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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This is extravagant on storage.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. is open-source. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. and I commend it to you. However the book “Robotics.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . .7 Acknowledgements . . Video .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . iconv . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . iopen . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . isobel . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . klog . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . .

I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. You need to signup in order to post. tutors. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com. lecturers and professors are paid to do. That’s what you your teachers. and you will be suitably acknowledged.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.google. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.

If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). and the “See also” functions to each other.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.gz) or zip format (. Author = {P.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Month = nov.3. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁle robot.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. The details are @article{Corke05f. 1. the table of content to functions. Corke}.petercorke. 1.html on a server for class use.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. 1. Year = {2005}. Volume = {12}. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. type of organization and application. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.I. 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.zip). Number = {4}.1.

1. VLFeat http://www. MSER.I. and there are hundreds of modules available. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Vincent Lepetit. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. November 2005. pp 16–25. Coimbra. 1. 12(4). Twente.. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.mathworks. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.7. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.vlfeat.1. P.Functions such as SURF. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.6. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.7 Acknowledgements Last. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. but not least.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. Corke.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.R.S. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. 1994 University of British Columbia. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. P ‘pixel’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘centre’. T ‘color’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. Camera. S ‘noise’. Options ‘name’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. N ‘image’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. IM ‘resolution’. used by all subclasses. N ‘sensor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Camera.display Display value C.centre Get camera position p = C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.char Convert to string s = C. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.clf Clear the image plane C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.

ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. C.CHAPTER 2. Camera. otherwise false (0). and off if H is false (or 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera. See also Camera.char Camera.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.v + c = 0.u + b.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.

If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.plot(p. Camera. cylinder. z. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. sphere. See also mesh. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. mkcube. The matrices x.plot Plot points on image plane C.mesh(x.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.clf Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.plot. y. T ‘Tcam’.hold. uv = C. Camera.T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. z to the image plane and plots them. y. y.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘fps’. Options ‘Tcam’.clf Camera. Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.CHAPTER 2.mesh.hold. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T ‘scale’. ‘Tobj’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. ‘Tcam’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. T See also Camera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. p.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.rpy Set camera attitude C.p. a subclass of Camera.rpy(R. C. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. The image is not inverted.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C.

S ‘centre’. E = C.177 See also CentralCamera. 2003. J.F. ﬁsheyecamera. P ‘pixel’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. N ‘sensor’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). T ‘color’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.and v-axes parallel to x. camera at origin.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. CatadioptricCamera. D ‘default’ ‘image’. optical axis is z-axis. Springer. Reference Y. f=8mm.Ma. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’.Sastry. “An invitation to 3D”.E Essential matrix E = C.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. S. p.8]) See also Camera. u. CentralCamera. SIGMA ‘pose’. S.Kosecka. F ‘distortion’. 10um pixels.CHAPTER 2.Soatto.and y-axes respectively. E = C. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. IM ‘resolution’.

CHAPTER 2. F = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. J. Springer. 2003.E CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.H(T.H Homography matrix H = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. n.Kosecka.Soatto. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. from two viewpoints.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). S. “An invitation to 3D”. Reference Y.Ma. S.F Fundamental matrix F = C. See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. p.Sastry.H CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.

CHAPTER 2.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 155-166. V.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. and P. vol. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Fua. Lepetit. Feb. pp. CentralCamera. F. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. a = C. CentralCamera.estpose(xyz. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. 81. Moreno-Noguer. Journal on Computer Vision.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. See also quiver CentralCamera. 2009.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

section 5.invE(E. “An invitation to 3D”. 259 Y.E CentralCamera. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. 2003. Springer.Sastry. s.Ma.Ma. Springer. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. J. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Kosecka. s. 2003.Sastry. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. “An invitation to 3D”. J.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s. translation not to scale • n. See also CentralCamera.Kosecka. p. s.Soatto. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference Y. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Soatto.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. p116. Chap 9.CHAPTER 2.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.

CHAPTER 2.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. C.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T. ‘Tobj’. ‘Tcam’. H = C. See also Hough CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.project(p. p. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. one per line.

ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.visjac e(E. “Multiview Geometry”. and P. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.b.plot CentralCamera. Espiau. pp.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Chaumette. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. June 1992. Rives. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ray 3D ray for image point R = C. vol. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.c. See also Camera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. 313-326. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. 8. F. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Reference B.CHAPTER 2.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

See also CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. 8. CentralCamera. pp.c. CentralCamera.visjac p.visjac p. R&A. F. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Vol 12(5). 1996. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Oct. 313-326. Hutchinson.visjac e CentralCamera. June 1992. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. Rives. pp 651-670. Chaumette.b.visjac l(L. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. Espiau. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac p polar. vol. IEEE Trans. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Hager & Corke. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p(uv.visjac l CentralCamera. Reference B. and P.

2009. I. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Chaumette. P. See also CentralCamera.visjac p. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.CHAPTER 2.visjac l. pp.visjac e CentralCamera. Int. CentralCamera.visjac p polar.visjac l. CentralCamera. Spindler. Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. in Proc. radius and theta. Louis). Oct. 5962-5967. (St. and F. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. F.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.

See README.SIFT. ScalePointFeature. 2004. pp.60. Int. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. vol. Journal on Computer Vision. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.91-110. See also isift. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Nov. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.Lowe. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.

f = PointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. See also isift SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. SiftPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.match Match SIFT point features m = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 1=opaque. f = PointFeature(u.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. C ‘alpha’. F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support Support region of feature out = F.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. [out. out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images.CHAPTER 2.T] = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. F.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project Project world points to image plane pt = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.project(p. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also SphericalCamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. Options ‘name’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ﬁsheyecamera. T ‘Tcam’. N ‘pixel’. S ‘pose’. Overrides the current camera pose C.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera. Options ‘Tobj’.

showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. image plane size and desired feature locations. The camera view. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.5) target center .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .0. error. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. Jacobian condition number.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.CHAPTER 2. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.center of the target in world coords (0.gain. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The external view.the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. defaults in parentheses: target size .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . scalar for If null take actual value all points. of 4-vector. camera pose.01) . error norm.

the side length of the target in world units (0. The external view. defaults in parentheses: target size . pp.01) . error. Robotics and Automation.center of the target in world coords (0. Conf. I.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .gain. error norm. Corke. in Proc. P. CentralCamera. IEEE Int. scalar for If null take actual value all points. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. 5550-5555.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. of 4-vector. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.visjac l. May 3-7 2010. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . for all points.5) target center . image plane size and desired feature locations. (Anchorage).visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.0.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Jacobian condition number. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. camera pose.visjac p(pt. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. See also CentralCamera.depth of points to use for Jacobian. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.

346–359. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Luc Van Gool. Tinne Tuytelaars. No.CHAPTER 2. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 3. Andreas Ess. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Vol.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 110. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.

PointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m.match(f2.match(f2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.C] = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. v. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Options ‘thresh’.

plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.T] = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(images.support(im. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support Support region of feature out = F. out = F. [out.support(im. 1=opaque. 0=transparent (default 0. F.2) SurfPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. C ‘alpha’. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(images.plot scale(options. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.CHAPTER 2.

Video AxisWebCamera.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.axis.com) web camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com). S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.CHAPTER 2.axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close Close the image source A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char Convert to string A.close() closes the connection to the web camera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.CHAPTER 2. See also AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.

Sivic and A.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.1470-1477. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Oct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. on Computer Vision. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Conf. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Ninth IEEE Int.Zisserman. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. in Proc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b = BagOfWords(f. 2003. f can also be a cell array.org).CHAPTER 2.

char BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.display Display value B. images. BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.exemplars display exemplars of words B. isurf BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.contains Find images containing word k = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char Convert to string s = B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. See also BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.exemplars(w.

occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.CHAPTER 2. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. M ‘width’. BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.remove stop Remove stop words B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.isword Features from words f = B.n] = B. N ‘maxperimage’.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.CHAPTER 2.

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. P ‘pixel’. S ‘noise’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘sine’. N ‘sensor’.project(p.CHAPTER 2. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. K ‘maxangle’. u. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].project Project world points to image plane uv = C. f=8mm. S ‘centre’. camera at origin. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also Camera. M ‘k’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. 10um pixels. ﬁsheyecamera.and v-axes parallel to x. A ‘resolution’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. N ‘focal’. T ‘Tcam’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. SIGMA ‘pose’. optical axis is z-axis. See also Camera. ‘equisolid’.and y-axes respectively.

Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. such as ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.

one per element. SurfPointFeature. FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the match object. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. See also PointFeature.display Display value M. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = M. f2. m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.

See also FeatureMatch.v1. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.outlier.CHAPTER 2.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch.v2]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.u2.

p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot Show corresponding points M.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch.im2}) m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. These are the (u.p2.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p1.p FeatureMatch. These are the (u.CHAPTER 2.plot() M.

ransac Apply RANSAC M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. See also fmatrix.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. 1e-4).CHAPTER 2. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ransac FeatureMatch. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also idisp FeatureMatch.match(f2). homography. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). f2 = isurf(im2).show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.ransac(func. m = f1. Example f1 = isurf(im1). and an error is created if this UserData is not found. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. m.ransac( @fmatrix.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v. Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.CHAPTER 2. that is.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.

S ‘centre’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. optical axis is z-axis. K ‘resolution’. camera at origin. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . u. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.and v-axes are parallel to x. S ‘noise’. SIGMA ‘pose’.CHAPTER 2. ‘equisolid’.and y. M ‘k’.axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. Options ‘name’. P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘sine’. 10um pixels. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. N ‘sensor’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. f=8mm.

See also FishEyeCamera. See also Camera.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.T. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. CatadioptricCamera.

For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. The voting array is 2-dimensional. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. A horizontal line has theta = 0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.0) and the line. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. See also LineFeature Hough.CHAPTER 2. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.

CHAPTER 2. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Default 400 × 401.display Display value HT. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = HT. Set ht. else N = [Ntheta.edgeThresh (default 0.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh. See also Hough.1). W ‘houghthresh’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. T ‘edgethresh’. Nrho]. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Hough. W ‘nbins’.5) Set ht.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. T ‘suppress’.houghThresh (default 0.

See also Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. LineFeature Hough. The highest peak is found. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. H = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot(n.CHAPTER 2.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.lines Hough.lines Find lines L = HT. L = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. The process is repeated for all peaks.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot Plot line features HT. HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. reﬁned to subpixel precision. then all elements in an HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot.

• LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. RegionFeature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

LineFeature. LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. L = LineFeature(rho.display Display value L.char Convert to string s = L. theta. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. L = LineFeature(rho. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. theta.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. See also LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. strength. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.CHAPTER 2.

Small gaps. See also icanny LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.plot Plot line L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. less than gap pixels are tolerated. L. l2 = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. l2 = L.plot() overlay the line on current plot.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. LineFeature.seglength(edge.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.points Return points on line segments p = L.

Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. S ‘skip’.char Convert to string M.close Close the image source M. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com). Movie.

PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. undirected graph create an n-d. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. Options ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.CHAPTER 2.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. F Skip frames. planar.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.cost(e) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.next(v) g.goal(v) g.connectivity() g.clear() add vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.distance(v1. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.plot() g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) g.add edge(v1.edges(e) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.path(v) set goal vertex. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.add node(coord) g.component(v) g.CHAPTER 2. return vid add vertex and edge to v. v2) g.coord(v) g.neighbours(v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().add node(coord. Object properties (read/write) g.

add node(x. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add node(x.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. PGraph.add edge(v1. E = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘distance’.CHAPTER 2. where x is D × 1. v = G. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v2.add edge(v1. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. PGraph. v. v = G. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. and returns the edge id E. and returns the node id v.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.

and the distance d. PGraph. edges and components.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .coord(v) return coordinate vector.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. of node id v.clear Clear the graph G. D × 1.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.d] = G.CHAPTER 2.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph. [v.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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char Convert to string s = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. f = PointFeature(u. v. See also ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature.display Display value F. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SurfPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. one per element.

match Match point features m = F.match(f2. where 1 is perfect match.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. Options ‘thresh’. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.C] = F.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.CHAPTER 2. [m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. PointFeature.char PointFeature. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon .CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot Plot feature F.

area() is the area of the polygon.CHAPTER 2.html and require a licence.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. http://puddle.mit.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. intersection.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.area Area of polygon a = P. so use with care. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p = Polygon(C. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.char String representation s = P. Polygon. one column per vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Pankratov. difference. Polygon.edu. kirill@plume.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. HEIGHT]. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. union.

display Display polygon P. Polygon. else 0.CHAPTER 2.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. returns coordinates of P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.difference Difference of polygons d = P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). See also Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.

moments Moments of polygon a = P. each column is [x y]’.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. returns empty polygon.moments(p. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Polygon. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. y1 y2]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.

Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot Plot polygon P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union Union of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.CHAPTER 2. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.

unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.CHAPTER 2. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2.display Display value R. one per element.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.E] = R. See also Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.E] = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.char Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. Ray3D. [x. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid.0) 1 for a circle. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2.c. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.b.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.

RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. ymin. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.uc will be a list not a vector. For example R. imoments RegionFeature. ymax]. See also iblobs. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. RegionFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.CHAPTER 2.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .box Return bounding box b = R.th] = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.char Convert to string s = R. one per element.xmax. RegionFeature.

plot boundary plot boundary R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char RegionFeature.display Display value R.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. It is indicated with overlaid o. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.and xmarkers. See also RegionFeature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.

f = ScalePointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also PointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’. v. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. 0=transparent (default 0. 1=opaque. ScalePointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. strength. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

N ‘thresh’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Options ‘radius’. See also PointFeature Tracker. T ‘movie’.CHAPTER 2. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. options) is a new tracker object. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. one per active track. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. R ‘nslots’. C. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.

tracklengths Length of all tracks T.display Display value T. See also Tracker. Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Tracker.char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.

Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Movie Video.CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. and their characteristics is displayed. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’. otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close() closes the connection to the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video.char Convert to string V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() acquires an image from the camera. Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close Close the image source V.

Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. color. right. the second for right. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the ﬁrst for left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. right. a = anaglyph(left. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. and the right image is cyan. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. By default the left image is red. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. if negative it is reduced. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). If th1 is a column vector. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi).

[x. 6500). x2. y1.s] = boundmatch(R1. % emission of sun plot(l.CHAPTER 2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.y2).boundary.y1) to (x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1] and p2=[x2. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. p = bresenham(p1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. Endpoints must be integer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y2]. See also RegionFeature. If lambda is a column vector. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.

Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. [C.

and x is N × 3. Options ‘n’. R. k = closest(a. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). [k. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.CHAPTER 2. that is. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D.d1] = closest(a. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. x = circle(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . green and blue primaries respectively. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. R.

ac. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. and 22500 (444.5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.32).16).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). since. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).CHAPTER 2.ioo. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5. 335 of Table 1(5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).ucl. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. The data are referred to as pilot data. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. they were measured directly. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.5. • From Table I(5.5. while Table I(5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . (Table 1(5. As noted in footnote a on p. 19000 (526.d2] = closest(a.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.d1.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.

out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.CHAPTER 2.M). Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ucl. imsize is a 2-vector (N. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ac. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.

CHAPTER 2. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.

im<100. icolor.CHAPTER 2. See also imono. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. @isnan. @isnan. func. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. eg. [L. out = colorize(im. mask.G. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. k. and returns a per-pixel logical result. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.

Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. XYZ = colorname(name. name = colorname(XYZ. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. k) as above but also returns the residual R. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. low is good. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.CHAPTER 2.R] = colorkmeans(im. L = colorkmeans(im. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.C. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming.

o3] = colorspace(s.o2. i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.i2. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Input and output images have 3 planes. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.txt. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. [o1. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.CHAPTER 2. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. colorspace(s. • Color space names are case insensitive.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. s = ‘dest<-src’. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. double data is the natural choice. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. it can be omitted. s = ‘src->dest’. or alternatively.

J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Example A = rand(400. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. B = rand(400.200). d = distance(A. for memory and computational performance.100). like a colormap. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.2*A. However.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.B).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. • If im is an M × 3 array. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .CHAPTER 2. out will also have size M × 3. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.

but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. in matrix coordinate frame. seed.(+31)20-5257524. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.3. E = edgelist(im. University of Amsterdam. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. non-zero is an object.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. The result E is a matrix. tel. non zero is counter-clockwise.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Tested: PC Matlab v5. bunschot@wins. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. not image frame.CHAPTER 2.j).uva. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.y). direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.

epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Oct 27. p. See also fmatrix. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. one per line drawn. H = epiline(f. I.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p1.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i).S. p. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. epiline(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.R. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. See also epiline. 1998. Coimbra. Author Based on fmatrix code by.

Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. epiline. See also ransac. it is singular. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. • Contains a RANSAC driver.CHAPTER 2. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma.au/. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. The University of Western Australia. c.edu. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. no outlier rejection is performed. homography.csse. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. which means it can be passed to ransac().uwa. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. http://www. • f is a rank 2 matrix. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). that is. page 270. Notes • The points must be corresponding. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. p2.

See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. itriplepoint. See also imorph. x2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. ithin. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.y1) and (x2.y2).CHAPTER 2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y1.

no outlier rejection is performed. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.CHAPTER 2. See also ransac. The University of Western Australia. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. invhomog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.au/. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.csse.uwa.edu.

interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . itrim.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. ie. V ‘roi’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. See also e2h. [out. See also homography. im.offs] = homwarp(H.CHAPTER 2. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. that is tp=T*T1. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. D ‘size’. R ‘scale’. S ‘dimension’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.

features. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. ’nfeat’. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. on Information Theory. IRE Trans. ianimate(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IT-8:pp.CHAPTER 2. 1962. Hu. features. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. 179-187. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). ’gs’). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. 200). ianimate(seq.

idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). M ‘npoints’. YMIN YMAX].CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iharris. isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘only’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im.

minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.0 ‘connect’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. [S1. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. horizontal coordinate centroid.0) 1 for a circle. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. default 1.CHAPTER 2. [A1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. A set pixel aspect ratio.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. ilabel. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. 1996-7. See also iopen. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. This is an dilation followed by erosion.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. T ‘th1’. See also isobel.CHAPTER 2. S ‘th0’. out = iclose(im. se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Tel Aviv University. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.

options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. [0 1 1]). Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. D ‘bgval’. colorize. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.u] = iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. C = icolor(im. iconcat(im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The images do not have to be of the same size.CHAPTER 2. [C. Options ‘dir’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). See also imono.

Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. options) convolves im1 with im2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

D ‘sigma’. D ‘k’.CHAPTER 2. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CM ‘cminthresh’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. S ‘deriv’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). R ‘nfeat’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. E ‘suppress’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. K ‘patch’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. CT ‘edgegap’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. N ‘detector’.

Shi and C.d] = icp(p1. 1994. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. pp. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .J. J. C.Noble.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Manchester.CHAPTER 2. Harris and M. [T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. • “Good features to track”.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.. Options ‘dplot’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. 1988. vol. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. where * denotes squared and smoothed. N ‘mindelta’. • “Finding corners”. p2. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. IEEE Computer Society.5 [sec]. pp 147-151. Image and Vision Computing. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. pp. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. J. with a delay of d [sec]. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.G. See also PointFeature. with a delay of 0. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Proc. p2. 593-593. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Stephens.6. Tomasi. T ‘maxiter’. Proc. May 1988. T ‘distthresh’.121-128.

McKay. P. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Mach. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. no. See also iscale. m. 1992. 14. m. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Intell. s = idecimate(im. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. IEEETrans. each plane is decimated.or 3-dimensional.Besl and H. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. pp. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. vol. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Pattern Anal. 239-256. 2. s = idecimate(im. Feb.. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idecimate an image s = idecimate(im.

XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward.CHAPTER 2. negative is red. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. negative is red. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. If im is a cell array of images. Options ‘ncolors’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is white. histogram and zooming. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. zero is black. XY ‘colormap’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. C ‘xydata’. If the image is zoomed. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. darker than ‘grey’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is white color map: random values. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and y-axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. positive is blue. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. linear proﬁle. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value.

See also image. labels. colormap.CHAPTER 2. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labelimage. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labelimage. See also iblobs. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. caxis. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. icolorize. idisplabel(im.

Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.45.CHAPTER 2.2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ithin. out = igamma(im. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.

m] = igraphseg(im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Sept. 1500. k. vol.CHAPTER 2. Journal on Computer Vision. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min. pp.5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. 0. Example im = iread(’58060.jpg’). 2004. L = igraphseg(im.5). See also ithresh. Felzenszwalb and D. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. 167181. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Huttenlocher. k. [l. min. k is the scale parameter. 59. Int. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 2006. [L.m] = igraphseg(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 100. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. P. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. k.

x] = ihist(im).CHAPTER 2. ’normcdf’). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. plot(x. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bar(x. [H. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. [h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. options) displays the image histogram.x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.h). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. H = ihist(im.h). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.

A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. y1. ii is a precomputed integral image. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.y1) and bottom-right (x2. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. [L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. x1. same size as im. [L. y2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.CHAPTER 2. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.y2).m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.m. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.

Y]. [L.maxlabel. The pixels on the line are set to 1. See also iblobs. ilabel(im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. • This is a “low level” function. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. otherwise it does not. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.parents. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1. out = iline(im. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. p2.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. eg. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p1. each a 2-vector [X.class. 8).parents. iproﬁle. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.maxlabel.

a perfect match score is 1. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. y. ymin. w2.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. im2. and columns the vertical position. The template in im1 is centred at (x.score] = imatch(im1. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The return value is xm=[DX. [xm.CHAPTER 2. im2.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. s] % relative to (x.DY. H. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).y) and its half-width is H.y). x. centred at (x. xmax.y). -s. x.y) and of size s. • ZNCC matching is used. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.DY) are the x.CC] where (DX. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. s. • Is a MEX ﬁle.and y-offsets relative to (x. y. ymax] relative to (x.

v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. f = imoments(u. effectively a greyscale image.v] = imeshgrid(w. The element u(v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. [u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) = v. [u. All pixels are equally weighted. f = imoments(u. v.CHAPTER 2. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. effectively a binary image. H) as above but the domain is w × H.u) = u and v(v.

m02. • This function does not perform connectivity. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. See also RegionFeature. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst.CHAPTER 2. icolor. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or its area. m01. m10. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. Different conversion functions are supported. the elements are m00. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. ilabel. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. horizontal coordinate centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m20. m11. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.

22. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. pp.m] = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing. ’grey’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. 2004. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . J. O. 761767.png’. vol. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.m] = imser(im. The labels [L. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. se.CHAPTER 2. Matas. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. m. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Pajdla.org). and T. [label. Chum. Urban. Sept. ’light’). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. ’double’).

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.CHAPTER 2.ˆ2). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.

n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. sides. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. See also iclose. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. sides. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. se. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is n erosions followed by n dilations. out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.

p. ’t’. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. otherwise im2 is selected. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. 10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 20. im1. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ’tblr’. im2. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.V].CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.v) for the corresponding row of p.uv] = iproﬁle(im. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. See also bresenham. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.CHAPTER 2. p1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. [p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.

im > irank(im. ones(5. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. is order=1. out = imorph(image. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.2) = 0. 1. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. se. sigma. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. hence output image had reduced dimensions. out = ipyramid(im. se. 12. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. out = ipyramid(im. idecimate.CHAPTER 2. The highest rank. op. See also iscalespace. the maximum. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.5)). nbins. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. order. out = imorph(image.3). Notes • Works for greyscale images only. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. se). op. se(2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

vmin vmax]. G ‘reduce’. See also imorph. where R=[umin umax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. im = iread(ﬁle. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. R ‘roi’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. ivar.CHAPTER 2. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256).

homwarp. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. istereo. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. igamma.CHAPTER 2. imwrite. Notes • Color images are not supported. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. m. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.out2] = irectify(f. m. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im1. [out1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.out2. im1. See also FeatureMatch.h1.h2] = irectify(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imono.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. See also idisp.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.H] return central part of image. S ‘extrapval’.vmax]. [out. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.umax. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’. angle.CHAPTER 2.vmin vmax].

s<1 makes it smaller. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. out = isamesize(im1. s>1 makes the image larger. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. V ‘smooth’. bias=0. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s ‘extrapval’. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. while bias>0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 is symmetric cropping. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.CHAPTER 2.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. Options ‘outsize’. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. im2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias<0.

ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.CHAPTER 2. n. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.L. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.L. in space and scale. n) as above but sigma=1. corresponding to each step of the sequence. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). See also iscalespace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.s] = iscalespace(im. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). idecimate. [g. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im.

‘valid’) as above. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ishomog(T. See also isrot. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ismooth. that is.CHAPTER 2. it its third dimension is equal to three. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ilaplace. else false (0).

91-110.CHAPTER 2. Lowe.vlfeat. N ‘suppress’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 60. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. Reference David G. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. pp. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. isurf. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. International Journal of Computer Vision. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. • Features are returned in descending strength order. See also SiftPointFeature. 2 (2004).

s = isimilarity(T. ncc. @ncc.H. sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. See also imatch.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. [w. s is same size as im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @zsad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.CHAPTER 2. im. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. [w. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. and these output pixels are set to NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. zsad. @zssd.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. @ssd. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. zssd. ssd. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.gy] = isobel(im. sigma.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. See also iconv.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. convolved. [gx. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. [gx. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. then converted back to integer. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.

See also ishomog. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. That is. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. the disparity d=d(v. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) means that imr(v. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. H is the half size of the matching window. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). ‘valid’) as above. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.u). range. range. isrot(R.sim] = istereo(iml. [d. range is the disparity search range.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.CHAPTER 2. icanny. imr.M] for an N × M window. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. H. else false (0). imr. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. See also ksobel.

p. dx. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. • sim = max(dsi. [d.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘ncc’. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.CHAPTER 2. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. B. w. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.sim. imr.p] = istereo(iml. out = istretch(im. [d. range. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.5 to +0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.A and p. 3) See also irectify. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). range. Options ‘metric’.dsi] = istereo(iml. imr. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. w. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).5). That is. p.sim. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.

each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. T ‘octaves’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im.CHAPTER 2. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Notes • Color images. N ‘thresh’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. or sequences. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Kroon (U.

L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 3. isift. See also ishomog. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. out = ithin(im.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Andreas Ess. isvec(v. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). itriplepoint. pp. Luc Van Gool. 110. Otherwise false (0). iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . No. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. See also hitormiss. else false (0).or columnvector. either a row. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. a lower value will include more.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.out2] = itrim(im1. The same cropping is applied to each input image.im2. [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. ithresh(im. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. See also homwarp. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. Notes • Greyscale image only. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The default is 0.5. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .out2] = itrim(im1.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.

se.CHAPTER 2. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ithin. op. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. See also iendpoint. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.

The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. ones(5. func. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. out = iwindow(image. @std).3).CHAPTER 2. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hence output image had reduced dimensions. @max).5). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. See also ivar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. se. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. ones(3. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.

s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. dG/dx. k = kdgauss(sigma. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss. k = kcircle(R. See also ones. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. kdog. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. dG/dy. • The vertical derivative. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. klog. is k’. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. ktriangle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.CHAPTER 2. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

klog. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. See also kgauss. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where sigma1 > SIGMA2.6*sigma1. kdog. See also kdgauss. klog. sigma2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. k = kgauss(sigma. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). k = kdog(sigma1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. By default SIGMA2 = 1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1.

zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also kgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. kdgauss. k = klog(sigma. See also ilaplace. iconv. kdog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. and W=2 × H+1.

CHAPTER 2. k. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). and D is the dimension. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. k. Pattern Recognition Principles. [L.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. L = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.z] = mkcube(s. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.y. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. [x. See also cylinder. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. The points are the columns of p. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. ‘edge’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.CHAPTER 2. [x. C ‘T’. symmetric about the origin. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. Options ‘T’. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.y. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).

n) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. or y(:. or y(:. y. n. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.2)).CHAPTER 2.2)). mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p.y). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. See also mpq poly.xp .yq . That is. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(t. y) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. the sum of I(x. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n) MPLOT(y. npq.

npq poly. See also mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. upq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). they are considered to be a single vertex. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. p. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

sad. • A common choice of k=-0. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. Example t = niblack(im.CHAPTER 2. See also zncc. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. k. where W=2*w2+1.2.s] = niblack(im. in text segmentation. T has the same dimensions as im. k. niblack. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.m.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. W. 1986. idisp(im >= t). Prentice-Hall. ssd. [T. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. 20). -0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. for example. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. the height of a character.

ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. p. See also npq poly. mpq.0).q)/MPQ(im.0. That is UPQ(im.CHAPTER 2. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

upq. See also mpq poly.CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. npq. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered as a single vertex. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq.

x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. N. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979. otsu IEEE Trans. Example t = otsu(im). pp 62-66 See also niblack. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Systems. [yp. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. idisp(im >= t). options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y.xp] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).i] = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms.CHAPTER 2.

use peak(-V). Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. use peak2(-V). S ‘interp’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Typically choose N to be odd.S points. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.S points. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.CHAPTER 2.

Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. See also pnmﬁlt.CHAPTER 2. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ie. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If p has three dimensions. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plot2(p.

plot_circle(c. W. ’LineWidth’. ‘size’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. PLOT BOX(x1. ’r’). ’b’). r.y2. ‘r’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. R. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. W. PLOT BOX(’centre’.y1) and (x2. r. ‘size’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. or a set of name.y2). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PLOT BOX(’topleft’. P. Examples plot_circle(c. ’fillcolor’. value pairs that are passed to plot. x2. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.y1. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’edgecolor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. P. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. r. plot_circle(c. ’g’. 1=solid.CHAPTER 2. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. 5). ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.

current plot. centred at the origin.Y]. with Matlab line style ls. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) ls is the standard line styles. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. xc. c Specify color of the axes. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. C.Y. If C=[X. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘color’. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’color’. trplot( T. to ‘view’. n ‘text opts’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’r’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. Options ‘textcolor’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’name’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set.CHAPTER 2. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. options) adds point markers to a plot. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ’r’).X = 0. fmt. ‘framename’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ‘printf’. ’color’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’.

alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. patch. R. NOTES • The sphere is always added. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. See also plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. The default is 1. R. 1=solid. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. either a letter or 3-vector. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. color. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. plotp(p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also pgmﬁlt.CHAPTER 2. See also plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

• translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.gt] = radgrad(im.CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.

x typically contains corresponding point data.CHAPTER 2. x. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated.in] = ransac(func. d) as above but elements increment by d. T. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. one column per point pair. T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘maxDataTrials’. T. x. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. [m. x.resid] = ransac(func.in. [m.

cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. they detect a structure argument.theta = [].theta. that is.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. References • m.theta. Comp.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.C.out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.theta is a cell array. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.out. Cambridge University Press.s sample size (1 × 1) out. Mach. that is they will produce a model. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Assoc.misc private data (cell array) out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta to the points R. Comm. Fishler and R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. pp 101-113.theta] = ERR(R. Boles.. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.A.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.resid] = EST(R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.CHAPTER 2.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.inlier. Vol 24.misc element. If multiple models are found out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta and the subset of R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. [out.x data to work on.x and returns the best model out. pp 381-395.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.x = CONDITION(R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.x) condition the point data out.t threshold (1 × 1) R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.s out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x. No 6.x.R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.theta = DECONDITION(R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.

csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector.au/ pk See also fmatrix. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. See also rotx. roty. See also roty. See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2.

T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch. • many texts (Paul. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. See also tr2rpy. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y. Z axes respectively. yaw. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2. pitch. If roll.

r2t.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. theta) as above where xy=[x. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. y.y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsad. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.CHAPTER 2. and rotation theta in the plane. ssd.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. See also zsdd. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Two cross-hairs are created. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad.

then R is 3 × 3.blah = []. c. b. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t.bar = false. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’other’}.CHAPTER 2. opt. varargin) opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.foo = true. – If T is 3 × 3. opt. tr2rt. It supports options that have an assigned value. The software pattern is: function(a. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). ’that’.choose = {’this’. then R is 2 × 2. opt.

arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.blah <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.CHAPTER 2. x. args) creates a test pattern image.choose <.x.choose <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.‘this’.3 ‘blah’.select <.debug <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt. varargin). Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. 3 sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.foo <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. w.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If neither of ‘this’.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.y ‘that’ sets opt.foo <. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.true sets opt.verbose <. N ‘setopt’. varargin).select = {’#no’.1.y sets opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.blah <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).false ‘blah’.N sets opt <. ’#yes’}. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.select <.

args are theta (rad). dot diameter. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial.sdd] = tpoly(s0. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. 50. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. sf. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args is the number of cycles.CHAPTER 2. 256. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sd and sdd are n-vectors.sdd] = tpoly(s0. square side length. args is the number of cycles.sd.sd. args is the number of cycles. args are pitch (distance between centres). Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args is the number of cycles. sf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. [s. intercept. binary dot pattern. a line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2). 25). The trajectory s. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. 256. binary square pattern.

v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.CHAPTER 2. See also angvec2r. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). The 3 angles rpy=[R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. rpy = tr2rpy(R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.P. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). [theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y and Z axes respectively. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.

See also rt2tr. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. – If TR is 3 × 3. ie. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. See also rpy2tr.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. • The validity of R is not checked. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.y. y.:.CHAPTER 2.z]. r2t. If T has three dimensions.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [o1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [c1.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. or x and y.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . An historical anomaly. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). each N × 1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

trotx. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. and displays in RPY format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. f ‘label’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trprint T is the command line form of above. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

mpq. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy.y).(y-y0)q where (x0. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. the sum of I(x. That is.y0) is the centroid. See also upq poly. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p.(x-x0)p .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad.CHAPTER 2. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. ssd. ssd. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. See also ncc. See also sad.

isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2.

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