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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . However the book “Robotics. and I commend it to you. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This is extravagant on storage. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . Hough . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . edgelist . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . iendpoint . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . epidist . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . gauss2d . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . ilabel . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 1 Introduction 1.com. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. and you will be suitably acknowledged.google. That’s what you your teachers. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. You need to signup in order to post. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. tutors.

petercorke. the table of content to functions.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1.1.I. Volume = {12}.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).zip). A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. and the “See also” functions to each other. 1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Author = {P.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1. Number = {4}. Corke}. The details are @article{Corke05f. Year = {2005}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.3. Month = nov. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. type of organization and application.html on a server for class use.gz) or zip format (. The ﬁle robot. 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.

P..R. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.I. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. November 2005.7. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.Functions such as SURF. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. and there are hundreds of modules available. VLFeat http://www. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. 1. Twente. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.7 Acknowledgements Last. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.6.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. Coimbra. 12(4). The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. 1994 University of British Columbia. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Vincent Lepetit.1.vlfeat. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. MSER.mathworks.S. Corke. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. but not least. pp 16–25.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

T ‘color’. used by all subclasses.CHAPTER 2. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. Options ‘name’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. SIGMA ‘pose’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. N ‘image’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. S ‘noise’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. P ‘pixel’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. N ‘sensor’. Camera.

delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).centre Get camera position p = C.clf Clear the image plane C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera.char Convert to string s = C.CHAPTER 2.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. ﬁsheyecamera. SphericalCamera Camera.display Display value C.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera.

hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera.v + c = 0.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. C. Camera.u + b. See also Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.char Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.CHAPTER 2. otherwise false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. and off if H is false (or 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.

plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. The matrices x. T ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. sphere. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. z to the image plane and plots them. mkcube. y.mesh(x. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also mesh.plot(p. uv = C.T. y.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Plot points on image plane C.hold. y. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . z.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.clf Camera. cylinder. Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.

T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tcam’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.mesh.hold. ‘Tobj’.T. Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. T See also Camera. T ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Camera. ‘fps’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Overrides the current camera pose C.clf Camera. Camera.

v Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted.p.rpy(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy Set camera attitude C. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. p. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a subclass of Camera.CHAPTER 2.y].

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CHAPTER 2. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. CentralCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C Camera matrix C = C.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

Ma.177 See also CentralCamera. S. Reference Y.Sastry. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”. CentralCamera. u.Kosecka. CatadioptricCamera. N ‘sensor’. E = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. 10um pixels.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). camera at origin.E Essential matrix E = C. S. 2003. D ‘default’ ‘image’. N ‘focal’.CHAPTER 2.and v-axes parallel to x. f=8mm. F ‘distortion’. ﬁsheyecamera. E = C.F. IM ‘resolution’.8]) See also Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. p. Springer. S ‘centre’. T ‘color’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. S ‘noise’. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and y-axes respectively. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.Soatto. J.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.

The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S.CHAPTER 2.Ma.H(T. J. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry. p. n.E CentralCamera. Reference Y.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. 2003.H Homography matrix H = C.H CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. F = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Springer. from two viewpoints.Kosecka. S.177 See also CentralCamera.Soatto.F Fundamental matrix F = C.

fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Feb. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision. a = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. V. vol.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). 81. and P. 2009.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.estpose(xyz. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Lepetit. pp. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. CentralCamera. 155-166. Fua. Int. F. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Moreno-Noguer. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.CHAPTER 2.

Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Ma.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Kosecka. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference Y. J.CHAPTER 2. 2003. s. See also CentralCamera. s. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. section 5. 259 Y. Springer. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Sastry. s. translation not to scale • n. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “An invitation to 3D”.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. J.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.invE(E. p. Chap 9. p116.E CentralCamera. Springer. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry.Soatto.Ma.Kosecka. 2003.Soatto. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. s. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.

If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).project Project world points to image plane uv = C. H = C. one per line. ‘Tcam’.T. See also Hough CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. ‘Tobj’. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.project(p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot epiline(f.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.

June 1992.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Espiau.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. pp. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Chaumette. See also Camera. Reference B. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. vol. and P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. F.CHAPTER 2. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. 8. Rives.plot CentralCamera. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.c.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.visjac e(E. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. “Multiview Geometry”. 313-326.

“A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. 8.visjac p.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac p polar. June 1992. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera.visjac p(uv. Chaumette. Reference B. See also CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera.b. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. R&A.visjac l(L. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. F. Oct.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.c. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Espiau. Vol 12(5).visjac p polar. 313-326. Rives. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. and P. IEEE Trans.visjac p. Hutchinson. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). 1996.CHAPTER 2. Hager & Corke. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). pp. pp 651-670.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.visjac l CentralCamera.

The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. 5962-5967.visjac p polar.visjac e CentralCamera. radius and theta. CentralCamera. in Proc. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Chaumette. F.visjac p. 2009. CentralCamera. pp. CentralCamera. Louis). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. P. Oct. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. and F. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Spindler.visjac l.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p polar(rt.CHAPTER 2. Corke.visjac l. See also CentralCamera. (St. I. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).

See also isift. Int. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Nov. PointFeature.91-110. D. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Journal on Computer Vision. See README. 2004.60. ScalePointFeature.Lowe.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.SIFT. pp. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.

C ‘alpha’. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.match(f2. See also isift SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. v. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 0=transparent (default 0. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.match Match SIFT point features m = F.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. 1=opaque. SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options.

out = F.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but the support region is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support(im.support(images.support(images. [out. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T] = F.support(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

N ‘pixel’. Options ‘Tobj’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera. Options ‘name’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p. S ‘pose’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.T. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. See also SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.

The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.5) target center .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . of 4-vector. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.center of the target in world coords (0.gain.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.01) . defaults in parentheses: target size . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.0.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The camera view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The camera view. Jacobian condition number. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.the side length of the target in world units (0.CHAPTER 2. image plane size and desired feature locations. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The external view. camera pose.depth of points to use for Jacobian. error norm. scalar for If null take actual value all points. error. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.

See also CentralCamera.visjac l. 5550-5555. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.visjac p(pt. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. Conf. IEEE Int. in Proc. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Jacobian condition number. error norm. Robotics and Automation. of 4-vector. error. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). for all points. (Anchorage). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.depth of points to use for Jacobian.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Corke.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. defaults in parentheses: target size .5) target center .gain. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac p polar. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. camera pose. I. image plane size and desired feature locations.01) .CHAPTER 2.center of the target in world coords (0.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .the side length of the target in world units (0. CentralCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. pp. The external view. May 3-7 2010.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .0. P.

3. pp.CHAPTER 2. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Andreas Ess. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. No. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 110. Luc Van Gool. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Vol.

See also isurf SurfPointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.C] = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match Match SURF point features m = F. ScalePointFeature. v. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match(f2. [m.CHAPTER 2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u.

support(im.CHAPTER 2.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.plot scale Plot feature scale F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options.T] = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. C ‘alpha’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.2) SurfPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. out = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 0=transparent (default 0. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im. F. [out. 1=opaque.support(images. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’.axis. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com).com) web camera. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. otherwise the result is not predictable. Video AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . G ‘scale’.axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].

char Convert to string A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A.display AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.

2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. pp. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.1470-1477. Oct.org). as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. f can also be a cell array.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . on Computer Vision.Zisserman. in Proc.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. b = BagOfWords(f. Conf.Sivic and A. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.

display Display value B.exemplars display exemplars of words B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char BagOfWords. BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.exemplars(w. images. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. See also BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.char Convert to string s = B.contains Find images containing word k = B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. BagOfWords.

occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. Options ‘ncolumns’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. N ‘maxperimage’.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .remove stop Remove stop words B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.n] = B. BagOfWords. M ‘width’.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.CHAPTER 2.

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

CHAPTER 2. Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. N ‘focal’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. f=8mm. ﬁsheyecamera.and v-axes parallel to x. optical axis is z-axis.CHAPTER 2.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. K ‘maxangle’. CatadioptricCamera. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.and y-axes respectively. ‘sine’.project(p. camera at origin. S ‘noise’. N ‘sensor’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. P ‘pixel’. ‘equisolid’. See also Camera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. T ‘Tcam’. A ‘resolution’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. M ‘k’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. 10um pixels. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. See also Camera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Options ‘Tobj’.

A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. See also PointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.

FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Convert to string s = M. See also FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. m = FeatureMatch(f1. one per element. f2. See also PointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.display Display value M. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.

inlier Inlier features m2 = M.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch.v2]. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.ransac FeatureMatch.v1.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. See also FeatureMatch.outlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.u2. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.

p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. These are the (u. These are the (u. See also FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch.p1.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.im2}) m.plot() M.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.CHAPTER 2.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p2 FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.

m = f1. Example f1 = isurf(im1). See also fmatrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.match(f2). 1e-4). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. m. See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac(func.ransac Apply RANSAC M. f2 = isurf(im2). homography.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.ransac( @fmatrix. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.

X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .subset Subset of matches m2 = M.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted. Y This camera model assumes central projection. v.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object.and y. ‘sine’. P ‘pixel’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. SIGMA ‘pose’.axes respectively. N ‘sensor’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. 10um pixels. camera at origin. optical axis is z-axis. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . M ‘k’. K ‘resolution’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. Options ‘name’. f=8mm. ‘equisolid’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.and v-axes are parallel to x. S ‘centre’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].CHAPTER 2. u. S ‘noise’.

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. See also FishEyeCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. CentralCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.project(p.T. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera.

Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.0) and the line. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. The voting array is 2-dimensional.H). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.CHAPTER 2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. A horizontal line has theta = 0. See also LineFeature Hough. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).

Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.5) Set ht. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display Display value HT. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Set ht.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. N All edge pixels have equal weight. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. T ‘edgethresh’.houghThresh (default 0. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Default 400 × 401.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough.1).CHAPTER 2.edgeThresh.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. else N = [Ntheta.char Convert to string s = HT.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh (default 0. T ‘suppress’. W ‘nbins’. Hough. Nrho]. Hough. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. W ‘houghthresh’.

LineFeature Hough. The highest peak is found.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. then all elements in an HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough. HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.CHAPTER 2. H = HT. L = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot(n.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. See also Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.lines Hough. HT.plot Plot line features HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.lines Find lines L = HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.

hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2.

length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta.CHAPTER 2. theta. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(rho. one per element. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength.char Convert to string s = L.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.display Display value L.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LENGTH is undeﬁned. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. LineFeature.

Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot() overlay the line on current plot.plot Plot line L. less than gap pixels are tolerated. L. See also icanny LineFeature.CHAPTER 2.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). Small gaps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. l2 = L.seglength(edge. LineFeature. l2 = L.points Return points on line segments p = L.

axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. G ‘scale’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the movie.char Convert to string M.CHAPTER 2.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com). S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie.close Close the image source M. Movie.

Options ‘skip’. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. planar.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. F Skip frames.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph create an n-d.

v) g.goal(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.clear() add vertex.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.component(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add node(coord. v2) g.edges(e) g.add edge(v1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.coord(v) g.distance(v1.plot() g.add node(coord) g.next(v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.path(v) set goal vertex. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.cost(e) g. Object properties (read/write) g.connectivity() g.CHAPTER 2.neighbours(v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.

M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. v2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.CHAPTER 2.add edge(v1. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x. PGraph.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v. where x is D × 1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. E = G. and returns the node id v.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. Options ‘distance’. PGraph. v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node(x.add edge(v1. and returns the edge id E. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.

and the distance d. PGraph. PGraph. of node id v.char Convert graph to string s = G.clear Clear the graph G.d] = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.closest Find closest node v = G.CHAPTER 2.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. D × 1.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. [v.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.coord(v) return coordinate vector.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. edges and components. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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char Convert to string s = F. See also ScalePointFeature. one per element.display Display value F.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SurfPointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v.

where 1 is perfect match. the norm of the Euclidean distance. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match Match point features m = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.char PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2.C] = F.

one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot feature F. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon .

http://puddle. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kirill@plume.mit. HEIGHT]. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. union.char String representation s = P.edu. Polygon.mit. p = Polygon(C. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Pankratov. so use with care. one column per vertex.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.html and require a licence.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. difference.area() is the area of the polygon. intersection.CHAPTER 2.

• If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else 0.difference Difference of polygons d = P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. See also Polygon.display Display polygon P.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. Polygon.char Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns coordinates of P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).

Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.moments(p. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. Polygon. Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. each column is [x y]’. y1 y2].CHAPTER 2.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. returns empty polygon.

CHAPTER 2.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union Union of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot Plot polygon P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.

Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.

intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. [x.char Ray3D. Ray3D.display Display value R. one per element.CHAPTER 2.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.char Convert to string s = R.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = R. [x.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.

0) 1 for a circle. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c.b.CHAPTER 2. horizontal coordinate centroid.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.char Convert to string s = R. one per element.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.uc will be a list not a vector. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. ymin. ymax]. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. RegionFeature. See also iblobs.th] = R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. For example R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.xmax.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. imoments RegionFeature.box Return bounding box b = R. RegionFeature.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.and xmarkers.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. It is indicated with overlaid o. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. R.plot Plot centroid R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. See also RegionFeature.

plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. RegionFeature.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. R.plot box Plot bounding box R.CHAPTER 2.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. F. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 1=opaque. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. f = ScalePointFeature(u. C ‘alpha’. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. See also PointFeature. ScalePointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 0=transparent (default 0.CHAPTER 2.

options) is a new tracker object. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R ‘nslots’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. N ‘thresh’. C. T ‘movie’.CHAPTER 2. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. Options ‘radius’. one per active track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. See also PointFeature Tracker.

char Convert to string s = T.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.CHAPTER 2.display Display value T. See also Tracker. Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.

otherwise the result is not predictable. S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera. Movie Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. and their characteristics is displayed.

grab() acquires an image from the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.CHAPTER 2. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.close Close the image source V. Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char Convert to string V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video.

a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. the second for right. the ﬁrst for left. If th1 is a column vector. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle.CHAPTER 2. right. By default the left image is red. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. right. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if negative it is reduced. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. and the right image is cyan. color.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.y1) to (x2. See also RegionFeature. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y2]. Endpoints must be integer.y2). y1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. x2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y1] and p2=[x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. If lambda is a column vector. [x. p2) as above but p1=[x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.s] = boundmatch(R1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . % emission of sun plot(l. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. p = bresenham(p1. 6500).boundary.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. [C. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.Y.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.

k = closest(a. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). [k. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.d1] = closest(a.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. green and blue primaries respectively. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). Options ‘n’.CHAPTER 2. and x is N × 3. x = circle(C. R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. that is. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.

If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.d2] = closest(a.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).32).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. while Table I(5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.ioo. they were measured directly.5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.16). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. The data are referred to as pilot data. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl.CHAPTER 2.ac. 335 of Table 1(5.d1.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. • From Table I(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. 19000 (526. and 22500 (444. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. since. As noted in footnote a on p. (Table 1(5.

Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.CHAPTER 2.ac. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb. imsize is a 2-vector (N. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].M).

• Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .

The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. k. mask.C] = colorkmeans(im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. @isnan. im<100. @isnan.B). options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. [L. See also imono. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.G. func. icolor. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. out = colorize(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. eg. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.

Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.R] = colorkmeans(im. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. low is good. eg. name = colorname(XYZ. k) as above but also returns the residual R. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. XYZ = colorname(name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.CHAPTER 2. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.C.

o3] = colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. s = ‘src->dest’. colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.CHAPTER 2. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. • Color space names are case insensitive. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. [o1. i1.i2. Input and output images have 3 planes.o2. As MATLAB’s native datatype. double data is the natural choice.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.txt. or alternatively. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it can be omitted.

B).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. d = distance(A. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. However.200).2*A. B = rand(400. Example A = rand(400. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.100). • If im is an M × 3 array.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). for memory and computational performance. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. like a colormap. out will also have size M × 3.

j). Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. The result E is a matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. University of Amsterdam. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. bunschot@wins. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y). not image frame.(+31)20-5257524. seed.3. Tested: PC Matlab v5. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.uva. in matrix coordinate frame. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. E = edgelist(im. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. non-zero is an object. tel.CHAPTER 2. non zero is counter-clockwise.

p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p1. epiline(f.R. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.CHAPTER 2. See also fmatrix. one per line drawn. p. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Coimbra. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. See also epiline. H = epiline(f. Oct 27. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. I. 1998.S.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i).

that is. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. no outlier rejection is performed. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. http://www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.au/.csse. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). which means it can be passed to ransac(). that is. it is singular. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. p2. • Contains a RANSAC driver. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu.CHAPTER 2. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. • f is a rank 2 matrix. page 270. epiline. c. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. The University of Western Australia. See also ransac.uwa. Notes • The points must be corresponding. homography.

y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. x2. See also imorph.y2). See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). ithin. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.y1) and (x2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.CHAPTER 2. y1. itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.

p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu.csse. no outlier rejection is performed. The University of Western Australia. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. Notes • The points must be corresponding. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.uwa. invhomog. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.au/. See also ransac. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www.CHAPTER 2.

that is tp=T*T1. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. [out. S output image contains all the warped pixels. See also e2h. im. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. itrim. S ‘dimension’.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. D ‘size’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im.offs] = homwarp(H.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. ie. V ‘roi’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. See also homography. R ‘scale’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel.

features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. 200). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ianimate(seq. ’nfeat’. IRE Trans. IT-8:pp. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. ianimate(im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features. 179-187. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. features. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. 1962. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. ’gs’). on Information Theory. Hu.

CHAPTER 2. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. N ‘only’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. M ‘npoints’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. YMIN YMAX]. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. isurf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. ilabel. vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.0 ‘connect’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.CHAPTER 2. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.0) 1 for a circle. C set connectivity. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. A set pixel aspect ratio. [A1. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. horizontal coordinate centroid. default 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. [S1. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

1996-7. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. See also iopen. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. S ‘th0’. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.CHAPTER 2.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Tel Aviv University. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. T ‘th1’. See also isobel. se. This is an dilation followed by erosion.

Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.u] = iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.CHAPTER 2. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. Options ‘dir’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [0 1 1]). The images do not have to be of the same size. colorize. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. D ‘bgval’. [C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. See also imono. C = icolor(im.

See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2.CHAPTER 2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. options) convolves im1 with im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.

options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. E ‘suppress’. CM ‘cminthresh’. N ‘detector’. S ‘deriv’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. R ‘nfeat’. D ‘sigma’. K ‘patch’. CT ‘edgegap’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). D ‘k’.

G. T ‘maxiter’. • “Good features to track”.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.J. pp. Proc. IEEE Computer Society. N ‘mindelta’. with a delay of 0. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Options ‘dplot’. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. where * denotes squared and smoothed. May 1988. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘distthresh’. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. See also PointFeature. pp. 1994.CHAPTER 2.121-128. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. p2. Harris and M. Stephens. Image and Vision Computing. 593-593.6.5 [sec]. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Proc. pp 147-151.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.Noble. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. with a delay of d [sec]. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. p2. C. Manchester. Shi and C. vol. J.d] = icp(p1. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. • “Finding corners”. 1988. J. Tomasi. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. [T.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Feb. each plane is decimated.Besl and H. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.. s = idecimate(im. 14. 1992. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. See also iscale. vol. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.CHAPTER 2. 239-256.or 3-dimensional. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. m. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. no. s = idecimate(im. P. Intell. Pattern Anal. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Mach.McKay. 2. pp. IEEETrans. m. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.

• The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . linear proﬁle. zero is white color map: random values. zero is white. darker than ‘grey’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. negative is red. zero is black. XY ‘colormap’. positive is blue. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed.and y-axes respectively. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. C ‘xydata’. Options ‘ncolors’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. positive is blue. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. If im is a cell array of images. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. negative is red. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. histogram and zooming.CHAPTER 2. If the image is zoomed. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned.

labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labelimage. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. idisplabel(im. See also image. labelimage. labels. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. icolorize. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. See also iblobs. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. caxis. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2.

out = igamma(im. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. See also itriplepoint. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.45. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). ithin. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.2. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

m] = igraphseg(im. vol. min. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. [l. Felzenszwalb and D. 2006. 1500.CHAPTER 2. P.m] = igraphseg(im. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. min.5). [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. k. Example im = iread(’58060. k. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Journal on Computer Vision. 2004. 0. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 167181. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 59. pp. 100. L = igraphseg(im. Int. k.5). sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Huttenlocher. k is the scale parameter.jpg’). See also ithresh. Sept.

’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im). H = ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. plot(x. options) displays the image histogram.h).CHAPTER 2. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.x] = ihist(im. bar(x. [h. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.h). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H.x] = ihist(im.

[L. [L. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. ii is a precomputed integral image.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.y2).CHAPTER 2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. same size as im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m.y1) and bottom-right (x2. y2. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. y1. x1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.

imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. • This is a “low level” function. out = iline(im. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. iproﬁle.parents. [L. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. otherwise it does not.maxlabel. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.parents.class. p2.maxlabel.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 8). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. p1. The pixels on the line are set to 1. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. ilabel(im. each a 2-vector [X.Y]. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. See also iblobs. eg.

H. im2.y) and of size s.DY. y. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. • ZNCC matching is used. w2. a perfect match score is 1. x.y). centred at (x. and columns the vertical position. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. • Is a MEX ﬁle.score] = imatch(im1. xmax. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.and y-offsets relative to (x. ymin. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.y) and its half-width is H. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. [xm.CHAPTER 2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.CC] where (DX.y).DY) are the x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax] relative to (x. s. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. The return value is xm=[DX. -s. y. The template in im1 is centred at (x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. s] % relative to (x. x.

v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. The element u(v. [u. effectively a binary image. effectively a greyscale image. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. f = imoments(u. v. [u.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].u) = v. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(w. H) as above but the domain is w × H.

m11. m20. • This function does not perform connectivity.CHAPTER 2. m02. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. Different conversion functions are supported. m10. the elements are m00. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. icolor.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. ilabel. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. See also RegionFeature. m01. or its area.

The labels [L. Pajdla. se. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im.org). 22. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. m. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. ’light’).m] = imser(im. O. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Urban.m] = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing. vol. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. ’double’). ’grey’. Chum. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. [label. J. 2004. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. and T. Matas. Sept. 761767.CHAPTER 2.png’.

ˆ2). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).CHAPTER 2. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.

n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. out = iopen(im. se. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. sides. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. See also iclose. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. sides.

Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.CHAPTER 2. otherwise im2 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im1. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 20. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. p.V]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. ’t’. im2. ’tblr’.

iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). [p.uv] = iproﬁle(im. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1. p1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) for the corresponding row of p. See also bresenham. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.

se. im > irank(im. sigma. nbins.CHAPTER 2. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. out = imorph(image. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. out = ipyramid(im. 1. out = imorph(image. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. is order=1. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. op. See also iscalespace. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se(2. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. The highest rank. the maximum. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. order. 12. ones(5. out = ipyramid(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se).3). n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. idecimate. op.2) = 0. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled.5)).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix.CHAPTER 2. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. See also imorph. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. vmin vmax]. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. im = iread(ﬁle. where R=[umin umax. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ivar. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. G ‘reduce’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. R ‘roi’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256).

k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. m. [out1.out2] = irectify(f. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. imono. m.h2] = irectify(f.h1. istereo. homwarp. im1. imwrite. Notes • Color images are not supported. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.out2. igamma. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. See also FeatureMatch.

vmax]. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.CHAPTER 2. See also idisp.H] return central part of image. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. Options ‘outsize’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. [out. angle.vmin vmax]. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘extrapval’. V ‘smooth’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.umax. vmin.

while bias>0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s ‘extrapval’. im2. out = isamesize(im1.CHAPTER 2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s>1 makes the image larger.5 is symmetric cropping. V ‘smooth’. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. bias<0. s<1 makes it smaller. Options ‘outsize’. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. bias=0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.

Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. n) as above but sigma=1. See also iscalespace.L.CHAPTER 2. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). [g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. in space and scale. corresponding to each step of the sequence. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. n.L. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idecimate. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.s] = iscalespace(im.

ismooth. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. else false (0). options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ishomog(T. it its third dimension is equal to three. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ‘valid’) as above. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. See also isrot.

vlfeat.CHAPTER 2. International Journal of Computer Vision. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. Lowe. isurf. pp. • Features are returned in descending strength order. Reference David G. N ‘suppress’. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. 60.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 91-110. See also SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 2 (2004). • ISURF is a functional equivalent. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. s is same size as im. [w. See also imatch.H. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. zsad. @zssd. @zsad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. [w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. ssd. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. s = isimilarity(T. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. zssd. and these output pixels are set to NaN. @ssd. @ncc. ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. sad.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gx. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. convolved. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. See also iconv. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. [gx.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.gy] = isobel(im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. then converted back to integer.CHAPTER 2. sigma.

isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. the disparity d=d(v. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. range. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imr. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).M] for an N × M window. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.u) means that imr(v. isrot(R. [d. H is the half size of the matching window.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. That is.CHAPTER 2. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. range is the disparity search range. else false (0). range. H.u). See also ksobel. ‘valid’) as above. See also ishomog. imr. icanny.sim] = istereo(iml.

range. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.dsi] = istereo(iml.sim. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. [d. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. [d. w.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. out = istretch(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. imr. B.CHAPTER 2. p. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.p] = istereo(iml. That is. dx. 3) See also irectify.5). In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. p. ‘ncc’. Options ‘metric’. • sim = max(dsi. range. w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.sim. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.A and p. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.5 to +0. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. imr. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).

• Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Kroon (U. N ‘thresh’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. T ‘octaves’. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. or sequences. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Notes • Color images. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.CHAPTER 2.

See also hitormiss. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. itriplepoint. either a row. See also ishomog. out = ithin(im.or columnvector. Otherwise false (0).CHAPTER 2. 3. Vol. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Andreas Ess. isvec(v. Tinne Tuytelaars. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 110. No. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 346–359. isift. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. pp. Luc Van Gool. else false (0). L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.

This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. [out1. The default is 0. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. ithresh(im.im2. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. Notes • Greyscale image only.out2] = itrim(im1.5.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.out2] = itrim(im1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. See also homwarp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. The same cropping is applied to each input image. a lower value will include more.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.

These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. se. ithin. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. See also iendpoint. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im.CHAPTER 2.

Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.5). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. @max). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. out = iwindow(image. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.CHAPTER 2. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. @std). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. ones(5. se. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. func.3). hence output image had reduced dimensions. See also ivar. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.

iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdog. See also kgauss. dG/dy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. ktriangle. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. • The vertical derivative. See also ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. is k’. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. k = kcircle(R. dG/dx.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. klog. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kgauss(sigma. See also kgauss. kdgauss. kdog. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2.6*sigma1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2.CHAPTER 2. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. See also kdgauss. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kdog(sigma1. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog.

and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv. kdgauss. k = klog(sigma. kdog.CHAPTER 2. See also ilaplace. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kgauss.

[L. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. it is assumed to have been completed previously. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).C] = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.CHAPTER 2. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. k. L = kmeans(x. Pattern Recognition Principles. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and D is the dimension. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.C] = kmeans(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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z] = mkcube(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.y. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. Options ‘T’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). [x.z] = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. s. C ‘T’.y.CHAPTER 2. See also cylinder. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. ‘edge’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. symmetric about the origin. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. The points are the columns of p. [x. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.

See also mpq poly. y) MPLOT(t.xp . or y(:.yq . Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. or y(:. p. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. That is. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.y). the sum of I(x. y. y. npq. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2)).2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. n. n) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. n) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(t.

i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity.CHAPTER 2. they are considered to be a single vertex. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq poly. upq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also mpq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v.

W. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. T has the same dimensions as im. Example t = niblack(im. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. the height of a character.CHAPTER 2.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. idisp(im >= t). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. [T. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. 20). The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. ssd. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.s] = niblack(im. k. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.2.m. niblack. -0. See also zncc. in text segmentation. sad. for example. • A common choice of k=-0. Prentice-Hall. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. 1986. where W=2*w2+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.

That is UPQ(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.0. mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. p.q)/MPQ(im. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. See also npq poly.p.0).

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m.CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also mpq poly. upq. mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. npq. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered as a single vertex. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Systems. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). x. idisp(im >= t). options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.xp] = peak(y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i] = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. otsu IEEE Trans. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms.CHAPTER 2. [yp. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. N. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Example t = otsu(im).

S points. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. Typically choose N to be odd. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. S ‘interp’. use peak2(-V).S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. N ‘scale’. [zp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak(-V).ij] = peak2(z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. If p has three dimensions. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. plot2(p. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ie.CHAPTER 2. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pnmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. PLOT BOX(x1. ‘r’. ’b’).y2. r. ’LineWidth’. R. 5). r.y2). ’g’. P. W. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. Examples plot_circle(c. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot_circle(c.y1. value pairs that are passed to plot. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’fillcolor’. or a set of name. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ‘size’. ’edgecolor’. x2. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. W. P. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’r’).y1) and (x2.CHAPTER 2. r. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. PLOT BOX(’centre’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. 1=solid. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. plot_circle(c.

current plot. xc. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with Matlab line style ls. c Specify color of the axes. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y.Y]. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. C. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. centred at the origin. If C=[X.CHAPTER 2. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles. Options ‘color’. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.

colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. to ‘view’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L.X = 0. ’color’. ’r’. options) adds point markers to a plot. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. Options ‘textcolor’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’r’). w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’color’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’name’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. trplot( T.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. n ‘text opts’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. fmt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ‘framename’. ‘printf’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’.

H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. See also plot. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns.CHAPTER 2. either a letter or 3-vector. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. patch. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. R. The default is 1. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=solid. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.

The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also plot. See also pgmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plotp(p. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im.

gt] = radgrad(im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.CHAPTER 2.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.

in] = ransac(func. T. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.in. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. d) as above but elements increment by d. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. one column per point pair. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.resid] = ransac(func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. Options ‘maxTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. x.CHAPTER 2. x typically contains corresponding point data. N ‘maxDataTrials’. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x. T. T. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. [m. [m.

The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta to the points R.CHAPTER 2.s out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. Comm.theta = DECONDITION(R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Fishler and R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. No 6. References • m. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. [out.C.s sample size (1 × 1) out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. they detect a structure argument. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. Comp. that is they will produce a model.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.x.misc private data (cell array) out.x) condition the point data out.theta is a cell array. that is.theta and the subset of R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Cambridge University Press. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N point pairs (6 × N ) R.out.x = CONDITION(R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. Assoc. pp 101-113.x data to work on. pp 381-395.theta] = ERR(R.. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.A.misc element.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.resid] = EST(R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. [out.x.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. Mach.theta.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.x and returns the best model out.t threshold (1 × 1) R. If multiple models are found out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. Boles. Vol 24.inlier.theta = []. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.R.theta. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.

au/ pk See also fmatrix. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.CHAPTER 2.uwa.csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector.edu. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.

See also rotx. rotz. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. See also roty. rotz. roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

• many texts (Paul. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. Y. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. See also tr2rpy. T = rpy2tr(roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. If roll. Z axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.CHAPTER 2. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. and rotation theta in the plane. r2t.y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. theta) as above where xy=[x. ssd. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.CHAPTER 2.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. See also zsad. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ncc.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. See also zsdd. ncc. Two cross-hairs are created. sad. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.CHAPTER 2. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels].

CHAPTER 2. ’that’. then R is 3 × 3.blah = []. The software pattern is: function(a. It supports options that have an assigned value.choose = {’this’. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt. then R is 2 × 2. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. b.bar = false. – If T is 3 × 3. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). ’other’}. tr2rt. varargin) opt. opt. opt.foo = true.

varargin).N sets opt <.choose <.select <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. N ‘setopt’. 3 sets opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.y sets opt.x. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt. w.blah <. varargin). By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.1.3 ‘blah’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.true sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.select <.debug <. If neither of ‘this’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.blah <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. x. ’#yes’}.CHAPTER 2.choose <. args) creates a test pattern image.‘this’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.foo <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .true ‘nobar’ sets opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.foo <.false ‘blah’.select = {’#no’.verbose <.y ‘that’ sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.

256. args are pitch (distance between centres). sf. args is the number of cycles. 25). [s.sd. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.sd. intercept. sf. args is the number of cycles. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. binary square pattern. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. dot diameter. 256. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args are theta (rad). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction.CHAPTER 2. a line. 2). A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. 50. square side length. binary dot pattern. sd and sdd are n-vectors.sdd] = tpoly(s0.

Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. The 3 angles rpy=[R. Y.P. See also angvec2r. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Y and Z axes respectively. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. See also rt2tr. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.y. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. ie. r2t. See also rpy2tr. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.CHAPTER 2. – If TR is 3 × 3. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. y. • The validity of R is not checked. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.z].:. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. If T has three dimensions.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.

If tri is RGB then cc is rg. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). An historical anomaly. [o1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. each N × 1.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or x and y. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).CHAPTER 2. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [c1. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. and displays in RPY format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. f ‘label’.CHAPTER 2.

tr2rpy. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.y). q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. See also upq poly. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq Central image moments m = upq(im.CHAPTER 2. p.(x-x0)p . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.y0) is the centroid. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. That is. mpq.(y-y0)q where (x0. the sum of I(x. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ssd. See also ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. See also sad. ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ssd.

i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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