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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is extravagant on storage. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. and I commend it to you. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. However the book “Robotics. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . 2 . Ray3D . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . 1. . . .2 Support . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . ibbox . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . isimilarity . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . R . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . plot box . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . rluminos . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . mkgrid . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . peak . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . trprint . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . .

com. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .google.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. You need to signup in order to post. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. and you will be suitably acknowledged. lecturers and professors are paid to do. That’s what you your teachers. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. tutors.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.

Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.gz) or zip format (.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1. Volume = {12}. Number = {4}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.petercorke.html on a server for class use. the table of content to functions. 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Year = {2005}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. The ﬁle robot. The details are @article{Corke05f. Author = {P. Month = nov. Corke}.zip). 1. and the “See also” functions to each other.I.1. type of organization and application.3. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.

org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Twente. and there are hundreds of modules available. 1994 University of British Columbia. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.mathworks. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.I.1.R. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.6.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.7 Acknowledgements Last. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. 1. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. but not least.. P. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. Vincent Lepetit. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. Corke.7.vlfeat.Functions such as SURF. 1. pp 16–25. 12(4). INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. VLFeat http://www. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. Coimbra.S. November 2005. MSER.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Camera.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. N ‘image’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. S ‘noise’. T ‘color’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. used by all subclasses. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. SIGMA ‘pose’. Options ‘name’. N ‘sensor’.

SphericalCamera Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.display Display value C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.clf Clear the image plane C.delete Camera object destructor C. CatadioptricCamera. Camera.centre Get camera position p = C.char Convert to string s = C.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera.

and off if H is false (or 0).u + b.CHAPTER 2. Camera.v + c = 0.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise false (0).line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.char Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. C.

mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Options ‘Tobj’. sphere. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. cylinder. Camera. uv = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Camera.plot.clf Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. y.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). mkcube.mesh(x.plot Plot points on image plane C. See also mesh.plot(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Camera. Camera. T ‘Tcam’.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. z to the image plane and plots them.T.hold. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. z. The matrices x. y. y.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold. ‘fps’. ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. T ‘scale’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.mesh. Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera. Options ‘Tcam’. T See also Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.T. ‘Tcam’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.clf Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Overrides the current camera pose C.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. C.y]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy Set camera attitude C. that is.CHAPTER 2. The image is not inverted. a subclass of Camera. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.p.rpy(R. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C Camera matrix C = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

S ‘noise’. F ‘distortion’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. S. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. E = C.Soatto.Kosecka. D ‘default’ ‘image’. Springer. 10um pixels. f=8mm. T ‘color’. 2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. “An invitation to 3D”. P ‘pixel’. CentralCamera. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.and y-axes respectively.F.and v-axes parallel to x. ﬁsheyecamera. E = C. S.CHAPTER 2. S ‘centre’. IM ‘resolution’.Sastry. p. J. camera at origin. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. N ‘sensor’. SIGMA ‘pose’.E Essential matrix E = C.177 See also CentralCamera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. optical axis is z-axis. CatadioptricCamera.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .8]) See also Camera. Reference Y.Ma. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. u.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). N ‘focal’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.

Sastry. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. “An invitation to 3D”.Soatto.177 See also CentralCamera.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H(T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003.H Homography matrix H = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Springer. J. F = C. p. from two viewpoints. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. S.F Fundamental matrix F = C.E CentralCamera. n. S. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.CHAPTER 2.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).Kosecka. See also CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. Reference Y.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Ma.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.

CentralCamera. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Int. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. vol. 2009. pp. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Moreno-Noguer.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. See also quiver CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .estpose(xyz.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. V. F. 155-166. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 81. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Lepetit.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. a = C.CHAPTER 2. Journal on Computer Vision.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. and P. Feb. Fua. CentralCamera.

p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. Chap 9. Springer. Reference Y.Ma. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). p116. J. 2003.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. “Multiview Geometry”. Springer.Sastry.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.E CentralCamera.Kosecka. p. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. J. s.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Kosecka. 2003.Soatto. See also CentralCamera. s.invE(E. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. “An invitation to 3D”.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.CHAPTER 2.Soatto.Sastry. s. translation not to scale • n. 259 Y. section 5.

‘Tobj’. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.project(p. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. one per line.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.T. See also Hough CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. H = C.plot epiline(f. CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot epiline(f. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. ‘Tcam’.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. C.

Rives. “Multiview Geometry”. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac e(E.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. See also Camera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.plot CentralCamera.c. Reference B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. pp.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Espiau. vol. Chaumette. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. and P.b. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 313-326. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .CHAPTER 2. June 1992.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 8. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.

The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. CentralCamera. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. pp. Hager & Corke.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p. CentralCamera. F. 1996. R&A.visjac p(uv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Reference B. 313-326. 8.visjac p polar. Espiau. June 1992. See also CentralCamera.visjac p.CHAPTER 2.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac l(L.visjac p polar. pp 651-670. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.visjac l CentralCamera. Oct. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Rives.c. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. and P. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Vol 12(5). Chaumette. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.b. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac e CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. vol. CentralCamera. Hutchinson.

The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2. 5962-5967. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. in Proc. and F. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Spindler. F. Int. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. pp. CentralCamera.visjac p. (St. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Oct. Corke.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac l.visjac l. P. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. 2009. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Chaumette. CentralCamera. I. Louis). CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac p polar(rt. radius and theta. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.

See README. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. pp. vol. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Lowe.CHAPTER 2. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.91-110. D.60. Nov. Int. ScalePointFeature. See also isift. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. 2004. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.SIFT.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. PointFeature. Journal on Computer Vision.

f = PointFeature(u.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. See also isift SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.match(f2.plot scale Plot feature scale F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. F. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque. SiftPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SIFT point features m = F. 0=transparent (default 0.

support(im.support(im.support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.T] = F. out = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.CHAPTER 2. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) as above but the support region is displayed.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

N ‘pixel’. Options ‘Tobj’.T. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.project(p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. S ‘pose’. Options ‘name’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also SphericalCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ﬁsheyecamera.

depth of points to use for Jacobian. image plane size and desired feature locations.01) . The external view.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.5) target center . The camera view. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.CHAPTER 2. camera pose.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.center of the target in world coords (0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. error. scalar for If null take actual value all points. of 4-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.gain. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. defaults in parentheses: target size .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera view.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error norm. Jacobian condition number.the side length of the target in world units (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Jacobian condition number. pp. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. error norm. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Robotics and Automation.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. May 3-7 2010. camera pose. CentralCamera. scalar for If null take actual value all points. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.depth of points to use for Jacobian.0. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. IEEE Int. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. in Proc.visjac p(pt.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . image plane size and desired feature locations.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . defaults in parentheses: target size .the side length of the target in world units (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera. (Anchorage). Conf. Corke.visjac l.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . I. 5550-5555.gain.01) . error.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5) target center . P. for all points. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. of 4-vector. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. The external view.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.center of the target in world coords (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .

Luc Van Gool. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. pp.CHAPTER 2. No.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 3. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 110. Andreas Ess. Tinne Tuytelaars. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 346–359.

match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. [m. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].match(f2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match Match SURF point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.C] = F. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. ScalePointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature.

extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(im.T] = F. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. [out. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) SurfPointFeature. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support Support region of feature out = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. F.CHAPTER 2. 0=transparent (default 0. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale Plot feature scale F. out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im.plot scale(options.support(images.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.

S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.CHAPTER 2. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Video AxisWebCamera.com) web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S ‘resolution’.axis. otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com). options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

See also AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.close() closes the connection to the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.display AxisWebCamera.

k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b = BagOfWords(f. in Proc.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1470-1477. Conf. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.org). 2003. f can also be a cell array.Zisserman. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Oct. Ninth IEEE Int. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.Sivic and A. on Computer Vision.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.

options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.display Display value B.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char Convert to string s = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .contains Find images containing word k = B. isurf BagOfWords.exemplars(w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. images.CHAPTER 2. See also BagOfWords.char BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. N ‘maxperimage’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.n] = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. BagOfWords.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. M ‘width’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords.

subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

A ‘resolution’. ‘equisolid’. N ‘focal’.and v-axes parallel to x. K ‘maxangle’. T ‘Tcam’. ‘sine’. Options ‘Tobj’. ﬁsheyecamera. See also Camera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. u. P ‘pixel’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. camera at origin.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. 10um pixels.project(p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. optical axis is z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. S ‘centre’. N ‘sensor’.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. CatadioptricCamera. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S ‘noise’. See also Camera.T. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. M ‘k’.and y-axes respectively. SIGMA ‘pose’. f=8mm. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.

Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. See also PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. such as ScalePointFeature.

See also PointFeature. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char Convert to string s = M. FeatureMatch.display Display value M. SurfPointFeature.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. one per element. f2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.

Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.ransac FeatureMatch.v1.outlier.u2.v2].CHAPTER 2. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.

plot() M. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.CHAPTER 2.p1.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. for example by: idisp({im1.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.im2}) m.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.FeatureMatch.p1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p2.p2 FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.

ransac Apply RANSAC M. Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac( @fmatrix. 1e-4). ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. homography. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). See also idisp FeatureMatch. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.match(f2). m = f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. f2 = isurf(im2). See also fmatrix.ransac(func.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.

X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted. Y This camera model assumes central projection. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. that is. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.CHAPTER 2.

Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). optical axis is z-axis. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. P ‘pixel’.and y. N ‘sensor’.and v-axes are parallel to x. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘sine’. camera at origin.CHAPTER 2. S ‘centre’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘default’ ‘projection’. M ‘k’. u. f=8mm.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. K ‘resolution’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Options ‘name’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. S ‘noise’.axes respectively. SIGMA ‘pose’. 10um pixels.

SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.project(p. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also FishEyeCamera.CHAPTER 2. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CatadioptricCamera.

and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.0) and the line. A horizontal line has theta = 0. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.H). The voting array is 2-dimensional. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.CHAPTER 2. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. See also LineFeature Hough.

N All edge pixels have equal weight. Hough. Nrho]. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.5) Set ht. Hough. T ‘edgethresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.char Convert to string s = HT.houghThresh (default 0.edgeThresh (default 0.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Default 400 × 401. W ‘houghthresh’. Set ht. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.display Display value HT. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.edgeThresh.CHAPTER 2.1). if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. T ‘suppress’. else N = [Ntheta. See also Hough.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . W ‘nbins’.

plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.CHAPTER 2.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. The highest peak is found.lines Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. LineFeature Hough. HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision. L = HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. H = HT.plot Plot line features HT. then all elements in an HT. The process is repeated for all peaks. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. HT.plot.plot(n.lines Find lines L = HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.

LineFeature. theta. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(rho. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho.display Display value L. See also LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. theta. strength. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned.char Convert to string s = L. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot() overlay the line on current plot.plot Plot line L. less than gap pixels are tolerated.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. Small gaps. l2 = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. L.points Return points on line segments p = L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. See also icanny LineFeature.seglength(edge. l2 = L.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.close Close the image source M. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Movie. G ‘scale’.axis.com).char Convert to string M. S ‘skip’.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.

grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. planar. F Skip frames.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. S ‘frame’. undirected graph create an n-d. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. Options ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.

distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distance(v1.connectivity() g.cost(e) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.coord(v) g.component(v) g.add edge(v1. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.clear() add vertex.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. v) g.add node(coord) g. Object properties (read/write) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.next(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.edges(e) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. v2) g.path(v) set goal vertex.goal(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.plot() g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.neighbours(v) g.CHAPTER 2.add node(coord.

add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add node(x. and returns the edge id E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. and returns the node id v. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. where x is D × 1.add edge(v1. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v2. PGraph. v.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v = G. E = G. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. PGraph.CHAPTER 2.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add edge(v1. v = G.add node(x. Options ‘distance’. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.

d] = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. edges and components.coord Coordinate of node x = G.CHAPTER 2.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. [v. of node id v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph. PGraph.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the distance d. D × 1.clear Clear the graph G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. v. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value F.char Convert to string s = F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also ScalePointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. PointFeature. SurfPointFeature.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match Match point features m = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. the norm of the Euclidean distance.char PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’.C] = F. PointFeature. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. where 1 is perfect match.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.CHAPTER 2.

plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot Plot feature F. F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). Polygon .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. HEIGHT].centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Polygon. Polygon. http://puddle.mit. Polygon.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. so use with care.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.CHAPTER 2. union.area() is the area of the polygon. intersection. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kirill@plume. Pankratov.edu.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. one column per vertex.html and require a licence.char String representation s = P. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. p = Polygon(C.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P. difference.

• If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Polygon. Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.display Display polygon P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). See also Polygon.CHAPTER 2.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.char Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. else 0. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. returns coordinates of P.difference Difference of polygons d = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.

intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. See also mpq poly Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.CHAPTER 2. each column is [x y]’. returns empty polygon. Polygon.moments(p.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Polygon. y1 y2]. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.

returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot polygon P. P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union Union of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.

intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.char Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.display Display value R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. [x. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.E] = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. [x. Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.E] = R.CHAPTER 2. one per element.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char Convert to string s = R. See also Ray3D. Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.

corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.b. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.CHAPTER 2.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.c. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box.

box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. imoments RegionFeature. ymax]. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. For example R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.char Convert to string s = R.xmax. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymin.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. RegionFeature. See also iblobs.uc will be a list not a vector.th] = R. one per element.box Return bounding box b = R. RegionFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.

and xmarkers. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot Plot centroid R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.char RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary plot boundary R. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display Display value R. RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.

plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. RegionFeature. R.

v.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. C ‘alpha’. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SurfPointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque. strength.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. F.CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also PointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. T ‘movie’. R ‘nslots’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. options) is a new tracker object. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. N ‘thresh’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Options ‘radius’. See also PointFeature Tracker. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. C.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per active track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.

CHAPTER 2. See also Tracker.display Display value T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Convert to string s = T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Tracker.

Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. AxisWebCamera. otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2. Movie Video.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. S ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. G ‘scale’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. and their characteristics is displayed. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.

Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.char Convert to string V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the camera.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.

color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. if negative it is reduced. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. a = anaglyph(left. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. color. right. the ﬁrst for left. right. the second for right. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. By default the left image is red. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If th1 is a column vector. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and the right image is cyan.CHAPTER 2.

Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. p2) as above but p1=[x1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. p = bresenham(p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. If lambda is a column vector. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y1] and p2=[x2. 6500). xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.CHAPTER 2. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y2).y1) to (x2. Endpoints must be integer. y1. % emission of sun plot(l. See also RegionFeature. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. x2.boundary.s] = boundmatch(R1.y2]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. [x.

The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. [C.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Y.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.

Options ‘n’. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). R. that is. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. k = closest(a. R.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. x = circle(C. and x is N × 3.d1] = closest(a.CHAPTER 2. [k. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. green and blue primaries respectively. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).

5. they were measured directly. The data are referred to as pilot data. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.ioo. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.5.32).d2] = closest(a.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. • From Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.d1. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). 19000 (526. while Table I(5. since. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. and 22500 (444.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.16). (Table 1(5. 335 of Table 1(5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.CHAPTER 2.ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). As noted in footnote a on p.ac.

imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N.M). ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ac.ucl. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ioo.

rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.CHAPTER 2. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.

CHAPTER 2. out = colorize(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. [L.G. im<100. eg. See also imono. k. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. func. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. @isnan. @isnan. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mask. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im.B). icolor. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.

C. XYZ = colorname(name. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im.R] = colorkmeans(im. low is good. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ.CHAPTER 2. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. k) as above but also returns the residual R. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities.

Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. s = ‘dest<-src’. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. • Color space names are case insensitive. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. i1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. [o1.CHAPTER 2.o3] = colorspace(s. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.o2.i2. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. s = ‘src->dest’. or alternatively. double data is the natural choice. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. Input and output images have 3 planes. colorspace(s.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. it can be omitted. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.txt.

distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . • If im is an M × 3 array. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for memory and computational performance. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Example A = rand(400. like a colormap.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. d = distance(A. B = rand(400.200). out will also have size M × 3. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. However.B).2*A.100). The distance d is M × N and element d(I.CHAPTER 2.

non-zero is an object. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. seed. in matrix coordinate frame. Tested: PC Matlab v5. non zero is counter-clockwise. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y). Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. E = edgelist(im. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. bunschot@wins. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.(+31)20-5257524. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.uva. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.CHAPTER 2. University of Amsterdam.j). tel.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. The result E is a matrix. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.3. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. not image frame.

CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. H = epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. one per line drawn. See also fmatrix.S. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p. p1. epiline(f. I.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Coimbra. 1998. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. See also epiline.R. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. Oct 27.

If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma.uwa. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. http://www. The University of Western Australia. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. See also ransac. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. it is singular. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • f is a rank 2 matrix. that is. which means it can be passed to ransac(). sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. c. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). Notes • The points must be corresponding. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. page 270. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. no outlier rejection is performed. that is. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. p2.csse. • Contains a RANSAC driver. epiline.CHAPTER 2. homography.au/.edu. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views.

x2. y1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. itriplepoint. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.y2). See also imorph.y1) and (x2. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. ithin.CHAPTER 2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).

See also ransac. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.uwa. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. http://www. no outlier rejection is performed.edu. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .csse. The University of Western Australia.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. invhomog. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Notes • The points must be corresponding.

CHAPTER 2. See also homography. [out. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. S ‘dimension’. itrim. V ‘roi’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. ie. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. See also e2h. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. S output image contains all the warped pixels. im.offs] = homwarp(H. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. that is tp=T*T1. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. im. D ‘size’. R ‘scale’.

Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. 200). 179-187. IT-8:pp. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ianimate(im. 1962. features. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. IRE Trans. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Hu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. features. ianimate(seq. ’gs’). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. ’nfeat’. on Information Theory. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq).

iblobs features f = iblobs(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). YMIN YMAX]. iharris. N ‘only’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. isurf. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. M ‘npoints’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.CHAPTER 2. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX.

The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. [S1.CHAPTER 2. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.0 ‘connect’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. [A1. horizontal coordinate centroid.0) 1 for a circle. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. ilabel. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. default 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. A set pixel aspect ratio. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.

Tel Aviv University. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isobel. 1996-7. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. T ‘th1’. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. S ‘th0’. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. See also iopen. out = iclose(im.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.

The images do not have to be of the same size. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.u] = iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.CHAPTER 2. [C. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. colorize. D ‘bgval’. See also imono.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. [0 1 1]). Options ‘dir’. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. im2. options) convolves im1 with im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

S ‘deriv’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. D ‘k’. CT ‘edgegap’. E ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. R ‘nfeat’. N ‘detector’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘sigma’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. K ‘patch’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector.

6. pp.Noble. with a delay of d [sec]. Image and Vision Computing. IEEE Computer Society. J. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Options ‘dplot’. N ‘mindelta’. T ‘maxiter’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. May 1988. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. C..G. 593-593. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Tomasi. J. T ‘distthresh’. See also PointFeature.J.CHAPTER 2. Stephens. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. where * denotes squared and smoothed. p2.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. 1994. p2. with a delay of 0. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Proc. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. [T. 1988. vol. Harris and M.d] = icp(p1. Proc.5 [sec]. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.121-128. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. pp 147-151. Shi and C. • “Finding corners”. • “Good features to track”. pp. Manchester. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.

Intell. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. P. Feb. 14.CHAPTER 2..McKay. each plane is decimated. vol. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Mach. 239-256. m. m. Pattern Anal. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. no. 2. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. s = idecimate(im. s = idecimate(im. pp.Besl and H. See also iscale. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.or 3-dimensional. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. 1992. IEEETrans.

darker than ‘grey’. If the image is zoomed. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. If im is a cell array of images. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. negative is red. positive is blue.CHAPTER 2. zero is black. zero is white. histogram and zooming. linear proﬁle. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. negative is red. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. positive is blue.and y-axes respectively. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. Options ‘ncolors’. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. C ‘xydata’. zero is white color map: random values. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. XY ‘colormap’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top.

The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labelimage. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. colormap. caxis. See also image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. icolorize. idisplabel(im. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labels. labelimage. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.CHAPTER 2. See also iblobs. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.45.2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. See also itriplepoint. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.CHAPTER 2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. ithin. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.

m] = igraphseg(im. Sept. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 2004. Journal on Computer Vision. [L.5). 59. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.5).m] = igraphseg(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. k. k. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 2006. Int. L = igraphseg(im. min.jpg’). idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Example im = iread(’58060. vol. pp.CHAPTER 2. k. 0. min. 167181. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Felzenszwalb and D. See also ithresh. 1500. k is the scale parameter. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. min is the minimum region size (pixels). [l. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. 100. Huttenlocher. P.

options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. ’normcdf’). [H. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.h). plot(x.x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.CHAPTER 2.h). H = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. bar(x.x] = ihist(im). [h.

m. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. y2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. [L. y1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. x1. same size as im.y1) and bottom-right (x2. [L.y2).parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. ii is a precomputed integral image.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.

If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. p1.CHAPTER 2.parents.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.parents. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .maxlabel. The pixels on the line are set to 1. ilabel(im. p1. See also iblobs. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. • This is a “low level” function. [L.class. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. iproﬁle.maxlabel. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. out = iline(im. 8).class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. otherwise it does not. p2. each a 2-vector [X. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. eg.Y].

y). More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. centred at (x.y) and of size s.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y.DY.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. y. H. x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. and columns the vertical position. xmax. • ZNCC matching is used.y) and its half-width is H. im2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. • Is a MEX ﬁle.y). ymin. The template in im1 is centred at (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. a perfect match score is 1.and y-offsets relative to (x.CHAPTER 2. x. -s. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. The return value is xm=[DX.CC] where (DX. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. [xm. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. w2. ymax] relative to (x. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. im2. s] % relative to (x. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).DY) are the x.score] = imatch(im1.

[u. effectively a greyscale image. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.v] = imeshgrid(w. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. v. All pixels are equally weighted. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. f = imoments(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. H) as above but the domain is w × H. The element u(v. effectively a binary image. f = imoments(u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].CHAPTER 2.u) = u and v(v.u) = v.

m02. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. or its area. • This function does not perform connectivity. m10. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m01. icolor.CHAPTER 2. the elements are m00. Different conversion functions are supported. m20.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. ilabel. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. horizontal coordinate centroid. m11. See also RegionFeature. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im.

Chum.org). Image and Vision Computing. The labels [L.CHAPTER 2. vol. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Matas. ’light’). 761767. pp. Pajdla. m. O. se. Sept. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. 22. 2004. [label. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.png’. and T. ’grey’. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. J. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Urban. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.m] = imser(im. ’double’). Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.m] = imser(im.

Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.ˆ2). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.

n. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. sides. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an erosion followed by dilation.CHAPTER 2. out = iopen(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also iclose. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im1.CHAPTER 2.V]. 10. im2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ’tblr’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 20. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. p. otherwise im2 is selected. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ’t’.

uv] = iproﬁle(im. p1. See also bresenham. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p1. [p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.v) for the corresponding row of p.CHAPTER 2. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.

5)). the maximum. op. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. se. nbins. hence output image had reduced dimensions.CHAPTER 2. 1. ones(5. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. order. se). See also iscalespace.3). n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. im > irank(im. se. sigma. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se(2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2) = 0. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. is order=1. out = ipyramid(im. out = imorph(image. 12. idecimate. The highest rank. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. out = imorph(image. out = ipyramid(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. op.

ivar.CHAPTER 2. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). im = iread(ﬁle. where R=[umin umax. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin vmax]. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R ‘roi’. See also imorph. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. G ‘reduce’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).h2] = irectify(f.out2] = irectify(f. Notes • Color images are not supported. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imwrite. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.out2.h1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. imono.CHAPTER 2. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. homwarp. istereo. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. See also FeatureMatch. igamma. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. im1. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. m. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im1. m. [out1.

R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. V ‘smooth’. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmax]. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. See also idisp. angle.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.vmin vmax]. [out.H] return central part of image. vmin. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘outsize’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.CHAPTER 2.umax. S ‘extrapval’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.

s>1 makes the image larger. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.CHAPTER 2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. im2.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. out = isamesize(im1. while bias>0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias<0.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’. bias=0.5 is symmetric cropping. s ‘extrapval’. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s<1 makes it smaller.

Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.L. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).s] = iscalespace(im. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. n. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.s] = iscalespace(im. corresponding to each step of the sequence. [g. See also iscalespace. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. n) as above but sigma=1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.CHAPTER 2. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. in space and scale. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. idecimate. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.

else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ishomog(T. ‘valid’) as above. that is.CHAPTER 2. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isrot. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ismooth. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ilaplace. it its third dimension is equal to three. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im.

• Features are returned in descending strength order. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www.vlfeat. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. International Journal of Computer Vision. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 60. Lowe. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. isurf. Reference David G. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. 91-110. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. pp. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. 2 (2004). See also SiftPointFeature. N ‘suppress’.

d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. ncc. s = isimilarity(T.H. @ssd. zsad. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. zssd. and these output pixels are set to NaN. s is same size as im. See also imatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. ssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. [w. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @zssd. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. sad. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. @zsad. @ncc.

dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. then converted back to integer.gy] = isobel(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. sigma. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. convolved.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. [gx. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. [gx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. See also iconv. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.

which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.u) means that imr(v. icanny. imr. range is the disparity search range. [d. imr. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. isrot(R. That is.sim] = istereo(iml. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. See also ishomog. ‘valid’) as above. the disparity d=d(v.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. range. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. H is the half size of the matching window.CHAPTER 2.M] for an N × M window. range. w. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). See also ksobel. else false (0).u). H.

options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.A and p.dsi] = istereo(iml. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. range. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. imr. Options ‘metric’. ‘ncc’.5 to +0. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. B. out = istretch(im. w. p. dx. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.5). That is.p] = istereo(iml. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. range.sim. [d. [d. p. • sim = max(dsi.sim. imr. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. 3) See also irectify.CHAPTER 2. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).

Notes • Color images. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. or sequences. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘thresh’. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘octaves’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Kroon (U.

“SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Tinne Tuytelaars. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 3. 110. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. See also ishomog. either a row. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. isift.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. itriplepoint. pp. Andreas Ess. Otherwise false (0). Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 346–359.or columnvector. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). isvec(v.CHAPTER 2. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Luc Van Gool. See also hitormiss. Vol. No. else false (0). out = ithin(im.

im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.5. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. See also homwarp. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. ithresh(im. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.im2.CHAPTER 2. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. The default is 0. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. a lower value will include more. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The same cropping is applied to each input image. Notes • Greyscale image only.

op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. See also iendpoint. op. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im.CHAPTER 2. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin.

func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. se. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. ones(5. hence output image had reduced dimensions. out = iwindow(image. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. func. @std). @max). edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. See also ivar. ones(3.CHAPTER 2. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.3). se.5). The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.

See also ones. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. kdog.CHAPTER 2. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. k = kcircle(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. klog. dG/dx. See also kgauss. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. dG/dy. ktriangle. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. is k’. • The vertical derivative.

kdog. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. kdgauss. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. See also kdgauss. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kgauss(sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.6*sigma1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2. klog. See also kgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . k = kdog(sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. sigma2. klog.

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. iconv. kdog.CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. kdgauss. See also kgauss. k = klog(sigma. See also ilaplace.

k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. and D is the dimension. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Pattern Recognition Principles.CHAPTER 2. k. it is assumed to have been completed previously.C] = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. L = kmeans(x. [L.C] = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. [x. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. ‘edge’.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. symmetric about the origin. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.z] = mkcube(s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.z] = mkcube(s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). See also cylinder. C ‘T’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Options ‘T’. The points are the columns of p.y. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). [x.

2)). the sum of I(x.y).CHAPTER 2. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. y) MPLOT(t. n) MPLOT(t.xp . or y(:. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. npq. y. n. y.yq . That is. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(t. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. or y(:. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. p. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. n) MPLOT(y.2)). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). p. so centroids will be still be correct. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. they are considered to be a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. upq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. See also mpq. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq poly.

2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Prentice-Hall. [T. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. k. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. -0. • A common choice of k=-0. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. 1986. 20). T has the same dimensions as im. idisp(im >= t). k. W. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. See also zncc.s] = niblack(im. niblack. sad. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.CHAPTER 2. for example. in text segmentation. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. ssd. the height of a character. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. where W=2*w2+1.m. Example t = niblack(im.2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

That is UPQ(im. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.q)/MPQ(im.0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p.0).CHAPTER 2. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. mpq. See also npq poly.

mpq. upq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. they are considered as a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. See also mpq poly.CHAPTER 2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. npq.

options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. idisp(im >= t). Systems. x. N. Jan 1979. [yp. pp 62-66 See also niblack. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. otsu IEEE Trans. [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.i] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).CHAPTER 2.xp] = peak(y. Example t = otsu(im).

S points. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.S points. use peak2(-V). use peak(-V). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. [zp.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Typically choose N to be odd. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.

ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If p has three dimensions. ie. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also pnmﬁlt. plot2(p.CHAPTER 2. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im.

R. ’g’.y1.CHAPTER 2. r. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. Examples plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. or a set of name. 1=solid. x2. plot_circle(c. W. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C.y1) and (x2. P. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ’edgecolor’. value pairs that are passed to plot. r. P. 5). PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ’fillcolor’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. PLOT BOX(x1. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y2. ’LineWidth’. W. ’b’). plot_circle(c. ‘size’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. r.y2). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’r’). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ‘r’.

ls) ls is the standard line styles. C. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. Options ‘color’. c Specify color of the axes. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. with Matlab line style ls.Y]. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.CHAPTER 2. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. If C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. centred at the origin.Y. xc.

size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ‘printf’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’name’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ‘framename’.X = 0. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. to ‘view’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ’color’. ’r’). The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. Options ‘textcolor’. trplot( T. fmt. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’r’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set.CHAPTER 2. ’color’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. n ‘text opts’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate.

irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. 1=solid. patch.CHAPTER 2. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. either a letter or 3-vector. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. See also plot. The default is 1. NOTES • The sphere is always added. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. color. R.

The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plotp(p. See also plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im.CHAPTER 2. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column.

radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.

[m. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. Options ‘maxTrials’. [m. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.in. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. d) as above but elements increment by d. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. one column per point pair. T. N ‘maxDataTrials’.in] = ransac(func. T. x.resid] = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. x. T. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. x typically contains corresponding point data. x.

inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.inlier. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .misc private data (cell array) out. [out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.resid] = EST(R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. Fishler and R. Comm.theta = DECONDITION(R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta is a cell array.theta and the subset of R.CHAPTER 2. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta] = ERR(R. Mach. they detect a structure argument..valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.x data to work on.s out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . No 6.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.theta. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. pp 381-395. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.x. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. Comp. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. If multiple models are found out.x) condition the point data out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. Boles. References • m.theta to the points R.x and returns the best model out.misc element. Cambridge University Press.A.theta = [].theta.x = CONDITION(R. that is they will produce a model.out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. pp 101-113. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.x.s sample size (1 × 1) out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. [out. Vol 24.out. Assoc.C. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. that is.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.

csse. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector.au/ pk See also fmatrix.uwa.edu. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. rotz. See also roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. roty. rotz.

Z axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. • many texts (Paul. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. T = rpy2tr(roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. If roll. Y. See also tr2rpy. pitch. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. yaw. pitch.

y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. and rotation theta in the plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. theta) as above where xy=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. r2t. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsad. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. ssd.CHAPTER 2.

See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. See also zsdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Two cross-hairs are created. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. ncc.

It supports options that have an assigned value.foo = true. ’other’}. then R is 3 × 3. ’that’. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. tr2rt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. varargin) opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. – If T is 3 × 3. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. The software pattern is: function(a. c.CHAPTER 2.choose = {’this’. opt.blah = []. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). opt. then R is 2 × 2. opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b.bar = false.

CHAPTER 2. args) creates a test pattern image. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.true sets opt.y ‘that’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’.choose <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.x. N ‘setopt’. x.debug <.foo <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. w.false ‘blah’.blah <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin).select = {’#no’. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. varargin). S ‘showopt’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.y sets opt.select <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.N sets opt <.choose <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. ’#yes’}.select <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. 3 sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.1.verbose <.‘this’.foo <. If neither of ‘this’.blah <. opt = tb_optparse(opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.

binary square pattern. The trajectory s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. [s. a line.sd. args is the number of cycles. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sf. args is the number of cycles. sd and sdd are n-vectors.sdd] = tpoly(s0. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. intercept. 256. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args are theta (rad). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 25). n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args are pitch (distance between centres). 256. args is the number of cycles. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. 2). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. dot diameter. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. square side length.sd. sf.CHAPTER 2. binary dot pattern. 50. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.

X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). The 3 angles rpy=[R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y and Z axes respectively. [theta.P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. See also angvec2r.

T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.z]. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y.CHAPTER 2. If T has three dimensions. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. See also rt2tr. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. – If TR is 3 × 3. y.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. See also rpy2tr.:. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. • The validity of R is not checked.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. ie. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. r2t.

each N × 1. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). An historical anomaly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [c1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.CHAPTER 2.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. or x and y. [o1.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’.CHAPTER 2. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. and displays in RPY format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trprint T is the command line form of above. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. f ‘label’.

upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2rpy. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.y). p. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.(x-x0)p .(y-y0)q where (x0. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. mpq.y0) is the centroid.CHAPTER 2. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. See also upq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. That is. the sum of I(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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sad. ssd. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. See also sad. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. ncc. See also sdd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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