’. camera at origin.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). J. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. E = C.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. p. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. N ‘focal’. N ‘sensor’. E = C. SIGMA ‘pose’. ﬁsheyecamera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.and v-axes parallel to x. 2003.Soatto. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. P ‘pixel’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. CentralCamera.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .8]) See also Camera. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. 10um pixels. CatadioptricCamera.E Essential matrix E = C. Reference Y. F ‘distortion’. S ‘centre’. f=8mm.Kosecka. D ‘default’ ‘image’.Ma. IM ‘resolution’.177 See also CentralCamera. Springer.Sastry. u. S. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. “An invitation to 3D”.F.and y-axes respectively. S ‘noise’. S.

from two viewpoints.CHAPTER 2. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Ma.F Fundamental matrix F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Kosecka. S. p. See also CentralCamera. n.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).177 See also CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”. J.E CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S. Springer.Soatto. 2003. F = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.H(T.H CentralCamera.Sastry.H Homography matrix H = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. Reference Y.

uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. pp.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. See also quiver CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.CHAPTER 2. 2009.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. a = C.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. 155-166.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. V. Fua. Lepetit. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. vol. Int. F.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Journal on Computer Vision. and P.estpose(xyz.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Feb. CentralCamera. Moreno-Noguer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. 81.

translation not to scale • n. “Multiview Geometry”. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Soatto. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p116. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. s. s. 2003.Ma.invE(E.CHAPTER 2. J. s.Ma. Reference Y.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. See also CentralCamera.Sastry. p. Chap 9.E CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. Springer. 2003. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. s. section 5. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Sastry. “An invitation to 3D”.Kosecka.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. 259 Y.Soatto. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. J.Kosecka. Springer.

H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. H = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. ‘Tobj’.project(p.T.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. C.CHAPTER 2. one per line. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. p. CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot epiline(f.

313-326. June 1992.plot CentralCamera. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. F. Rives.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pp. Espiau.CHAPTER 2. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. “Multiview Geometry”. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Reference B. and P.visjac e(E.b. Chaumette.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. 8. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. See also Camera.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.c. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. vol.

visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.c.visjac p(uv.b. 8. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. IEEE Trans. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). June 1992. 1996. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Hutchinson. Espiau. CentralCamera.visjac p. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. pp.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. vol. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. pp 651-670. F.visjac l CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac p polar. Vol 12(5). The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. and P. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Rives. Chaumette. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac p polar. Reference B.visjac p. 313-326. Oct. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac l(L.CHAPTER 2. R&A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Hager & Corke.

(St. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. and F. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Int. in Proc. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. radius and theta. CentralCamera. Spindler. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. 5962-5967. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). I.visjac p polar.CHAPTER 2. Louis). CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Oct. 2009.visjac l. Chaumette.visjac e CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. P. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac p polar(rt. F. Corke. pp.visjac p.

CHAPTER 2. Nov.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. vol. PointFeature. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Lowe. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. See also isift. Journal on Computer Vision. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. See README. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. 2004.SIFT. ScalePointFeature. Int.60.91-110. D.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = PointFeature(u. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.CHAPTER 2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 1=opaque. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match(f2. See also isift SiftPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F.match Match SIFT point features m = F. F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. v. 0=transparent (default 0. SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. C ‘alpha’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale(options.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im.T] = F. F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. [out. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.CHAPTER 2.support Support region of feature out = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

project(p. Options ‘name’. T ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. N ‘pixel’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S ‘pose’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.T. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. Options ‘Tobj’. ﬁsheyecamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

depth of points to use for Jacobian. The camera view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.5) target center . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. of 4-vector.CHAPTER 2.01) . The external view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error norm. image plane size and desired feature locations. Jacobian condition number. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.the side length of the target in world units (0. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The camera view. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. error.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . defaults in parentheses: target size .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . scalar for If null take actual value all points.gain.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.0. camera pose. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.center of the target in world coords (0.

I.CHAPTER 2.depth of points to use for Jacobian. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. error.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. of 4-vector. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. (Anchorage). The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. CentralCamera. IEEE Int.01) . for all points.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . 5550-5555.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . error norm. defaults in parentheses: target size . or a vector (N × 1) for each point. CentralCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. scalar for If null take actual value all points.the side length of the target in world units (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. pp. P. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Jacobian condition number.gain. See also CentralCamera. Conf. camera pose. May 3-7 2010. The external view. image plane size and desired feature locations.visjac p polar.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.5) target center .0.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Corke.visjac l.visjac p(pt. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.center of the target in world coords (0.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . Robotics and Automation. in Proc.

Andreas Ess. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 346–359. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2. 110. No. Tinne Tuytelaars. Vol. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 3. pp. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Luc Van Gool.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.

C] = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match(f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Options ‘thresh’. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match Match SURF point features m = F.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. PointFeature. ScalePointFeature. [m.

F. out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. F.T] = F.support(images. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the support region is displayed. [out. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. 1=opaque.2) SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. C ‘alpha’. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2.plot scale Plot feature scale F.

S ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com) web camera. G ‘scale’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Video AxisWebCamera.axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com).AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. otherwise the result is not predictable.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.display AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string A.CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.

Oct. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.1470-1477. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.Zisserman. Conf. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. f can also be a cell array.CHAPTER 2. on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int.Sivic and A. in Proc.org).BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. pp. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. 2003. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b = BagOfWords(f.

display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.exemplars(w. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.contains Find images containing word k = B. images. BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.

w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.n] = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. N ‘maxperimage’.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. Options ‘ncolumns’. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. M ‘width’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B.CHAPTER 2.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.

wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2.

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’.T. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. N ‘focal’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. S ‘centre’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.CHAPTER 2. M ‘k’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’. ﬁsheyecamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10um pixels. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. camera at origin.and v-axes parallel to x. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. f=8mm. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].and y-axes respectively. See also Camera. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. See also Camera. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. u. K ‘maxangle’. optical axis is z-axis.project(p. ‘sine’. A ‘resolution’. ‘equisolid’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.

See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.

char() is a compact string representation of the match object.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value M. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. one per element. f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. m = FeatureMatch(f1.

outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.u2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.v2].v1.inlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

FeatureMatch.p1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.im2}) m.p1. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. These are the (u.plot Show corresponding points M.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot() M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.

See also idisp FeatureMatch.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. m. m = f1. Example f1 = isurf(im1). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.ransac(func. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.ransac( @fmatrix. See also fmatrix.ransac Apply RANSAC M. ransac FeatureMatch. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.match(f2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. homography. f2 = isurf(im2). and an error is created if this UserData is not found.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. 1e-4). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Y This camera model assumes central projection. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. v. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. The image is not inverted.

Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . optical axis is z-axis. S ‘noise’. M ‘k’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.and v-axes are parallel to x.and y. 10um pixels. P ‘pixel’. u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. K ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. N ‘sensor’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘centre’. Options ‘name’. ‘equisolid’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. SIGMA ‘pose’. camera at origin.axes respectively. ‘sine’. f=8mm. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].

See also FishEyeCamera.project(p. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CatadioptricCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Camera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.T. CentralCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.CHAPTER 2.

Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. A horizontal line has theta = 0. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).H). a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. The voting array is 2-dimensional. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also LineFeature Hough.0) and the line.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.

5) Set ht. else N = [Ntheta.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edgeThresh (default 0. Nrho].houghThresh (default 0.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. W ‘nbins’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Convert to string s = HT. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.1). T ‘edgethresh’. Hough. T ‘suppress’. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Default 400 × 401. Set ht.edgeThresh. See also Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.CHAPTER 2.display Display value HT. Hough. W ‘houghthresh’. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.

The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. then all elements in an HT.plot(n. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.lines Find lines L = HT.lines Hough. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. LineFeature Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. reﬁned to subpixel precision. H = HT. See also Hough. L = HT.CHAPTER 2. The highest peak is found.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line features HT.

RegionFeature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char Convert to string s = L. strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. theta. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. L = LineFeature(rho.CHAPTER 2. theta. one per element. LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also LineFeature.display Display value L.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.

l2 = L. See also icanny LineFeature. l2 = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot Plot line L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.points Return points on line segments p = L.CHAPTER 2. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength(edge. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. less than gap pixels are tolerated. LineFeature. Small gaps.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

CHAPTER 2.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.close() closes the connection to the movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com).axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. G ‘scale’. Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.close Close the image source M.char Convert to string M. Movie. S ‘skip’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.

and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.CHAPTER 2. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. planar. F Skip frames. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. Options ‘skip’. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. undirected graph create an n-d.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘frame’.

v) g. Object properties (read/write) g.goal(v) g.coord(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.distance(v1.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().cost(e) g.edges(e) g.add node(coord. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.plot() g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.CHAPTER 2.next(v) g.connectivity() g.clear() add vertex. v2) g.path(v) set goal vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.add edge(v1.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.neighbours(v) g.component(v) g.add node(coord) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.

add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. Options ‘distance’.add node(x. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. and returns the edge id E. where x is D × 1. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v. PGraph.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge(v1. v = G. v2. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. PGraph. v = G. and returns the node id v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node(x.add edge(v1.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E = G.

d] = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph. PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. D × 1.closest Find closest node v = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.clear Clear the graph G. edges and components.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph. and the distance d.CHAPTER 2. of node id v. PGraph. [v.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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v. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. f = PointFeature(u. See also ScalePointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. PointFeature. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.char Convert to string s = F.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value F. f = PointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature.

Options ‘thresh’. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.char PointFeature. [m. where 1 is perfect match. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match Match point features m = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.C] = F.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.match(f2. the norm of the Euclidean distance.

CHAPTER 2. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot Plot feature F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. F. Polygon . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.

p = Polygon(C.area() is the area of the polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. HEIGHT]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Polygon. Polygon. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. intersection. union. kirill@plume.html and require a licence.char String representation s = P.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. difference.mit. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one column per vertex.edu.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. Pankratov.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. so use with care. Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. http://puddle.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.area Area of polygon a = P.

display Display polygon P. else 0.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. See also Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). returns coordinates of P.char Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. each column is [x y]’.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P.moments(p.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.CHAPTER 2.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. returns empty polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. y1 y2].intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.

Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P.plot Plot polygon P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.CHAPTER 2. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. P. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.

CHAPTER 2. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.

one per element. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value R. See also Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. [x. [x.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.E] = R.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.char Ray3D. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.E] = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.

0) 1 for a circle. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. horizontal coordinate centroid.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.b. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.c. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ymin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. one per element.char Convert to string s = R.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. For example R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. ymax].xmax. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. imoments RegionFeature. See also iblobs.box Return bounding box b = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .th] = R.uc will be a list not a vector. RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.

Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.display Display value R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot centroid R. See also RegionFeature.char RegionFeature. R.and xmarkers. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary plot boundary R.CHAPTER 2.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

plot box Plot bounding box R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. R.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F. 0=transparent (default 0. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 1=opaque.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. strength.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also PointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. C ‘alpha’. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

Options ‘radius’. N ‘thresh’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. C. options) is a new tracker object.CHAPTER 2. R ‘nslots’. See also PointFeature Tracker. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. one per active track. T ‘movie’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.

display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Tracker.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Tracker.display Display value T. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = T.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. and their characteristics is displayed. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. AxisWebCamera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Movie Video.

close() closes the connection to the camera.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.CHAPTER 2. Video.close Close the image source V.char Convert to string V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.

and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left.CHAPTER 2. and the right image is cyan. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. right. the second for right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. If th1 is a column vector. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. if negative it is reduced. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. a = anaglyph(left. color. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. By default the left image is red. the ﬁrst for left.

r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.boundary. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. If lambda is a column vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.s] = boundmatch(R1.y1) to (x2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. x2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y1] and p2=[x2. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. % emission of sun plot(l. [x. 6500).CHAPTER 2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. Endpoints must be integer.y2). p = bresenham(p1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.y2]. See also RegionFeature. y1.

Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. [C.CHAPTER 2.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].

Options ‘n’.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). [k. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. and x is N × 3. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). x = circle(C. k = closest(a. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.CHAPTER 2. that is. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.d1] = closest(a. green and blue primaries respectively. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.

3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.32). while Table I(5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. • From Table I(5.ucl.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.16).ioo. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. As noted in footnote a on p. since. 335 of Table 1(5.5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. 19000 (526. they were measured directly. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).CHAPTER 2.5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ac.d1.d2] = closest(a.5. and 22500 (444. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.5. (Table 1(5.

Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.M).CHAPTER 2. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ioo.ucl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . imsize is a 2-vector (N. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ac.uk See also cmfrgb. out = col2im(pix.

d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.

k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. func. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. eg. @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. See also imono. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.C] = colorkmeans(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. [L. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. out = colorize(im. @isnan.B). ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. icolor.G. mask. k. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. im<100.CHAPTER 2. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.

Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. XYZ = colorname(name. name = colorname(XYZ. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming.C. k) as above but also returns the residual R. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space.R] = colorkmeans(im. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. low is good. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. L = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. eg. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.

For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. i1. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it can be omitted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. colorspace(s.o3] = colorspace(s.i2.o2.txt.CHAPTER 2. Input and output images have 3 planes. or alternatively. s = ‘src->dest’. double data is the natural choice. [o1. As MATLAB’s native datatype.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. • Color space names are case insensitive. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. s = ‘dest<-src’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.

However. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Example A = rand(400. d = distance(A. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. • If im is an M × 3 array.2*A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.200). for memory and computational performance. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B = rand(400.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . like a colormap.B).100).J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. out will also have size M × 3.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.

y). E = edgelist(im.(+31)20-5257524. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. not image frame. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. seed. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.CHAPTER 2. University of Amsterdam. The result E is a matrix. non-zero is an object. bunschot@wins. tel. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. non zero is counter-clockwise. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.uva.3. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. in matrix coordinate frame. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.j). Tested: PC Matlab v5. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.

fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Oct 27. H = epiline(f. See also fmatrix.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. I. p. See also epiline. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.R. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p. one per line drawn. Coimbra. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2.S. 1998.CHAPTER 2. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.

http://www. epiline. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. The University of Western Australia. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. See also ransac. p2. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma.au/. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. no outlier rejection is performed. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). it is singular. • f is a rank 2 matrix. which means it can be passed to ransac(). ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.uwa. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. homography. Notes • The points must be corresponding.csse. c. • Contains a RANSAC driver. page 270. that is. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.edu.

ithin. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.y2). See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. x2. y1.y1) and (x2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. itriplepoint. See also imorph.

See also ransac. Notes • The points must be corresponding.edu. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. invhomog. which means it can be passed to ransac(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia. http://www.au/. no outlier rejection is performed. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.csse.CHAPTER 2.uwa.

CHAPTER 2. im. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. D ‘size’. that is tp=T*T1. See also e2h. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. See also homography. im. S ‘dimension’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. [out. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. S output image contains all the warped pixels. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. V ‘roi’. itrim. ie.offs] = homwarp(H. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. R ‘scale’.

Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). ianimate(seq. ’gs’). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 200). See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. ianimate(im. ’nfeat’. Hu. IRE Trans. 179-187. IT-8:pp. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 1962. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. on Information Theory. features.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im.

M ‘npoints’. isurf. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’.CHAPTER 2. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. N ‘only’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. YMIN YMAX]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iharris. iblobs features f = iblobs(im.

4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. C set connectivity. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. horizontal coordinate centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. A set pixel aspect ratio.0 ‘connect’. ilabel. vertical coordinate bounding box. default 1.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. [A1. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. [S1.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.

kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also iopen. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. out = iclose(im.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. S ‘th0’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. se. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also isobel. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. This is an dilation followed by erosion. Tel Aviv University. 1996-7. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.

ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).options) concatenates images from the cell array im.CHAPTER 2. iconcat(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. [0 1 1]). Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘dir’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. [C. colorize.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. C = icolor(im. D ‘bgval’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).u] = iconcat(im. See also imono. The images do not have to be of the same size. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.

options) convolves im1 with im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.

The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. R ‘nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. K ‘patch’. D ‘sigma’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. N ‘detector’. D ‘k’. CT ‘edgegap’. E ‘suppress’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). S ‘deriv’.CHAPTER 2. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CM ‘cminthresh’.

pp.5 [sec]. • “Finding corners”. [T. See also PointFeature. Shi and C.121-128. T ‘maxiter’. J. T ‘distthresh’. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.6.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. vol. where * denotes squared and smoothed. pp. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Harris and M. N ‘mindelta’. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.d] = icp(p1. May 1988. with a delay of d [sec]. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. p2. p2.. 1988. Proc. Tomasi. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. 593-593. IEEE Computer Society.G. Stephens. with a delay of 0. • “Good features to track”. Image and Vision Computing. J.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Proc. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. C. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.Noble.CHAPTER 2. pp 147-151. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Manchester. Options ‘dplot’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. 1994.J.

. See also iscale. 1992. pp.McKay. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. 239-256. vol. m. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. s = idecimate(im. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. 2.Besl and H. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Feb. each plane is decimated. P.CHAPTER 2. Pattern Anal. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = idecimate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. no. 14. Intell. Mach. IEEETrans. m.or 3-dimensional. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.

zero is white. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. negative is red. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. XY ‘colormap’. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. positive is blue. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. C ‘xydata’. negative is red. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. linear proﬁle. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. Options ‘ncolors’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. If im is a cell array of images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im.CHAPTER 2. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. zero is black. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. darker than ‘grey’. positive is blue. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white color map: random values. histogram and zooming. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. If the image is zoomed.and y-axes respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. See also iblobs. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. colormap. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. caxis. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labelimage. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. idisplabel(im. labels. labelimage. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.CHAPTER 2. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. icolorize. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also image.

All pixels are raised to the power gamma.CHAPTER 2.2. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = igamma(im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. See also itriplepoint. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.45. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. [l. P. k is the scale parameter. L = igraphseg(im.jpg’). Int. 2006. See also ithresh. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 0. vol. Sept. 59. Huttenlocher. k. k.CHAPTER 2. 1500. min.5). 167181. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . min is the minimum region size (pixels). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.5). min. [L. k. Journal on Computer Vision. Felzenszwalb and D.m] = igraphseg(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 100. Example im = iread(’58060.m] = igraphseg(im. pp. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 2004. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.

Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.h).h). H = ihist(im. ’normcdf’). plot(x. bar(x. [H.x] = ihist(im).x] = ihist(im. [h. options) displays the image histogram.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.x] = ihist(im.

The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.y2). x1. [L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.y1) and bottom-right (x2. ii is a precomputed integral image. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.m. [L. same size as im. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. y1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.

edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. eg. p2. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. p1. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.maxlabel. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.Y]. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .class.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. The pixels on the line are set to 1. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. [L. See also iblobs. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. ilabel(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. iproﬁle.maxlabel. p1.parents. each a 2-vector [X. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. out = iline(im. • This is a “low level” function.CHAPTER 2. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.parents. otherwise it does not. 8). v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.

x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. s] % relative to (x. [xm. The template in im1 is centred at (x. H. • Is a MEX ﬁle. centred at (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). y.DY) are the x. x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.DY.and y-offsets relative to (x. w2. a perfect match score is 1. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. im2. y. ymax] relative to (x.score] = imatch(im1. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. ymin.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.y) and of size s.y) and its half-width is H. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. -s. and columns the vertical position.CC] where (DX. The return value is xm=[DX. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y).CHAPTER 2. • ZNCC matching is used.y). s. xmax.

[u.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image.u) = u and v(v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. All pixels are equally weighted. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(w. f = imoments(u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. v. [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.u) = v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. effectively a greyscale image.

horizontal coordinate centroid. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. the elements are m00. m01. See also RegionFeature. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m11. Different conversion functions are supported. m20. or its area. ilabel. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. m02. m10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. icolor.CHAPTER 2. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. • This function does not perform connectivity.

png’. vol. 761767. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. m. [label. ’light’). The labels [L. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Urban. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. Sept. J.m] = imser(im. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im.CHAPTER 2. 22. Chum. Image and Vision Computing. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. pp. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. ’grey’. and T. Matas.m] = imser(im. O.org). 2004. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. se. Pajdla. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. ’double’). by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

out = iopen(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. See also iclose. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is n erosions followed by n dilations. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. sides. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. This is an erosion followed by dilation. se.

by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. im1. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected.V]. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. otherwise im2 is selected. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10. im2. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. ’t’. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. ’tblr’. 20. p.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. See also bresenham. [p. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.uv] = iproﬁle(im. p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

idecimate. se). out = ipyramid(im.CHAPTER 2. See also iscalespace. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. The highest rank. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. is order=1. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. out = imorph(image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op. 12. sigma. hence output image had reduced dimensions. nbins.5)). 1. op. order. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.3). nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.2) = 0. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. im > irank(im. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. out = ipyramid(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. ones(5. se. se(2. out = imorph(image. the maximum. se.

where R=[umin umax. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. ivar. See also imorph.CHAPTER 2. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. R ‘roi’. im = iread(ﬁle. vmin vmax]. G ‘reduce’. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.

See also FeatureMatch. homwarp. igamma. m. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.h2] = irectify(f. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im1.out2] = irectify(f. m. Notes • Color images are not supported. [out1. istereo. imono.out2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.CHAPTER 2. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.h1. imwrite.

vmin vmax]. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. See also idisp. V ‘smooth’. angle. Options ‘outsize’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .umax. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. vmin.vmax]. S ‘extrapval’.H] return central part of image. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.CHAPTER 2. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. [out.

Options ‘outsize’. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. while bias>0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s>1 makes the image larger. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 is symmetric cropping. s<1 makes it smaller.CHAPTER 2. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s ‘extrapval’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. bias=0. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. V ‘smooth’.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. bias<0. out = isamesize(im1. im2. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.L. corresponding to each step of the sequence. idecimate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = iscalespace(im.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. n. See also iscalespace. [g.L.CHAPTER 2. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. n) as above but sigma=1. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. in space and scale. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.

that is. else false (0). ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ilaplace. ismooth. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ‘valid’) as above. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. See also isrot. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it its third dimension is equal to three.CHAPTER 2. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog(T.

60.CHAPTER 2. Lowe. pp. International Journal of Computer Vision. isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. N ‘suppress’. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. 2 (2004). • ISURF is a functional equivalent.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.vlfeat. See also SiftPointFeature. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. 91-110. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. Reference David G.

zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. im. @zssd. zssd. and these output pixels are set to NaN. See also imatch. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. s = isimilarity(T. @ncc. @ssd.CHAPTER 2. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. sad. ssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H. s is same size as im.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. zsad. ncc. @zsad. [w.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. [w.

See also iconv. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.gy] = isobel(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. then converted back to integer. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. [gx.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. convolved.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. sigma.

[d. else false (0). imr. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. See also ksobel.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. isrot(R. That is. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).M] for an N × M window. icanny. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. range. H. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. range is the disparity search range.sim] = istereo(iml. w. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. See also ishomog.u) means that imr(v. imr. H is the half size of the matching window. range.u). ‘valid’) as above.CHAPTER 2. the disparity d=d(v.

5 to +0. B. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).p] = istereo(iml. [d. range.dsi] = istereo(iml. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. • sim = max(dsi. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. 3) See also irectify.sim. dx. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.CHAPTER 2. out = istretch(im. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. p.sim.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.A and p. p. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. imr. w. w. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. Options ‘metric’. ‘ncc’. range. [d. imr. That is.

CHAPTER 2. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. N ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. or sequences. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Kroon (U. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Notes • Color images. T ‘octaves’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D.

either a row. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. pp. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Otherwise false (0). Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 3. out = ithin(im. itriplepoint. else false (0). isvec(v. 346–359.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. No. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. isift. Andreas Ess. See also ishomog. 110. See also hitormiss.or columnvector.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Tinne Tuytelaars. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Vol. Luc Van Gool.

• For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. ithresh(im.out2] = itrim(im1. See also homwarp.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. a lower value will include more. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.CHAPTER 2. The default is 0. [out1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. Notes • Greyscale image only.5. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.out2] = itrim(im1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. The same cropping is applied to each input image. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. See also iendpoint. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ithin. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. op. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point.CHAPTER 2. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.

3). See also ivar. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ones(5.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. func. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. ones(3. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @max).5). func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. out = iwindow(image. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. @std). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.

k = kcircle(R. See also ones. is k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. See also kgauss. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. • The vertical derivative. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ktriangle. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. klog. kdog. dG/dx. dG/dy. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. k = kdgauss(sigma.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2. k = kdog(sigma1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma. klog. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2. By default SIGMA2 = 1.6*sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. kdgauss. See also kgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where sigma1 > SIGMA2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . kdog. See also kdgauss.

See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. kdog. iconv. k = klog(sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss.

pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. k. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Pattern Recognition Principles. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. and D is the dimension. Reference Tou and Gonzalez.CHAPTER 2. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k. [L.C] = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. L = kmeans(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. Options ‘T’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). See also cylinder. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.z] = mkcube(s. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.y. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.y. [x. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. [x. C ‘T’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. symmetric about the origin. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).z] = mkcube(s. The points are the columns of p. s. ‘edge’.

n) MPLOT(t. y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.2)). mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. y) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.CHAPTER 2. n) MPLOT(y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. p. npq. MPLOT(t.y).2)). MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.xp . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.yq . the sum of I(x. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. y. That is. or y(:. See also mpq poly. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n. or y(:.

q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. they are considered to be a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. upq poly. p. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also mpq. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1.

2. 20). W.CHAPTER 2. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. [T. See also zncc. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. niblack. -0. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. 1986.s] = niblack(im. for example. k. k. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.m. the height of a character. T has the same dimensions as im. ssd.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. • A common choice of k=-0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp(im >= t). Prentice-Hall. in text segmentation. sad. Example t = niblack(im. where W=2*w2+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p. mpq.CHAPTER 2. That is UPQ(im. See also npq poly. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.0).0. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.p. p.q)/MPQ(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered as a single vertex. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. mpq. upq. npq.

Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Jan 1979. [yp. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. x. [yp. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. otsu IEEE Trans. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.xp] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. N. pp 62-66 See also niblack. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.i] = peak(y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = otsu(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. idisp(im >= t).CHAPTER 2. Systems.

options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. S ‘interp’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak(-V).S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘scale’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.CHAPTER 2. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.S points. use peak2(-V). Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Typically choose N to be odd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. [zp.ij] = peak2(z.

pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If p has three dimensions. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. plot2(p. ie. See also pnmﬁlt.

1=solid. or a set of name. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’LineWidth’.y2). If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. r. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. P.y2. W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ‘size’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. PLOT BOX(’centre’.y1. ’fillcolor’. P. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. x2. ‘size’. ‘r’. ’r’).y1) and (x2. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. r. ’g’. Examples plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(x1. ’b’). r. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. R. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. W.CHAPTER 2. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’edgecolor’. 5).

ls) ls is the standard line styles. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. If C=[X. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. xc.Y]. Options ‘color’. centred at the origin. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y. c Specify color of the axes. with Matlab line style ls. current plot. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.CHAPTER 2. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.

colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ’color’. ’color’. to ‘view’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. fmt. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ’r’). options) adds point markers to a plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ‘printf’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. trplot( T. ’name’. n ‘text opts’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ‘framename’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’.X = 0. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. Options ‘textcolor’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’r’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p.CHAPTER 2.

color. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. 1=solid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec.CHAPTER 2. R. NOTES • The sphere is always added. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. The default is 1. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. either a letter or 3-vector. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. patch. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior.

plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pgmﬁlt. plotp(p. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. See also plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. [gr.

T. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. x. x typically contains corresponding point data.CHAPTER 2. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x. Options ‘maxTrials’. N ‘maxDataTrials’. T. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.in] = ransac(func. [m. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. x. T. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.resid] = ransac(func.in. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. one column per point pair. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.

theta = []. No 6.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Boles.theta is a cell array. they detect a structure argument. If multiple models are found out. Fishler and R.s out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.misc element. Assoc. that is.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x.x) condition the point data out.theta.out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Comm.theta.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.R. References • m.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.CHAPTER 2. Comp. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.theta to the points R. pp 101-113. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.inlier.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.x = CONDITION(R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.x and returns the best model out. Vol 24.out. that is they will produce a model. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.A. pp 381-395.theta = DECONDITION(R. Mach.misc private data (cell array) out. [out.C.theta] = ERR(R.x data to work on.resid] = EST(R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .theta and the subset of R.x. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. Cambridge University Press. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. [out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.s sample size (1 × 1) out.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.

uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. If lambda is a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.edu.csse. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.

See also roty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. rotz. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. roty. See also rotx. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx.CHAPTER 2.

Z axes respectively. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. See also tr2rpy. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. • many texts (Paul.CHAPTER 2. yaw. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T = rpy2tr(roll. Y. If roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll.

y. theta) as above where xy=[x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsad. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. r2t. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.CHAPTER 2. y. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. and rotation theta in the plane. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.

Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. sad. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. See also zsdd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Two cross-hairs are created. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.

rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. opt. opt. The software pattern is: function(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. then R is 3 × 3. ’that’.CHAPTER 2. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. b. – If T is 3 × 3.choose = {’this’. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.bar = false.blah = []. opt. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. tr2rt.foo = true. then R is 2 × 2. It supports options that have an assigned value. ’other’}. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). c. varargin) opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.

arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. varargin). opt = tb_optparse(opt.debug <. ’#yes’}.‘this’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If neither of ‘this’. varargin). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. w.CHAPTER 2. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.verbose <.x. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.foo <.select <.blah <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.y sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.1.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.foo <.select = {’#no’.choose <.true sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). N ‘setopt’.select <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.blah <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.false ‘blah’.N sets opt <.choose <. args) creates a test pattern image. 3 sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’. x. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.

intercept. 25). intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args are pitch (distance between centres). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). args are theta (rad). square side length. sf. sf. binary dot pattern. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 50. args is the number of cycles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 256. args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. binary square pattern. 2). [s. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. a line. 256. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. sd and sdd are n-vectors.sd.CHAPTER 2.sd. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. dot diameter.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles.

The 3 angles rpy=[R. Y and Z axes respectively. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rpy = tr2rpy(R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.P.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Y.CHAPTER 2.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. See also angvec2r. [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.

tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.y. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. – If TR is 3 × 3. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .z]. See also rpy2tr. • The validity of R is not checked. r2t. See also rt2tr. If T has three dimensions. y.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.CHAPTER 2.:. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. ie. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.

[c1. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. An historical anomaly.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). or x and y. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [o1.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.CHAPTER 2. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each N × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3).

CHAPTER 2. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. and displays in RPY format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx. trotx. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. f ‘label’. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trprint T is the command line form of above.

See also upq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy.(x-x0)p .(y-y0)q where (x0. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. mpq. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. That is. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. p.CHAPTER 2.y0) is the centroid. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.y). the sum of I(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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ssd. ssd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). See also sad. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also ncc. sad. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.

sad. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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