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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

and I commend it to you. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. is open-source. However the book “Robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . Tracker . . . blackbody . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .Contents Introduction . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . mtools . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. tutors. That’s what you your teachers. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You need to signup in order to post. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.com. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. and you will be suitably acknowledged.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.google.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.

Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. 1. Number = {4}.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. 1. Year = {2005}. The details are @article{Corke05f.html on a server for class use.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. the table of content to functions. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Author = {P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Volume = {12}.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. The ﬁle robot. Corke}.1. and the “See also” functions to each other. Month = nov.3.I. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.zip). 1.gz) or zip format (. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. type of organization and application.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.petercorke.

org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.I. Vincent Lepetit.6. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. P. and there are hundreds of modules available. 12(4). 1994 University of British Columbia. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Twente. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. VLFeat http://www. Coimbra. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.7.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.S.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. pp 16–25. but not least. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. Corke. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.mathworks. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. MSER. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. 1.1. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.R. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.Functions such as SURF.vlfeat. November 2005.. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1.7 Acknowledgements Last.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’. SIGMA ‘pose’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Options ‘name’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘image’. S ‘noise’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. T ‘color’. Camera. IM ‘resolution’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. S ‘centre’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. used by all subclasses. P ‘pixel’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delete Camera object destructor C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. SphericalCamera Camera. CatadioptricCamera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.char Convert to string s = C.centre Get camera position p = C.CHAPTER 2.display Display value C. Camera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera.

ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.u + b. Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. Camera. and off if H is false (or 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.CHAPTER 2.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera. otherwise false (0).v + c = 0.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.char Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. See also Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.

options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. uv = C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.plot Plot points on image plane C. T ‘Tcam’.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. The matrices x. y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.plot.clf Camera. cylinder.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).hold. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.mesh(x. z. Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also mesh. Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Camera.T. z to the image plane and plots them. sphere.plot(p. Options ‘Tobj’. mkcube.CHAPTER 2. y. y.

T.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.clf Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘Tobj’. Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. T See also Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.mesh. T ‘scale’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘fps’. Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C. ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.hold. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.

v Y This camera model assumes central projection. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy Set camera attitude C.p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. that is. The image is not inverted. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. a subclass of Camera.y]. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. C.CHAPTER 2.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. p.rpy(R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C Camera matrix C = C.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

Reference Y. “An invitation to 3D”. S. ﬁsheyecamera. N ‘sensor’.F. T ‘color’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. D ‘default’ ‘image’. CentralCamera. P ‘pixel’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. SIGMA ‘pose’. u.8]) See also Camera. S ‘centre’. camera at origin. p.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.Ma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. IM ‘resolution’.and y-axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. E = C. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.Soatto. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.E Essential matrix E = C. 2003. Springer. optical axis is z-axis.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. f=8mm. J. N ‘focal’.and v-axes parallel to x. S.177 See also CentralCamera. F ‘distortion’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E = C.Kosecka. 10um pixels. CatadioptricCamera. S ‘noise’.Sastry.

Springer.Sastry.Kosecka. “An invitation to 3D”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera.H Homography matrix H = C.CHAPTER 2.E CentralCamera.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. J.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Ma.H CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C. F = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.H(T. n. p.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.Soatto.177 See also CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). S. Reference Y.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. 2003.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. from two viewpoints.

estpose(xyz. vol. a = C. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 81. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. F.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Lepetit.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. and P. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. 2009. 155-166. Journal on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. Fua. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Int. Moreno-Noguer.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. See also quiver CentralCamera. Feb.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.

Ma. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. p116. s.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Soatto. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Kosecka. “Multiview Geometry”. section 5.Sastry. Springer. p. s. Reference Y. translation not to scale • n. Chap 9. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Sastry.Ma. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.invE(E. 259 Y. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. J. s.Soatto.Kosecka. 2003. See also CentralCamera. Springer.E CentralCamera.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. 2003. s. J.CHAPTER 2.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. “An invitation to 3D”. “An invitation to 3D”.

Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. p. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Hough CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). ‘Tobj’. H = C.H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. one per line.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C.plot epiline(f.project(p. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.T.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.CHAPTER 2. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.

c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. F.plot CentralCamera.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. pp. “Multiview Geometry”. Chaumette.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. vol. Espiau. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. June 1992. 8.b.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Rives. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. See also Camera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .CHAPTER 2.visjac e(E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and P. Reference B.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. 313-326.

The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.visjac p. vol. pp. pp 651-670.c. CentralCamera. Hager & Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Espiau. CentralCamera. Hutchinson. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p(uv.visjac l(L. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p polar. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Oct. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p polar. Chaumette. See also CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. June 1992. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Vol 12(5). and P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 313-326. Rives. Reference B. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). IEEE Trans.CHAPTER 2.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 8. R&A.b.visjac e CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 1996.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac p. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l CentralCamera. F. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.

Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in Proc. 2009. Louis). (St.visjac p polar(rt. CentralCamera. Chaumette. radius and theta. CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Spindler.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. I. CentralCamera. P. CentralCamera. pp.visjac l.visjac e CentralCamera. Int. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Oct. Corke. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. and F. F. 5962-5967.visjac p.

D.60. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.SIFT. pp.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 2004. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Int. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Journal on Computer Vision. See also isift.91-110. ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See README. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.Lowe. Nov.

f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. See also isift SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 0=transparent (default 0.CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.match Match SIFT point features m = F.match(f2.plot scale Plot feature scale F. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. v. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature. 1=opaque. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.

w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.support Support region of feature out = F.support(images. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. [out.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. F.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T] = F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.T. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘name’. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Overrides the current camera pose C.project(p.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. S ‘pose’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. See also SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.

defaults in parentheses: target size . of 4-vector. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.depth of points to use for Jacobian.center of the target in world coords (0.01) . error norm. image plane size and desired feature locations. scalar for If null take actual value all points. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . error. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The camera view.CHAPTER 2.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The camera view.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. camera pose. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .5) target center .gain. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. Jacobian condition number. The external view.

image plane size and desired feature locations. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. P.visjac l.CHAPTER 2.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . IEEE Int. The external view.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . May 3-7 2010. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).01) . Jacobian condition number.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. error norm. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . pp. Conf. for all points. I.0. Corke. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.visjac p polar. in Proc. defaults in parentheses: target size .5) target center . error. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.center of the target in world coords (0. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . or a vector (N × 1) for each point. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p(pt. CentralCamera. (Anchorage).gain.the side length of the target in world units (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. camera pose. See also CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. 5550-5555. of 4-vector.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Robotics and Automation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.

Vol. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Tinne Tuytelaars. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 110. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. Luc Van Gool. 346–359. Andreas Ess. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. No.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. 3.

[m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match Match SURF point features m = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. Options ‘thresh’.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].match(f2.C] = F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. ScalePointFeature. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.

support(im. F.support(images.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F.support Support region of feature out = F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options. 1=opaque. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. 0=transparent (default 0.support(im. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T] = F.CHAPTER 2. [out. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.

AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com) web camera.axis. Video AxisWebCamera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com).axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.

See also AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.display AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.char Convert to string A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.close Close the image source A.

Oct.Sivic and A.org). k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.1470-1477. f can also be a cell array.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Conf. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Ninth IEEE Int. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. on Computer Vision. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. pp. in Proc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. 2003. b = BagOfWords(f. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.Zisserman.CHAPTER 2.

display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. isurf BagOfWords. BagOfWords.exemplars(w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords.display Display value B. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = B.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. See also BagOfWords. images.

N ‘maxperimage’. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.remove stop Remove stop words B. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. M ‘width’. BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.CHAPTER 2.n] = B.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. Options ‘ncolumns’. BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.isword Features from words f = B.

wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.

CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Options ‘Tobj’. P ‘pixel’. T ‘Tcam’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘sensor’. M ‘k’. 10um pixels. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.project(p. ‘equisolid’.and v-axes parallel to x.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘centre’. CatadioptricCamera. camera at origin. optical axis is z-axis.and y-axes respectively. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. f=8mm. N ‘focal’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.T. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also Camera. A ‘resolution’. ﬁsheyecamera. u. K ‘maxangle’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). S ‘noise’.CHAPTER 2. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘sine’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also Camera.

SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. f2. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. See also FeatureMatch. one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SurfPointFeature.display Display value M.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.CHAPTER 2. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also PointFeature.char Convert to string s = M.

inlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.CHAPTER 2.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v1.ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.u2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier Outlier features m2 = M.v2]. See also FeatureMatch.outlier. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.

p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot Show corresponding points M. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p FeatureMatch.p1.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2 FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.im2}) m. See also FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot() M. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p2.CHAPTER 2.

f2 = isurf(im2). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. Example f1 = isurf(im1).CHAPTER 2. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).match(f2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. homography. See also fmatrix.ransac Apply RANSAC M. ransac FeatureMatch. 1e-4).ransac( @fmatrix. See also idisp FeatureMatch. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. m.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac(func. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. m = f1.

The image is not inverted.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. that is. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

and v-axes are parallel to x. 10um pixels. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’. Options ‘name’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. S ‘centre’. K ‘resolution’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. S ‘noise’. u. optical axis is z-axis. camera at origin. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘sensor’.axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. M ‘k’. f=8mm. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘sine’.and y. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘equisolid’.

T ‘Tcam’. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Options ‘Tobj’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. CatadioptricCamera.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also FishEyeCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.T. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CentralCamera.

The voting array is 2-dimensional. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. A horizontal line has theta = 0. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.H). a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. See also LineFeature Hough.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Nrho]. Hough.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘houghthresh’. else N = [Ntheta. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.houghThresh (default 0. N All edge pixels have equal weight. T ‘suppress’.5) Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0. Hough. Default 400 × 401. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display Display value HT. T ‘edgethresh’.1).edgeThresh. Set ht.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.CHAPTER 2. W ‘nbins’. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.

lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot.lines Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. HT.plot Plot line features HT. H = HT.CHAPTER 2. reﬁned to subpixel precision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. The highest peak is found.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.plot(n. The process is repeated for all peaks. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. then all elements in an HT. See also Hough. HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. L = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.lines Find lines L = HT. LineFeature Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.

rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.display Display value L. theta. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. strength. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. theta.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. L = LineFeature(rho. LENGTH is undeﬁned. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Convert to string s = L.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. LineFeature. one per element.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot Plot line L.CHAPTER 2.points Return points on line segments p = L. Small gaps. l2 = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. L.plot() overlay the line on current plot.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. See also icanny LineFeature. l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. LineFeature. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.seglength(edge.

com). S ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.char Convert to string M.CHAPTER 2. Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.close Close the image source M. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. G ‘scale’. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie.

S ‘frame’. F Skip frames. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.CHAPTER 2. planar. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph create an n-d. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.

return vid add edge from v1 to v2.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.add edge(v1.add node(coord.connectivity() g.path(v) set goal vertex.neighbours(v) g.edges(e) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. Object properties (read/write) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add node(coord) g.coord(v) g.cost(e) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.clear() add vertex.distance(v1. v) g.goal(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.next(v) g.CHAPTER 2. v2) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.component(v) g.

add node(x. E = G. where x is D × 1. v = G.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. Options ‘distance’. v.add node(x. and returns the node id v. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and returns the edge id E. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. PGraph. v = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add edge(v1.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v2. PGraph. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add edge(v1.

[v. of node id v.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. PGraph. PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord(v) return coordinate vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CHAPTER 2. and the distance d.clear Clear the graph G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph.d] = G. edges and components.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord Coordinate of node x = G. D × 1.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. PointFeature. one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u.display Display value F. See also ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.char Convert to string s = F.

ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.match Match point features m = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char PointFeature. where 1 is perfect match.CHAPTER 2.match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.C] = F.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2. the norm of the Euclidean distance. [m.

F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot Plot feature F.CHAPTER 2. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

Polygon. Polygon. http://puddle.char String representation s = P.html and require a licence. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. difference.edu.area() is the area of the polygon. union.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. so use with care.area Area of polygon a = P.mit. HEIGHT]. intersection.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. p = Polygon(C. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Pankratov. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Polygon. kirill@plume.mit. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one column per vertex.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.

Polygon.char Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. returns coordinates of P. See also Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.display Display polygon P. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). else 0. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.CHAPTER 2.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.difference Difference of polygons d = P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.

moments(p. each column is [x y]’.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P.CHAPTER 2. y1 y2].perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns empty polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.

• If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot Plot polygon P. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.union Union of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot() plot the polygon. Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon. P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.CHAPTER 2.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.

intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.char Convert to string s = R. See also Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.CHAPTER 2. [x. Ray3D. one per element.char Ray3D. Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [x.display Display value R.E] = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.E] = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.

horizontal coordinate centroid. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.c. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.b. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.0) 1 for a circle.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.

char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature. one per element. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.char Convert to string s = R.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. For example R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.xmax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. RegionFeature. ymin.uc will be a list not a vector.box Return bounding box b = R. See also iblobs. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.CHAPTER 2.th] = R. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature. ymax]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot Plot centroid R. R.plot boundary plot boundary R.char RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.and xmarkers.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box Plot bounding box R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. RegionFeature.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

v. f = ScalePointFeature(u.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. C ‘alpha’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 1=opaque. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. v.plot scale(options. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. See also PointFeature.

The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. C. options) is a new tracker object. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. See also PointFeature Tracker. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. T ‘movie’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘radius’. N ‘thresh’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. R ‘nslots’. one per active track.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. See also Tracker.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Convert to string s = T.char Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Tracker.

otherwise the result is not predictable. AxisWebCamera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. and their characteristics is displayed. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.CHAPTER 2.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Movie Video. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].

close Close the image source V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char Convert to string V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab() acquires an image from the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the camera. Video.

color. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. right. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. By default the left image is red.CHAPTER 2. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. If th1 is a column vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). the ﬁrst for left. the second for right. a = anaglyph(left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. if negative it is reduced. right. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the right image is cyan.

Endpoints must be integer. p2) as above but p1=[x1.y1) to (x2. x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. [x. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. y1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.y1] and p2=[x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.y2).boundary. % emission of sun plot(l. If lambda is a column vector. 6500). See also RegionFeature. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. p = bresenham(p1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y2]. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.s] = boundmatch(R1.

CHAPTER 2. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. [C.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Y. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.

k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). [k. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.d1] = closest(a.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘n’. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. x = circle(C. k = closest(a. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. that is. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and x is N × 3. green and blue primaries respectively. R.

E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.5.ioo.ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. 335 of Table 1(5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).5. and 22500 (444.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.5. while Table I(5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. they were measured directly.5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.d1. As noted in footnote a on p. • From Table I(5.16).d2] = closest(a.32). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. (Table 1(5.ac. since. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. 19000 (526.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.M). E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ac.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. out = col2im(pix. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.uk See also cmfrgb. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.ioo. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . imsize is a 2-vector (N.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.

color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.CHAPTER 2. @isnan. out = colorize(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.C] = colorkmeans(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. eg. See also imono. im<100.B). The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. mask.G. [L. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. func. icolor. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. @isnan. k. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.

C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. name = colorname(XYZ. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.C.CHAPTER 2. eg. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. L = colorkmeans(im. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. low is good. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space.R] = colorkmeans(im. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. XYZ = colorname(name. k) as above but also returns the residual R.

• Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colorspace(s. i1. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. or alternatively. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. • Color space names are case insensitive.o2. Input and output images have 3 planes. [o1. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. double data is the natural choice. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. s = ‘src->dest’. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.o3] = colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. it can be omitted. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.CHAPTER 2. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.txt. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. As MATLAB’s native datatype.i2.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. s = ‘dest<-src’.

J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. for memory and computational performance.200).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If im is an M × 3 array. d = distance(A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.B). out will also have size M × 3. B = rand(400. However.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Example A = rand(400.100).CHAPTER 2. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.2*A. like a colormap. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.

2 and Solaris Matlab v5. non zero is counter-clockwise. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. University of Amsterdam. not image frame. Tested: PC Matlab v5. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tel. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.uva. seed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. non-zero is an object. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. in matrix coordinate frame.3. E = edgelist(im. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.y). bunschot@wins. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. The result E is a matrix. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.CHAPTER 2.(+31)20-5257524.j).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by.S. one per line drawn. 1998. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also fmatrix. epiline(f. p. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.CHAPTER 2. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. See also epiline. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Coimbra. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. I.R. H = epiline(f.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p1. Oct 27. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2.

‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • Contains a RANSAC driver. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac(). no outlier rejection is performed. it is singular. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im.au/. that is. http://www. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views.csse. that is.CHAPTER 2. homography. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. • f is a rank 2 matrix. p2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.edu. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. c. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.uwa. page 270. The University of Western Australia. See also ransac. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. epiline. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.

CHAPTER 2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y1.y1) and (x2.y2). See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). itriplepoint. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. See also imorph. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. x2.

• The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. invhomog. See also ransac.edu. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.CHAPTER 2. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. Notes • The points must be corresponding. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia.csse. which means it can be passed to ransac(). fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. no outlier rejection is performed.au/. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.uwa.

options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. itrim.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. R ‘scale’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. im.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. D ‘size’. S ‘dimension’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. [out. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. V ‘roi’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. See also homography.offs] = homwarp(H. ie. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. S output image contains all the warped pixels. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also e2h. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. that is tp=T*T1.

features. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. 200). Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. ’nfeat’. ’gs’). % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. IRE Trans. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects.CHAPTER 2. 179-187. Hu. features. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. ianimate(seq. 1962. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. on Information Theory. IT-8:pp. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ianimate(im.

iblobs features f = iblobs(im. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. isurf. M ‘npoints’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. iharris.CHAPTER 2. YMIN YMAX]. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). N ‘only’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.

minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. default 1. ilabel. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. A set pixel aspect ratio. horizontal coordinate centroid.0 ‘connect’.0) 1 for a circle. C set connectivity. [S1. [A1.

1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also isobel. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. This is an dilation followed by erosion. T ‘th1’. 1996-7. See also iopen. S ‘th0’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. Tel Aviv University. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.

Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The images do not have to be of the same size. Options ‘dir’.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. [0 1 1]). C = icolor(im. iconcat(im. D ‘bgval’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. colorize.u] = iconcat(im. See also imono.CHAPTER 2. [C.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).

options) convolves im1 with im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.CHAPTER 2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.

The vector has zero mean and unit norm. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . K ‘patch’. CT ‘edgegap’. CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘sigma’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. N ‘detector’. E ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). D ‘k’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. R ‘nfeat’. S ‘deriv’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest.

where * denotes squared and smoothed.. 1988. p2. • “Finding corners”. vol. J. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. 1994.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.5 [sec]. Proc. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Proc. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. [T. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. T ‘distthresh’. Harris and M. p2. Shi and C.Noble. with a delay of d [sec]. Tomasi. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.121-128.CHAPTER 2. Stephens. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. C.G. pp 147-151.6. J. See also PointFeature. T ‘maxiter’. IEEE Computer Society. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. with a delay of 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.J.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Image and Vision Computing. 593-593.d] = icp(p1. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Options ‘dplot’. N ‘mindelta’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. • “Good features to track”. May 1988. pp. Manchester. pp.

m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. See also iscale. vol. s = idecimate(im. no. P. Intell. s = idecimate(im.or 3-dimensional.. pp. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Mach. Feb. 1992.CHAPTER 2.McKay. 239-256. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m.Besl and H. 2. IEEETrans. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Pattern Anal. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. each plane is decimated. m. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. 14. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.

highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. negative is red. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. zero is white color map: random values. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. darker than ‘grey’.CHAPTER 2.and y-axes respectively. zero is black. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. If im is a cell array of images. positive is blue. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. Options ‘ncolors’. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. linear proﬁle. XY ‘colormap’. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. positive is blue. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). negative is red. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. C ‘xydata’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. histogram and zooming. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white. If the image is zoomed.

CHAPTER 2. icolorize. labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. See also image. labelimage. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. caxis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labels. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisplabel(im. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. colormap. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. See also iblobs. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also itriplepoint.2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. out = igamma(im.45. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.

pp. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 1500. Journal on Computer Vision. See also ithresh. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. k. k is the scale parameter. [L. min.5). vol. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 59. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.5). idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Example im = iread(’58060. 2004. Felzenszwalb and D. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 2006. Int. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.CHAPTER 2. Huttenlocher. min. 100. 167181. 0. L = igraphseg(im. [l.jpg’). Sept. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = igraphseg(im.m] = igraphseg(im. k. k.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.CHAPTER 2. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.h).x] = ihist(im. [h. H = ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. [H.x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. ’normcdf’). options) displays the image histogram.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. plot(x. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bar(x.

for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. y2.m.y2). y1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.y1) and bottom-right (x2.CHAPTER 2. [L. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. x1. [L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. ii is a precomputed integral image. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. same size as im. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.

out = iline(im.parents.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. • This is a “low level” function. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p2. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.maxlabel.maxlabel. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.CHAPTER 2. ilabel(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The pixels on the line are set to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.Y]. [L. p1. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. 8). ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. otherwise it does not. iproﬁle. each a 2-vector [X. p1.class. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.parents. See also iblobs. eg.

im2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. ymax] relative to (x. H. • Is a MEX ﬁle. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. w2.CC] where (DX. s] % relative to (x. x. x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y). • im1 and im2 must be the same size. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The template in im1 is centred at (x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. a perfect match score is 1.DY) are the x. • ZNCC matching is used. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. y. -s.score] = imatch(im1. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.and y-offsets relative to (x. xmax. ymin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). im2.y) and its half-width is H. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. The return value is xm=[DX. [xm.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. centred at (x.y) and of size s.CHAPTER 2.DY. s.y). and columns the vertical position. y.

effectively a greyscale image. [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.CHAPTER 2. effectively a binary image. All pixels are equally weighted. The element u(v. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.v] = imeshgrid(w. [u.u) = u and v(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. f = imoments(u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. f = imoments(u.u) = v.

m10. horizontal coordinate centroid. the elements are m00. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. icolor. Different conversion functions are supported. or its area.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m20. m01. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m02. m11. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ilabel. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. • This function does not perform connectivity. See also RegionFeature.

761767. ’double’).org). idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Chum. options) as above but m is the number of regions found.m] = imser(im. and T. Pajdla. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. [label. Urban. O. The labels [L. se. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Matas. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. pp. J.m] = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing.CHAPTER 2. ’grey’. 22. m. 2004. Sept. ’light’). options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.png’.

CHAPTER 2. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).ˆ2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also iclose. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. sides. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. n. out = iopen(im. sides. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. se. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v.

255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 10. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ’tblr’. ’t’. p. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. im1. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.CHAPTER 2. otherwise im2 is selected. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. 20. im2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.V]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

uv] = iproﬁle(im. [p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.CHAPTER 2. p1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. See also bresenham.v) for the corresponding row of p. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op. se(2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hence output image had reduced dimensions. 1. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.3). n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma.5)). edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled.2) = 0.CHAPTER 2. se). nbins. 12. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. the maximum. im > irank(im. order. se. op. out = ipyramid(im. sigma. out = imorph(image. ones(5. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. See also iscalespace. out = imorph(image. The highest rank. idecimate. out = ipyramid(im. is order=1. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im.

• A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. vmin vmax]. G ‘reduce’. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. where R=[umin umax. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. ivar. im = iread(ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. R ‘roi’. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. See also imorph. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’.

im1. imwrite. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). m. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Color images are not supported.h2] = irectify(f. im1. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.out2. m. homwarp. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.h1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. imono. istereo. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.out2] = irectify(f. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.CHAPTER 2. igamma. [out1.

R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S ‘extrapval’.vmax].umax. [out.H] return central part of image. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. V ‘smooth’. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.vmin vmax]. angle.CHAPTER 2. vmin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. See also idisp. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. Options ‘outsize’.

bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. Options ‘outsize’.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.CHAPTER 2.5 is symmetric cropping. s ‘extrapval’. bias<0.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. while bias>0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. bias=0. s>1 makes the image larger. im2. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s<1 makes it smaller. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. V ‘smooth’.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. out = isamesize(im1.

n. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). See also iscalespace. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. [g. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.s] = iscalespace(im. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. in space and scale. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. idecimate. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). corresponding to each step of the sequence. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.L. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.s] = iscalespace(im.L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. n) as above but sigma=1. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.

options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ismooth. that is. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. else false (0). ishomog(T.CHAPTER 2. See also isrot. ilaplace. ‘valid’) as above. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. it its third dimension is equal to three.

isurf.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. International Journal of Computer Vision. 2 (2004).CHAPTER 2. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. N ‘suppress’. • Features are returned in descending strength order. 60.vlfeat. See also SiftPointFeature. Lowe. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. 91-110. Reference David G. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. pp.

@ncc. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. and these output pixels are set to NaN. s = isimilarity(T. @zssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @zsad. @ssd. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zsad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one.H.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. See also imatch. im.CHAPTER 2. zssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. s is same size as im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. ncc.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. [w. ssd. sad.

• Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. [gx. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. See also iconv.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.gy] = isobel(im. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. then converted back to integer. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. convolved. [gx.

options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). ‘valid’) as above. range.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ishomog. imr. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. imr. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.M] for an N × M window.CHAPTER 2. w. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. That is. range is the disparity search range. icanny. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. range. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.sim] = istereo(iml. H. isrot(R. the disparity d=d(v. See also ksobel.u) means that imr(v. [d. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. else false (0). iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. H is the half size of the matching window.u).

In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. imr.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. 3) See also irectify. [d.dsi] = istereo(iml. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.sim. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.CHAPTER 2. range. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. dx. [d.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. B. p. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.5).A and p. imr.5 to +0. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).sim. • sim = max(dsi. range.p] = istereo(iml. ‘ncc’.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. w. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. out = istretch(im. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. That is. Options ‘metric’.

N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. N ‘thresh’. Notes • Color images. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. or sequences. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Kroon (U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im.CHAPTER 2. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. T ‘octaves’. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.

itriplepoint. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. No. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 3. See also ishomog. out = ithin(im. Otherwise false (0). 346–359. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. else false (0). pp. Vol. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. isvec(v. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. either a row. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. isift. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 110.or columnvector. See also hitormiss. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Luc Van Gool.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Andreas Ess. Tinne Tuytelaars.

CHAPTER 2. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.out2] = itrim(im1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. ithresh(im.out2] = itrim(im1. The same cropping is applied to each input image. [out1.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.im2.5. Notes • Greyscale image only. The default is 0. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. a lower value will include more. See also homwarp. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.

ithin.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. se. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. se. op. See also iendpoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled.

Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. func.CHAPTER 2.3). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. ones(5. out = iwindow(image. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. See also ivar. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. @max). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5). se. @std). hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. se. ones(3.

Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. • The vertical derivative. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. is k’. k = kcircle(R. ktriangle. klog. See also ones.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dx.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. k = kdgauss(sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . dG/dy. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. kdog.

klog. sigma2. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kgauss(sigma. By default SIGMA2 = 1. klog. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.6*sigma1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. See also kgauss. See also kdgauss. kdog.CHAPTER 2. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . kdgauss.

iconv. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdgauss. kdog. k = klog(sigma.CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also kgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. k. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. it is assumed to have been completed previously. [L. L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension. k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.CHAPTER 2. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Pattern Recognition Principles. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.C] = kmeans(x. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. [x. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.z] = mkcube(s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. symmetric about the origin. The points are the columns of p. C ‘T’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. Options ‘T’. [x. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.z] = mkcube(s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. ‘edge’.y.y. See also cylinder.

p. n. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.2)). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.CHAPTER 2. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. MPLOT(t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.xp . upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. the sum of I(x.2)).y). n) MPLOT(y. or y(:. npq. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. or y(:. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. That is. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.yq . See also mpq poly. y. y) MPLOT(t. n) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.

See also mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. they are considered to be a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. p. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. so centroids will be still be correct.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. W. Prentice-Hall. 20). for example. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. sad. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.m. -0. See also zncc. idisp(im >= t). isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im. k. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. 1986. ssd.CHAPTER 2. niblack. the height of a character. • A common choice of k=-0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. where W=2*w2+1.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing.s] = niblack(im. in text segmentation. Example t = niblack(im.2. [T. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.

CHAPTER 2. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. That is UPQ(im. p.p.0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0). q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. mpq.q)/MPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. p. See also npq poly. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

they are considered as a single vertex. mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq. See also mpq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq.CHAPTER 2. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m.

T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. x.i] = peak(y. [yp. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t). [yp. otsu IEEE Trans.CHAPTER 2. Jan 1979. N. Systems.xp] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). pp 62-66 See also niblack. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.

N ‘scale’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.S points. S ‘interp’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. Typically choose N to be odd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S points. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.CHAPTER 2.ij] = peak2(z. use peak2(-V). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak(-V). N ‘scale’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. [zp.

CHAPTER 2. See also pnmﬁlt. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. plot2(p. ie. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p can be N × 2 or N × 3. If p has three dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak.

options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.y1) and (x2. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. R. r. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. plot_circle(c. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.CHAPTER 2. Examples plot_circle(c.y1. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ‘r’. PLOT BOX(’centre’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. plot_circle(c. r. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. or a set of name.y2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’g’. W. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. 1=solid. ’LineWidth’. x2. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. PLOT BOX(x1. ’r’). 5). ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. r. ’edgecolor’. ‘size’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. P. P. W. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. value pairs that are passed to plot.y2. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’fillcolor’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ’b’).

Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. xc. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.Y]. Options ‘color’. ls) ls is the standard line styles.CHAPTER 2. with Matlab line style ls. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.Y. centred at the origin. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. c Specify color of the axes. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. current plot. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. C. If C=[X.

size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. fmt. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. to ‘view’. ‘framename’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’color’. trplot( T. ‘printf’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’r’). Options ‘textcolor’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ’name’. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’r’. n ‘text opts’.CHAPTER 2. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’color’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate.X = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’.

C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R. either a letter or 3-vector. See also plot. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. patch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . NOTES • The sphere is always added. The default is 1. R. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. R. color. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p.CHAPTER 2. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. 1=solid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot.

See also plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.CHAPTER 2. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gt] = radgrad(im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.

x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. [m. N ‘maxDataTrials’. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. [m. T. d) as above but elements increment by d.in. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. T.in] = ransac(func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set.resid] = ransac(func. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. T. one column per point pair. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘maxTrials’. x. x typically contains corresponding point data.

theta to the points R.C.A. If multiple models are found out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.s sample size (1 × 1) out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. Fishler and R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .misc element.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. References • m. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.theta] = ERR(R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. No 6.CHAPTER 2.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.out.inlier.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta and the subset of R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. Boles. Cambridge University Press. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.x. Comp. they detect a structure argument.x data to work on.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x = CONDITION(R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. pp 381-395.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta is a cell array. Comm.theta. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. [out. that is they will produce a model. that is.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.theta = [].x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.resid] = EST(R. Assoc.theta = DECONDITION(R. Vol 24.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.s out.x.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.. pp 101-113.x) condition the point data out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta. [out.out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.R.x and returns the best model out.misc private data (cell array) out. Mach.

csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.edu.CHAPTER 2. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uwa. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix.

angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. See also rotx. See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. roty. See also roty. rotz.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

yaw. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. See also tr2rpy. Z axes respectively. Y. • many texts (Paul. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. pitch. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. If roll.

isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. y. See also zsad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. r2t. theta) as above where xy=[x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ncc.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. and rotation theta in the plane. ssd.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.

ncc. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.CHAPTER 2. See also zsdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

boolean or enumeration types (string or int). tr2rt. opt. opt. then R is 2 × 2. ’other’}. b.blah = []. It supports options that have an assigned value. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. c. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt. then R is 3 × 3.CHAPTER 2.choose = {’this’.foo = true. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. The software pattern is: function(a. opt. ’that’.bar = false. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. – If T is 3 × 3. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.

3 ‘blah’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.verbose <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. varargin). If neither of ‘this’.false ‘blah’. w.y ‘that’ sets opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). 3 sets opt. N ‘setopt’.select = {’#no’. opt = tb_optparse(opt. varargin).1.debug <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.CHAPTER 2.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. args) creates a test pattern image.x.blah <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.select <.‘this’.true sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.y sets opt. x. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.choose <.choose <. ’#yes’}. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.foo <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.N sets opt <. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .blah <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.foo <.select <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.

args are pitch (distance between centres). See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sf. sf. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. 2). The trajectory s. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 256. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . square side length. binary square pattern. sd and sdd are n-vectors.CHAPTER 2. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial.sd. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. dot diameter. 256. binary dot pattern. args is the number of cycles. 50.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args are theta (rad). args is the number of cycles. intercept. args is the number of cycles. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. a line. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.sd. args is the number of cycles. 25).

v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.P. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Y. The 3 angles rpy=[R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y and Z axes respectively. [theta. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. See also angvec2r. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).

See also rt2tr. – If TR is 3 × 3. r2t. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ie.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.:. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.z]. If T has three dimensions. • The validity of R is not checked.CHAPTER 2. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. y. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. See also rpy2tr.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.y.

o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). An historical anomaly. [c1. each N × 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [o1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). or x and y. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).

trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . troty.

trprint T is the command line form of above. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. f ‘label’.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and displays in RPY format. trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

y0) is the centroid. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(x-x0)p . See also upq poly. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. p.y). the sum of I(x.(y-y0)q where (x0.CHAPTER 2. tr2rpy. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. mpq.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ncc. ssd. See also ncc. See also sad. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

CHAPTER 2. See also sdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ncc. sad.

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