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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. and I commend it to you. However the book “Robotics. is open-source. This is extravagant on storage. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.

AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . 1. . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . hitormiss . . . . . e2h . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . ipyramid . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . mkgrid . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.com.google. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. That’s what you your teachers. and you will be suitably acknowledged. You need to signup in order to post.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. tutors.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.

4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.html on a server for class use. Year = {2005}. Number = {4}. Volume = {12}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Author = {P. Corke}.zip). HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. The ﬁle robot. The details are @article{Corke05f.3. the table of content to functions.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Month = nov.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. 1.I. type of organization and application. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.gz) or zip format (. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. 1.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .petercorke.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1. and the “See also” functions to each other. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.

pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Corke. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Coimbra.1. pp 16–25.6. MSER. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.R. 1.I. Twente. 12(4).vlfeat. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.. P. VLFeat http://www.7.S. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. 1. Vincent Lepetit.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. 1994 University of British Columbia. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. and there are hundreds of modules available.7 Acknowledgements Last.Functions such as SURF. November 2005. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. but not least. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.mathworks.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. S ‘centre’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. Camera.CHAPTER 2. N ‘image’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. T ‘color’. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’. S ‘noise’. IM ‘resolution’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . used by all subclasses. N ‘sensor’. Options ‘name’.

Camera. CatadioptricCamera. Camera. Camera. SphericalCamera Camera.centre Get camera position p = C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.display Display value C.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.clf Clear the image plane C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).delete Camera object destructor C. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.

Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Camera.u + b.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.v + c = 0.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise false (0).hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.char Camera.CHAPTER 2.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. C. Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. See also Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.

Options ‘Tobj’.plot.plot Plot points on image plane C. Camera. cylinder. z. y.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. sphere. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. uv = C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. mkcube.hold. Camera.T.plot(p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also mesh. Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. y.mesh(x. z to the image plane and plots them. The matrices x. y. Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. T ‘Tcam’.clf Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.

plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘fps’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.hold.CHAPTER 2.T.mesh. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Options ‘Tcam’. T See also Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.clf Camera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘scale’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. ‘Tobj’. Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. ‘Tcam’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The image is not inverted. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. that is. a subclass of Camera.p. p. C. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.y].CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(R.rpy Set camera attitude C. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C Camera matrix C = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.

P ‘pixel’. p.and y-axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.F. 10um pixels. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.Sastry. J. Reference Y.CHAPTER 2. IM ‘resolution’. E = C. camera at origin.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). S. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. u.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.177 See also CentralCamera.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S. ﬁsheyecamera. T ‘color’. CatadioptricCamera.and v-axes parallel to x.Ma. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.8]) See also Camera. N ‘sensor’.Soatto.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. S ‘centre’. CentralCamera. D ‘default’ ‘image’. N ‘focal’.E Essential matrix E = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. E = C. f=8mm. Springer. “An invitation to 3D”. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’.Kosecka. F ‘distortion’. 2003. optical axis is z-axis.

The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H Homography matrix H = C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. p.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.CHAPTER 2. 2003. J. Reference Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.Sastry. S.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.H(T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .177 See also CentralCamera.Soatto. from two viewpoints. n. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Ma. F = C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). Springer. S.E CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. “An invitation to 3D”.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. See also CentralCamera.Kosecka.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.

F. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. See also quiver CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. 155-166. Moreno-Noguer. Journal on Computer Vision. and P.CHAPTER 2. V. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2009. Feb.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. vol. Int. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Fua. CentralCamera.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Lepetit.estpose(xyz. a = C. pp.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. CentralCamera.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. 81.

“Multiview Geometry”. Chap 9. Reference Y. J. See also CentralCamera. 2003. 2003. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. p.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .invE(E. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Kosecka. “An invitation to 3D”. 259 Y. “An invitation to 3D”.Kosecka.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. J. section 5. Springer.Ma. Springer. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Sastry. p116.Ma.CHAPTER 2. translation not to scale • n.Soatto.Sastry. s.Soatto. s. s. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.E CentralCamera.

H = C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Hough CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. one per line. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.T. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p. p. C.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

June 1992. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . See also Camera. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. 8. “Multiview Geometry”.visjac e(E.c. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Espiau. Reference B.CHAPTER 2.plot CentralCamera. pp.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Rives. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Chaumette.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. vol.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. 313-326. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. F. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. and P.

Reference B.visjac l CentralCamera. R&A.visjac l(L. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p polar.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.CHAPTER 2. June 1992. 313-326. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also CentralCamera.b. CentralCamera. Espiau. Chaumette. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. 8.visjac p polar.visjac p(uv. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. 1996. Vol 12(5). Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Rives. F.visjac e CentralCamera. and P. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. vol.visjac p. pp. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Oct. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). IEEE Trans. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .c.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Hager & Corke. pp 651-670. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Hutchinson.

2009.visjac l. CentralCamera. and F. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Int. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. pp. in Proc. See also CentralCamera. Chaumette. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Louis). P.visjac p. (St. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac l. F. 5962-5967.visjac p polar(rt. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. Oct. Corke. Spindler.CHAPTER 2. radius and theta.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. I.

Lowe. ScalePointFeature.SIFT. PointFeature.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See also isift. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Int. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.91-110. Journal on Computer Vision. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. vol. Nov.60. D. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. See README. 2004.

match(f2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. SiftPointFeature. F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.CHAPTER 2. C ‘alpha’. f = PointFeature(u. v. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = PointFeature(u. See also isift SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.

support(im.T] = F.support(im. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.CHAPTER 2. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(images. F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. [out. out = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CentralCamera. S ‘pose’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2. Overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.T. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). ﬁsheyecamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.project(p.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘name’.

of 4-vector. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.5) target center . The external view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. error norm.gain.center of the target in world coords (0. The camera view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. defaults in parentheses: target size . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. error.0.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.CHAPTER 2. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. camera pose.depth of points to use for Jacobian.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .the side length of the target in world units (0.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The camera view.01) . image plane size and desired feature locations. Jacobian condition number. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.

P. I. defaults in parentheses: target size . z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). scalar for If null take actual value all points. of 4-vector. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Corke.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.the side length of the target in world units (0. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.depth of points to use for Jacobian.5) target center .01) . CentralCamera. May 3-7 2010. error.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . (Anchorage). IEEE Int. Robotics and Automation.visjac l. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. Jacobian condition number. pp.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The external view.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . in Proc. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p(pt. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.0. for all points. error norm. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations. camera pose. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. Conf. CentralCamera.visjac p polar.gain. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.center of the target in world coords (0. 5550-5555.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). pp. Tinne Tuytelaars. Luc Van Gool. No. 346–359. 3. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Andreas Ess. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 110. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.

[m. ScalePointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.C] = F. v. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SURF point features m = F. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].CHAPTER 2.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. f = PointFeature(u. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. Options ‘thresh’.

support(images. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.plot scale(options. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.T] = F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 1=opaque.support(im. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(im.support(images. [out. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. 0=transparent (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. F.2) SurfPointFeature. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. out = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.CHAPTER 2.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F. C ‘alpha’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’.axis. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.com) web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com). Video AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.char Convert to string A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.display AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. See also AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A.

2003. on Computer Vision.1470-1477. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. b = BagOfWords(f.org). k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.Zisserman. in Proc.CHAPTER 2. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. f can also be a cell array. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Conf. Ninth IEEE Int. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Oct.Sivic and A.

The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. See also BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char Convert to string s = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char BagOfWords. BagOfWords.exemplars(w. BagOfWords. images.exemplars display exemplars of words B.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.n] = B. N ‘maxperimage’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. M ‘width’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. Options ‘ncolumns’.isword Features from words f = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.

wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. subclass of Camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.

Camera CatadioptricCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

project Project world points to image plane uv = C. f=8mm. N ‘focal’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.CHAPTER 2.T. ﬁsheyecamera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘noise’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’.project(p.and y-axes respectively. camera at origin. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. 10um pixels. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. M ‘k’. K ‘maxangle’. optical axis is z-axis. S ‘centre’. CatadioptricCamera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. T ‘Tcam’. u. SIGMA ‘pose’.and v-axes parallel to x. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera. N ‘sensor’. A ‘resolution’. P ‘pixel’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘sine’.

A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.CHAPTER 2. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature.

char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also PointFeature.display Display value M. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. m = FeatureMatch(f1. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. f2.char Convert to string s = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

v2].ransac FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.ransac FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.outlier. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.v1.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier.u2.

FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p2 FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.p FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch.im2}) m.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.plot() M.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p1.p FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p1. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ransac(func. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. f2 = isurf(im2). and an error is created if this UserData is not found.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. ransac FeatureMatch. m.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). homography. m = f1. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. See also fmatrix.ransac( @fmatrix. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.CHAPTER 2.match(f2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac Apply RANSAC M. 1e-4). See also idisp FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.

FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.CHAPTER 2. v. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Y This camera model assumes central projection.

Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).and y. S ‘centre’. M ‘k’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. ‘sine’. Options ‘name’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . optical axis is z-axis. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.CHAPTER 2. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. f=8mm. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. SIGMA ‘pose’. ‘equisolid’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].and v-axes are parallel to x.axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. camera at origin. S ‘noise’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. u. 10um pixels. P ‘pixel’. K ‘resolution’.

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. T ‘Tcam’. See also FishEyeCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CatadioptricCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T.project(p. See also Camera. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). The voting array is 2-dimensional. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.0) and the line. See also LineFeature Hough. A horizontal line has theta = 0. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H).CHAPTER 2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.

char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Nrho]. T ‘suppress’. See also Hough. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.1). else N = [Ntheta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. N All edge pixels have equal weight. W ‘nbins’.CHAPTER 2.edgeThresh (default 0.char Convert to string s = HT.5) Set ht. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.edgeThresh.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Hough. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Hough.houghThresh (default 0. Set ht.display Display value HT.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Default 400 × 401. W ‘houghthresh’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. T ‘edgethresh’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.

HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. LineFeature Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. then all elements in an HT.plot(n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. H = HT. HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines Find lines L = HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. The process is repeated for all peaks. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough. L = HT.CHAPTER 2.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. The highest peak is found.plot.plot Plot line features HT.lines Hough. See also Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

See also LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value L.char Convert to string s = L. theta. one per element. theta. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. strength. L = LineFeature(rho. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. LENGTH is undeﬁned.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.

L.seglength(edge.plot Plot line L. See also icanny LineFeature.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot() overlay the line on current plot. Small gaps.CHAPTER 2. less than gap pixels are tolerated.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L. l2 = L.points Return points on line segments p = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.close() closes the connection to the movie.close Close the image source M. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie. S ‘skip’.axis.char Convert to string M. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Movie. G ‘scale’.com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.

grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Options ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. F Skip frames. planar. undirected graph create an n-d. S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.

path(v) set goal vertex.add node(coord) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .component(v) g.add node(coord.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.add edge(v1.cost(e) g.distance(v1.plot() g.next(v) g.coord(v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. v2) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. v) g.clear() add vertex.connectivity() g. Object properties (read/write) g.neighbours(v) g.goal(v) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.edges(e) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.CHAPTER 2.

v2.add edge(v1. v = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. Options ‘distance’. PGraph. and returns the node id v. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.CHAPTER 2. PGraph. E = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. where x is D × 1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add node(x.add node(x. v. and returns the edge id E.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add edge(v1.

and the distance d.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.d] = G.CHAPTER 2. PGraph. PGraph. edges and components.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. [v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .coord(v) return coordinate vector.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. D × 1.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.clear Clear the graph G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.char Convert graph to string s = G. of node id v.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.display Display value F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. See also ScalePointFeature. one per element.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SurfPointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

match Match point features m = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. [m. where 1 is perfect match.char PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.C] = F.match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot Plot feature F.

Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. difference. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. union.html and require a licence.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.mit. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. so use with care. Polygon.char String representation s = P. HEIGHT].centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.area Area of polygon a = P. kirill@plume.area() is the area of the polygon. p = Polygon(C. Polygon.mit.edu. http://puddle. Pankratov. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. intersection.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Polygon. one column per vertex.

char Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. returns coordinates of P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.CHAPTER 2. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. else 0. See also Polygon. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.display Display polygon P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.

intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. y1 y2]. returns empty polygon.moments(p.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.CHAPTER 2. each column is [x y]’.

union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union Union of polygons i = P.plot Plot polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.E] = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.char Ray3D.E] = R.display Display value R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. Ray3D. [x. [x.char Convert to string s = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. one per element.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.CHAPTER 2.

RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. horizontal coordinate centroid.c. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.0) 1 for a circle. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.b.CHAPTER 2.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. imoments RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. RegionFeature. RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. For example R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. ymin. ymax].xmax.char Convert to string s = R. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.uc will be a list not a vector.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.th] = R. one per element. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.CHAPTER 2. See also iblobs.box Return bounding box b = R.

plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot centroid R. R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display Display value R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. See also RegionFeature.and xmarkers.char RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o. R.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.CHAPTER 2.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. RegionFeature. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

plot scale Plot feature scale F. 1=opaque. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. F.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. v. C ‘alpha’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = ScalePointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. See also PointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = ScalePointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. 0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options. strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. T ‘movie’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.CHAPTER 2. N ‘thresh’. C. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. R ‘nslots’. one per active track. options) is a new tracker object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. See also PointFeature Tracker. Options ‘radius’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Show feature trajectories T. See also Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char Convert to string s = T.display Display value T. Tracker.char Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.

Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. AxisWebCamera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. otherwise the result is not predictable. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Movie Video. and their characteristics is displayed.

about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close Close the image source V.close() closes the connection to the camera.char Convert to string V. Video.CHAPTER 2. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If th1 is a column vector. the ﬁrst for left. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. and the right image is cyan. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). color. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. By default the left image is red. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. if negative it is reduced. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . right. a = anaglyph(left.CHAPTER 2. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. the second for right. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). right. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. The result is in the interval [-pi pi).

[x. p2) as above but p1=[x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. % emission of sun plot(l. See also RegionFeature. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. p = bresenham(p1.boundary. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y1) to (x2. y1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.CHAPTER 2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. 6500). r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. Endpoints must be integer.s] = boundmatch(R1. If lambda is a column vector.y2]. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.y1] and p2=[x2.

See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. [C.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.CHAPTER 2.Y. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.

green and blue primaries respectively. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. [k. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).CHAPTER 2. k = closest(a. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. R.d1] = closest(a. x = circle(C. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘n’. that is.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. and x is N × 3. R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.

Notes • Data from http://cvrl. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.32).ioo.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. The data are referred to as pilot data. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. • From Table I(5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. and 22500 (444. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).16). (Table 1(5. 335 of Table 1(5. 19000 (526. As noted in footnote a on p.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). since.d1. while Table I(5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).d2] = closest(a.CHAPTER 2.5.5. they were measured directly.ac.5.5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.CHAPTER 2.ac.ioo. out = col2im(pix.M). Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ucl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize is a 2-vector (N.uk See also cmfrgb. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im.CHAPTER 2.

@isnan. mask. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .G. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. [L. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.B). icolor.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. out = colorize(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. eg. and returns a per-pixel logical result. @isnan. im<100.CHAPTER 2. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. k. See also imono. func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.

“?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.R] = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(XYZ. XYZ = colorname(name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.CHAPTER 2. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.C. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. L = colorkmeans(im. low is good. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. eg. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. k) as above but also returns the residual R. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.

it can be omitted. i1. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.o2. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.txt. s = ‘dest<-src’.i2. [o1. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. or alternatively.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. colorspace(s.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.o3] = colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. s = ‘src->dest’. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. double data is the natural choice. • Color space names are case insensitive.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. B = rand(400. Example A = rand(400. like a colormap. out will also have size M × 3. d = distance(A. for memory and computational performance. • If im is an M × 3 array.CHAPTER 2.B). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.100).b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.200). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). The distance d is M × N and element d(I.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2*A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. However. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .

y). Tested: PC Matlab v5.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.j). seed. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. University of Amsterdam. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. non zero is counter-clockwise.uva. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. bunschot@wins. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.(+31)20-5257524. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. tel. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.3. not image frame. non-zero is an object. The result E is a matrix.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.CHAPTER 2. in matrix coordinate frame. E = edgelist(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Coimbra. I. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2.CHAPTER 2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. one per line drawn. epiline(f. p.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also epiline.R. p. 1998. Oct 27. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. See also fmatrix. p1. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.S. Author Based on fmatrix code by. H = epiline(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.

The University of Western Australia. Notes • The points must be corresponding.au/. it is singular.CHAPTER 2. • f is a rank 2 matrix. homography. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.uwa. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). c. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. no outlier rejection is performed. • Contains a RANSAC driver. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. page 270. http://www.edu. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . epiline. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. which means it can be passed to ransac(). and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse. See also ransac. that is. p2. that is. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views.

Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.CHAPTER 2. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. See also imorph. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. x2.y1) and (x2.y2). y1. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. itriplepoint.

School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.uwa. Notes • The points must be corresponding. See also ransac. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. no outlier rejection is performed.CHAPTER 2. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.csse. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.au/. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia. invhomog.

T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R ‘scale’. S ‘dimension’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. that is tp=T*T1. See also homography. im. [out. ie. D ‘size’. itrim. See also e2h.offs] = homwarp(H. S output image contains all the warped pixels.CHAPTER 2. V ‘roi’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im.

IRE Trans. on Information Theory. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. IT-8:pp. ’nfeat’. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. features. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ianimate(seq. 1962. 200).CHAPTER 2. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ’gs’). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 179-187. Hu. features.

F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iblobs features f = iblobs(im. isurf. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). M ‘npoints’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.CHAPTER 2. iharris. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. N ‘only’. YMIN YMAX].

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. A set pixel aspect ratio. default 1.0 ‘connect’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. [S1.0) 1 for a circle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. C set connectivity. ilabel. [A1. vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. 1996-7. This is an dilation followed by erosion. S ‘th0’. Tel Aviv University. se. See also iopen. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isobel. out = iclose(im. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.CHAPTER 2. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. T ‘th1’.

options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. The images do not have to be of the same size.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.CHAPTER 2. [0 1 1]). Options ‘dir’. See also imono.u] = iconcat(im. colorize. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. [C. D ‘bgval’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. options) convolves im1 with im2.

CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘k’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘deriv’. E ‘suppress’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). CT ‘edgegap’. R ‘nfeat’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. D ‘sigma’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. N ‘detector’. K ‘patch’.

Options ‘dplot’.6. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Image and Vision Computing. IEEE Computer Society. 593-593. Proc. vol. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with a delay of 0. J.Noble.J.. Stephens. p2.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.121-128. pp. See also PointFeature. Proc. 1988. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. T ‘maxiter’. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. with a delay of d [sec]. pp. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.CHAPTER 2. Tomasi. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.G. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. [T. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Harris and M. 1994. Manchester. p2.5 [sec]. • “Good features to track”. C. pp 147-151. N ‘mindelta’. Shi and C. J. T ‘distthresh’. • “Finding corners”.d] = icp(p1. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. May 1988.

[]) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. See also iscale. Pattern Anal. m.Besl and H. s = idecimate(im. 239-256. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Feb. 14. P.CHAPTER 2. each plane is decimated. IEEETrans. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. pp.McKay. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Mach. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im.. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. s = idecimate(im. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. vol. no. m. 2. 1992. Intell.or 3-dimensional.

CHAPTER 2. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. linear proﬁle. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. Options ‘ncolors’. C ‘xydata’. zero is white. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . positive is blue. zero is white color map: random values. If im is a cell array of images. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). negative is red. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. positive is blue. zero is black. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. XY ‘colormap’. darker than ‘grey’. negative is red. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned.and y-axes respectively. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. If the image is zoomed. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. histogram and zooming. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’.

labelimage. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. idisplabel(im. labelimage. labels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. See also iblobs. caxis. icolorize. colormap. See also image. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class.CHAPTER 2. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. out = igamma(im.45. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also itriplepoint. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. ithin. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).CHAPTER 2.

See also ithresh.m] = igraphseg(im. Int. k. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.5). idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”.m] = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min. 59. 167181. 2004. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. k.CHAPTER 2. [l. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Huttenlocher.5). min is the minimum region size (pixels). min. P. 1500. [L. L = igraphseg(im. 0. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. Journal on Computer Vision. vol. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2006. 100. Sept. Felzenszwalb and D. k. k is the scale parameter. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.jpg’). Example im = iread(’58060.

[H. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. options) displays the image histogram.x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. bar(x. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. [h.x] = ihist(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.h). ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. plot(x. H = ihist(im.

Region labels are in the range 1 to M. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m.CHAPTER 2. y1. ii is a precomputed integral image. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. x1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. y2. [L. same size as im. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.y2).parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.y1) and bottom-right (x2.

[L. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. iproﬁle. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. • This is a “low level” function.Y].class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. each a 2-vector [X. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p1. p2. otherwise it does not. eg.maxlabel. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.maxlabel. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. out = iline(im. 8). ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .parents. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.CHAPTER 2. The pixels on the line are set to 1.class. ilabel(im. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.parents. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. See also iblobs. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.

s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Is a MEX ﬁle. [xm.and y-offsets relative to (x.DY) are the x. im2. H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). im2. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.DY. xmax. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. x. centred at (x.CC] where (DX.score] = imatch(im1. and columns the vertical position. x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. y.y). s] % relative to (x. s.y) and its half-width is H. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. ymin. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. The template in im1 is centred at (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. w2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.CHAPTER 2. a perfect match score is 1.y). • ZNCC matching is used. y. The return value is xm=[DX.y) and of size s. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. ymax] relative to (x. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. -s.

v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. All pixels are equally weighted.u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u. The element u(v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(w. H) as above but the domain is w × H. [u. effectively a binary image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. effectively a greyscale image. f = imoments(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.CHAPTER 2.

icolor. or its area. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. m10. m01. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also RegionFeature. horizontal coordinate centroid. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im.CHAPTER 2. the elements are m00. m11.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m02. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. • This function does not perform connectivity. Different conversion functions are supported. m20. ilabel. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize.

idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.CHAPTER 2. The labels [L. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im.org). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Matas.m] = imser(im. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. pp. 22. Image and Vision Computing. Pajdla. 2004. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. m. se. [label. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Urban. 761767. ’grey’.png’. ’double’). by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. ’light’). and T. O. J. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Chum.m] = imser(im. Sept.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.ˆ2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.

CHAPTER 2. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. sides. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. See also iclose. n. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. out = iopen(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sides.

options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 10. im1. ’tblr’.CHAPTER 2. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.V]. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise im2 is selected. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. im2. 20. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. ’t’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.

Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.CHAPTER 2. [p. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).uv] = iproﬁle(im. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. See also bresenham. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.

sigma. se.2) = 0. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. See also iscalespace. se. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 12. se(2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled.5)). op. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. order. The highest rank. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. out = imorph(image. op. idecimate. out = ipyramid(im. the maximum.3). is order=1. out = ipyramid(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.CHAPTER 2. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ones(5. im > irank(im. se). out = imorph(image. 1. nbins. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im.

• A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). See also imorph. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. where R=[umin umax. ivar. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R ‘roi’. vmin vmax]. im = iread(ﬁle. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. G ‘reduce’. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix.

imwrite. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). istereo. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.out2. [out1. See also FeatureMatch.out2] = irectify(f.h1. homwarp. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. igamma. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.h2] = irectify(f. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im1. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Color images are not supported.CHAPTER 2. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. imono.

S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. V ‘smooth’.vmax]. angle. See also idisp.H] return central part of image.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S ‘extrapval’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. Options ‘outsize’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .umax. vmin.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. [out. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.

while bias>0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.CHAPTER 2.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. Options ‘outsize’. s>1 makes the image larger.5 is symmetric cropping. bias<0. im2. out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s<1 makes it smaller. s ‘extrapval’. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias=0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. V ‘smooth’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.L.L. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . corresponding to each step of the sequence.CHAPTER 2. in space and scale. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. idecimate. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. [g. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. n) as above but sigma=1. n. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.s] = iscalespace(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = iscalespace(im. See also iscalespace.

See also isrot. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.CHAPTER 2. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. that is. ilaplace. it its third dimension is equal to three. ‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. else false (0). The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ismooth.

org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. isurf. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. See also SiftPointFeature. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Features are returned in descending strength order. 2 (2004). “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 91-110. 60. International Journal of Computer Vision. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2.vlfeat. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. pp. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. Lowe. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. N ‘suppress’. Reference David G. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www.

See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. @ssd. ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @zsad. and these output pixels are set to NaN. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. @zssd. zssd.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. im. zsad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @ncc. [w. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.CHAPTER 2. s is same size as im. [w. s = isimilarity(T.H. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. sad. See also imatch.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.

Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.CHAPTER 2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. sigma.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. [gx. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx.gy] = isobel(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. convolved. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then converted back to integer. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. See also iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.

u). range. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.sim] = istereo(iml.M] for an N × M window. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range is the disparity search range. That is. imr. ‘valid’) as above. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). [d. See also ishomog. the disparity d=d(v. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. H is the half size of the matching window.u) means that imr(v. isrot(R. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. See also ksobel. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. range. imr. icanny.CHAPTER 2.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. H. w. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. else false (0).

dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. imr. • sim = max(dsi. imr. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. Options ‘metric’.5).B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. 3) See also irectify. p. B.5 to +0. dx. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.CHAPTER 2. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.dsi] = istereo(iml. range.sim. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. [d. range. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. That is.sim. w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. ‘ncc’. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.p] = istereo(iml. [d. p. w. out = istretch(im.A and p. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.

The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. T ‘octaves’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).CHAPTER 2. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Notes • Color images. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Kroon (U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. or sequences. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. N ‘thresh’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

out = ithin(im. Tinne Tuytelaars. Vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. else false (0). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isvec(v. Andreas Ess. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. pp.or columnvector. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. See also hitormiss. either a row. 346–359. See also ishomog.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. No. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). itriplepoint. 3. Otherwise false (0).CHAPTER 2. 110. Luc Van Gool. isift.

CHAPTER 2. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. See also homwarp. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. a lower value will include more.im2. The default is 0.out2] = itrim(im1. [out1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. ithresh(im. Notes • Greyscale image only.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. The same cropping is applied to each input image.out2] = itrim(im1.5. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. se. See also iendpoint. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.

5). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3). @std). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. @max). The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. See also ivar. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. ones(5. out = iwindow(image. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. se. func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ones(3. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.

dG/dx. k = kcircle(R. klog. k = kdgauss(sigma.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. ktriangle. kdog. • The vertical derivative. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. See also ones. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. dG/dy. is k’. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.

and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. klog. By default SIGMA2 = 1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . kdog. kdgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.6*sigma1. See also kdgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). k = kdog(sigma1. klog. See also kgauss. k = kdog(sigma1.CHAPTER 2.

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also kgauss. iconv. kdog. kdgauss. k = klog(sigma. and W=2 × H+1. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also ilaplace.

L = kmeans(x. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.CHAPTER 2.C] = kmeans(x. [L. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference Tou and Gonzalez. and D is the dimension.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k. Pattern Recognition Principles.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. See also cylinder.y. [x. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. C ‘T’. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).z] = mkcube(s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.z] = mkcube(s. Options ‘T’. s. The points are the columns of p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘edge’. symmetric about the origin.y. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.CHAPTER 2. [x.

MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. or y(:. MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.yq . n) MPLOT(t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. or y(:. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. the sum of I(x. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.y). y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.CHAPTER 2. y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.xp . See also mpq poly. n.2)). p. n) MPLOT(y. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq. y) MPLOT(t.2)). That is.

p. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. so centroids will be still be correct. upq poly. npq poly. See also mpq.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. they are considered to be a single vertex.

w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.2. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1986.m. W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. where W=2*w2+1. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. 20). sad. the height of a character. niblack.CHAPTER 2. ssd.s] = niblack(im. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. • A common choice of k=-0. for example. k. T has the same dimensions as im. Example t = niblack(im. [T. idisp(im >= t). Prentice-Hall. See also zncc. in text segmentation. -0.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. k. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq poly.CHAPTER 2. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. That is UPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. mpq.0). p. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.q)/MPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.p.

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. upq. See also mpq poly. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered as a single vertex. npq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m.

i] = peak(y. otsu IEEE Trans. N. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Example t = otsu(im). options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. idisp(im >= t). [yp. x. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Systems. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Jan 1979. [yp.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .xp] = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.

CHAPTER 2.S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V).ij] = peak2(z. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. [zp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S points. S ‘interp’. use peak(-V). Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’. N ‘scale’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Typically choose N to be odd.

sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. ie. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If p has three dimensions. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. See also pnmﬁlt. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plot2(p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p.

P. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’fillcolor’.CHAPTER 2. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. plot_circle(c. r. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x2. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. Examples plot_circle(c. ‘size’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’edgecolor’. value pairs that are passed to plot.y1. ’r’). Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. W. PLOT BOX(x1. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. PLOT BOX(’centre’. or a set of name.y2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. 5). plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. r.y1) and (x2. ‘r’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’b’). plot_circle(c.y2). ’LineWidth’. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ’g’. P. W. R. 1=solid. ‘size’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.

Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) ls is the standard line styles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. c Specify color of the axes. current plot.Y.CHAPTER 2.Y]. Options ‘color’. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. with Matlab line style ls. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. If C=[X. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. C. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. centred at the origin. xc. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.

The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’.CHAPTER 2. ’name’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. trplot( T. ’color’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ‘printf’. ‘framename’. fmt.X = 0. ’r’). Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. n ‘text opts’. options) adds point markers to a plot. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. Options ‘textcolor’. ’r’. to ‘view’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’color’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate.

C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior.CHAPTER 2. color. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. R. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. The default is 1. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. patch. NOTES • The sphere is always added. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. R. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. either a letter or 3-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. 1=solid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. See also plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also pgmﬁlt. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plotp(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.CHAPTER 2.

At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. [gr. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.

x.CHAPTER 2. d) as above but elements increment by d. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. N ‘maxDataTrials’. [m.in. T. [m. T. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. T.resid] = ransac(func. x typically contains corresponding point data. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. x. one column per point pair. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. x. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.in] = ransac(func. Options ‘maxTrials’.

CHAPTER 2.t threshold (1 × 1) R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.A. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. they detect a structure argument.theta] = ERR(R.theta is a cell array.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.x.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. Vol 24.misc private data (cell array) out.x) condition the point data out.resid] = EST(R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp 101-113. pp 381-395. that is they will produce a model.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.R. Boles. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. Comp. No 6. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. References • m. [out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. [out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.out.theta. If multiple models are found out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. Assoc..x that best supports (most inliers) that model.out.x and returns the best model out.x data to work on. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. Cambridge University Press.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .inlier.x.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Comm.theta and the subset of R.x = CONDITION(R.theta to the points R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.C. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. Mach. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.theta = []. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.s out.misc element.theta = DECONDITION(R. that is. Fishler and R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.

Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix. If lambda is a vector. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.uwa.csse. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx. rotz. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. See also roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. roty.CHAPTER 2.

Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. pitch. See also tr2rpy. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. pitch. • many texts (Paul. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Z axes respectively. T = rpy2tr(roll. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Y. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . yaw. If roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX.CHAPTER 2.

y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ncc.CHAPTER 2. theta) as above where xy=[x.y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. See also zsad. y. r2t. and rotation theta in the plane. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. ssd.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Two cross-hairs are created. sad. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. See also zsdd.CHAPTER 2. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. ncc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

opt. then R is 2 × 2. opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. ’other’}.choose = {’this’.foo = true. The software pattern is: function(a. – If T is 3 × 3. ’that’.bar = false.blah = []. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. tr2rt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. varargin) opt. then R is 3 × 3. opt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). It supports options that have an assigned value. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. c.

select <. x. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. 3 sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. args) creates a test pattern image.x.false ‘blah’.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.select <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.‘this’. opt = tb_optparse(opt.N sets opt <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.choose <.foo <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.foo <.1. If neither of ‘this’. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. w.choose <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin).y sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.select = {’#no’.debug <. varargin).3 ‘blah’.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.true sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.blah <.blah <. N ‘setopt’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. ’#yes’}.verbose <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.CHAPTER 2.y ‘that’ sets opt.

intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. binary dot pattern. 25). 256. binary square pattern. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. sf. intercept. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 256. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. a line. args is the number of cycles. square side length.CHAPTER 2. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args are pitch (distance between centres). n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. 50. sd and sdd are n-vectors. sf.sd. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. dot diameter. 2). A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sd. [s. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. args are theta (rad). Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’.

See also angvec2r. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. [theta.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.CHAPTER 2. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Y. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. rpy = tr2rpy(R.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. The 3 angles rpy=[R.P.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Y and Z axes respectively.

p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. – If TR is 3 × 3.y. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. y. If T has three dimensions. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. • The validity of R is not checked.CHAPTER 2.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. r2t.z]. See also rpy2tr. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.:. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ie. See also rt2tr.

An historical anomaly. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. [o1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). If tri is RGB then cc is rg.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. each N × 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [c1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. or x and y. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.

Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty.CHAPTER 2.

options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers.CHAPTER 2. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trprint T is the command line form of above. f ‘label’. and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

CHAPTER 2. the sum of I(x. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. mpq. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. See also upq poly. That is.y0) is the centroid.(x-x0)p . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rpy. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.(y-y0)q where (x0. p.y).

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. See also sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. See also ncc. ncc. ssd. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.

Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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