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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. is open-source. However the book “Robotics. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and I commend it to you. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This is extravagant on storage. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past.

3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . CentralCamera . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . iconv . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . hitormiss . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . istretch . iwindow . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . npq . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . numrows . ktriangle . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . zncc . trotz . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . .

I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.com.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. tutors. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and you will be suitably acknowledged. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. That’s what you your teachers.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.google. You need to signup in order to post.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Month = nov.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). The details are @article{Corke05f. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. and the “See also” functions to each other. Volume = {12}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.zip). Author = {P.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. the table of content to functions. Number = {4}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.3. 1. The ﬁle robot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. type of organization and application. 1.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. 1. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.I.petercorke.html on a server for class use.gz) or zip format (. Year = {2005}. 1.1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Corke}.

MSER. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S. Twente.7. pp 16–25. 1. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. and there are hundreds of modules available. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Corke.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.mathworks. Vincent Lepetit.R. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.7 Acknowledgements Last. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Coimbra. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. P. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. November 2005.Functions such as SURF. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. VLFeat http://www. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.6. 1994 University of British Columbia.I. but not least. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. 12(4). 1..org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.vlfeat.1.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

P ‘pixel’. N ‘sensor’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. T ‘color’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . used by all subclasses. S ‘noise’. Options ‘name’. Camera.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. N ‘image’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

centre Get camera position p = C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.display Display value C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. Camera. SphericalCamera Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). ﬁsheyecamera.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.CHAPTER 2.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.char Convert to string s = C. CatadioptricCamera.

otherwise false (0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. Camera.CHAPTER 2. and off if H is false (or 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. See also Camera.u + b.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.v + c = 0. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera. C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. cylinder. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. z.hold. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. mkcube. See also mesh.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’.plot(p.T. y. The matrices x. uv = C. Camera. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.plot. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. y.CHAPTER 2.clf Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). y.mesh(x. z to the image plane and plots them. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. sphere.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. Camera. Options ‘Tcam’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.mesh. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. ‘Tobj’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. ‘fps’. T See also Camera. ‘Tcam’.clf Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.hold.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. T ‘scale’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.T.

a subclass of Camera.rpy(R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is.rpy Set camera attitude C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. C. The image is not inverted. p.CHAPTER 2.y]. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.C Camera matrix C = C.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

SphericalCamera CentralCamera. u.Soatto. CentralCamera.Ma. 2003.8]) See also Camera. D ‘default’ ‘image’. Springer.CHAPTER 2. J.Sastry.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. P ‘pixel’. Reference Y. IM ‘resolution’.F. camera at origin. optical axis is z-axis. CatadioptricCamera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. S ‘noise’.Kosecka. p. 10um pixels.E Essential matrix E = C. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. N ‘sensor’. F ‘distortion’. E = C. f=8mm. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S.and v-axes parallel to x. S ‘centre’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).and y-axes respectively.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “An invitation to 3D”. N ‘focal’. T ‘color’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. ﬁsheyecamera. S. SIGMA ‘pose’.177 See also CentralCamera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. E = C.

F = C.H Homography matrix H = C.F Fundamental matrix F = C. J.Sastry. “An invitation to 3D”. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. n. 2003. from two viewpoints.H(T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. See also CentralCamera.E CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Reference Y. S.Kosecka.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S. p.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. Springer.Ma.Soatto.H CentralCamera.

CentralCamera. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. F. 155-166.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. and P. Feb.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. V. Lepetit. Fua. 81. a = C.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.estpose(xyz. Int. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). vol. Journal on Computer Vision. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. See also quiver CentralCamera. Moreno-Noguer. 2009.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.

invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Soatto. 2003. 2003.Ma. translation not to scale • n. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry. J. Springer. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p116.invE(E. Chap 9. s. section 5. “Multiview Geometry”.Sastry. Springer. s.Kosecka. p. s.CHAPTER 2. J.Kosecka. See also CentralCamera.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. Reference Y. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. “An invitation to 3D”.Soatto.E CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Ma. s. 259 Y.

project(p. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. one per line.CHAPTER 2. H = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.T. ‘Tcam’. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. See also Hough CentralCamera. p.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot epiline(f. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

8.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. F.visjac e(E. See also Camera. Espiau.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.plot CentralCamera. 313-326. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.CHAPTER 2. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .c.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.b. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Chaumette. “Multiview Geometry”. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Reference B. and P.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. June 1992. Rives. pp. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.

The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. IEEE Trans.b. Chaumette. June 1992. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. Espiau. 313-326.visjac p(uv. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. CentralCamera. pp 651-670.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. pp.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. vol. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 8.visjac p.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Hutchinson. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. R&A. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. and P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. F. Vol 12(5). Oct. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Rives. Reference B.visjac p.visjac l(L.visjac p polar. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.c. 1996. Hager & Corke.visjac l CentralCamera.

visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. F. and F.visjac p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in Proc.CHAPTER 2.visjac p polar(rt. 5962-5967. Int. (St. P.visjac l.visjac p polar. CentralCamera.visjac l. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Oct. radius and theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Louis). See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. pp. I. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Corke. Spindler. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. 2009. Chaumette. CentralCamera.

Lowe. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. PointFeature.91-110. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Int. See README. 2004. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.SIFT. ScalePointFeature. D.CHAPTER 2. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Nov. vol.60.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. See also isift. Journal on Computer Vision. pp. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. C ‘alpha’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale Plot feature scale F. SiftPointFeature. 1=opaque.plot scale(options. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. See also isift SiftPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support Support region of feature out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(im. out = F.T] = F.support(images.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F.CHAPTER 2. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also SphericalCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ﬁsheyecamera. Options ‘name’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Options ‘Tobj’. CentralCamera. N ‘pixel’.CHAPTER 2.T. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project(p. S ‘pose’. Overrides the current camera pose C. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.

0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.center of the target in world coords (0. Jacobian condition number. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .gain. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.the side length of the target in world units (0.5) target center . error norm.01) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. of 4-vector.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .CHAPTER 2. error. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The camera view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The external view. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. image plane size and desired feature locations. camera pose.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. defaults in parentheses: target size . The camera view. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.

IEEE Int.0.visjac l.depth of points to use for Jacobian.01) .visjac p polar. May 3-7 2010. pp. Conf.the side length of the target in world units (0. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. Jacobian condition number.gain. error.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . scalar for If null take actual value all points. CentralCamera.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .CHAPTER 2. error norm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. camera pose. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. P.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.visjac p(pt. (Anchorage). in Proc. image plane size and desired feature locations. I. See also CentralCamera.5) target center . Robotics and Automation. The external view. defaults in parentheses: target size . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. for all points. of 4-vector.center of the target in world coords (0. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. 5550-5555.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Corke.

2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. 3. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 110. Andreas Ess. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Tinne Tuytelaars. No. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Luc Van Gool. pp. 346–359. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Vol. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.

CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature.match(f2. ScalePointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. [m.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match(f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match Match SURF point features m = F.C] = F. f = PointFeature(u. v.

F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but the support region is displayed.CHAPTER 2. out = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. 1=opaque. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale Plot feature scale F.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im.support(images. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. 0=transparent (default 0. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out.T] = F. F.2) SurfPointFeature.support(im.support(images.

Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com).axis. G ‘scale’. otherwise the result is not predictable. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’.axis. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Video AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com) web camera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

char Convert to string A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.

Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Conf.Sivic and A.CHAPTER 2. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.1470-1477. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. pp. Oct. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.org). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int. 2003. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. f can also be a cell array. b = BagOfWords(f. on Computer Vision. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. in Proc.Zisserman.

char BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.exemplars display exemplars of words B. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.exemplars(w. isurf BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. See also BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. images.display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.

isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.n] = B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. N ‘maxperimage’. Options ‘ncolumns’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.isword Features from words f = B.remove stop Remove stop words B.CHAPTER 2. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. M ‘width’.

The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.CHAPTER 2.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

u. M ‘k’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. A ‘resolution’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. camera at origin.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sine’.and y-axes respectively. K ‘maxangle’. 10um pixels. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Options ‘Tobj’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.T.and v-axes parallel to x.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘focal’.project(p. S ‘centre’. ‘equisolid’.CHAPTER 2. ﬁsheyecamera. T ‘Tcam’. S ‘noise’. N ‘sensor’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also Camera. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis. f=8mm. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.

Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. such as ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.

Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. one per element. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also PointFeature. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.display Display value M.char Convert to string s = M. See also FeatureMatch. f2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. m = FeatureMatch(f1. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.

v1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.CHAPTER 2.u2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v2].ransac FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch.outlier.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.inlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p2 FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch. These are the (u. These are the (u. for example by: idisp({im1.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.plot Show corresponding points M.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p FeatureMatch.im2}) m. FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p1. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p1.plot() M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .FeatureMatch.

See also fmatrix. homography. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. m = f1.ransac(func.match(f2). 1e-4). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.ransac Apply RANSAC M.CHAPTER 2. ransac FeatureMatch. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac( @fmatrix. See also idisp FeatureMatch. m. f2 = isurf(im2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . inliers and outliers (and their percentages).

Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. that is. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. S ‘centre’. S ‘noise’. 10um pixels. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. camera at origin. f=8mm. optical axis is z-axis. P ‘pixel’.and v-axes are parallel to x.CHAPTER 2.and y. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. ‘equisolid’. K ‘resolution’. Options ‘name’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. SIGMA ‘pose’.axes respectively. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘sensor’. u. ‘sine’. M ‘k’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’.

plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CentralCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.T. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. See also FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.

For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.0) and the line. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. The voting array is 2-dimensional. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.H). Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.CHAPTER 2. A horizontal line has theta = 0. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. See also LineFeature Hough. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.

W ‘houghthresh’.edgeThresh. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value HT.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Set ht. See also Hough.1). Default 400 × 401. else N = [Ntheta. T ‘edgethresh’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.CHAPTER 2. Nrho]. W ‘nbins’. T ‘suppress’.edgeThresh (default 0. Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.char Convert to string s = HT. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.5) Set ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Hough.houghThresh (default 0.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.

ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. L = HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. HT.plot(n. HT.lines Find lines L = HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. reﬁned to subpixel precision. See also Hough. then all elements in an HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. The highest peak is found.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. H = HT.CHAPTER 2. See also Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.lines Hough.plot Plot line features HT.plot.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.

If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

LineFeature. theta.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(rho. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. LENGTH is undeﬁned. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta. strength. L = LineFeature(rho.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = L. See also LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.display Display value L.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. LineFeature.

Small gaps. l2 = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot line L.CHAPTER 2. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).seglength(edge.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. See also icanny LineFeature. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l2 = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated.points Return points on line segments p = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature.

Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.char Convert to string M.com). Movie.axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.close() closes the connection to the movie. G ‘scale’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.close Close the image source M.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘skip’. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.

and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. S ‘frame’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. F Skip frames. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.CHAPTER 2. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. Options ‘skip’.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. planar.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. undirected graph create an n-d.

component(v) g. v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return vid add edge from v1 to v2.edges(e) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.cost(e) g.goal(v) g. v2) g. Object properties (read/write) g.neighbours(v) g.clear() add vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.path(v) set goal vertex.CHAPTER 2.next(v) g.plot() g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().connectivity() g.coord(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.add edge(v1.add node(coord) g.add node(coord.distance(v1.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.

add node(x.add edge(v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge(v1. PGraph. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v. and returns the edge id E.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. where x is D × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v = G. Options ‘distance’. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.CHAPTER 2. v2. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node(x. PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. and returns the node id v.

connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. [v.d] = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph. edges and components. of node id v. and the distance d. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. D × 1.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest Find closest node v = G.CHAPTER 2. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.clear Clear the graph G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.char Convert to string s = F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. See also ScalePointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature PointFeature. v.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.display Display value F. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = F.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.match Match point features m = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. where 1 is perfect match.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.char PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. the norm of the Euclidean distance. [m.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot Plot feature F. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon .CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).

However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. http://puddle.CHAPTER 2.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.edu. Pankratov.area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. p = Polygon(C.char String representation s = P.mit. kirill@plume.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.html and require a licence. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. HEIGHT]. one column per vertex. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. union. difference.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Polygon. intersection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. so use with care.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.area Area of polygon a = P.

else 0.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. returns coordinates of P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. See also Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display Display polygon P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.

See also mpq poly Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. each column is [x y]’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon. returns empty polygon.moments(p.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Polygon. y1 y2].perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.

Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.union Union of polygons i = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.plot Plot polygon P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2.

intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.display Display value R.CHAPTER 2.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. [x. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.char Ray3D.E] = R.E] = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. See also Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. one per element. [x.

0) 1 for a circle. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.b. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.c.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. vertical coordinate bounding box.

imoments RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. ymax]. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. one per element.xmax. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .boundary Boundary in polar form [d. ymin.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.uc will be a list not a vector. For example R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.CHAPTER 2. See also iblobs. RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.char Convert to string s = R.th] = R.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.box Return bounding box b = R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.

R.CHAPTER 2.and xmarkers. It is indicated with overlaid o. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.display Display value R.char RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary plot boundary R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.

R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot box Plot bounding box R. R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.

f = ScalePointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. 1=opaque. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength. C ‘alpha’. SurfPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale Plot feature scale F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. F. 0=transparent (default 0.

R ‘nslots’. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. N ‘thresh’. Options ‘radius’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also PointFeature Tracker.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. options) is a new tracker object. T ‘movie’. C. one per active track. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.display Display value T.char Tracker. Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. See also Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.CHAPTER 2.

and their characteristics is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable. AxisWebCamera. G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Movie Video. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].

CHAPTER 2. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close Close the image source V.char Convert to string V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.

if negative it is reduced. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. right. the ﬁrst for left. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1.CHAPTER 2. By default the left image is red. and the right image is cyan. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). a = anaglyph(left. right. If th1 is a column vector. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). color. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased.

r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.y1) to (x2.boundary.CHAPTER 2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . % emission of sun plot(l. [x. p = bresenham(p1.y2]. x2. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. If lambda is a column vector. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. y1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. 6500).s] = boundmatch(R1. See also RegionFeature. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Endpoints must be integer.y1] and p2=[x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y2).

E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.CHAPTER 2. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. [C.Y. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.

N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. k = closest(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. Options ‘n’. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).d1] = closest(a. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [k. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).CHAPTER 2. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. R. x = circle(C. green and blue primaries respectively. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). that is. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. and x is N × 3.

CHAPTER 2. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.d1.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.32). (Table 1(5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.ac.ucl. since. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. while Table I(5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. 335 of Table 1(5. 19000 (526.ioo. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). As noted in footnote a on p. The data are referred to as pilot data.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they were measured directly.5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). • From Table I(5.5. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.5.d2] = closest(a.16). and 22500 (444.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.M).uk See also cmfrgb.CHAPTER 2. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ioo.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. out = col2im(pix. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .ac. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.CHAPTER 2.

k. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. @isnan. func. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. icolor. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. mask. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. See also imono. @isnan.CHAPTER 2. im<100. eg. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.C] = colorkmeans(im. out = colorize(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes.B). color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.G. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [L.

low is good. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. eg.R] = colorkmeans(im. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(XYZ. k) as above but also returns the residual R. XYZ = colorname(name. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.C. L = colorkmeans(im. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.

it can be omitted.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. i1. s = ‘src->dest’. • Color space names are case insensitive. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.i2.o3] = colorspace(s. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. double data is the natural choice.txt. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. s = ‘dest<-src’.o2. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. Input and output images have 3 planes. colorspace(s.CHAPTER 2. [o1. or alternatively.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. As MATLAB’s native datatype. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.

2*A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.100). Example A = rand(400. out will also have size M × 3.CHAPTER 2. like a colormap. for memory and computational performance. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. • If im is an M × 3 array.200). d = distance(A. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). B = rand(400. However. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.

not image frame.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. The result E is a matrix. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. E = edgelist(im. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. University of Amsterdam. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. bunschot@wins. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.uva. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.3.(+31)20-5257524. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in matrix coordinate frame. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. seed. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. non-zero is an object. Tested: PC Matlab v5. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. tel.j). non zero is counter-clockwise.CHAPTER 2.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.

I. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p1. See also epiline. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. 1998. epiline(f. p. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. p.S.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.R. See also fmatrix. Coimbra. H = epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Oct 27. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. one per line drawn. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).

epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. Notes • The points must be corresponding. homography. that is. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). • f is a rank 2 matrix. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.CHAPTER 2. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views.edu. http://www. which means it can be passed to ransac().uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. page 270. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. p2.csse. • Contains a RANSAC driver. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. c. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. epiline. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. it is singular. See also ransac. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.au/. that is. no outlier rejection is performed. The University of Western Australia.

itriplepoint. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.y1) and (x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.y2). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. ithin.CHAPTER 2. See also imorph. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.

fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.csse. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. which means it can be passed to ransac().au/. The University of Western Australia. invhomog. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. http://www. no outlier rejection is performed. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.edu. See also ransac. Notes • The points must be corresponding. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.

that is tp=T*T1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.CHAPTER 2. V ‘roi’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. itrim. R ‘scale’. See also homography. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. S ‘dimension’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im. See also e2h. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. D ‘size’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W.offs] = homwarp(H. im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. [out. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. ie. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs.

features. features. on Information Theory. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ’nfeat’. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. IT-8:pp.CHAPTER 2. Hu. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. 1962. ianimate(im. 179-187. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IRE Trans. 200). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ianimate(seq. ’gs’). Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq).

box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iharris. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. M ‘npoints’. N ‘only’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). YMIN YMAX].

horizontal coordinate centroid. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.CHAPTER 2. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. default 1. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. [S1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. [A1.0) 1 for a circle.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. ilabel. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. A set pixel aspect ratio. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. C set connectivity. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.0 ‘connect’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. See also iopen. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also isobel. out = iclose(im. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. T ‘th1’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. 1996-7. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tel Aviv University.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. S ‘th0’.CHAPTER 2. se. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.

C = icolor(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).options) concatenates images from the cell array im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. D ‘bgval’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Options ‘dir’. colorize. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. [0 1 1]). The images do not have to be of the same size. iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. [C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).u] = iconcat(im. See also imono.

Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. options) convolves im1 with im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.CHAPTER 2. im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.

If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. CM ‘cminthresh’. S ‘deriv’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. R ‘nfeat’. D ‘k’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. CT ‘edgegap’. E ‘suppress’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. N ‘detector’. D ‘sigma’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). K ‘patch’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

May 1988. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. J. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. with a delay of d [sec]. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Options ‘dplot’. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. T ‘maxiter’. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. J.d] = icp(p1.5 [sec]. pp. Stephens. [T. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. 1994. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf.. • “Finding corners”.Noble. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.J. 1988. Image and Vision Computing.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. p2. N ‘mindelta’. p2.121-128. Shi and C. Harris and M. 593-593. See also PointFeature. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Proc. IEEE Computer Society. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.6. pp 147-151.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Tomasi. Manchester. T ‘distthresh’.CHAPTER 2. C. vol. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Proc. pp. with a delay of 0. • “Good features to track”.G.

• Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. IEEETrans. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Intell.Besl and H. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . no. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Pattern Anal. See also iscale.McKay.. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. s = idecimate(im.CHAPTER 2. 1992. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Feb. 2. s = idecimate(im. m.or 3-dimensional. 14. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. pp. P. m. each plane is decimated. 239-256. vol. Mach.

Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. Options ‘ncolors’. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . negative is red. positive is blue. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. zero is black. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. histogram and zooming. If im is a cell array of images. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. C ‘xydata’. zero is white color map: random values.and y-axes respectively. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. positive is blue. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. negative is red. linear proﬁle. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. zero is white. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. If the image is zoomed. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. XY ‘colormap’. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. darker than ‘grey’.CHAPTER 2. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes.

CHAPTER 2. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. colormap. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. See also image. See also iblobs. caxis. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. icolorize. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labels. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. idisplabel(im.

Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. See also itriplepoint. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. out = igamma(im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.45. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.CHAPTER 2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. L = igraphseg(im. 100. k. Example im = iread(’58060. k. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. pp. Journal on Computer Vision. 59. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 167181. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 0. [l. 1500. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. P. Huttenlocher. vol.CHAPTER 2. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Int. k is the scale parameter. Felzenszwalb and D.5). See also ithresh. [L. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”.m] = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min.5).m] = igraphseg(im. Sept. 2006. k. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 2004.jpg’). min.

[h. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H.h). plot(x. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. H = ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.h).x] = ihist(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im. bar(x. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. options) displays the image histogram. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. same size as im. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. [L. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.y1) and bottom-right (x2.y2). x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. [L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. x1. ii is a precomputed integral image.m. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. y2. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. y1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.

Y].parents. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. The pixels on the line are set to 1.parents.CHAPTER 2. eg. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. out = iline(im. p1. otherwise it does not. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. p1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. [L. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. See also iblobs. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.class.maxlabel.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.maxlabel. • This is a “low level” function. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. iproﬁle. each a 2-vector [X. ilabel(im. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. 8). imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.

and y-offsets relative to (x. s. x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. xmax. • Is a MEX ﬁle. The return value is xm=[DX.y). See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. x. [xm. The template in im1 is centred at (x. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. and columns the vertical position.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. -s. w2. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.y) and its half-width is H. centred at (x.CHAPTER 2.CC] where (DX.y). im2.y) and of size s.DY) are the x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). ymin.score] = imatch(im1. ymax] relative to (x. im2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. y. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. a perfect match score is 1. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. H. • ZNCC matching is used. s] % relative to (x.DY.

The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The element u(v. [u.v] = imeshgrid(w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. f = imoments(u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. v. effectively a binary image. effectively a greyscale image.CHAPTER 2. [u.u) = v. f = imoments(u.u) = u and v(v. All pixels are equally weighted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. H) as above but the domain is w × H. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.

options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. icolor. m20. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. • This function does not perform connectivity. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m01. See also RegionFeature. the elements are m00.CHAPTER 2. m11.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. or its area. m02. ilabel. Different conversion functions are supported.

Matas. 22. J.org).png’. 2004. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. and T. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Chum. 761767. ’light’). options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. se. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Urban. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [label. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im.CHAPTER 2. ’double’). m.m] = imser(im. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Image and Vision Computing. pp.m] = imser(im. Sept. ’grey’. vol. The labels [L. O. Pajdla.

CHAPTER 2.ˆ2). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.

See also iclose. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n. out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. se. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. sides.

options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’t’.CHAPTER 2. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. ’tblr’.V]. 20. p. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. otherwise im2 is selected. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 10. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. im1. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.

uv] = iproﬁle(im. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. [p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. p1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.v) for the corresponding row of p. p1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. See also bresenham. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.

out = ipyramid(im. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. se. See also iscalespace.3). hence output image had reduced dimensions. out = ipyramid(im.5)). The highest rank. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. the maximum.CHAPTER 2. nbins. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. out = imorph(image.2) = 0. is order=1. ones(5. idecimate. im > irank(im. out = imorph(image. 12. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. se). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. order. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. op. op. se. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. 1. se(2. sigma.

CHAPTER 2. im = iread(ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. where R=[umin umax. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. G ‘reduce’. ivar. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. vmin vmax]. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. R ‘roi’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. See also imorph. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. m. im1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. m. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. imono. igamma.out2. istereo.h1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.out2] = irectify(f. [out1. imwrite. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).h2] = irectify(f. homwarp. Notes • Color images are not supported. im1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.CHAPTER 2.

S ‘extrapval’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.CHAPTER 2. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. Options ‘outsize’.umax. [out. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘smooth’.vmax]. See also idisp.vmin vmax]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. vmin. angle. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.H] return central part of image.

while bias>0. s<1 makes it smaller.5 is symmetric cropping. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. out = isamesize(im1. bias=0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s ‘extrapval’. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. Options ‘outsize’. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. V ‘smooth’. im2. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.CHAPTER 2. s>1 makes the image larger.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias<0.

idecimate. corresponding to each step of the sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.CHAPTER 2.L. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n) as above but sigma=1. [g. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. in space and scale. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).s] = iscalespace(im. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. n. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. See also iscalespace.s] = iscalespace(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.

options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. that is. ilaplace. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘valid’) as above. ismooth.CHAPTER 2. ishomog(T. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. it its third dimension is equal to three. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. See also isrot. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im.

International Journal of Computer Vision. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. 91-110. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. pp. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Lowe.CHAPTER 2. Reference David G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. See also SiftPointFeature. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. isurf. 2 (2004). N ‘suppress’. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. 60.

CHAPTER 2. and these output pixels are set to NaN. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. [w. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. @ncc. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @ssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. s is same size as im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. s = isimilarity(T. sad.H. @zsad. im. zssd. See also imatch. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. zsad. ssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @zssd.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. [w.

This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. [gx. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. convolved. then converted back to integer. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. [gx.gy] = isobel(im. See also iconv. sigma.

range is the disparity search range. See also ishomog. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.sim] = istereo(iml. w. the disparity d=d(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.u).u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. range. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. See also ksobel. H is the half size of the matching window. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. imr. H. [d.M] for an N × M window. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) means that imr(v.CHAPTER 2. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. range. isrot(R. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. That is. imr. ‘valid’) as above. icanny. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). else false (0).

range. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.CHAPTER 2.sim. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. • sim = max(dsi. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. B.A and p. imr. dx. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. p.5 to +0.dsi] = istereo(iml. That is. [d. imr.p] = istereo(iml. range. 3) See also irectify. w. Options ‘metric’.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. out = istretch(im. [d. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). p.sim. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.5). options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. ‘ncc’.

Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. N ‘thresh’. or sequences. Kroon (U. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). T ‘octaves’.CHAPTER 2. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Notes • Color images. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature.

out = ithin(im. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Otherwise false (0). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. No. See also hitormiss. 110. Andreas Ess. 346–359. Vol. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3. pp. itriplepoint. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. isift.CHAPTER 2.or columnvector. Luc Van Gool. else false (0). See also ishomog. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). either a row. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. isvec(v. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im.

Notes • Greyscale image only. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. The default is 0. a lower value will include more. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .out2] = itrim(im1. See also homwarp. ithresh(im.CHAPTER 2.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.5.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.out2] = itrim(im1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. The same cropping is applied to each input image.im2.

hence output image had reduced dimensions. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.CHAPTER 2. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also iendpoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. op. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin. se. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.

the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. se. See also ivar. out = iwindow(image. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. @std). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. @max). The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.3). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. ones(5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. ones(3. func.5).

iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . dG/dx. • The vertical derivative. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. klog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. See also ones. dG/dy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.CHAPTER 2. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. kdog. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. is k’. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. ktriangle. k = kcircle(R.

kdgauss. k = kgauss(sigma. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . where sigma1 > SIGMA2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). klog. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. See also kdgauss.6*sigma1. sigma2.CHAPTER 2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. k = kdog(sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. See also kgauss.

CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. kdog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv. See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also kgauss. k = klog(sigma. kdgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

k. L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. [L. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).CHAPTER 2. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.C] = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. it is assumed to have been completed previously. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k. Pattern Recognition Principles. and D is the dimension. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. [x.y. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.y. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. symmetric about the origin. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).CHAPTER 2. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. Options ‘T’. C ‘T’. The points are the columns of p. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.z] = mkcube(s. See also cylinder. ‘edge’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.

yq . p. n. y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.xp . See also mpq poly.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.y). mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. or y(:. y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. the sum of I(x. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n) MPLOT(t. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(t. y) MPLOT(t. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.CHAPTER 2. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.2)). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. or y(:. That is. npq. n) MPLOT(y.

they are considered to be a single vertex. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. p. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq poly. See also mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1.CHAPTER 2. so centroids will be still be correct. npq poly. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. where W=2*w2+1. in text segmentation. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. the height of a character.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. niblack. Prentice-Hall. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.m. -0. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.s] = niblack(im. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. [T. See also zncc. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. sad. Example t = niblack(im.CHAPTER 2. 20). k. W. for example. T has the same dimensions as im. • A common choice of k=-0.2. k. 1986. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. idisp(im >= t).

Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2.q)/MPQ(im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. That is UPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. p. p. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.0.0). upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq poly.

so centroids will be still be correct. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered as a single vertex. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. upq. npq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). mpq.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly.

ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. [yp. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otsu IEEE Trans.i] = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Systems. pp 62-66 See also niblack. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im).CHAPTER 2. x. [yp. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979.xp] = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. N. idisp(im >= t). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.

Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.ij] = peak2(z. [zp.CHAPTER 2. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. use peak2(-V). use peak(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Typically choose N to be odd. S ‘interp’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’.S points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. N ‘scale’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.

CHAPTER 2. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. plot2(p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also pnmﬁlt. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ie. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. If p has three dimensions. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. PLOT BOX(’centre’. r. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ‘size’. ’LineWidth’. ’b’). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. ’g’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.y1) and (x2. Examples plot_circle(c. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. W. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’edgecolor’. ‘r’. value pairs that are passed to plot. plot_circle(c. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. PLOT BOX(x1.y2). plot_circle(c.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. 1=solid. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. 5). PLOT BOX(’topleft’. or a set of name.y2. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. W. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.CHAPTER 2. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.y1. P. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ’r’).Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. ‘size’. ’fillcolor’. x2.

xc. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y]. with Matlab line style ls. C. If C=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. c Specify color of the axes. ls) ls is the standard line styles. current plot. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.CHAPTER 2. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.Y. Options ‘color’. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. centred at the origin.

size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ‘printf’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ’color’. trplot( T. to ‘view’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’r’). colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’color’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’r’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ‘framename’.X = 0. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. n ‘text opts’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) adds point markers to a plot. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’name’. fmt. Options ‘textcolor’.CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=solid. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R. color. R. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. either a letter or 3-vector. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. The default is 1. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. patch. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. R.CHAPTER 2. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. NOTES • The sphere is always added.

See also pgmﬁlt. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. plotp(p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column.CHAPTER 2. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.

[gr.CHAPTER 2. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.gt] = radgrad(im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.

in.CHAPTER 2. x typically contains corresponding point data. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. x. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. x. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set.resid] = ransac(func. [m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one column per point pair. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T. T. d) as above but elements increment by d. [m. x.in] = ransac(func. N ‘maxDataTrials’. T. Options ‘maxTrials’.

For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.x data to work on.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. Boles. Comp.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta = []. References • m.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta = DECONDITION(R. [out.resid] = EST(R.theta] = ERR(R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. they detect a structure argument.out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. Cambridge University Press.theta and the subset of R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. Mach.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Comm.misc element. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta to the points R. Vol 24.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.theta. pp 381-395.out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. that is. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.s out.x.inlier.t threshold (1 × 1) R.CHAPTER 2.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x) condition the point data out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. pp 101-113. No 6.. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Fishler and R.x = CONDITION(R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. that is they will produce a model. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. [out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. Assoc.theta.R.C.x.x and returns the best model out.misc private data (cell array) out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. If multiple models are found out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta is a cell array. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.A. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.

au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. If lambda is a vector.csse.edu. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.CHAPTER 2. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.uwa. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.

CHAPTER 2. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx. rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty. rotz. roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx.

pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. See also tr2rpy. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. If roll. pitch.CHAPTER 2. T = rpy2tr(roll. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Y. Z axes respectively. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. • many texts (Paul. pitch. yaw. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1.

i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. theta) as above where xy=[x. r2t. ssd.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y. See also zsad.CHAPTER 2. and rotation theta in the plane. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ncc. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.

sad. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. ncc.CHAPTER 2. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Two cross-hairs are created. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsdd.

blah = []. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.bar = false. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. b. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).choose = {’this’.CHAPTER 2. The software pattern is: function(a. then R is 3 × 3. c. opt. It supports options that have an assigned value. ’that’.foo = true. – If T is 3 × 3. opt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. tr2rt. then R is 2 × 2. ’other’}.

• that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.x.N sets opt <.verbose <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. args) creates a test pattern image. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.y ‘that’ sets opt.1. ’#yes’}.foo <. opt = tb_optparse(opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.foo <.choose <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.true sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’.choose <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.blah <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.debug <.y sets opt. w. 3 sets opt.‘this’.select <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. varargin).blah <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). x.select <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.CHAPTER 2. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.false ‘blah’. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.select = {’#no’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. varargin). If neither of ‘this’. N ‘setopt’.

sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. square side length. sf. The trajectory s. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sd and sdd are n-vectors. args is the number of cycles.sd. args are pitch (distance between centres).sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles. 2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.CHAPTER 2. 256. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). intercept. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd.sd. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. 25). Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . binary dot pattern. args is the number of cycles. [s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 256. 50. binary square pattern. args is the number of cycles. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args are theta (rad). dot diameter. sf. a line.sdd] = tpoly(s0.

[theta. See also angvec2r. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. rpy = tr2rpy(R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Y.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Y and Z axes respectively. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. The 3 angles rpy=[R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).

See also rt2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. ie. r2t. • The validity of R is not checked.:. If T has three dimensions. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. y.z]. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. – If TR is 3 × 3. See also rpy2tr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.CHAPTER 2. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.y. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.

Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). An historical anomaly. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.CHAPTER 2. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). or x and y.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. each N × 1. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [c1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [o1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. and displays in RPY format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trprint T is the command line form of above. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. f ‘label’.

(y-y0)q where (x0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.(x-x0)p . tr2rpy.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq Central image moments m = upq(im. See also upq poly. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. That is. p.y0) is the centroid. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. the sum of I(x. mpq.y).

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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ssd. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ncc.CHAPTER 2. See also sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also ncc. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. See also sdd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

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