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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This is extravagant on storage. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. is open-source. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. and I commend it to you. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. However the book “Robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . 2 . . .6. . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . isurf . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . kcircle . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . zncc . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . skew . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . .

and you will be suitably acknowledged. lecturers and professors are paid to do.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You need to signup in order to post. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. tutors.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.com. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. That’s what you your teachers.google. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.

Corke}.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.petercorke.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. the table of content to functions. 1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.1.html on a server for class use.3.zip).6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Year = {2005}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Month = nov. Author = {P. 1. Number = {4}. 1. The ﬁle robot.I.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. The details are @article{Corke05f. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. and the “See also” functions to each other. Volume = {12}. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.gz) or zip format (. 1. type of organization and application. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

1.I. Coimbra. Corke. Vincent Lepetit. VLFeat http://www.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. Twente. P. 1994 University of British Columbia. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. and there are hundreds of modules available.vlfeat. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.R.7. November 2005.S. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. 1. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.Functions such as SURF. pp 16–25.7 Acknowledgements Last. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. but not least.mathworks. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. 12(4). INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.6.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.1. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. MSER. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. N ‘image’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. N ‘sensor’. Camera. Options ‘name’. SIGMA ‘pose’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. T ‘color’. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. used by all subclasses. P ‘pixel’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.centre Get camera position p = C.clf Clear the image plane C. CatadioptricCamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delete Camera object destructor C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). SphericalCamera Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.display Display value C. Camera.char Convert to string s = C.

and off if H is false (or 0).v + c = 0. See also Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Camera. otherwise false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.u + b.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera. C.char Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.

Camera. z. y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot(p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.T.plot Plot points on image plane C. Camera. See also mesh.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.plot. Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. y. sphere. cylinder. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The matrices x.clf Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. y. z to the image plane and plots them.mesh(x. mkcube. Camera.

T.CHAPTER 2. Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.hold. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Camera.clf Camera. T ‘scale’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. T See also Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Overrides the current camera pose C.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. ‘Tcam’.mesh.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘fps’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted. C. a subclass of Camera.y].rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(R. p.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

“An invitation to 3D”.Soatto. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.8]) See also Camera.and y-axes respectively. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. Springer. S ‘centre’. CatadioptricCamera. S.E Essential matrix E = C. 2003.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.177 See also CentralCamera.and v-axes parallel to x.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. N ‘sensor’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. D ‘default’ ‘image’. p. optical axis is z-axis. f=8mm. J. camera at origin.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.CHAPTER 2.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). 10um pixels. CentralCamera. E = C.Ma.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. S ‘noise’. S. u. IM ‘resolution’. F ‘distortion’. N ‘focal’.F. P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’.Kosecka. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. T ‘color’. E = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Reference Y.Sastry.

The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera. F = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”.177 See also CentralCamera. S.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.H CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. J.Soatto.CHAPTER 2. Springer. 2003.H Homography matrix H = C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.Sastry.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Reference Y.F Fundamental matrix F = C.E CentralCamera. from two viewpoints. p.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. n.H(T.Kosecka.Ma.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. S.

fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. and P.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. 155-166.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Int.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. a = C. Lepetit.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. V. CentralCamera. Moreno-Noguer.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Journal on Computer Vision.estpose(xyz. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. F. 81.CHAPTER 2. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Fua. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. Feb. See also quiver CentralCamera. pp. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. 2009. vol.

See also CentralCamera. translation not to scale • n. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Soatto. p116. Springer. s. 2003. section 5.Kosecka.Kosecka.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Soatto. Chap 9. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma. J.Ma. p.Sastry. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Sastry.CHAPTER 2. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”. Springer. s.invE(E.E CentralCamera. 259 Y. J. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. “Multiview Geometry”. s. Reference Y. s.

plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.H CentralCamera. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot epiline(f.project(p. ‘Tobj’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.T.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. ‘Tcam’. C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. H = C. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). CentralCamera. one per line. See also Hough CentralCamera. p. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.

vol. See also Camera.visjac e(E. pp. Espiau. June 1992. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.b. Reference B. Rives. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.c. F. 313-326.CHAPTER 2.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. and P. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. 8. “Multiview Geometry”.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ray 3D ray for image point R = C. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.plot CentralCamera. Chaumette.

CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. pp.visjac p(uv. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.b. 1996. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac p polar. Reference B.visjac e CentralCamera. 313-326.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Hager & Corke. Chaumette. and P.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Hutchinson. Rives. CentralCamera. F. Espiau. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. pp 651-670.visjac p polar. IEEE Trans.visjac p. 8.visjac p. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.c.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac l(L. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. R&A. vol. Vol 12(5). Oct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. June 1992. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. See also CentralCamera. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.

Oct. P.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac l.visjac p polar. in Proc. Int.CHAPTER 2. F. Chaumette. (St. 2009. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac p polar(rt. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. pp.visjac l. and F. CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. radius and theta. CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Corke. CentralCamera. 5962-5967. Spindler. See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p. Louis). The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.

Int. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. See README. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.Lowe. Nov. See also isift. PointFeature.91-110.60. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Journal on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. vol.SIFT. pp. 2004. ScalePointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. D.

SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. See also isift SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. v.match(f2.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale Plot feature scale F. f = PointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im. [out.support(images.CHAPTER 2. F.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.T] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. See also SphericalCamera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. ﬁsheyecamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T. Options ‘name’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. N ‘pixel’. Overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.project(p. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T ‘Tcam’. S ‘pose’. Options ‘Tobj’. CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).

params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.gain. defaults in parentheses: target size . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.5) target center . error norm. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.the side length of the target in world units (0. camera pose.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The camera view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number.depth of points to use for Jacobian. image plane size and desired feature locations.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The camera view.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The external view. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . of 4-vector. error.center of the target in world coords (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.01) .CHAPTER 2.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .

center of the target in world coords (0. IEEE Int. defaults in parentheses: target size .CHAPTER 2.visjac p(pt. The external view. I. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. for all points. Conf. May 3-7 2010. 5550-5555. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. scalar for If null take actual value all points.01) .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .gain. Robotics and Automation.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. in Proc. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Jacobian condition number.0. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). image plane size and desired feature locations. camera pose. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p polar. (Anchorage). CentralCamera. Corke. of 4-vector. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. error norm.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. error.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .5) target center .the side length of the target in world units (0. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.depth of points to use for Jacobian.visjac l. P. pp.

No. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Tinne Tuytelaars. Luc Van Gool. pp.CHAPTER 2. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 346–359. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 110. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 3. Vol. Andreas Ess. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

Options ‘thresh’.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. [m. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. f = PointFeature(u. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. PointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F. ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.C] = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. v. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.match(f2.

The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.support(im. 0=transparent (default 0. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. [out.support(images.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(im.support(images.2) SurfPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.plot scale(options. out = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 1=opaque. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F.CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. C ‘alpha’. F.support Support region of feature out = F.

• The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Video AxisWebCamera. G ‘scale’.axis. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.CHAPTER 2. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. otherwise the result is not predictable.com) web camera.axis.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.CHAPTER 2.display AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A. See also AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.

b = BagOfWords(f. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.CHAPTER 2. in Proc. on Computer Vision. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.1470-1477. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Ninth IEEE Int. 2003. Oct.org).Sivic and A. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. f can also be a cell array.Zisserman. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Conf.

char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.char BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. BagOfWords.exemplars(w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars display exemplars of words B.display Display value B. isurf BagOfWords. BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.contains Find images containing word k = B. See also BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.CHAPTER 2. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . images.

remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.CHAPTER 2. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.remove stop Remove stop words B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.isword Features from words f = B. M ‘width’. Options ‘ncolumns’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.n] = B. BagOfWords.

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. subclass of Camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Camera CatadioptricCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2.

Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. ‘equisolid’. S ‘centre’. K ‘maxangle’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. T ‘Tcam’. 10um pixels. M ‘k’. camera at origin. optical axis is z-axis. ﬁsheyecamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.T. CatadioptricCamera.and v-axes parallel to x. u.project(p.and y-axes respectively. A ‘resolution’. N ‘focal’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. N ‘sensor’. f=8mm.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘sine’. P ‘pixel’. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera.

CHAPTER 2. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. See also PointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. such as ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.

one per element. See also PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.display Display value M.char Convert to string s = M.CHAPTER 2. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. m = FeatureMatch(f1.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.CHAPTER 2.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.u2. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.v2].v1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.outlier. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier.

im2}) m.FeatureMatch.p1. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p2 FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot() M.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p2. See also FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.plot Show corresponding points M. for example by: idisp({im1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. These are the (u.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.FeatureMatch.

Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.ransac( @fmatrix. See also fmatrix.match(f2). 1e-4). m. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.CHAPTER 2.ransac Apply RANSAC M. See also idisp FeatureMatch. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac(func. Example f1 = isurf(im1). f2 = isurf(im2). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ransac FeatureMatch. m = f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. homography.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.CHAPTER 2. Y This camera model assumes central projection. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. that is.

K ‘resolution’.and y. M ‘k’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. N ‘default’ ‘projection’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis. 10um pixels.and v-axes are parallel to x. f=8mm. S ‘noise’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Options ‘name’. camera at origin. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘sine’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘sensor’. u.axes respectively.

SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.T. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. T ‘Tcam’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. CatadioptricCamera.project(p. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera.

A horizontal line has theta = 0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. See also LineFeature Hough.0) and the line. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. The voting array is 2-dimensional.H). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.

W ‘houghthresh’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Convert to string s = HT.5) Set ht. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.edgeThresh. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. N All edge pixels have equal weight. T ‘edgethresh’. Hough.edgeThresh (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. T ‘suppress’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.houghThresh (default 0. Hough. Set ht.display Display value HT.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Nrho]. See also Hough.1). W ‘nbins’. else N = [Ntheta. Default 400 × 401.

LineFeature Hough. H = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. The highest peak is found.plot Plot line features HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n. then all elements in an HT.lines Hough. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. L = HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.lines Find lines L = HT.plot.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.

If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho.CHAPTER 2. LENGTH is undeﬁned. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. theta. See also LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength. theta. LineFeature. LineFeature.display Display value L. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Convert to string s = L.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. one per element.

See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l2 = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. l2 = L.plot Plot line L.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the line on current plot. Small gaps.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. less than gap pixels are tolerated.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). L. See also icanny LineFeature.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.char Convert to string M. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.com).Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.close Close the image source M. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. S ‘skip’.

eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. planar.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph create an n-d. F Skip frames.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

connectivity() g.path(v) set goal vertex. Object properties (read/write) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.coord(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.component(v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.next(v) g.add node(coord) g.CHAPTER 2. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.clear() add vertex.add node(coord. v2) g. v) g.distance(v1. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.cost(e) g.plot() g.edges(e) g.add edge(v1.neighbours(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.goal(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.

C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. E = G. v = G. and returns the node id v.add node(x. Options ‘distance’. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v2.CHAPTER 2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. and returns the edge id E.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add edge(v1. v. v = G. PGraph. PGraph.add node(x. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge(v1. where x is D × 1.

PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. and the distance d. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.d] = G.clear Clear the graph G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.coord Coordinate of node x = G. D × 1.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. [v.CHAPTER 2.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector. edges and components. of node id v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.display Display value F. SurfPointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. v. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.char Convert to string s = F.CHAPTER 2.

[m.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.match Match point features m = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.C] = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Options ‘thresh’. PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.match(f2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char PointFeature.match(f2. where 1 is perfect match. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon . If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. F.plot Plot feature F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).CHAPTER 2.

char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Polygon. http://puddle. intersection. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. union.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Pankratov. Polygon. so use with care. Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. p = Polygon(C.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. HEIGHT]. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. difference.CHAPTER 2.html and require a licence. one column per vertex. kirill@plume.area() is the area of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.char String representation s = P.area Area of polygon a = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mit.edu.mit.

The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.CHAPTER 2.difference Difference of polygons d = P.char Polygon.display Display polygon P. Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. else 0.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. returns coordinates of P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. See also Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.moments(p. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. each column is [x y]’.moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. returns empty polygon. y1 y2]. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.

transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.union Union of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.plot Plot polygon P.plot() plot the polygon.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.E] = R.CHAPTER 2. [x.display Display value R.E] = R.char Ray3D. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. See also Ray3D. Ray3D. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.char Convert to string s = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.CHAPTER 2. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate bounding box.b.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c. horizontal coordinate centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.CHAPTER 2. See also iblobs. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.box Return bounding box b = R.char Convert to string s = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.uc will be a list not a vector.xmax. one per element. ymin.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. imoments RegionFeature. RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.th] = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. RegionFeature. RegionFeature. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. ymax]. For example R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.

plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. See also RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.char RegionFeature.and xmarkers.display Display value R. R.plot boundary plot boundary R. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot Plot centroid R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot box Plot bounding box R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.

1=opaque. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. C ‘alpha’. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. strength. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options. See also PointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also PointFeature Tracker. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. one per active track. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. options) is a new tracker object. Options ‘radius’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. T ‘movie’. R ‘nslots’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. N ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.CHAPTER 2. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.

tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display Display value T. Tracker.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Tracker. See also Tracker. Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.

options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. S ‘resolution’. otherwise the result is not predictable. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Movie Video. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. and their characteristics is displayed. AxisWebCamera. G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].

Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close Close the image source V. Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . right. if negative it is reduced. color.CHAPTER 2. a = anaglyph(left. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. If th1 is a column vector. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. and the right image is cyan. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. By default the left image is red. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. the ﬁrst for left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. The result is in the interval [-pi pi).

Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. [x. p2) as above but p1=[x1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. p = bresenham(p1.CHAPTER 2. Endpoints must be integer. If lambda is a column vector. 6500). r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.s] = boundmatch(R1. See also RegionFeature.boundary. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. y1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].y1) to (x2. x2.y1] and p2=[x2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y2]. % emission of sun plot(l. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y2).

E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. [C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.Y.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. [k. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). green and blue primaries respectively. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. and x is N × 3. Options ‘n’. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. k = closest(a. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. that is.CHAPTER 2. x = circle(C.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d1] = closest(a.

CHAPTER 2.16). • From Table I(5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. As noted in footnote a on p. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). since. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. 19000 (526.d2] = closest(a.d1. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.5.ac. 335 of Table 1(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. they were measured directly.ioo.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. while Table I(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).5.32). (Table 1(5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. and 22500 (444. The data are referred to as pilot data.

ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ac. imsize is a 2-vector (N. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo.M). If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.uk See also cmfrgb. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. out = col2im(pix.CHAPTER 2.ucl.

• Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.g] to every pixel in the color image im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.B). See also imono. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. eg. im<100.G. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. k. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. @isnan. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = colorkmeans(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. @isnan. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. func. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. [L. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. icolor. mask.CHAPTER 2. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.

name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R] = colorkmeans(im.CHAPTER 2. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. XYZ = colorname(name.C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. name = colorname(XYZ. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. low is good. k) as above but also returns the residual R. L = colorkmeans(im. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. eg. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities.

and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . double data is the natural choice.o2. s = ‘src->dest’. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. As MATLAB’s native datatype. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. • Color space names are case insensitive. s = ‘dest<-src’. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.i2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. [o1. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.CHAPTER 2.txt.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. it can be omitted. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. or alternatively.o3] = colorspace(s.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. i1. colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes.

b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .200).100). like a colormap. out will also have size M × 3. However. Example A = rand(400. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. for memory and computational performance.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.2*A. B = rand(400. • If im is an M × 3 array. d = distance(A.

direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. University of Amsterdam. bunschot@wins. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. seed. tel.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.y). Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. non-zero is an object. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. E = edgelist(im. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.3. in matrix coordinate frame. not image frame. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Tested: PC Matlab v5. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . non zero is counter-clockwise. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. The result E is a matrix.j).uva.(+31)20-5257524.CHAPTER 2.

H = epiline(f. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. I. p1. Coimbra. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Oct 27. p.S. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). See also fmatrix. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. one per line drawn. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. 1998. epiline(f. See also epiline. p.CHAPTER 2. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

which means it can be passed to ransac(). homography. c. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.au/. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. • Contains a RANSAC driver. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. The University of Western Australia. no outlier rejection is performed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). p2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.csse.uwa. See also ransac. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. it is singular. epiline. that is. page 270.edu. Notes • The points must be corresponding. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. • f is a rank 2 matrix. that is.CHAPTER 2.

Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.CHAPTER 2.y1) and (x2. y1. itriplepoint. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. x2. See also imorph. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). ithin. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2).

CHAPTER 2. no outlier rejection is performed. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. The University of Western Australia. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.csse.uwa. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. which means it can be passed to ransac().edu. See also ransac. invhomog. http://www.au/. Notes • The points must be corresponding. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.

See also e2h. S output image contains all the warped pixels. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. D ‘size’. S ‘dimension’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel.CHAPTER 2. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. [out. See also homography. itrim. that is tp=T*T1. im. im. R ‘scale’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. V ‘roi’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines.offs] = homwarp(H.

’nfeat’. features. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IRE Trans. features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. on Information Theory. ianimate(im. ianimate(seq. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. IT-8:pp. Hu. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ’gs’).CHAPTER 2. 200). 1962. 179-187. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im.

iblobs features f = iblobs(im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. N ‘only’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iharris. YMIN YMAX]. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. M ‘npoints’. isurf.CHAPTER 2. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ).

A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. ilabel. [S1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. horizontal coordinate centroid. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.0 ‘connect’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. default 1.CHAPTER 2. C set connectivity. [A1.

1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iclose(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.CHAPTER 2. 1996-7. se. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. S ‘th0’. T ‘th1’. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. See also iopen. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Tel Aviv University. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also isobel. This is an dilation followed by erosion.

color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. [C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u] = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [0 1 1]).CHAPTER 2. iconcat(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. D ‘bgval’. Options ‘dir’. colorize.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. The images do not have to be of the same size. See also imono.

CHAPTER 2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. options) convolves im1 with im2.

E ‘suppress’. R ‘nfeat’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. N ‘detector’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). S ‘deriv’. CM ‘cminthresh’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. D ‘sigma’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘k’. CT ‘edgegap’. K ‘patch’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features.

Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. • “Good features to track”. • “Finding corners”. Shi and C. May 1988. T ‘maxiter’. Image and Vision Computing. p2. [T.121-128. with a delay of d [sec]. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.G. J. Tomasi. pp 147-151. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Proc. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Stephens. C. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. T ‘distthresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. 593-593. where * denotes squared and smoothed.J. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration..5 [sec].001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. See also PointFeature.Noble. with a delay of 0.d] = icp(p1. J. Manchester. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. vol. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. pp. IEEE Computer Society.6. 1988. pp.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘dplot’. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Harris and M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. p2. Proc.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. 1994. N ‘mindelta’.

each plane is decimated. Intell. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pattern Anal. 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. vol. 14.. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. pp. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. IEEETrans. no.or 3-dimensional. s = idecimate(im. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Mach. See also iscale. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im.Besl and H. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. m.McKay. P. s = idecimate(im. m. Feb. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.CHAPTER 2. 1992. 239-256.

Options ‘ncolors’. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. histogram and zooming. zero is black. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. positive is blue. If the image is zoomed. XY ‘colormap’. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. zero is white color map: random values. positive is blue. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top.and y-axes respectively. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes.CHAPTER 2. negative is red. darker than ‘grey’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. linear proﬁle. negative is red. C ‘xydata’. zero is white. If im is a cell array of images. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward.

See also iblobs. idisplabel(im. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. colormap. labelimage. See also image. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. icolorize.CHAPTER 2. labelimage. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labels. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. caxis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.CHAPTER 2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. out = igamma(im. ithin. See also itriplepoint. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.45. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.

2006. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.5). Sept.m] = igraphseg(im. min. [L. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. k. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.5).m] = igraphseg(im. 59. Huttenlocher. Felzenszwalb and D. k. L = igraphseg(im. P. See also ithresh. Int. [l. Journal on Computer Vision. 100. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. pp. k. 167181. 2004. vol.jpg’). 1500. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k is the scale parameter. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.CHAPTER 2. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Example im = iread(’58060. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. min. 0.

options) displays the image histogram.h). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.x] = ihist(im. ’normcdf’). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [h.x] = ihist(im). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. H = ihist(im. bar(x.CHAPTER 2. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.h). plot(x. [H.x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.y2). See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. ii is a precomputed integral image. [L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. x1. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. y1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. same size as im. [L. y2. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.y1) and bottom-right (x2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.m. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.

ilabel(im. eg. each a 2-vector [X. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. • This is a “low level” function. 8). If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.parents. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. p1. out = iline(im. The pixels on the line are set to 1.maxlabel.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. [L. p1. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p2. otherwise it does not. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. iproﬁle.maxlabel. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. See also iblobs. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.parents. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.class.Y].

s] % relative to (x. and columns the vertical position.DY) are the x.y) and of size s.y). centred at (x. w2. s.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. H.CHAPTER 2. ymax] relative to (x. -s.y) and its half-width is H.CC] where (DX. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. xmax. • ZNCC matching is used. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. a perfect match score is 1.y). The return value is xm=[DX. ymin. • Is a MEX ﬁle. y.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. [xm.and y-offsets relative to (x. x. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. im2. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. x.DY. The template in im1 is centred at (x. im2.score] = imatch(im1. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.

v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. H) as above but the domain is w × H. v. [u. effectively a binary image. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. effectively a greyscale image. [u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.u) = v. f = imoments(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. The element u(v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.CHAPTER 2.v] = imeshgrid(w.

See also RegionFeature. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m11. Different conversion functions are supported. icolor.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m20. ilabel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. m02. or its area. horizontal coordinate centroid. m10. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. m01. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. • This function does not perform connectivity. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the elements are m00.

[label. Pajdla. 2004. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. The labels [L. ’light’).CHAPTER 2.m] = imser(im. 761767. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m. Matas. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Urban. se. Image and Vision Computing. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Sept. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. vol. ’grey’. and T. O. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. 22.png’. ’double’). options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. J. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Chum.m] = imser(im.org). Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.

igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.ˆ2). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. See also iclose. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. This is an erosion followed by dilation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.CHAPTER 2. out = iopen(im. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides. n. sides.

by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. p. otherwise im2 is selected. 20. im2.V]. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ’t’. 10. im1.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ’tblr’. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.

p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.uv] = iproﬁle(im. [p. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).CHAPTER 2. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p1. See also bresenham.

5)). op. 12. out = ipyramid(im. is order=1. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. the maximum. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. ones(5. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. 1.2) = 0. idecimate. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. op. sigma. out = ipyramid(im.3). Notes • Works for greyscale images only. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. order. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. nbins.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se. se. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. The highest rank. se(2. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = imorph(image. out = imorph(image. See also iscalespace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. im > irank(im. se).

im = iread(ﬁle. vmin vmax]. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R ‘roi’.CHAPTER 2. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. G ‘reduce’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. where R=[umin umax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also imorph. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. ivar. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names.

homwarp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.out2] = irectify(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The resulting images may have negative disparity. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m. im1. im1.h2] = irectify(f.h1. imwrite. Notes • Color images are not supported.CHAPTER 2. igamma. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. See also FeatureMatch.out2. [out1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. imono. istereo. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. m. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.

S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.CHAPTER 2. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. S ‘extrapval’. See also idisp.H] return central part of image.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmin vmax]. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angle. vmin. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. Options ‘outsize’. [out.umax.vmax]. V ‘smooth’.

im2. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias<0.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s>1 makes the image larger. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. out = isamesize(im1. s ‘extrapval’.5 moves the crop window up or to the left.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 is symmetric cropping. s<1 makes it smaller. Options ‘outsize’. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. bias=0. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. while bias>0. V ‘smooth’.

idecimate. See also iscalespace. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.CHAPTER 2. n) as above but sigma=1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. in space and scale. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). [g. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.s] = iscalespace(im.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.L.L. corresponding to each step of the sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.

CHAPTER 2. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. it its third dimension is equal to three. ishomog(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else false (0). ilaplace. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ‘valid’) as above. ismooth. that is. See also isrot. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . International Journal of Computer Vision. See also SiftPointFeature. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 2 (2004). icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. pp. Reference David G. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. 91-110. isurf.CHAPTER 2. N ‘suppress’. 60. Lowe. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.

ssd. zsad. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.CHAPTER 2.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. and these output pixels are set to NaN.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. @ncc. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [w. ncc. @zssd. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. sad. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @ssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.H. s = isimilarity(T. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. s is same size as im. zssd. [w. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. @zsad. See also imatch.

then converted back to integer. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im. sigma. [gx. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.CHAPTER 2. See also iconv. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. [gx. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. convolved.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

imr. See also ksobel. the disparity d=d(v. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.CHAPTER 2. else false (0).u). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. H.M] for an N × M window. [d. range is the disparity search range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. range. range. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. icanny. w. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml.sim] = istereo(iml. See also ishomog.u) means that imr(v. imr. isrot(R. H is the half size of the matching window. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). ‘valid’) as above. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.

imr. range. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. p. dx. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.dsi] = istereo(iml.CHAPTER 2. ‘ncc’.sim. B. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. p. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. w. [d. out = istretch(im. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). range.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .A and p. imr. 3) See also irectify. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.5).sim. That is.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.p] = istereo(iml.5 to +0. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). [d. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. • sim = max(dsi. Options ‘metric’. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. w.

number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Kroon (U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. or sequences. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Notes • Color images.CHAPTER 2. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. T ‘octaves’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. N ‘thresh’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Luc Van Gool. else false (0). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.or columnvector. 110. isvec(v. 346–359. pp. Andreas Ess. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. itriplepoint. isift.CHAPTER 2. See also hitormiss. See also ishomog.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. out = ithin(im. Tinne Tuytelaars. Vol. 3. No. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. either a row. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Otherwise false (0). icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector.

a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. The default is 0. a lower value will include more.out2] = itrim(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. See also homwarp. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. The same cropping is applied to each input image.out2] = itrim(im1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.CHAPTER 2. [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. Notes • Greyscale image only.im2. ithresh(im. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.5. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. se. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. See also iendpoint. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.

ones(5. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.3). @std). hence output image had reduced dimensions. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank.CHAPTER 2. out = iwindow(image. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.5). se. See also ivar. func. se. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. @max). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. is k’. ktriangle. k = kcircle(R.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. • The vertical derivative. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdog. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. klog. See also ones. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. dG/dx. See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.CHAPTER 2. k = kdgauss(sigma. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. dG/dy.

iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. sigma2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. See also kdgauss. By default SIGMA2 = 1. kdgauss.6*sigma1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . k = kdog(sigma1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. See also kgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). where sigma1 > SIGMA2. kdog. k = kdog(sigma1. k = kgauss(sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog. klog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed.

and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. kdog. iconv. k = klog(sigma. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. See also kgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.

k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. [L. L = kmeans(x. Pattern Recognition Principles.C] = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). it is assumed to have been completed previously. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.C] = kmeans(x.CHAPTER 2. k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. and D is the dimension.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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[x.CHAPTER 2. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. The points are the columns of p.z] = mkcube(s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. Options ‘T’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. s. [x. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. ‘edge’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. C ‘T’. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.z] = mkcube(s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. See also cylinder. symmetric about the origin. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.

the sum of I(x.y). MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n) MPLOT(y.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. p. n) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(t. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. npq. y) MPLOT(t.CHAPTER 2. or y(:. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. See also mpq poly. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.xp . n.2)). mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. or y(:. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.yq . y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. That is. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered to be a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. upq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. so centroids will be still be correct. p. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. npq poly. See also mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

See also zncc. for example. idisp(im >= t). W. in text segmentation.2. Prentice-Hall. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. niblack. 20). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. [T. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. 1986.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. k. Example t = niblack(im. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. ssd. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. the height of a character. where W=2*w2+1. • A common choice of k=-0. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.CHAPTER 2.s] = niblack(im. k. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. -0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T has the same dimensions as im.m. sad.

That is UPQ(im. mpq.q)/MPQ(im. p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2.0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.0. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. See also npq poly.

See also mpq poly. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered as a single vertex. mpq. npq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m.CHAPTER 2.

N. pp 62-66 See also niblack. idisp(im >= t).CHAPTER 2. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. x.i] = peak(y. Systems. [yp.xp] = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. [yp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = otsu(im). Jan 1979. otsu IEEE Trans. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.

See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.S points.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. use peak2(-V).S points. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. [zp. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘scale’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak(-V). Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Typically choose N to be odd. S ‘interp’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.

sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak.CHAPTER 2. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. ie. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. If p has three dimensions. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pnmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plot2(p. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot.

W. W. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.CHAPTER 2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.y1. P. r. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.y1) and (x2. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ‘size’. P. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. x2. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. 1=solid. ‘r’. value pairs that are passed to plot. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. r. PLOT BOX(x1. ‘size’. 5). plot_circle(c.y2. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ’LineWidth’. R. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’edgecolor’. plot_circle(c. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’g’. ’r’). or a set of name. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’b’). YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. Examples plot_circle(c.y2). PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ’fillcolor’.

plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. If C=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Options ‘color’. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. centred at the origin. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.Y]. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.CHAPTER 2.Y. with Matlab line style ls. current plot. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. C. c Specify color of the axes. xc. ls) ls is the standard line styles.

where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. Options ‘textcolor’. ’r’). Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’color’. ’color’. options) adds point markers to a plot. ‘framename’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker.X = 0. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. n ‘text opts’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font.CHAPTER 2. ’name’. fmt. ‘printf’. ’r’. to ‘view’. trplot( T. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame.

color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. either a letter or 3-vector.CHAPTER 2. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. patch. 1=solid. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. The default is 1. color.

plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plotp(p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. See also pgmﬁlt.CHAPTER 2. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.

centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.CHAPTER 2. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. [gr.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.

resid] = ransac(func. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. T. T. [m.in. x typically contains corresponding point data. x. one column per point pair. [m. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. N ‘maxDataTrials’. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.in] = ransac(func. Options ‘maxTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.CHAPTER 2. x. d) as above but elements increment by d. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T. x.

.x.theta = DECONDITION(R.x = CONDITION(R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. Boles. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. they detect a structure argument. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.misc private data (cell array) out.out.resid] = EST(R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.A. that is they will produce a model.theta. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.out. Vol 24.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x.x) condition the point data out.inlier.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.s sample size (1 × 1) out. pp 381-395. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.x data to work on.R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.theta to the points R. Fishler and R.misc element.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Assoc.theta. No 6. Cambridge University Press. Comp.theta and the subset of R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.C. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Mach.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.CHAPTER 2. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .theta] = ERR(R. References • m.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.s out. that is.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. [out.theta is a cell array. pp 101-113.theta = [].misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. If multiple models are found out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. Comm.x and returns the best model out. [out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.csse.CHAPTER 2.edu. If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.uwa.au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.

See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also roty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. roty.CHAPTER 2. rotz. See also rotx.

t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Y. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. • many texts (Paul. If roll.CHAPTER 2. Z axes respectively. T = rpy2tr(roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. See also tr2rpy. yaw. pitch.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. and rotation theta in the plane. See also zsad. r2t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. theta) as above where xy=[x. ncc. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy.y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.

isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.CHAPTER 2. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsdd. Two cross-hairs are created. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. ncc. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. then R is 2 × 2. tr2rt.choose = {’this’.bar = false.foo = true. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. then R is 3 × 3. It supports options that have an assigned value. ’other’}. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. varargin) opt. The software pattern is: function(a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt. – If T is 3 × 3. ’that’. opt. opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.CHAPTER 2. b.blah = []. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).

select <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. x. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.foo <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. varargin).true ‘nobar’ sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.verbose <.select = {’#no’. ’#yes’}.blah <.3 ‘blah’.‘this’.true sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.N sets opt <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. If neither of ‘this’. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.y sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.false ‘blah’. N ‘setopt’. varargin).blah <. w. args) creates a test pattern image.1.debug <.choose <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.x.y ‘that’ sets opt.select <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.foo <.CHAPTER 2. 3 sets opt.choose <.

CHAPTER 2. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial.sd. 256. args is the number of cycles. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 256. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. 50. [s. sf. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. square side length. args are theta (rad). See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args are pitch (distance between centres).sdd] = tpoly(s0. The trajectory s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. sd and sdd are n-vectors.sd. args is the number of cycles. 2). args is the number of cycles. intercept. a line. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. binary dot pattern. sf. 25). dot diameter. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. binary square pattern. args is the number of cycles.

Y and Z axes respectively. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.P.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. The 3 angles rpy=[R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. See also angvec2r. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). rpy = tr2rpy(R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Y.

• The validity of R is not checked. r2t. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.CHAPTER 2. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. y. – If TR is 3 × 3. See also rt2tr. ie. See also rpy2tr. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. If T has three dimensions.y.z].:. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.

C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). [c1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. or x and y.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [o1.CHAPTER 2. each N × 1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). An historical anomaly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.

CHAPTER 2. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. troty. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.

trprint T is the command line form of above. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. f ‘label’. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. and displays in RPY format. trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotx.CHAPTER 2.

tr2rpy. the sum of I(x. That is. See also upq poly. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.(y-y0)q where (x0.y0) is the centroid. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.(x-x0)p .CHAPTER 2.y). p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. mpq.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. sad. ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.

Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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