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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

and I commend it to you. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. However the book “Robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This is extravagant on storage. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. is open-source.

. . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch .2 Support . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . iendpoint . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . homline . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . irectify . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . imser . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . norm2 . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . .

trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . vex . . zcross . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. You need to signup in order to post. That’s what you your teachers. tutors. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. lecturers and professors are paid to do. and you will be suitably acknowledged.google.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.com.

Volume = {12}. Year = {2005}. Author = {P.1.html on a server for class use.petercorke. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Corke}.zip). Number = {4}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. The ﬁle robot. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.gz) or zip format (. 1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.I. The details are @article{Corke05f. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. the table of content to functions. and the “See also” functions to each other. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Month = nov.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3. 1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. type of organization and application. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. 1.

INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.7.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.vlfeat.1. MSER. Coimbra. 1994 University of British Columbia. 1. but not least. Vincent Lepetit. pp 16–25. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. November 2005. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Twente.R.I. P.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.7 Acknowledgements Last. 12(4). pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Corke. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.. VLFeat http://www. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.6.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. 1. and there are hundreds of modules available. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.Functions such as SURF. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.mathworks.S. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

used by all subclasses. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. T ‘color’. Options ‘name’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. N ‘image’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘sensor’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.CHAPTER 2. IM ‘resolution’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. P ‘pixel’.

char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.CHAPTER 2.centre Get camera position p = C.clf Clear the image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ﬁsheyecamera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. CatadioptricCamera.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera. SphericalCamera Camera.char Convert to string s = C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display Display value C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).

ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. otherwise false (0).hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).u + b.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. See also Camera. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.v + c = 0.char Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Camera. C.CHAPTER 2.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.

clf Camera.CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. z. Options ‘Tobj’. y. Camera. z to the image plane and plots them. mkcube. The matrices x.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.plot(p. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.plot Plot points on image plane C. y. Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.mesh(x. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y.T. uv = C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Camera.plot. Camera. cylinder.hold. sphere. See also mesh. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.

2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T.clf Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.hold.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.CHAPTER 2. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘fps’.mesh. ‘Tobj’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera. T ‘scale’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. T See also Camera. Camera. Options ‘Tcam’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.

p. a subclass of Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. that is. p.rpy(R.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.rpy Set camera attitude C. The image is not inverted. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.CHAPTER 2.y].

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. camera at origin. E = C. P ‘pixel’. S. CatadioptricCamera.and v-axes parallel to x. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.177 See also CentralCamera. D ‘default’ ‘image’. Springer.Soatto. 2003. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘centre’. N ‘focal’. Reference Y. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘sensor’. F ‘distortion’.Ma. 10um pixels. u. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.Sastry. J. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. T ‘color’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.CHAPTER 2.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.8]) See also Camera. “An invitation to 3D”. S. f=8mm.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). E = C. IM ‘resolution’.F.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Kosecka.E Essential matrix E = C. optical axis is z-axis. S ‘noise’.and y-axes respectively. p.

T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). 2003.H(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. p.Soatto.F Fundamental matrix F = C.CHAPTER 2.Kosecka.Sastry. “An invitation to 3D”. J. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. See also CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.H Homography matrix H = C. S. S.Ma. Springer. Reference Y.H CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. from two viewpoints.E CentralCamera.

estpose(xyz. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Fua. 81. V. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Feb. and P. pp. CentralCamera. a = C.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. vol.CHAPTER 2. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. See also quiver CentralCamera.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Moreno-Noguer. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. 2009. 155-166. Journal on Computer Vision.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. CentralCamera. Lepetit.

E CentralCamera. J. 2003. p. Springer. See also CentralCamera. s. “An invitation to 3D”.Soatto. s.Sastry.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Ma. translation not to scale • n. section 5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. “Multiview Geometry”.Ma. J.Sastry. Springer.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Kosecka.Kosecka.Soatto. Reference Y. “An invitation to 3D”. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.invE(E. 259 Y.CHAPTER 2. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. 2003.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. Chap 9. s. p116. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.

If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot epiline(f. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.H CentralCamera. p.project(p. one per line. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f. See also Hough CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot epiline(f. C. ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. H = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.

vol.c. F. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. June 1992. Reference B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. 8. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 313-326.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot CentralCamera.b. Chaumette.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. See also Camera. Rives.visjac e(E. pp. and P.CHAPTER 2. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Espiau.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. “Multiview Geometry”.

F.visjac e CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera. R&A.visjac p.visjac p polar.visjac p. Chaumette.b.c. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Trans. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). See also CentralCamera. Espiau. Oct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. 313-326. and P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Hager & Corke. June 1992. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. 8.visjac p polar. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pp. Rives. Vol 12(5). Reference B. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l(L. pp 651-670. Hutchinson. vol. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 1996.visjac p(uv.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.

Oct.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Corke. CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt. and F. in Proc. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac l. Spindler. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p polar. See also CentralCamera. radius and theta.CHAPTER 2. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac e CentralCamera. F. Louis). I. 5962-5967.visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac p. pp. (St.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. P. Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Chaumette. 2009.

If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. D. Nov. 2004.60. Int. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Journal on Computer Vision. See README. PointFeature.91-110. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.Lowe.SIFT.CHAPTER 2. pp. ScalePointFeature. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isift.

match Match SIFT point features m = F. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. See also isift SiftPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match(f2.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F. C ‘alpha’. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.CHAPTER 2. 1=opaque. SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.

F. out = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.CHAPTER 2. [out.support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(im. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but the support region is displayed.T] = F.support(im.

CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘name’.T. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. Overrides the current camera pose C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. See also SphericalCamera.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ﬁsheyecamera.CHAPTER 2. S ‘pose’.

of 4-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. camera pose. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. defaults in parentheses: target size .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The camera view.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The external view. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .depth of points to use for Jacobian.center of the target in world coords (0.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error norm. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. scalar for If null take actual value all points.0. error. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .gain. The camera view. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.5) target center . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. image plane size and desired feature locations. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Jacobian condition number.the side length of the target in world units (0.01) .CHAPTER 2.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Robotics and Automation. IEEE Int. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.visjac p(pt.gain.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .visjac l.depth of points to use for Jacobian. pp. Conf. error.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . defaults in parentheses: target size . scalar for If null take actual value all points.0.visjac p polar.01) . Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. See also CentralCamera. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. 5550-5555. Jacobian condition number.5) target center . image plane size and desired feature locations. P. error norm. for all points. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. (Anchorage).center of the target in world coords (0.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. May 3-7 2010.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . or a vector (N × 1) for each point. Corke. CentralCamera. I. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.CHAPTER 2. camera pose. in Proc. CentralCamera.the side length of the target in world units (0. The external view.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . of 4-vector. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).

Tinne Tuytelaars. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). pp. Vol.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. No. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 346–359. 110. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 3. Luc Van Gool. Andreas Ess. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.

C] = F.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. [m.match Match SURF point features m = F.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. f = PointFeature(u. Options ‘thresh’. v.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. ScalePointFeature.

support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.T] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. out = F.support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. F.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed. [out.2) SurfPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.support(images. 1=opaque. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale Plot feature scale F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. C ‘alpha’.

G ‘scale’.com) web camera.axis. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘resolution’.axis.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. otherwise the result is not predictable. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Video AxisWebCamera.com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

display AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.CHAPTER 2. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.char Convert to string A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.close Close the image source A.

on Computer Vision. in Proc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org).Sivic and A.CHAPTER 2. b = BagOfWords(f. 2003. Oct. pp. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. f can also be a cell array. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Conf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.1470-1477. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Ninth IEEE Int.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.Zisserman.

isurf BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value B. BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.CHAPTER 2.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. BagOfWords.char BagOfWords. images.exemplars display exemplars of words B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.char Convert to string s = B.exemplars(w.

BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . M ‘width’.CHAPTER 2. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.isword Features from words f = B.n] = B. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop Remove stop words B.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Camera CatadioptricCamera.

T. 10um pixels. T ‘Tcam’. SIGMA ‘pose’. f=8mm. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and y-axes respectively. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. S ‘centre’. camera at origin. Options ‘Tobj’. See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. S ‘noise’. CatadioptricCamera.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. u. P ‘pixel’. ‘equisolid’.and v-axes parallel to x. A ‘resolution’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ﬁsheyecamera. ‘sine’. N ‘sensor’. optical axis is z-axis. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. See also Camera. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. K ‘maxangle’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. N ‘focal’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. M ‘k’.

• FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.

If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2.display Display value M. SurfPointFeature. one per element.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Convert to string s = M. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f2. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.outlier.ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.v1. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.u2. See also FeatureMatch.v2].inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.

FeatureMatch. These are the (u.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p1. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.plot Show corresponding points M. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1. See also FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch. These are the (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.plot() M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.im2}) m.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.

inliers and outliers (and their percentages). m = f1.ransac( @fmatrix. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. f2 = isurf(im2). See also fmatrix.ransac Apply RANSAC M.ransac(func. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.CHAPTER 2. homography. 1e-4). m.match(f2). Example f1 = isurf(im1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. ransac FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. See also idisp FeatureMatch. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.

v. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. that is.CHAPTER 2. Y This camera model assumes central projection. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

SIGMA ‘pose’. Options ‘name’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. K ‘resolution’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘sine’.CHAPTER 2.and v-axes are parallel to x. N ‘sensor’. ‘equisolid’. S ‘centre’. f=8mm. P ‘pixel’. M ‘k’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. camera at origin. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. u. S ‘noise’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].and y. 10um pixels.axes respectively. optical axis is z-axis.

For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FishEyeCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.project(p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.T. CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Camera. T ‘Tcam’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. See also LineFeature Hough. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A horizontal line has theta = 0. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.0) and the line.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). The voting array is 2-dimensional.H).CHAPTER 2.

houghThresh (default 0. Default 400 × 401. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. T ‘edgethresh’. Nrho]. T ‘suppress’. See also Hough.edgeThresh (default 0.5) Set ht. Hough. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. else N = [Ntheta.edgeThresh.1).char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.CHAPTER 2. Set ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value HT. W ‘houghthresh’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. W ‘nbins’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Hough. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Convert to string s = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.

See also Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision. then all elements in an HT.CHAPTER 2. L = HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot(n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.lines Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines Find lines L = HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot Plot line features HT. The highest peak is found.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. The process is repeated for all peaks. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. See also Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. H = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot. LineFeature Hough.

• LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. RegionFeature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta. theta.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. LENGTH is undeﬁned.CHAPTER 2. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(rho. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LineFeature. one per element.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength. See also LineFeature.display Display value L. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char Convert to string s = L.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.seglength(edge.plot Plot line L. less than gap pixels are tolerated. Small gaps.plot() overlay the line on current plot.points Return points on line segments p = L. l2 = L. LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l2 = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie. Movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.close Close the image source M.close() closes the connection to the movie. S ‘skip’.char Convert to string M.axis.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.

eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. planar. S ‘frame’.CHAPTER 2. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. F Skip frames. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. undirected graph create an n-d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Options ‘skip’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.

return vid add edge from v1 to v2. v2) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.connectivity() g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.path(v) set goal vertex. v) g.cost(e) g.clear() add vertex.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().component(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.goal(v) g.next(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() g.edges(e) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord) g.add node(coord.coord(v) g.add edge(v1.neighbours(v) g.distance(v1.CHAPTER 2.

C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. Options ‘distance’. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. PGraph.CHAPTER 2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. and returns the edge id E. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add node(x. where x is D × 1.add edge(v1.add node(x. v = G. E = G.add edge(v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2. PGraph. v = G.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. and returns the node id v.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.

D × 1.clear Clear the graph G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .coord Coordinate of node x = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.closest Find closest node v = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.CHAPTER 2.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph. PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. and the distance d.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. edges and components.d] = G. of node id v. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.char Convert graph to string s = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph. [v.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. one per element. SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.char Convert to string s = F.display Display value F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f = PointFeature(u. v. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match(f2.C] = F.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the norm of the Euclidean distance. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. where 1 is perfect match. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match Match point features m = F.CHAPTER 2.char PointFeature. PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. [m.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.

plot Plot feature F.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. one column per vertex.area() is the area of the polygon. difference.html and require a licence.edu. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. so use with care. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . HEIGHT]. http://puddle.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. kirill@plume.char String representation s = P.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.mit. Polygon. Pankratov. union. intersection. Polygon. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. p = Polygon(C.area Area of polygon a = P.mit.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.

else 0. Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). returns coordinates of P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.char Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. See also Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.difference Difference of polygons d = P.display Display polygon P. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.CHAPTER 2.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.

q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.moments(p.moments Moments of polygon a = P. y1 y2]. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. each column is [x y]’.CHAPTER 2.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. returns empty polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Polygon.

Polygon. P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot Plot polygon P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union Union of polygons i = P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.

unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.

If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.E] = R.E] = R.char Convert to string s = R. Ray3D.display Display value R. [x. Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. See also Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. [x.CHAPTER 2.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. one per element.

b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.CHAPTER 2. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.0) 1 for a circle. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. horizontal coordinate centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. See also iblobs. RegionFeature. RegionFeature.xmax.uc will be a list not a vector. ymin. ymax]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .th] = R. For example R. one per element.char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. imoments RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. RegionFeature. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.box Return bounding box b = R.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.

Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary plot boundary R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.char RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.and xmarkers. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R. R.display Display value R.

Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. RegionFeature.plot box Plot bounding box R.

f = ScalePointFeature(u. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.plot scale Plot feature scale F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options. F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v. strength. ScalePointFeature.

im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. options) is a new tracker object.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. T ‘movie’. R ‘nslots’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. C. one per active track. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. See also PointFeature Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.CHAPTER 2. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. N ‘thresh’.

display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker.display Display value T. See also Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Tracker.

If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera. Movie Video. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. and their characteristics is displayed.

char Convert to string V. Video. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.CHAPTER 2. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close Close the image source V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() acquires an image from the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. the second for right. right. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). color. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. right. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. the ﬁrst for left. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. and the right image is cyan. By default the left image is red. if negative it is reduced. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. If th1 is a column vector.

e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.CHAPTER 2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y2). 6500).boundary. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y1] and p2=[x2. p = bresenham(p1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. y1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. See also RegionFeature. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. % emission of sun plot(l. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = boundmatch(R1. x2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. Endpoints must be integer.y2].y1) to (x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. If lambda is a column vector. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. [x.

d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. [C. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.CHAPTER 2. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].

R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. [k. x = circle(C. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.d1] = closest(a. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). k = closest(a. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. Options ‘n’. green and blue primaries respectively.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. that is. and x is N × 3.

• From Table I(5.CHAPTER 2. The data are referred to as pilot data. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. while Table I(5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.16).32).5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. 19000 (526.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. As noted in footnote a on p. since.5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.d1. they were measured directly.ioo. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.5.ac. 335 of Table 1(5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). and 22500 (444. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ucl.d2] = closest(a. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5. (Table 1(5.

If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .ucl.M). Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.uk See also cmfrgb. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ioo. out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.CHAPTER 2.

Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.g] to every pixel in the color image im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.CHAPTER 2. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.

color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. icolor. k. and returns a per-pixel logical result.CHAPTER 2. out = colorize(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. @isnan.C] = colorkmeans(im. @isnan. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. im<100. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. func. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. See also imono. eg.G. [L. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. mask.B). ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.

Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.R] = colorkmeans(im. eg. low is good. L = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.CHAPTER 2. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. k) as above but also returns the residual R.C. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. XYZ = colorname(name. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

As MATLAB’s native datatype. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. colorspace(s. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. it can be omitted. double data is the natural choice. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. s = ‘src->dest’.txt. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i2.o3] = colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. s = ‘dest<-src’.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.o2. • Color space names are case insensitive.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.CHAPTER 2. or alternatively. [o1. i1.

for memory and computational performance.B).100). d = distance(A.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.2*A. However. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. out will also have size M × 3.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.CHAPTER 2. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Example A = rand(400. B = rand(400.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. like a colormap. • If im is an M × 3 array. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.200). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .

The result E is a matrix. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.CHAPTER 2.(+31)20-5257524. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. bunschot@wins. E = edgelist(im. Tested: PC Matlab v5. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. tel.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. non-zero is an object. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. not image frame. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. non zero is counter-clockwise. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.y). in matrix coordinate frame. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. University of Amsterdam.j).3.uva. seed. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.

p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Oct 27.S. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). 1998. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. See also fmatrix. p. one per line drawn. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. epiline(f. Coimbra.CHAPTER 2. p1. Author Based on fmatrix code by. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. I.R. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. H = epiline(f. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also epiline. p. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.

options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. homography. that is.edu. • Contains a RANSAC driver. epiline. page 270. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. http://www. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. no outlier rejection is performed. See also ransac. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.CHAPTER 2. c. The University of Western Australia. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p2. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.uwa.au/. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). which means it can be passed to ransac(). Notes • The points must be corresponding. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. it is singular. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. • f is a rank 2 matrix.csse. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.y2). 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. itriplepoint.y1) and (x2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. ithin. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.CHAPTER 2. x2. See also imorph. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. y1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.csse. Notes • The points must be corresponding. invhomog. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. which means it can be passed to ransac().CHAPTER 2. no outlier rejection is performed. http://www.edu. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia. See also ransac.uwa. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.

D ‘size’. im. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. See also homography. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. itrim. R ‘scale’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel.offs] = homwarp(H.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. V ‘roi’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. S output image contains all the warped pixels. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. that is tp=T*T1. S ‘dimension’. [out. ie. See also e2h.

’gs’). features. on Information Theory. ianimate(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 179-187. 1962. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im.CHAPTER 2. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. Hu. IT-8:pp. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IRE Trans. features. ’nfeat’. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. 200). ianimate(seq. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method.

F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.CHAPTER 2. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. M ‘npoints’. iharris. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. YMIN YMAX]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf. N ‘only’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.

[A1.0) 1 for a circle. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. default 1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. A set pixel aspect ratio. C set connectivity. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [S1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. vertical coordinate bounding box. ilabel. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.0 ‘connect’. horizontal coordinate centroid. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also iopen. Tel Aviv University.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. se. T ‘th1’. See also isobel. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. S ‘th0’. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. This is an dilation followed by erosion. out = iclose(im. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. 1996-7. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.

u] = iconcat(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. [C. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. See also imono.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. The images do not have to be of the same size. C = icolor(im. iconcat(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). [0 1 1]). Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). colorize. Options ‘dir’. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. D ‘bgval’. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. im2.CHAPTER 2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. options) convolves im1 with im2.

The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. CT ‘edgegap’. K ‘patch’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. R ‘nfeat’. D ‘sigma’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im.CHAPTER 2. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. D ‘k’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. CM ‘cminthresh’. N ‘detector’. S ‘deriv’. E ‘suppress’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned.

G.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Image and Vision Computing. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. May 1988. J. with a delay of d [sec]. IEEE Computer Society. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.CHAPTER 2. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Manchester.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.5 [sec]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. 593-593. Tomasi.d] = icp(p1. C. Options ‘dplot’. pp. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. T ‘maxiter’. N ‘mindelta’. T ‘distthresh’. Proc. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. pp 147-151. 1988. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Proc.J.. Harris and M. where * denotes squared and smoothed. with a delay of 0.121-128. p2. • “Finding corners”. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.6. • “Good features to track”. Shi and C. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. J. pp. See also PointFeature. Stephens. [T. 1994.Noble. p2.

IEEETrans. s = idecimate(im. 1992. 239-256. See also iscale.McKay. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. m. s = idecimate(im. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.Besl and H. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. vol.. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 14. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Notes • If the image has multiple planes.CHAPTER 2. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Pattern Anal. Feb. m. Mach. each plane is decimated.or 3-dimensional. pp. Intell. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. no. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.

XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x.and y-axes respectively. C ‘xydata’. If im is a cell array of images. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. zero is white color map: random values.CHAPTER 2. zero is black. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. darker than ‘grey’. positive is blue. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. zero is white. positive is blue. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. negative is red. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. histogram and zooming. Options ‘ncolors’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. negative is red. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. XY ‘colormap’. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. linear proﬁle. If the image is zoomed.

labels. idisplabel(im. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class.CHAPTER 2. icolorize. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colormap. labelimage. labelimage. See also iblobs. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. caxis. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also image. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image.

ithin.2. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.45. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also itriplepoint. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.CHAPTER 2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. out = igamma(im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.

min is the minimum region size (pixels). min. [L. k. Int. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. k. P. See also ithresh. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 1500.5).m] = igraphseg(im. 0. Felzenszwalb and D. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. pp. 2004. k is the scale parameter. 100. 2006. 59. 167181. L = igraphseg(im.5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Sept. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. k. min.jpg’). Huttenlocher. Journal on Computer Vision. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. Example im = iread(’58060. [l.m] = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.CHAPTER 2.

For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.h). bar(x. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.x] = ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. plot(x.h).CHAPTER 2. [h.x] = ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = ihist(im. options) displays the image histogram.x] = ihist(im). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. ’normcdf’).

for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.m.y2). where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.y1) and bottom-right (x2. y1.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. same size as im.CHAPTER 2. [L. [L. ii is a precomputed integral image. y2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.

v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. ilabel(im. • This is a “low level” function. out = iline(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. otherwise it does not. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .maxlabel. p1. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.Y]. The pixels on the line are set to 1. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.CHAPTER 2.parents. iproﬁle. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.class. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.maxlabel. eg. [L. each a 2-vector [X. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. p1. p2. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also iblobs.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. 8). IBLOBS is a higher level interface.parents. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.

Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y). im2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.y) and its half-width is H.DY) are the x. x. ymin. [xm. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y) and of size s. The template in im1 is centred at (x. y. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. w2.DY. xmax. centred at (x. y. -s. The return value is xm=[DX.CHAPTER 2.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax] relative to (x. • ZNCC matching is used.y). x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.and y-offsets relative to (x. and columns the vertical position. s] % relative to (x. a perfect match score is 1. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. H. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). • Is a MEX ﬁle.score] = imatch(im1. s.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.CC] where (DX. im2.

v] = imeshgrid(w. v.u) = v. The element u(v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].CHAPTER 2. All pixels are equally weighted. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. effectively a greyscale image. [u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. f = imoments(u. [u. effectively a binary image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.u) = u and v(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H.

See also RegionFeature. m01. m10. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. horizontal coordinate centroid. m11. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m02. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im.CHAPTER 2. • This function does not perform connectivity.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. the elements are m00. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. ilabel. m20. or its area. Different conversion functions are supported. icolor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst.

O.CHAPTER 2. J. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. se.m] = imser(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. pp. ’double’). Pajdla. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. m. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. vol. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. ’light’). Chum. 22.org). Sept.m] = imser(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matas. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. ’grey’. The labels [L.png’. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. 761767. [label. 2004. Image and Vision Computing. and T. Urban.

• Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.ˆ2). Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).

n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. sides. out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. sides. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. See also iclose. n. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

im1. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. otherwise im2 is selected. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 10. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. im2. p. 20. ’t’.V]. ’tblr’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.CHAPTER 2. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im.

v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.uv] = iproﬁle(im. p1. [p.CHAPTER 2.v) for the corresponding row of p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. se(2. idecimate. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. nbins. out = imorph(image. 1. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. the maximum. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. se).5)). Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscalespace.3). op.2) = 0. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hence output image had reduced dimensions.CHAPTER 2. is order=1. 12. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. out = ipyramid(im. out = imorph(image. im > irank(im. The highest rank. se. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. ones(5. op. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. sigma. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. se. order. out = ipyramid(im. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im.

On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. vmin vmax]. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. im = iread(ﬁle. See also imorph. R ‘roi’. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. ivar. G ‘reduce’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names.CHAPTER 2. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. where R=[umin umax. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.

k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. Notes • Color images are not supported. m. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. istereo. imono. im1.out2. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. igamma. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch. [out1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). homwarp. im1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. m.out2] = irectify(f. imwrite.h1.h2] = irectify(f.

vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2.vmax]. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. See also idisp. S ‘extrapval’. Options ‘outsize’. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.umax. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. V ‘smooth’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. vmin. [out. angle.H] return central part of image.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.

while bias>0. out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. Options ‘outsize’.CHAPTER 2. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s>1 makes the image larger. bias<0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. im2.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 is symmetric cropping.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s<1 makes it smaller. bias=0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘smooth’. s ‘extrapval’.

Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.L. n. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. in space and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.s] = iscalespace(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). n) as above but sigma=1. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. See also iscalespace. [g. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.L. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. corresponding to each step of the sequence. idecimate.s] = iscalespace(im.CHAPTER 2.

that is. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. See also isrot. ismooth. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ‘valid’) as above. ilaplace. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it its third dimension is equal to three. else false (0). klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.CHAPTER 2. ishomog(T.

See also SiftPointFeature. International Journal of Computer Vision. Lowe.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 91-110. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.CHAPTER 2. 2 (2004).vlfeat. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. Reference David G. 60. N ‘suppress’. pp. • Features are returned in descending strength order. isurf. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. See also imatch. zssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. [w. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. sad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zsad.H.CHAPTER 2. s = isimilarity(T. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. @ncc. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ncc. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. [w. @ssd. im. and these output pixels are set to NaN. @zssd. @zsad. s is same size as im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. ssd.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.

Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. [gx.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . convolved. sigma. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. then converted back to integer. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.CHAPTER 2. See also iconv.gy] = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.

isrot(R. range. icanny. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.u).sim] = istereo(iml. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. See also ksobel. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. w. else false (0). [d.CHAPTER 2. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ‘valid’) as above.M] for an N × M window. See also ishomog. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. H. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. H is the half size of the matching window. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the disparity d=d(v. That is. range is the disparity search range.u) means that imr(v. imr. range. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.

CHAPTER 2. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. w.dsi] = istereo(iml. w.A and p.sim. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. range. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • sim = max(dsi. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. imr. [d. [d. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). 3) See also irectify.5).sim. B. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. p.p] = istereo(iml. Options ‘metric’. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. imr.5 to +0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. dx. out = istretch(im.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. ‘ncc’. p. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). That is.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. range.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.

Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘thresh’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Notes • Color images. T ‘octaves’. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Kroon (U. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. or sequences. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.

Vol. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. isift. Otherwise false (0). 110. Luc Van Gool. either a row. Tinne Tuytelaars. isvec(v. 346–359. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. out = ithin(im. 3. Andreas Ess. pp. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else false (0). Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. See also ishomog.CHAPTER 2. No.or columnvector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. itriplepoint. See also hitormiss.

• For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. a lower value will include more. Notes • Greyscale image only. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. [out1.5. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.CHAPTER 2. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The same cropping is applied to each input image.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. See also homwarp.out2] = itrim(im1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.out2] = itrim(im1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. The default is 0.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.im2. ithresh(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also iendpoint. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. op. ithin. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. se.

se. func. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. se. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hence output image had reduced dimensions. @std).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3). func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. out = iwindow(image. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ivar. @max). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. ones(5. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.5). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im.

dG/dx. klog. is k’. k = kdgauss(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. kdog.CHAPTER 2. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. ktriangle. See also ones. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kcircle(R. dG/dy.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. • The vertical derivative. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.

CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. klog.6*sigma1. kdog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. See also kdgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog. By default SIGMA2 = 1. See also kgauss. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kgauss(sigma. sigma2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv. and W=2 × H+1. kdog. k = klog(sigma. See also kgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. L = kmeans(x. k. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. and D is the dimension. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x.CHAPTER 2. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. it is assumed to have been completed previously. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. [L. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Pattern Recognition Principles. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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The points are the columns of p.z] = mkcube(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. ‘edge’. [x. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. C ‘T’. s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. See also cylinder. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.y. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. [x. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).y. symmetric about the origin. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. Options ‘T’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).z] = mkcube(s. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.

q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. npq.CHAPTER 2. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. p. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. n) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(t. the sum of I(x.xp . Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. That is. or y(:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or y(:. MPLOT(t. y.2)). See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.y). labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.yq . y) MPLOT(t. y. n.

i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. so centroids will be still be correct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered to be a single vertex. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. npq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. p. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. upq poly. See also mpq. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).

Example t = niblack(im. the height of a character. where W=2*w2+1. k. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. sad.s] = niblack(im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented.m. 20). W. See also zncc. T has the same dimensions as im. ssd. idisp(im >= t). niblack. in text segmentation. [T. for example. Prentice-Hall. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.CHAPTER 2. -0. 1986. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. • A common choice of k=-0. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. mpq. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.CHAPTER 2.p.0). p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. That is UPQ(im. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. See also npq poly.0. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.q)/MPQ(im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

mpq. upq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. so centroids will be still be correct.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered as a single vertex. npq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

xp] = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Systems. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Jan 1979. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. idisp(im >= t). ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp 62-66 See also niblack. otsu IEEE Trans. [yp. Example t = otsu(im).i] = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). [yp. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. N. x.CHAPTER 2.

S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. use peak2(-V). N ‘scale’.S points. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. use peak(-V). Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. N ‘scale’. Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.CHAPTER 2. [zp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.ij] = peak2(z. S ‘interp’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. If p has three dimensions. plot2(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. See also pnmﬁlt. ie.

’b’).y2. ’fillcolor’. ’LineWidth’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ’g’. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. W. ’r’). P.y1) and (x2. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y1. 5). P. W.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. 1=solid. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ‘size’. or a set of name. ’edgecolor’.CHAPTER 2. r. plot_circle(c. r. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. Examples plot_circle(c. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. PLOT BOX(’centre’. value pairs that are passed to plot. plot_circle(c. ‘r’. PLOT BOX(x1. r. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].y2).

with Matlab line style ls. ls) ls is the standard line styles. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.CHAPTER 2. c Specify color of the axes.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.Y.Y]. Options ‘color’. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. If C=[X. centred at the origin. current plot. C. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.

where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’color’. ’name’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. to ‘view’.X = 0. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ‘printf’. ’r’. n ‘text opts’. Options ‘textcolor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘framename’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’r’). colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. fmt. trplot( T. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ’color’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set.CHAPTER 2. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. options) adds point markers to a plot.

NOTES • The sphere is always added. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. The default is 1. either a letter or 3-vector. patch. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R. See also plot. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque.CHAPTER 2. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. R. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. color. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. 1=solid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot.

p can be N × 2 or N × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. plotp(p. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pgmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. See also plot.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gr.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.gt] = radgrad(im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.

options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. [m.in. T. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. N ‘maxDataTrials’. d) as above but elements increment by d. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x typically contains corresponding point data.CHAPTER 2. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x. one column per point pair.in] = ransac(func. Options ‘maxTrials’. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.resid] = ransac(func. [m. T. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. T.

cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.theta to the points R. Mach.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.x = CONDITION(R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. [out.C.x) condition the point data out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x.theta.theta] = ERR(R.. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.theta = DECONDITION(R.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.A.x data to work on. that is they will produce a model. pp 101-113. References • m.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. they detect a structure argument.CHAPTER 2.inlier. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta. Comm.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.misc element.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x and returns the best model out.theta is a cell array. Assoc. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.out. Cambridge University Press.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.resid] = EST(R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. Comp.R.theta and the subset of R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. Boles. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.theta = []. No 6. that is.out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. [out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. Vol 24.s out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.misc private data (cell array) out. If multiple models are found out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .x. pp 381-395.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. Fishler and R.

au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.edu. If lambda is a vector.uwa. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse.CHAPTER 2.

roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also roty. See also rotx. rotz. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2.

yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Z axes respectively. Y. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. pitch. See also tr2rpy. T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw. • many texts (Paul. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. If roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll.

theta) as above where xy=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. See also zsad.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. ncc. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. and rotation theta in the plane.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y. ssd. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.

i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.CHAPTER 2. See also zsdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Two cross-hairs are created. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1.

rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.choose = {’this’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then R is 3 × 3. – If T is 3 × 3. opt.bar = false. opt.CHAPTER 2. b. varargin) opt.foo = true. It supports options that have an assigned value. then R is 2 × 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. c. tr2rt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. ’other’}. opt.blah = []. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. The software pattern is: function(a. ’that’.

The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.true sets opt.y sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If neither of ‘this’.select <.debug <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. 3 sets opt.false ‘blah’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. N ‘setopt’.blah <.N sets opt <.y ‘that’ sets opt.blah <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.‘this’.3 ‘blah’. args) creates a test pattern image.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.foo <. varargin). if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. ’#yes’}.CHAPTER 2.choose <. x. varargin). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. w. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.select <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).foo <.select = {’#no’.x.1.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.verbose <.choose <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.

args are theta (rad). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. 25). binary square pattern. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). args are pitch (distance between centres). 2). binary dot pattern.sd. args is the number of cycles. 50. 256. a line. square side length.CHAPTER 2.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. dot diameter. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. [s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sf. 256. sd and sdd are n-vectors. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sf. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args is the number of cycles.sd. The trajectory s. args is the number of cycles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles. intercept.

rpy = tr2rpy(R.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also angvec2r. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Y and Z axes respectively.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). The 3 angles rpy=[R.

z]. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.:. y. See also rt2tr. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.CHAPTER 2. – If TR is 3 × 3. ie. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. See also rpy2tr. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. • The validity of R is not checked. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. r2t. If T has three dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.y. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.

CHAPTER 2. or x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. [c1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. An historical anomaly. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). [o1. each N × 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trprint T is the command line form of above. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and displays in RPY format. trotx.CHAPTER 2. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. f ‘label’. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’.

npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.y).(x-x0)p . Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. mpq. See also upq poly. the sum of I(x. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2rpy. p. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.y0) is the centroid.(y-y0)q where (x0.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ssd.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. sad. See also ncc. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd.

isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sdd.CHAPTER 2. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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