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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This is extravagant on storage. and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. However the book “Robotics. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . 2 . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . 1. . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . Polygon . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . closest . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . isift . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . iroi . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . mlabel . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . xaxis . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . ssd . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . vex . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. That’s what you your teachers.com. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. You need to signup in order to post. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. and you will be suitably acknowledged.google. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. tutors. lecturers and professors are paid to do.

6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Corke}.I. 1.gz) or zip format (.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.zip). the table of content to functions. The ﬁle robot.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. type of organization and application. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.3.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Year = {2005}. Number = {4}. 1. 1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.petercorke. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Volume = {12}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. and the “See also” functions to each other.html on a server for class use. Month = nov. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.1. Author = {P. The details are @article{Corke05f.

R.6.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. MSER. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. and there are hundreds of modules available.Functions such as SURF. 1994 University of British Columbia. 1. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. 1.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. 12(4). but not least. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.vlfeat. pp 16–25. Coimbra. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Vincent Lepetit.mathworks.7 Acknowledgements Last.. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.1.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.S. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. Twente. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. November 2005.7. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Corke. VLFeat http://www. P. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.I.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

P ‘pixel’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. IM ‘resolution’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. S ‘centre’. S ‘noise’. N ‘image’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. N ‘sensor’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. used by all subclasses. T ‘color’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. Camera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. Options ‘name’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. SIGMA ‘pose’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.char Convert to string s = C.clf Clear the image plane C. ﬁsheyecamera. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2. Camera. CatadioptricCamera.delete Camera object destructor C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).display Display value C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.centre Get camera position p = C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.

ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.char Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera. C.v + c = 0. See also Camera.u + b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. Camera. otherwise false (0).CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘Tobj’.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).plot Plot points on image plane C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. sphere.hold. z.mesh(x.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. y. The matrices x. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. See also mesh. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Camera.CHAPTER 2.T. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. cylinder. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. y.clf Camera. Camera.plot(p. y. Camera. z to the image plane and plots them.plot. uv = C. mkcube.

2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. ‘fps’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.hold. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. ‘Tcam’. Camera.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tcam’. T ‘scale’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. T See also Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.T. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Overrides the current camera pose C.mesh.clf Camera. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.

CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.p.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. that is. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. p. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.rpy(R. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy Set camera attitude C. a subclass of Camera.y]. The image is not inverted. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C Camera matrix C = C. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. IM ‘resolution’. p. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S. f=8mm.8]) See also Camera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. camera at origin. Reference Y.Soatto.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. J.and y-axes respectively. N ‘sensor’.177 See also CentralCamera.and v-axes parallel to x. ﬁsheyecamera.Kosecka. D ‘default’ ‘image’.Sastry.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. T ‘color’.E Essential matrix E = C. “An invitation to 3D”. E = C.Ma.F. 2003. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. F ‘distortion’. Springer. S ‘centre’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). N ‘focal’. E = C. S ‘noise’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10um pixels. S.CHAPTER 2. SIGMA ‘pose’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera.

F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. J. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Reference Y.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. from two viewpoints.H Homography matrix H = C.H(T.Kosecka. “An invitation to 3D”. 2003.E CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C. S.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H CentralCamera.Ma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. See also CentralCamera.Sastry.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). Springer. p. S. F = C.Soatto. n.

ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. 2009. Journal on Computer Vision. a = C. pp. F.CHAPTER 2. 81. Moreno-Noguer. CentralCamera. 155-166.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Fua. vol. Lepetit. Int. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.estpose(xyz.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. V. and P. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Feb.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. See also quiver CentralCamera.

invE(E.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer. 2003. s. s. translation not to scale • n. Reference Y. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. 2003. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. J. “Multiview Geometry”.Sastry.Kosecka. “An invitation to 3D”. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. s. p. Chap 9.E CentralCamera.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. J.Sastry. section 5. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Springer. p116. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Kosecka.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Soatto. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Ma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. 259 Y.Soatto. s.

T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Tobj’. ‘Tcam’. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. one per line.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.CHAPTER 2.T.plot epiline(f. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. See also Hough CentralCamera.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. H = C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot epiline(f. CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. C. p.

d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. June 1992. 313-326. F.b. Rives. pp. Reference B.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. and P. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.c. 8. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac e(E.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Chaumette. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. vol. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Espiau.plot CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”. See also Camera. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .

visjac p. and P. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac p. F.c. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac e CentralCamera. Oct.visjac p(uv. Reference B. Hutchinson. Rives. 8. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Hager & Corke. 1996. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. 313-326. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac l(L. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Vol 12(5). CentralCamera. vol. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Chaumette. pp. CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.CHAPTER 2. pp 651-670. Espiau. June 1992.visjac p polar. R&A. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. IEEE Trans. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar.b. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

(St. in Proc. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Louis).visjac p polar(rt. Int. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. radius and theta.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. Corke. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2. I. Chaumette.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. See also CentralCamera. 2009. CentralCamera.visjac p. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Oct. pp. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac l. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. P. 5962-5967. F. Spindler. and F.visjac l.

Int. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Nov. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. ScalePointFeature.60. See README. See also isift.CHAPTER 2. pp. PointFeature.SIFT.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.91-110. D. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.Lowe. 2004. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Journal on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.

CHAPTER 2. 0=transparent (default 0.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options. F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also isift SiftPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. C ‘alpha’. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. f = PointFeature(u. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SIFT point features m = F.

F.T] = F.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support Support region of feature out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.CHAPTER 2.support(images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. [out. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im.support(images.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’.T. Options ‘name’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ﬁsheyecamera. N ‘pixel’.CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also SphericalCamera. S ‘pose’. CentralCamera.project(p.

defaults in parentheses: target size .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.5) target center . Jacobian condition number. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.depth of points to use for Jacobian.center of the target in world coords (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .gain. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The camera view. scalar for If null take actual value all points.0.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. error norm. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The external view.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .CHAPTER 2. The camera view. image plane size and desired feature locations.01) . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . error. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. of 4-vector. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. camera pose.the side length of the target in world units (0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.

The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. for all points.01) . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. defaults in parentheses: target size . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.0.CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.visjac p(pt.center of the target in world coords (0. P. Conf.the side length of the target in world units (0.depth of points to use for Jacobian. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Corke. Robotics and Automation. error. IEEE Int. image plane size and desired feature locations.visjac l.gain.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac p polar. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . pp. (Anchorage). 5550-5555. The external view. of 4-vector. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.5) target center . z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . error norm.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . May 3-7 2010. in Proc. CentralCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. CentralCamera. camera pose.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I. Jacobian condition number.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .

Tinne Tuytelaars.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 346–359. 110. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Andreas Ess. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. No. Vol. Luc Van Gool. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 3. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).CHAPTER 2. pp.

match Match SURF point features m = F. ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2.match(f2. PointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. v. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. [m.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. f = PointFeature(u.C] = F.

plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. F.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.T] = F.2) SurfPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(im.support(images. 1=opaque.support(images.support(im.plot scale(options. [out. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. out = F. C ‘alpha’.CHAPTER 2. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the support region is displayed. F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Video AxisWebCamera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.axis. G ‘scale’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com). otherwise the result is not predictable.com) web camera.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.display AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close() closes the connection to the web camera. See also AxisWebCamera.

on Computer Vision. 2003.1470-1477. b = BagOfWords(f. in Proc. f can also be a cell array. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Ninth IEEE Int. Conf.Sivic and A. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. pp. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Zisserman.CHAPTER 2.org). Oct.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.

char BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. images. isurf BagOfWords. BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars(w.char Convert to string s = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value B. BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.CHAPTER 2. See also BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.

BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B. M ‘width’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.n] = B.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. Options ‘ncolumns’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.CHAPTER 2.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.

subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

and v-axes parallel to x. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. P ‘pixel’.project(p. S ‘centre’. 10um pixels. M ‘k’. N ‘sensor’.T. See also Camera. ‘sine’. u. K ‘maxangle’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). SIGMA ‘pose’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. S ‘noise’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. N ‘focal’. ﬁsheyecamera. Options ‘Tobj’. CatadioptricCamera. optical axis is z-axis. f=8mm.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also Camera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. A ‘resolution’. ‘equisolid’. T ‘Tcam’. camera at origin.and y-axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.

If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. such as ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.

SurfPointFeature. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. one per element. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. FeatureMatch. See also PointFeature. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Convert to string s = M. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f2.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.display Display value M.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. m = FeatureMatch(f1.

outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.u2. FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.v2].ransac FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.inlier. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v1.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.outlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.

for example by: idisp({im1.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2.plot() M.FeatureMatch. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p1.p FeatureMatch.p1.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.im2}) m.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. These are the (u.FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.

m. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac(func. f2 = isurf(im2).show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.match(f2). inliers and outliers (and their percentages).CHAPTER 2. See also idisp FeatureMatch. homography.ransac( @fmatrix. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. See also fmatrix.ransac Apply RANSAC M. 1e-4). ransac FeatureMatch. m = f1. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. Example f1 = isurf(im1).

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The image is not inverted. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v. Y This camera model assumes central projection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.

10um pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. P ‘pixel’. K ‘resolution’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera at origin. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].axes respectively. S ‘noise’. optical axis is z-axis. M ‘k’. ‘sine’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.and y.CHAPTER 2.and v-axes are parallel to x. Options ‘name’. N ‘sensor’. f=8mm. SIGMA ‘pose’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. u. ‘equisolid’. S ‘centre’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’.

Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera. CatadioptricCamera.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. CentralCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T ‘Tcam’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FishEyeCamera. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.

For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. See also LineFeature Hough.0) and the line.CHAPTER 2. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. The voting array is 2-dimensional.H). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. A horizontal line has theta = 0. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.

Hough. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.1). if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.5) Set ht. Nrho]. W ‘houghthresh’. Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. T ‘suppress’.display Display value HT.houghThresh (default 0. Default 400 × 401.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edgeThresh (default 0. See also Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. else N = [Ntheta.edgeThresh. T ‘edgethresh’. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Set ht. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.CHAPTER 2. W ‘nbins’.

houghThresh times the maximum vote value. The process is repeated for all peaks. then all elements in an HT. HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough.plot Plot line features HT.plot. H = HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.CHAPTER 2.lines Hough. HT. LineFeature Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. The highest peak is found. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.plot(n. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.lines Find lines L = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. L = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.

• LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. one per element.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . theta. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LineFeature.char Convert to string s = L. LENGTH is undeﬁned. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value L. L = LineFeature(rho. strength.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.CHAPTER 2. L = LineFeature(rho. theta.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.

plot Plot line L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. Small gaps. L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . LineFeature. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.points Return points on line segments p = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). See also icanny LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength(edge. l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. l2 = L.CHAPTER 2.

Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string M. Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘skip’.close Close the image source M. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.axis.close() closes the connection to the movie.com).char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Movie.

grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. S ‘frame’. planar. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. F Skip frames. Options ‘skip’.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. undirected graph create an n-d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

path(v) set goal vertex.component(v) g.CHAPTER 2.distance(v1.next(v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.add node(coord) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().add edge(v1.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.cost(e) g. Object properties (read/write) g. v2) g.clear() add vertex.goal(v) g.edges(e) g.add node(coord. return vid add vertex and edge to v.neighbours(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity() g.plot() g.coord(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.

E = G. Options ‘distance’. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add edge(v1. where x is D × 1. v2.add edge(v1. PGraph. v = G. PGraph. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. and returns the edge id E.add node(x.CHAPTER 2. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node(x. and returns the node id v. v.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v = G.

CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. of node id v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D × 1.d] = G.CHAPTER 2.char Convert graph to string s = G. [v.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.clear Clear the graph G.coord(v) return coordinate vector.closest Find closest node v = G. and the distance d. edges and components.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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v. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.display Display value F. SurfPointFeature. one per element. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.

If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. where 1 is perfect match.match Match point features m = F.char PointFeature. PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Options ‘thresh’. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.match(f2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. the norm of the Euclidean distance. [m. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.C] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2.match(f2.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.CHAPTER 2. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot Plot feature F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).

CHAPTER 2.html and require a licence. Pankratov. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.mit.edu. Polygon.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. HEIGHT]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.area() is the area of the polygon. one column per vertex. p = Polygon(C.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. so use with care. intersection. difference.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. union.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.char String representation s = P. http://puddle.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon. Polygon. kirill@plume. Polygon.

display Display polygon P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. See also Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.char Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. returns coordinates of P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).CHAPTER 2. Polygon. Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. else 0.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns empty polygon. y1 y2]. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.CHAPTER 2.moments(p.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Polygon. each column is [x y]’. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. See also mpq poly Polygon.

P.plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot Plot polygon P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.CHAPTER 2.

d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.

Ray3D. [x.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. [x. See also Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = R.E] = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.display Display value R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.E] = R. Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. one per element.char Ray3D.

Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.0) 1 for a circle. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.b. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. one per element. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.box Return bounding box b = R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. For example R.xmax.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. RegionFeature. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. ymax].uc will be a list not a vector.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature. ymin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. See also iblobs.CHAPTER 2.th] = R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.

char RegionFeature. See also RegionFeature.and xmarkers. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. R. It is indicated with overlaid o.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.display Display value R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot Plot centroid R. RegionFeature. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R.plot box Plot bounding box R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. RegionFeature. R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

F. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. C ‘alpha’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v. SurfPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also PointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. strength. ScalePointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. v. 1=opaque. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale(options.

T ‘movie’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. R ‘nslots’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. one per active track. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. See also PointFeature Tracker. Options ‘radius’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. N ‘thresh’. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a new tracker object. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2.

plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker.char Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. See also Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display Display value T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.

AxisWebCamera. and their characteristics is displayed. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. Movie Video.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.

Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera.char Convert to string V. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video.close Close the image source V.grab() acquires an image from the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.

These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. right. the second for right. color. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. right. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and the right image is cyan. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. if negative it is reduced. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. If th1 is a column vector. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. the ﬁrst for left. By default the left image is red.CHAPTER 2. a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi).

y2]. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.boundary. 6500). y1. p2) as above but p1=[x1.y1) to (x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. x2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. Endpoints must be integer. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. % emission of sun plot(l.y1] and p2=[x2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.CHAPTER 2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. See also RegionFeature. If lambda is a column vector. p = bresenham(p1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].s] = boundmatch(R1.y2).

d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. [C. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.CHAPTER 2.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Y.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. [k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. green and blue primaries respectively. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and x is N × 3. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. x = circle(C. Options ‘n’. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that is.CHAPTER 2. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.d1] = closest(a. R. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). k = closest(a. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).

rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. since.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . while Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).CHAPTER 2. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5.5.16). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. they were measured directly. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ucl. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.d2] = closest(a. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).ac. (Table 1(5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. and 22500 (444. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.d1.5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. The data are referred to as pilot data.32).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. As noted in footnote a on p. • From Table I(5.ioo. 335 of Table 1(5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. 19000 (526.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.M). Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ioo. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ac.uk See also cmfrgb. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ucl. imsize is a 2-vector (N. out = col2im(pix.

rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.CHAPTER 2. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .

options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. @isnan. @isnan. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B). A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. icolor. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. func. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [L. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. See also imono. and returns a per-pixel logical result. im<100.C] = colorkmeans(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. out = colorize(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. eg. mask. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.CHAPTER 2. k. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.

interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. XYZ = colorname(name. eg.R] = colorkmeans(im. L = colorkmeans(im. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(XYZ. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.CHAPTER 2. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) as above but also returns the residual R. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.C. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. low is good. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space.

• Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. • Color space names are case insensitive. i1.i2.CHAPTER 2. As MATLAB’s native datatype. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it can be omitted. [o1. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. s = ‘dest<-src’. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. or alternatively. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.o2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.o3] = colorspace(s. s = ‘src->dest’.txt. colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. double data is the natural choice.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.

200).J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. out will also have size M × 3. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.B). Example A = rand(400. for memory and computational performance. However.CHAPTER 2.2*A. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .100). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. d = distance(A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. • If im is an M × 3 array. like a colormap. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. B = rand(400.

uva. University of Amsterdam.j). non zero is counter-clockwise. non-zero is an object.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. bunschot@wins. in matrix coordinate frame. E = edgelist(im.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. not image frame. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. seed. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Tested: PC Matlab v5. The result E is a matrix.CHAPTER 2. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background.y). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(+31)20-5257524.3. tel.

Author Based on fmatrix code by. Coimbra. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. 1998. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also epiline. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. H = epiline(f.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i).R. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Oct 27. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p. epiline(f.S. p. p1. one per line drawn. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. See also fmatrix. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. I.

homography. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). See also ransac. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. http://www.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. no outlier rejection is performed. • Contains a RANSAC driver. page 270.au/.csse. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. epiline. The University of Western Australia. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.uwa. Notes • The points must be corresponding.edu. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. • f is a rank 2 matrix. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. that is. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. which means it can be passed to ransac(). p2. it is singular. that is. c.

itriplepoint. See also imorph. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.y2). x2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. ithin. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.y1) and (x2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.

no outlier rejection is performed. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac().edu.uwa.au/. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be corresponding. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. invhomog.CHAPTER 2. See also ransac. The University of Western Australia.

but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. [out.offs] = homwarp(H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. ie. that is tp=T*T1. See also e2h. itrim. V ‘roi’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. R ‘scale’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. D ‘size’.CHAPTER 2. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. S ‘dimension’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. im. im. See also homography. S output image contains all the warped pixels.

See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features. 179-187.CHAPTER 2. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ianimate(seq. ’gs’). Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. 1962. ’nfeat’. IT-8:pp. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. Hu. on Information Theory. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IRE Trans. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). features. 200). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence.

box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. N ‘only’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. isurf. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.CHAPTER 2. YMIN YMAX]. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iharris. M ‘npoints’.

imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [S1. A set pixel aspect ratio. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. ilabel. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.CHAPTER 2. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. horizontal coordinate centroid. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. default 1.0 ‘connect’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. vertical coordinate bounding box. [A1.0) 1 for a circle.

1996-7. Tel Aviv University. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. S ‘th0’.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. T ‘th1’. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. se. See also isobel. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also iopen. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.CHAPTER 2. out = iclose(im.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.

[0 1 1]). D ‘bgval’.CHAPTER 2. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. colorize. [C. Options ‘dir’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). See also imono. C = icolor(im.u] = iconcat(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. iconcat(im.

If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. options) convolves im1 with im2. im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image.CHAPTER 2.

K ‘patch’. CM ‘cminthresh’. CT ‘edgegap’.CHAPTER 2. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. D ‘k’. E ‘suppress’. D ‘sigma’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘deriv’. N ‘detector’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. R ‘nfeat’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Options ‘dplot’.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.121-128. pp 147-151. Tomasi. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Stephens. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. vol. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. p2. T ‘maxiter’. with a delay of 0. IEEE Computer Society.6. J.CHAPTER 2. May 1988. pp. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. T ‘distthresh’. Harris and M. p2. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. with a delay of d [sec]. where * denotes squared and smoothed. J. Manchester. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. • “Good features to track”.G.. Shi and C.d] = icp(p1. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.J. Proc. [T. See also PointFeature. 593-593. Image and Vision Computing. • “Finding corners”. C. N ‘mindelta’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. 1988.Noble. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Proc.5 [sec]. 1994. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.

• For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. P. 2. Mach.or 3-dimensional.CHAPTER 2. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. 14. See also iscale. 1992.Besl and H. IEEETrans. s = idecimate(im. vol. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. s = idecimate(im. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. 239-256. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. m. Pattern Anal. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. no.. each plane is decimated. m. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Intell. pp. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.McKay. Feb. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.

the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. darker than ‘grey’. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘xydata’. If the image is zoomed. Options ‘ncolors’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. XY ‘colormap’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. negative is red. linear proﬁle. histogram and zooming.CHAPTER 2. If im is a cell array of images. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is white color map: random values. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. positive is blue. positive is blue. zero is white. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points.and y-axes respectively. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. negative is red. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value.

labelimage. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. caxis. See also iblobs. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. icolorize. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. See also image. idisplabel(im. labels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colormap.CHAPTER 2. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im.

• For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. See also itriplepoint. out = igamma(im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.45. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.CHAPTER 2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). ithin. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.

P.CHAPTER 2.jpg’). Sept. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. vol. Huttenlocher. 0. 100. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. k. Example im = iread(’58060. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. pp. min. [L. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. Int. Felzenszwalb and D. 167181.m] = igraphseg(im.5). 1500. k is the scale parameter.5). and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. See also ithresh. 2006. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Journal on Computer Vision. k. k. min. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 2004. 59.m] = igraphseg(im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [l. L = igraphseg(im.

’normcdf’). options) is the image histogram as a column vector.CHAPTER 2. bar(x.x] = ihist(im.h). plot(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. H = ihist(im.h). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. [h. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). options) displays the image histogram. [H. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.

[L.y2). for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.y1) and bottom-right (x2.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. y1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m. y2. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. ii is a precomputed integral image. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. same size as im. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. x1.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. [L.CHAPTER 2. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.

The pixels on the line are set to 1.class. [L. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. • This is a “low level” function. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p2.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.maxlabel.parents. out = iline(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. 8).parents.maxlabel. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. See also iblobs. p1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p1. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. eg. ilabel(im. otherwise it does not. iproﬁle. each a 2-vector [X.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.Y].

w2. x.and y-offsets relative to (x. The template in im1 is centred at (x.CHAPTER 2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.CC] where (DX. im2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y) and its half-width is H. s] % relative to (x. ymax] relative to (x.score] = imatch(im1. [xm.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y). -s.DY. • Is a MEX ﬁle. • ZNCC matching is used. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.DY) are the x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. y. H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).y). xmax. a perfect match score is 1. and columns the vertical position. centred at (x. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y) and of size s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. ymin. s. y. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. x. The return value is xm=[DX. im2.

See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u. All pixels are equally weighted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.CHAPTER 2. effectively a greyscale image. H) as above but the domain is w × H. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].u) = v. [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. effectively a binary image. v. [u. The element u(v. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(w.

if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. • This function does not perform connectivity. icolor. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m02. See also RegionFeature. horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. ilabel. m01. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m11. m10. or its area. the elements are m00. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. Different conversion functions are supported. m20.

O. Image and Vision Computing. pp. ’grey’. 2004. Pajdla. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Matas. vol. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.org). m. Sept. ’light’). part of VLFeat (vlfeat. [label.m] = imser(im. ’double’). idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. J. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Urban.m] = imser(im.CHAPTER 2. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. se. 22. and T. Chum. options) as above but m is the number of regions found.png’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. The labels [L. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 761767.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.CHAPTER 2. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.ˆ2). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.

sides. n. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an erosion followed by dilation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. sides. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. See also iclose. out = iopen(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

otherwise im2 is selected. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im2. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 20. ’t’. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 10.V]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. ’tblr’. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im1. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.

p1. p1.CHAPTER 2. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) for the corresponding row of p. See also bresenham. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).uv] = iproﬁle(im. [p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.

is order=1. se. idecimate. out = ipyramid(im. op. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.2) = 0. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. out = ipyramid(im. se(2. out = imorph(image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. se. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled.CHAPTER 2. nbins. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. ones(5. sigma.5)). See also iscalespace.3). 12. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. the maximum. The highest rank. im > irank(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. 1. out = imorph(image. order. se). sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.

im = iread(ﬁle. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. R ‘roi’. See also imorph. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where R=[umin umax. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. ivar. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. vmin vmax]. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. G ‘reduce’.

homwarp. igamma. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). imono. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.out2. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.h2] = irectify(f. Notes • Color images are not supported. m. im1. istereo. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. [out1. imwrite.h1. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. See also FeatureMatch.out2] = irectify(f.CHAPTER 2. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im1.

Options ‘outsize’. S ‘extrapval’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmax]. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp. [out.vmin vmax].H] return central part of image. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.CHAPTER 2. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. vmin. V ‘smooth’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.umax. angle. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.

while bias>0. s<1 makes it smaller. s ‘extrapval’. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. V ‘smooth’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. im2. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. bias<0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s>1 makes the image larger. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 moves the crop window up or to the left.5 is symmetric cropping.CHAPTER 2. out = isamesize(im1. Options ‘outsize’. bias=0.

and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.CHAPTER 2. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).L. n. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.s] = iscalespace(im. in space and scale. n) as above but sigma=1. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. See also iscalespace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. [g. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. idecimate. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.s] = iscalespace(im. corresponding to each step of the sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ‘valid’) as above. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. See also isrot. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ilaplace. it its third dimension is equal to three. ismooth. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax.CHAPTER 2. ishomog(T. that is.

• Features are returned in descending strength order. pp. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.vlfeat. 60. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 2 (2004). International Journal of Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. Reference David G. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. isurf.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘suppress’. Lowe. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. See also SiftPointFeature. 91-110. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.

s is same size as im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. @zsad. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. ncc. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. @ssd. See also imatch.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. @zssd.H. and these output pixels are set to NaN. im. zsad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. [w. ssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. sad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.CHAPTER 2. s = isimilarity(T. @ncc. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. zssd.

sigma. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. convolved. [gx.CHAPTER 2. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. then converted back to integer. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. [gx. See also iconv.gy] = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.

isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. H. isrot(R.sim] = istereo(iml. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. else false (0). [d. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.M] for an N × M window. the disparity d=d(v. range is the disparity search range. imr.u). icanny.CHAPTER 2. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. ‘valid’) as above. imr. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. See also ksobel. H is the half size of the matching window. range. w.u) means that imr(v. range.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ishomog. That is. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.

dx. w. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. [d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. • sim = max(dsi. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.5).dsi] = istereo(iml. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. p. p. w. [d. Options ‘metric’.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.sim. imr.A and p.p] = istereo(iml. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.CHAPTER 2. out = istretch(im.5 to +0. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. That is.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. B. range. ‘ncc’. imr. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. range.sim. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). 3) See also irectify.

Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. T ‘octaves’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Notes • Color images. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. or sequences.CHAPTER 2. N ‘thresh’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Kroon (U. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.

Vol. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. 3. out = ithin(im. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. either a row. Tinne Tuytelaars. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.CHAPTER 2.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. isift. else false (0). Luc Van Gool. pp. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. See also ishomog. 346–359. 110.or columnvector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. itriplepoint. Otherwise false (0). iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. isvec(v. See also hitormiss. No. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Andreas Ess.

CHAPTER 2. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.5. Notes • Greyscale image only.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. See also homwarp. a lower value will include more. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. ithresh(im. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.im2.out2] = itrim(im1. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. The same cropping is applied to each input image. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The default is 0. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.

ithin. op. hence output image had reduced dimensions. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled.CHAPTER 2. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. See also iendpoint. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. se.

Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ones(5. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.CHAPTER 2. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. se. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @max). The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled.3). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.5). se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. func. See also ivar. @std). out = iwindow(image.

• This kernel is an effective edge detector. dG/dx. is k’. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. k = kcircle(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. klog. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdgauss(sigma. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . dG/dy.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. kdog. • The vertical derivative. ktriangle. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. See also ones.

KGAUSS(SIGMA2). klog. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kgauss(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kdog(sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. kdgauss. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss. See also kdgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. By default SIGMA2 = 1. sigma2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed.6*sigma1. kdog.CHAPTER 2. k = kdog(sigma1.

See also kgauss. kdog. See also ilaplace. and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = klog(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdgauss. iconv. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.

it is assumed to have been completed previously. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and D is the dimension. k. Pattern Recognition Principles. L = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.C] = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).C] = kmeans(x.CHAPTER 2. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.y. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.z] = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. ‘edge’. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. Options ‘T’. symmetric about the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).CHAPTER 2. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. The points are the columns of p. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. [x. C ‘T’. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). See also cylinder.

n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.2)).2)). or y(:.yq . MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. n. the sum of I(x. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq. That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.xp . MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(t. p. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.CHAPTER 2. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n) MPLOT(y. y) MPLOT(t. y. or y(:. y. See also mpq poly.y).

upq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. See also mpq. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. p. npq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. so centroids will be still be correct. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.

-0. k. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. idisp(im >= t). W.m. the height of a character. T has the same dimensions as im. k. sad. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. Example t = niblack(im. 20). isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.CHAPTER 2. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. • A common choice of k=-0.s] = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for example.2. See also zncc. Prentice-Hall. 1986. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. where W=2*w2+1. niblack. ssd. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. in text segmentation.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. [T.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.p.q)/MPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p. That is UPQ(im. See also npq poly.0.CHAPTER 2.0). upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. mpq. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). upq. so centroids will be still be correct. npq. mpq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. they are considered as a single vertex. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).CHAPTER 2. otsu IEEE Trans. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im).i] = peak(y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. Jan 1979. Systems. N. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. idisp(im >= t). x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.xp] = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. pp 62-66 See also niblack. [yp.

S ‘interp’.CHAPTER 2.S points. N ‘scale’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. use peak(-V). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘scale’. use peak2(-V). [zp. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Typically choose N to be odd. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.S points. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.ij] = peak2(z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2(p. If p has three dimensions. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also pnmﬁlt.CHAPTER 2. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. ie. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.

Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. R. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’fillcolor’. PLOT BOX(x1. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. 1=solid. ’LineWidth’. ‘size’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ’g’. PLOT BOX(’centre’.y1) and (x2. plot_circle(c. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.y1.y2).CHAPTER 2. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. or a set of name. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’b’). ‘size’. W. P. 5). options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. r. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Examples plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. P. ’edgecolor’. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ’r’). W. r. r. plot_circle(c. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ‘r’. x2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles. xc.Y]. with Matlab line style ls.Y.CHAPTER 2. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. centred at the origin.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. If C=[X. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Options ‘color’. c Specify color of the axes. C.

‘framename’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’r’). n ‘text opts’. options) adds point markers to a plot. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’r’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’color’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. to ‘view’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. fmt. Options ‘textcolor’. ’name’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’.X = 0. ‘printf’. trplot( T. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’color’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p.

color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. 1=solid. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. See also plot. R. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. R. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. patch. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N.CHAPTER 2. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. color. either a letter or 3-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. The default is 1. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns.

plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. See also pgmﬁlt. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. plotp(p.

CHAPTER 2. [gr.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.gt] = radgrad(im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.

x. x. x typically contains corresponding point data. Options ‘maxTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. T. x.in] = ransac(func. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. [m. one column per point pair. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. [m. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set.resid] = ransac(func. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.in. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T. T. d) as above but elements increment by d. N ‘maxDataTrials’.

C. that is they will produce a model. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta = [].theta is a cell array.s out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.theta = DECONDITION(R. pp 101-113. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. Cambridge University Press. that is.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. Comp. Fishler and R. they detect a structure argument.A. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .x that best supports (most inliers) that model. [out.misc private data (cell array) out.theta.resid] = EST(R..x. Boles. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. pp 381-395.x and returns the best model out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. References • m. If multiple models are found out. Assoc.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.inlier. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.x) condition the point data out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. Mach.theta. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. No 6.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta to the points R.x. [out. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. Comm.s sample size (1 × 1) out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.theta] = ERR(R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x data to work on.theta and the subset of R.misc element.CHAPTER 2. Vol 24.x = CONDITION(R.R.out.

See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.edu.au/ pk See also fmatrix.uwa. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.csse.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. If lambda is a vector. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.

angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also roty. rotz. roty. See also rotx. rotz.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

Z axes respectively. pitch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. yaw. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also tr2rpy. If roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. • many texts (Paul. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.CHAPTER 2. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Y. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. T = rpy2tr(roll. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.

y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also zsad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. r2t.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ncc. theta) as above where xy=[x. and rotation theta in the plane. y. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

sad.CHAPTER 2. Two cross-hairs are created. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. ncc. See also zsdd. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels].

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .bar = false.choose = {’this’. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. varargin) opt.CHAPTER 2. ’other’}. opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. opt. then R is 2 × 2.foo = true.blah = []. opt. ’that’. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. tr2rt. b. – If T is 3 × 3. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. then R is 3 × 3. c. The software pattern is: function(a.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). It supports options that have an assigned value.

arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.choose <. opt = tb_optparse(opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.select <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.false ‘blah’.verbose <.1. x. varargin). 3 sets opt.choose <.foo <.select = {’#no’. N ‘setopt’.y sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.3 ‘blah’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.CHAPTER 2.foo <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.select <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘showopt’ sets opt.debug <. w.blah <.N sets opt <. args) creates a test pattern image.‘this’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.blah <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. If neither of ‘this’. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.y ‘that’ sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. ’#yes’}. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).true sets opt.x. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. varargin). Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.

256.sdd] = tpoly(s0.CHAPTER 2. sd and sdd are n-vectors. 2). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. [s. sf. args are theta (rad). intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles. sf. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. intercept. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. dot diameter. args is the number of cycles. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. binary square pattern. args is the number of cycles. square side length. 50. args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. args are pitch (distance between centres). Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. 256. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. 25).sd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. binary dot pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sd. a line.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Y and Z axes respectively. The 3 angles rpy=[R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.P.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). See also angvec2r.CHAPTER 2. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. rpy = tr2rpy(R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. [theta.

See also rpy2tr. r2t. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.:. If T has three dimensions. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. • The validity of R is not checked. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.CHAPTER 2. ie. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. See also rt2tr. y. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. – If TR is 3 × 3.y.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.z].

See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g.CHAPTER 2. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). [o1. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). [c1. each N × 1. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). An historical anomaly. or x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.

CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. troty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

f ‘label’. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trprint T is the command line form of above. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. and displays in RPY format. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.(y-y0)q where (x0. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. That is.y). npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y0) is the centroid.(x-x0)p . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. tr2rpy. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. mpq. p. the sum of I(x. See also upq poly. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. sad. See also ncc. See also sad. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

CHAPTER 2. See also sdd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc.