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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. However the book “Robotics. is open-source. and I commend it to you. This is extravagant on storage. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1.2 Support . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and you will be suitably acknowledged. That’s what you your teachers. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.google. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.com. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You need to signup in order to post.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. tutors. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.

It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Volume = {12}.1. The details are @article{Corke05f.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.petercorke. Month = nov.zip). the table of content to functions.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.3. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1. type of organization and application.html on a server for class use.gz) or zip format (. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Author = {P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Corke}.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. and the “See also” functions to each other. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. The ﬁle robot. Year = {2005}. 1. Number = {4}. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1. 1.I.

1. 1994 University of British Columbia. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .7. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. November 2005. and there are hundreds of modules available. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. VLFeat http://www.Functions such as SURF. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. pp 16–25. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.vlfeat.1.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. Coimbra.I.mathworks. Corke.7 Acknowledgements Last. but not least.S. MSER. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.6. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.R. Vincent Lepetit. 1.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. Twente. P. 12(4). which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”..

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

N ‘image’. IM ‘resolution’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. used by all subclasses. Camera. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. SIGMA ‘pose’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. T ‘color’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. P ‘pixel’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘noise’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. Options ‘name’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘sensor’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.delete Camera object destructor C. CatadioptricCamera. Camera.char Convert to string s = C. ﬁsheyecamera. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera. Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.clf Clear the image plane C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).CHAPTER 2.display Display value C.centre Get camera position p = C.

otherwise false (0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera. Camera.u + b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.CHAPTER 2. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.v + c = 0.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.char Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.

T. cylinder. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.plot(p. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. z to the image plane and plots them. y.plot. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. sphere.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). T ‘Tcam’. y. z. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Camera. mkcube.hold.clf Camera. uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The matrices x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mesh(x. y.CHAPTER 2. See also mesh. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Options ‘Tobj’. Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Camera.

N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. T ‘scale’.T. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.mesh.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.clf Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘Tobj’. ‘fps’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Camera.hold. Camera.CHAPTER 2.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T See also Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.

y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(R.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.CHAPTER 2. C. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. that is. p.y]. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a subclass of Camera. The image is not inverted. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CHAPTER 2. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C.

p. E = C. S. 10um pixels.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S. CatadioptricCamera. u. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.Sastry. ﬁsheyecamera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. N ‘focal’. f=8mm.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).F.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. CentralCamera.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.E Essential matrix E = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. SIGMA ‘pose’.8]) See also Camera. Springer. 2003. S ‘noise’.177 See also CentralCamera. IM ‘resolution’. camera at origin. E = C.CHAPTER 2. S ‘centre’.and y-axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. Reference Y.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. P ‘pixel’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. D ‘default’ ‘image’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. optical axis is z-axis. F ‘distortion’.and v-axes parallel to x. T ‘color’.Soatto. J.Kosecka.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003. Reference Y. J. p.H CentralCamera. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.E CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H Homography matrix H = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.177 See also CentralCamera.Kosecka.Ma.H(T.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. Springer. n. S.Sastry. See also CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. from two viewpoints. F = C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. S.F Fundamental matrix F = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Soatto.

Moreno-Noguer. Journal on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. CentralCamera.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. pp. Int. vol. 2009. Feb. and P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. F. 155-166.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). a = C.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. 81. Fua.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. V.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. Lepetit. See also quiver CentralCamera.estpose(xyz. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.

Kosecka.CHAPTER 2. 2003. See also CentralCamera. 2003. translation not to scale • n.Ma. 259 Y.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.E CentralCamera. s. J. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p116.Soatto.Ma. Springer. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. s.Sastry.Kosecka. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . section 5. s. Chap 9. “An invitation to 3D”. Springer. “An invitation to 3D”. p. Reference Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. s. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.invE(E. J.Soatto. “Multiview Geometry”.Sastry.

If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).H CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. ‘Tobj’. one per line. ‘Tcam’.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p.project(p.plot epiline(f.T.CHAPTER 2.plot epiline(f. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. CentralCamera. H = C. C. See also Hough CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.

pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . “Multiview Geometry”.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. and P. Espiau. F. Rives.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. 313-326.visjac e(E.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pp. June 1992.plot CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Chaumette. Reference B.b.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. 8.c. vol. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera.

Rives. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. vol. Oct. R&A. June 1992.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. 313-326. Hager & Corke. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1996.CHAPTER 2. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac p. 8. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. F. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac e CentralCamera.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Espiau. CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Vol 12(5). CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac l(L.visjac p(uv. Chaumette. and P.visjac p polar.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.c. Reference B. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. See also CentralCamera. pp. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Hutchinson. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera.visjac p.b. pp 651-670.visjac p polar.

in Proc. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. radius and theta. I. Oct. Chaumette. Spindler. Louis). 5962-5967. and F.visjac e CentralCamera. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. (St. Int.visjac l. See also CentralCamera. Corke. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. F. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. P.visjac p polar(rt.visjac p polar.visjac l. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. 2009. pp. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.

2004. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. pp.91-110.Lowe. Journal on Computer Vision. Nov. D. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.60.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.SIFT. vol. See also isift. See README. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Int. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. PointFeature.

0=transparent (default 0. f = PointFeature(u. 1=opaque. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. F. v. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. C ‘alpha’.match(f2. See also isift SiftPointFeature.

support(images.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. [out. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. F.support(im. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but the support region is displayed. out = F.T] = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. Options ‘name’. S ‘pose’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p. Options ‘Tobj’.T.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. N ‘pixel’. See also SphericalCamera. CentralCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). ﬁsheyecamera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. T ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.

center of the target in world coords (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.the side length of the target in world units (0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . camera pose. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.5) target center . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The camera view.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . defaults in parentheses: target size .01) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. of 4-vector.depth of points to use for Jacobian. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Jacobian condition number.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The external view.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. scalar for If null take actual value all points.CHAPTER 2.0. image plane size and desired feature locations.gain. error norm. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The camera view.

image plane size and desired feature locations.depth of points to use for Jacobian.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.the side length of the target in world units (0. defaults in parentheses: target size . Jacobian condition number. error norm. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Robotics and Automation.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . or a vector (N × 1) for each point.0. for all points. See also CentralCamera. P. Conf. Corke.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . IEEE Int.center of the target in world coords (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. camera pose. CentralCamera.gain. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. May 3-7 2010. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. in Proc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.visjac p(pt. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. 5550-5555. pp. I. CentralCamera. (Anchorage).3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . error. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.5) target center .visjac l. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2.01) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The external view. of 4-vector. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).

346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 110. No.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp. 3. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Luc Van Gool. Andreas Ess.

ScalePointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Options ‘thresh’. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.C] = F.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature. [m. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. v.match(f2.

The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.plot scale(options.support(images.2) SurfPointFeature.T] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.CHAPTER 2. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. 1=opaque. [out. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. out = F.support(im. 0=transparent (default 0. F.

options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. otherwise the result is not predictable.axis.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com). • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.axis. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com) web camera. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. Video AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.close Close the image source A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. See also AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.

org). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1470-1477. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. on Computer Vision. 2003.Sivic and A. Oct.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. pp.Zisserman. Conf. b = BagOfWords(f. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.CHAPTER 2. Ninth IEEE Int. in Proc. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. f can also be a cell array.

options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.exemplars display exemplars of words B.contains Find images containing word k = B. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char BagOfWords.display Display value B.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. isurf BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = B.exemplars(w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. BagOfWords. images.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.CHAPTER 2.

BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. Options ‘ncolumns’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.n] = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. M ‘width’.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. N ‘maxperimage’.remove stop Remove stop words B.isword Features from words f = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.CHAPTER 2.

wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.

Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

A ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2.and v-axes parallel to x. Options ‘Tobj’. M ‘k’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. See also Camera. N ‘sensor’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). S ‘centre’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. K ‘maxangle’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. S ‘noise’. u.and y-axes respectively. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. 10um pixels. T ‘Tcam’. CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘sine’. See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. camera at origin.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.project(p. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. f=8mm. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis.T. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. ‘equisolid’. N ‘focal’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].

SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. such as ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.

f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = M.display Display value M.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. See also PointFeature.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. SurfPointFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch. one per element. See also FeatureMatch. f2. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1.inlier.u2. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.CHAPTER 2.v2]. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. See also FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.outlier. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

plot Show corresponding points M.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch.p1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. These are the (u. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.im2}) m.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() M.p2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1. These are the (u.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.

show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. ransac FeatureMatch. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.ransac(func. See also idisp FeatureMatch. m.ransac( @fmatrix.ransac Apply RANSAC M. Example f1 = isurf(im1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. homography. f2 = isurf(im2). m = f1.CHAPTER 2.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. See also fmatrix. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.match(f2). inliers and outliers (and their percentages). 1e-4).

The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.

Options ‘name’. SIGMA ‘pose’.and y.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘sine’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. S ‘centre’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. f=8mm. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. S ‘noise’. u. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera at origin. N ‘sensor’.axes respectively. ‘equisolid’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis. M ‘k’. 10um pixels. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. K ‘resolution’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.and v-axes are parallel to x. P ‘pixel’.

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. CatadioptricCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. CentralCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.T.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. See also Camera.

Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.CHAPTER 2.H). Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. A horizontal line has theta = 0. The voting array is 2-dimensional. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.0) and the line. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.

Default 400 × 401. Nrho]. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Hough.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.1).CHAPTER 2.houghThresh (default 0. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.5) Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT. Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. See also Hough. T ‘suppress’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value HT.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh (default 0. W ‘houghthresh’.edgeThresh.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. T ‘edgethresh’. else N = [Ntheta. W ‘nbins’. Set ht.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot. L = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. H = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.CHAPTER 2.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. reﬁned to subpixel precision. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot line features HT. then all elements in an HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough.lines Hough. The highest peak is found. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. See also Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot(n. The process is repeated for all peaks. HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. LineFeature Hough.lines Find lines L = HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.

PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

theta.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. one per element. L = LineFeature(rho. theta.display Display value L.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.char Convert to string s = L. LineFeature. See also LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.CHAPTER 2. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LENGTH is undeﬁned. strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho.

Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. Small gaps. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. See also icanny LineFeature.CHAPTER 2.points Return points on line segments p = L. LineFeature. l2 = L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. l2 = L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge.

S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie. S ‘skip’. Movie.com).CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string M.axis.close Close the image source M. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.

grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. planar.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. F Skip frames. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Options ‘skip’.CHAPTER 2. undirected graph create an n-d. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. S ‘frame’. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.

coord(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Object properties (read/write) g.edges(e) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.distance(v1. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.next(v) g.neighbours(v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). v) g.add node(coord. v2) g.clear() add vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.path(v) set goal vertex.connectivity() g.add edge(v1.plot() g.goal(v) g.component(v) g.cost(e) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add node(coord) g.CHAPTER 2. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v = G.add edge(v1.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. and returns the node id v.CHAPTER 2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. Options ‘distance’. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. and returns the edge id E. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. E = G.add node(x.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. PGraph. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v.add edge(v1. where x is D × 1.add node(x. v2. v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.

coord(v) return coordinate vector. edges and components.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.char Convert graph to string s = G. [v.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph.clear Clear the graph G. D × 1. PGraph. of node id v. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.coord Coordinate of node x = G.d] = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. and the distance d.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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SurfPointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. one per element.char Convert to string s = F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. v. See also ScalePointFeature.

match Match point features m = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match(f2.char PointFeature.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. where 1 is perfect match.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.C] = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.CHAPTER 2.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. Polygon . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot Plot feature F.CHAPTER 2.

p = Polygon(C.area Area of polygon a = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . http://puddle. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Pankratov. intersection. so use with care.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. HEIGHT]. union. Polygon.edu. Polygon.char String representation s = P.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Polygon. kirill@plume.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit. Polygon.html and require a licence. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.CHAPTER 2. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.mit. difference.area() is the area of the polygon. one column per vertex.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.

char Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.display Display polygon P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. returns coordinates of P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. See also Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. else 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.

moments(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.CHAPTER 2.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. each column is [x y]’.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also mpq poly Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. returns empty polygon. y1 y2]. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.moments Moments of polygon a = P.

union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon. Polygon. Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot Plot polygon P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.union Union of polygons i = P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. P.CHAPTER 2.

d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.CHAPTER 2. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.

one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. [x. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Ray3D.display Display value R.E] = R. [x. See also Ray3D. Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.E] = R.char Convert to string s = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid.c. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.b. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.CHAPTER 2. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.

CHAPTER 2. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax].boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. For example R. imoments RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.th] = R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.char Convert to string s = R. ymin.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.box Return bounding box b = R. one per element.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.uc will be a list not a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.xmax.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. RegionFeature. See also iblobs.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display Display value R.char RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot Plot centroid R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary plot boundary R. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.and xmarkers. R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.

plot box Plot bounding box R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. 1=opaque.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. v.plot scale Plot feature scale F. F. SurfPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options. strength. C ‘alpha’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. See also PointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. C. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. options) is a new tracker object. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2. R ‘nslots’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Options ‘radius’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. N ‘thresh’. T ‘movie’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per active track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. See also PointFeature Tracker. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.

tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Tracker. Tracker. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.CHAPTER 2.

Movie Video. and their characteristics is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. G ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. AxisWebCamera.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string V. Video.CHAPTER 2. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera.

color. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. By default the left image is red. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). the second for right. and the right image is cyan. a = anaglyph(left. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. right. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. if negative it is reduced. If th1 is a column vector. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). the ﬁrst for left. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1.

x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.s] = boundmatch(R1. [x. y1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. See also RegionFeature. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. p = bresenham(p1. If lambda is a column vector.y2]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. % emission of sun plot(l. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.y2). x2.boundary.y1) to (x2. Endpoints must be integer.y1] and p2=[x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1.CHAPTER 2. 6500).

Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. [C. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Y.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.CHAPTER 2.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.

N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. x = circle(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. R. that is. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. Options ‘n’.CHAPTER 2. green and blue primaries respectively. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. [k. k = closest(a. R. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).d1] = closest(a. and x is N × 3. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.

5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 335 of Table 1(5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5.ac. since. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). As noted in footnote a on p.d2] = closest(a. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.ioo.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).CHAPTER 2.5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). and 22500 (444. • From Table I(5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.16). while Table I(5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. 19000 (526. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.d1.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ucl. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. they were measured directly. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].32). (Table 1(5.

xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ucl.M). ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .ioo.ac.uk See also cmfrgb.CHAPTER 2. imsize is a 2-vector (N. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. out = col2im(pix. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.

rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.g] to every pixel in the color image im.

k. @isnan. See also imono. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. icolor. mask. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.CHAPTER 2. eg.G. @isnan. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.B). and returns a per-pixel logical result. [L. out = colorize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. func. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. im<100. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.

See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.R] = colorkmeans(im. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. XYZ = colorname(name. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(XYZ. k) as above but also returns the residual R. low is good. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space.CHAPTER 2. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. eg. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. L = colorkmeans(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.C. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.

s = ‘dest<-src’. it can be omitted. Input and output images have 3 planes.txt. or alternatively. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.CHAPTER 2. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. [o1.o2. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i2. colorspace(s. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.o3] = colorspace(s. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. • Color space names are case insensitive. i1. As MATLAB’s native datatype.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. s = ‘src->dest’. double data is the natural choice.

b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. B = rand(400. for memory and computational performance. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. However. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. • If im is an M × 3 array.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . out will also have size M × 3. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. d = distance(A.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).100).CHAPTER 2.2*A. like a colormap. Example A = rand(400.200). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.

2 and Solaris Matlab v5. University of Amsterdam. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. in matrix coordinate frame. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.y). Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.3.j). direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. bunschot@wins.(+31)20-5257524. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Tested: PC Matlab v5. non-zero is an object. seed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. non zero is counter-clockwise.CHAPTER 2. The result E is a matrix. tel.uva. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. E = edgelist(im. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. not image frame. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.

See also epiline. p1. See also fmatrix.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). 1998.S. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f.R. p. H = epiline(f. one per line drawn. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. I. p. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. epiline(f. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Oct 27. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Coimbra.CHAPTER 2. Author Based on fmatrix code by. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.

‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.au/. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. homography. • f is a rank 2 matrix. Notes • The points must be corresponding.edu. http://www. it is singular. epiline. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.csse. which means it can be passed to ransac(). no outlier rejection is performed. p2. See also ransac. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. page 270. c. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.uwa. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. that is. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Contains a RANSAC driver. that is. The University of Western Australia.

y1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. x2. itriplepoint. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.CHAPTER 2.y2). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. ithin. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. See also imorph.

invhomog. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.csse. See also ransac. no outlier rejection is performed.CHAPTER 2. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. http://www. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.edu. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia. Notes • The points must be corresponding.

if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. See also e2h. that is tp=T*T1. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. ie. im. itrim. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. S output image contains all the warped pixels. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. D ‘size’. R ‘scale’. [out.offs] = homwarp(H. V ‘roi’. S ‘dimension’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. See also homography.

IRE Trans. ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 200). ’gs’). 1962. features. ’nfeat’. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ianimate(seq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Hu. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. 179-187. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K.CHAPTER 2. features. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. on Information Theory. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). IT-8:pp.

iharris. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.CHAPTER 2. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. YMIN YMAX]. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. M ‘npoints’. isurf. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. N ‘only’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.

less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. ilabel. C set connectivity. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. horizontal coordinate centroid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. [A1. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.0) 1 for a circle. default 1.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. vertical coordinate bounding box. [S1.0 ‘connect’. A set pixel aspect ratio.

See also iopen. se. T ‘th1’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also isobel. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. S ‘th0’.CHAPTER 2. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is an dilation followed by erosion. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. 1996-7.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Tel Aviv University. out = iclose(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.

The images do not have to be of the same size. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. C = icolor(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).CHAPTER 2.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. Options ‘dir’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u] = iconcat(im. [0 1 1]). colorize. [C. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). See also imono. D ‘bgval’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. iconcat(im.

im2.CHAPTER 2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. options) convolves im1 with im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. R ‘nfeat’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned.CHAPTER 2. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). E ‘suppress’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘sigma’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. CM ‘cminthresh’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. N ‘detector’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. CT ‘edgegap’. D ‘k’. K ‘patch’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. S ‘deriv’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm.

options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Tomasi. 593-593. pp. pp. T ‘distthresh’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. • “Finding corners”. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. pp 147-151. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘dplot’.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.5 [sec]. T ‘maxiter’. Proc. Manchester. • “Good features to track”. with a delay of 0. 1994. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. N ‘mindelta’. p2. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Harris and M. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.6. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. 1988. Proc. J. p2. vol. May 1988.Noble.121-128.. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.d] = icp(p1. Stephens. C. Image and Vision Computing. with a delay of d [sec]. J. See also PointFeature. Shi and C. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. IEEE Computer Society.G. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [T.J.

CHAPTER 2. m. s = idecimate(im. 14. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Intell.or 3-dimensional. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. pp. 1992. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. IEEETrans.McKay. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. each plane is decimated. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Mach. P.Besl and H. m. Pattern Anal. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Feb. See also iscale. no. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 239-256. vol. s = idecimate(im.. 2.

options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. darker than ‘grey’. zero is white color map: random values. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. XY ‘colormap’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. zero is white. C ‘xydata’. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. zero is black. positive is blue. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. Options ‘ncolors’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. negative is red. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. positive is blue. If the image is zoomed. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. linear proﬁle. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. negative is red.and y-axes respectively. histogram and zooming. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. If im is a cell array of images. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.CHAPTER 2.

iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iblobs. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. icolorize. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labelimage. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. labelimage. labels. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. idisplabel(im. caxis. See also image.CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). out = igamma(im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.CHAPTER 2. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.2. See also itriplepoint.45. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.

Sept. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”.m] = igraphseg(im. 167181. P. 0.jpg’). 2006. [L. L = igraphseg(im.m] = igraphseg(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). vol. Int. See also ithresh.5). 2004. k. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. Huttenlocher.5). min. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.CHAPTER 2. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. Felzenszwalb and D. pp. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Example im = iread(’58060. 59. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. k. 1500. min. [l. k is the scale parameter. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Journal on Computer Vision. 100.

x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. [H. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.x] = ihist(im). bar(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.h). [h.h). plot(x. H = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2.

The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.y1) and bottom-right (x2. [L. y2.m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. same size as im. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. [L. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. x1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. y1. ii is a precomputed integral image. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.y2).

The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. each a 2-vector [X.class.parents. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. [L. p1. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. See also iblobs. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. ilabel(im. eg. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.CHAPTER 2. p2. • This is a “low level” function. iproﬁle. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.maxlabel. The pixels on the line are set to 1. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. 8). To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.parents.maxlabel.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p1. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise it does not.Y]. out = iline(im.

If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.y).y). w2. ymin. x. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. • ZNCC matching is used.y) and of size s.DY) are the x. y. ymax] relative to (x. centred at (x. [xm. x. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. y.CC] where (DX. a perfect match score is 1. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.and y-offsets relative to (x. • Is a MEX ﬁle. H.y) and its half-width is H. s. and columns the vertical position.DY. s] % relative to (x.CHAPTER 2.score] = imatch(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). im2. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The template in im1 is centred at (x. -s. xmax.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. The return value is xm=[DX.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. f = imoments(u. [u. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. v.CHAPTER 2. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(w. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. effectively a binary image. f = imoments(u. H) as above but the domain is w × H. [u.u) = u and v(v. effectively a greyscale image.u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.

or its area. m02. m11. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. the elements are m00. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m20. See also RegionFeature. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. horizontal coordinate centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. Different conversion functions are supported. m01. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. icolor.CHAPTER 2. ilabel. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. m10. • This function does not perform connectivity.

’grey’. O. 761767. 2004. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Matas. m. [label. ’light’). and T.CHAPTER 2. Pajdla. The labels [L. pp. vol. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.png’. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Sept. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. Chum.m] = imser(im. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Image and Vision Computing. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im.org). 22. J. Urban.m] = imser(im. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. ’double’). by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2).CHAPTER 2.

sides. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. This is an erosion followed by dilation. out = iopen(im. See also iclose. sides. se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n.CHAPTER 2. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 20. p. otherwise im2 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. 10. im1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’tblr’.V].CHAPTER 2. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. ’t’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. im2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.

v) for the corresponding row of p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uv] = iproﬁle(im. p1. p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. See also bresenham. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. [p. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.

5)). op. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The highest rank. the maximum. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. se(2. idecimate. nbins. out = imorph(image. op. sigma.2) = 0. out = ipyramid(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only.CHAPTER 2. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. is order=1. ones(5. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. 12.3). n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. se. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. 1. im > irank(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. se. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. out = ipyramid(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se). See also iscalespace. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. out = imorph(image. order. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled.

• A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. where R=[umin umax. im = iread(ﬁle. See also imorph. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. R ‘roi’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. G ‘reduce’. ivar. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. vmin vmax]. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. igamma. Notes • Color images are not supported. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. im1.out2. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. imwrite. im1. m.h2] = irectify(f. istereo.out2] = irectify(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. homwarp. m. [out1. imono.h1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.

same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S ‘extrapval’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.vmin vmax].H] return central part of image. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. vmin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.umax.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. Options ‘outsize’. See also idisp.vmax]. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. V ‘smooth’.CHAPTER 2. angle.

See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. out = isamesize(im1. Options ‘outsize’. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bias<0.CHAPTER 2. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s<1 makes it smaller. while bias>0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. im2. s ‘extrapval’. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s>1 makes the image larger.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias=0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. V ‘smooth’.5 is symmetric cropping. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.

ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .L. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. in space and scale. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.s] = iscalespace(im. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. See also iscalespace. n. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). corresponding to each step of the sequence. n) as above but sigma=1.CHAPTER 2. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .s] = iscalespace(im. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. idecimate. [g. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).

else false (0). ismooth. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. See also isrot. ilaplace. that is. it its third dimension is equal to three. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog(T. ‘valid’) as above.CHAPTER 2.

91-110.vlfeat. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. Lowe. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Reference David G. N ‘suppress’. isurf. International Journal of Computer Vision. pp. 60. 2 (2004).CHAPTER 2. See also SiftPointFeature. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • Features are returned in descending strength order.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. zsad. sad. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. [w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. @ssd. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. s is same size as im. ncc. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. im.CHAPTER 2.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. @zsad. See also imatch.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. [w. and these output pixels are set to NaN.H. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. zssd. @zssd. @ncc.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. s = isimilarity(T. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma.

See also iconv. [gx. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.gy] = isobel(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. convolved. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx.CHAPTER 2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. sigma. then converted back to integer. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.

which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. range. range. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). else false (0). See also ksobel. isrot(R. H is the half size of the matching window. That is.u) means that imr(v.sim] = istereo(iml. range is the disparity search range. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [d. imr. icanny.M] for an N × M window. the disparity d=d(v. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. ‘valid’) as above. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. See also ishomog.CHAPTER 2. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. H. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.u). w. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.

enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. ‘ncc’. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.A and p. 3) See also irectify. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. range. That is. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). p. [d. w.p] = istereo(iml. • sim = max(dsi.sim. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. w. B. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. imr. Options ‘metric’. p.5 to +0. dx. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.sim.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. [d. range. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).5). In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. imr.CHAPTER 2.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. out = istretch(im.dsi] = istereo(iml.

• Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Notes • Color images. N ‘thresh’. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Kroon (U. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. T ‘octaves’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. or sequences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). itriplepoint. pp.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. either a row. isvec(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .or columnvector. isift. else false (0). Otherwise false (0). Tinne Tuytelaars. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im.CHAPTER 2. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 3. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. No. out = ithin(im. Luc Van Gool. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. See also ishomog. Vol. 346–359. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Andreas Ess. See also hitormiss. 110.

a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5.im2. The same cropping is applied to each input image. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.out2] = itrim(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Greyscale image only. The default is 0.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.out2] = itrim(im1. ithresh(im. [out1. See also homwarp. a lower value will include more. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.

The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. See also iendpoint. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ithin. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. op. se. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.

the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. out = iwindow(image. ones(3. se. func. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. ones(5. @max). hence output image had reduced dimensions. @std).5). See also ivar.3). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.

iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ktriangle. dG/dy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones.CHAPTER 2. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. dG/dx. See also ones. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. k = kcircle(R. • The vertical derivative. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. kdog. See also kgauss.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. klog. k = kdgauss(sigma. is k’. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.

klog. k = kdog(sigma1. kdgauss. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. kdog. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. See also kgauss. sigma2. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma. where sigma1 > SIGMA2.6*sigma1. See also kdgauss. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. klog. By default SIGMA2 = 1.CHAPTER 2.

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. k = klog(sigma. kdog. See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. iconv.

Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. [L.C] = kmeans(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.C] = kmeans(x. Pattern Recognition Principles. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). L = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. k. and D is the dimension.CHAPTER 2. k. it is assumed to have been completed previously.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.y. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. C ‘T’. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2.z] = mkcube(s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. The points are the columns of p. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. [x. See also cylinder. [x. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. ‘edge’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).y. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘T’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. s. symmetric about the origin.z] = mkcube(s.

That is. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.yq . or y(:. p.CHAPTER 2. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. or y(:. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. npq. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. See also mpq poly. MPLOT(t.2)). y) MPLOT(t. n) MPLOT(t. y. the sum of I(x. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. y. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) MPLOT(y.2)). n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.y).xp . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.

The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. so centroids will be still be correct. upq poly. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.CHAPTER 2. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq.

ssd. 20). k. in text segmentation.m. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. • A common choice of k=-0.2.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. k. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. Example t = niblack(im. -0. sad. W. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where W=2*w2+1. for example. idisp(im >= t).CHAPTER 2. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. 1986. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Prentice-Hall. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.s] = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im. the height of a character. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. niblack. [T. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. See also zncc.

q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.p. See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. p.q)/MPQ(im. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is UPQ(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.0). mpq. p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.

• If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. mpq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.CHAPTER 2. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq poly. npq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq. they are considered as a single vertex. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m.

idisp(im >= t). [yp. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.CHAPTER 2. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. N. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Example t = otsu(im). x.xp] = peak(y. otsu IEEE Trans. Jan 1979. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Systems. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).i] = peak(y. [yp. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.CHAPTER 2. use peak(-V). Typically choose N to be odd.ij] = peak2(z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V).S points. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘scale’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘interp’. N ‘scale’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.

plot2(p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pnmﬁlt. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot.CHAPTER 2. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. If p has three dimensions. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. ie. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p.

CHAPTER 2. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. P. W. or a set of name. PLOT BOX(x1. ’LineWidth’. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. PLOT BOX(’centre’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y1) and (x2. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. R. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’edgecolor’. r. ’fillcolor’. W. ’b’). ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ‘r’. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’g’. ‘size’. ’r’). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. plot_circle(c.y1. ‘size’. x2.y2). Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. plot_circle(c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. r. P. r. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. 1=solid. 5).y2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Examples plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(’topleft’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. C. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. c Specify color of the axes. centred at the origin. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.Y.Y]. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. with Matlab line style ls. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . current plot. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) ls is the standard line styles. xc.CHAPTER 2. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. Options ‘color’. If C=[X.

ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ’color’. ‘printf’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. trplot( T. ’r’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ‘framename’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set.CHAPTER 2. ’color’. ’r’). where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’name’. to ‘view’. n ‘text opts’. options) adds point markers to a plot. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. fmt.X = 0. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. Options ‘textcolor’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p.

R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. color. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. The default is 1. See also plot. either a letter or 3-vector. R. 1=solid. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. NOTES • The sphere is always added. patch. R.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plotp(p. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. See also pgmﬁlt.

CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.

options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x typically contains corresponding point data. x. x. one column per point pair. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. [m. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. T.in] = ransac(func. T.in.resid] = ransac(func. T. Options ‘maxTrials’.CHAPTER 2. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. x. d) as above but elements increment by d. N ‘maxDataTrials’.

theta] = ERR(R. Comm.inlier. they detect a structure argument.theta is a cell array.x and returns the best model out.theta = [].debug display what’s going on (logical) R.x. [out.R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. Vol 24. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.x = CONDITION(R.out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. that is.x. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.resid] = EST(R. pp 381-395. [out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .misc element.t threshold (1 × 1) R.CHAPTER 2.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.s sample size (1 × 1) out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.theta.s out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . pp 101-113. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.C.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Comp. If multiple models are found out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.x) condition the point data out.theta and the subset of R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. Assoc. No 6.. References • m.A.theta.out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. Cambridge University Press. Boles.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.x data to work on.theta to the points R.theta = DECONDITION(R. that is they will produce a model. Mach. Fishler and R.misc private data (cell array) out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.uwa.au/ pk See also fmatrix. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.edu. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.csse.

angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. roty. See also roty. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

• many texts (Paul. If roll. Z axes respectively. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.CHAPTER 2. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. T = rpy2tr(roll. yaw. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. See also tr2rpy. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Y. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll.

y. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. See also zsad. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. and rotation theta in the plane. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. theta) as above where xy=[x. r2t.

isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also zsdd. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Two cross-hairs are created. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. sad.CHAPTER 2. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

choose = {’this’.blah = []. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.bar = false. The software pattern is: function(a. – If T is 3 × 3. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. tr2rt. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. ’that’. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. varargin) opt. opt. opt. b. c.CHAPTER 2. then R is 3 × 3.foo = true. opt. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. It supports options that have an assigned value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. ’other’}. then R is 2 × 2.

If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.choose <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.select <.debug <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image. opt = tb_optparse(opt.x.true sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.blah <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.foo <.foo <.select <.‘this’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. varargin).3 ‘blah’. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. 3 sets opt.verbose <. N ‘setopt’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.choose <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.y ‘that’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.select = {’#no’. w. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.false ‘blah’.blah <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. x.CHAPTER 2. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. varargin). The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If neither of ‘this’.y sets opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. ’#yes’}.1. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.N sets opt <.

sd. 256. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. [s. square side length. a line. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args are pitch (distance between centres). 50. args is the number of cycles. 2). args is the number of cycles. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction.sd. args is the number of cycles. sf.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sd and sdd are n-vectors. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. dot diameter. binary square pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. binary dot pattern. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). sf. args are theta (rad). 25). 256. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. intercept. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. The trajectory s. args is the number of cycles.

options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.P. Y and Z axes respectively. The 3 angles rpy=[R. [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. See also angvec2r. Y.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. If T has three dimensions. ie. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. • The validity of R is not checked. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. See also rt2tr. r2t.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.:. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.CHAPTER 2. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. – If TR is 3 × 3.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.y. See also rpy2tr. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.z]. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. y. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.

[c1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. An historical anomaly.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. or x and y.CHAPTER 2. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. each N × 1.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. [o1. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3).

trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.

Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.CHAPTER 2. f ‘label’. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trprint T is the command line form of above. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx. trotx.

See also upq poly. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.(x-x0)p . mpq. p. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.(y-y0)q where (x0. the sum of I(x. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.y0) is the centroid. tr2rpy. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. That is.y).

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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sad.CHAPTER 2. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. See also sad. See also ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also sdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2.

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