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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

and I commend it to you. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. However the book “Robotics. is open-source. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This is extravagant on storage. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . humoments . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . iroi . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . ipad . . iwindow . . . . imser . . . . . isift . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . isrot . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . norm2 . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . npq poly . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . mpq poly . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . mtools . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.google. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.com. and you will be suitably acknowledged. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. tutors. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. That’s what you your teachers. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. You need to signup in order to post.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.

3.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Corke}.zip). Volume = {12}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gz) or zip format (.html on a server for class use. Year = {2005}. The ﬁle robot. and the “See also” functions to each other. The details are @article{Corke05f. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). the table of content to functions.I. Month = nov.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.petercorke. type of organization and application.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Number = {4}.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Author = {P. 1. 1.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.

and there are hundreds of modules available.6. 1. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. Vincent Lepetit. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.I. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.1.R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp 16–25. Twente.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.vlfeat.Functions such as SURF. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. 1994 University of British Columbia.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. 12(4). The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. but not least. VLFeat http://www. P.mathworks.7 Acknowledgements Last. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.7.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle..S. MSER. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. Corke. 1. November 2005. Coimbra. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

IM ‘resolution’. N ‘image’. S ‘centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. S ‘noise’. Camera. Options ‘name’. T ‘color’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. SIGMA ‘pose’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. used by all subclasses. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. P ‘pixel’.

centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value C.centre Get camera position p = C. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.char Convert to string s = C. Camera.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. CatadioptricCamera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.delete Camera object destructor C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.clf Clear the image plane C. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.

Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.v + c = 0. See also Camera. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u + b.char Camera.CHAPTER 2. otherwise false (0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.

T ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2.clf Camera.plot. z to the image plane and plots them.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. mkcube. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. z. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. Camera.T. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.mesh(x.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.hold.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.plot(p. Camera. cylinder. y. sphere. See also mesh. y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The matrices x. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. uv = C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. y.

Overrides the current camera pose C. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.hold.mesh. T See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tcam’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. ‘Tobj’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.clf Camera.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tcam’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. T ‘scale’. ‘fps’. Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.

rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.rpy(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. C.y]. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. p.rpy Set camera attitude C.p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is. a subclass of Camera. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. The image is not inverted.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

E = C. u. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. CatadioptricCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. P ‘pixel’. S ‘noise’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.Soatto. Reference Y. camera at origin. S.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E Essential matrix E = C. N ‘focal’.F.Sastry. ﬁsheyecamera. F ‘distortion’. f=8mm. J. D ‘default’ ‘image’. optical axis is z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. N ‘sensor’. 10um pixels.and y-axes respectively. T ‘color’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Springer. S ‘centre’.8]) See also Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S. p.Ma.177 See also CentralCamera.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.CHAPTER 2.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. IM ‘resolution’. CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). E = C.and v-axes parallel to x.Kosecka. 2003.

p. F = C.H(T.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). from two viewpoints.CHAPTER 2. “An invitation to 3D”.Soatto. Reference Y. Springer.Sastry. See also CentralCamera. S. S. J. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Ma. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. n.H Homography matrix H = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 2003. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.E CentralCamera.Kosecka.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.177 See also CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a = C.CHAPTER 2.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 155-166. Feb. and P. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. 2009. Lepetit.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). pp. See also quiver CentralCamera.estpose(xyz. vol.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Int. Moreno-Noguer. V. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. 81. F. Fua.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Journal on Computer Vision.

p116. Springer. Chap 9. J.Kosecka.E CentralCamera. Reference Y.Ma. p.Sastry. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. See also CentralCamera. s. “Multiview Geometry”. J. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”. translation not to scale • n. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. s. Springer. 259 Y. “An invitation to 3D”.Soatto. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Soatto.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. section 5.Kosecka.Ma.CHAPTER 2. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Sastry.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s.invE(E. 2003.

p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. See also Hough CentralCamera. C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).project(p.plot epiline(f.CHAPTER 2.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot epiline(f. ‘Tobj’. ‘Tcam’. p.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. one per line. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. H = C. CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.T. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f.

Espiau. and P. Chaumette.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pp.b. “Multiview Geometry”. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2. Rives.c. 313-326. F. June 1992. See also Camera. 8.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Reference B. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. vol.plot CentralCamera. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .visjac e(E.

CentralCamera. F. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Hutchinson. Espiau.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). R&A. IEEE Trans. 1996.CHAPTER 2.visjac l CentralCamera.b. June 1992.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.c. pp.visjac p polar. pp 651-670.visjac l(L.visjac p polar. Rives. 8. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac p.visjac p. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Chaumette. 313-326. and P.visjac p(uv. CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. vol. Oct. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Hager & Corke. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Reference B. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). CentralCamera. Vol 12(5).visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.

Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. CentralCamera.visjac p polar.visjac p polar(rt. 5962-5967. in Proc.visjac p. Int.CHAPTER 2. F. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. pp.visjac l. P. (St. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2009. and F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Louis). Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac e CentralCamera. Spindler. radius and theta. Chaumette. I.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Oct. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Corke.visjac l.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.

PointFeature. D.SIFT.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. ScalePointFeature. Nov. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2004. Int. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.91-110. vol. See also isift.Lowe. Journal on Computer Vision. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See README. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.60. pp.

1=opaque.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. F. f = PointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2. See also isift SiftPointFeature. C ‘alpha’. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options.match Match SIFT point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.plot scale Plot feature scale F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u.

The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the support region is displayed.T] = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(images. out = F.support(im. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

N ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Options ‘name’. T ‘Tcam’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. See also SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. ﬁsheyecamera. Options ‘Tobj’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. S ‘pose’.CHAPTER 2. Overrides the current camera pose C.T.

camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. scalar for If null take actual value all points.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. error. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.5) target center . image plane size and desired feature locations. defaults in parentheses: target size . error norm. The camera view. The camera view. camera pose. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.01) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.gain.the side length of the target in world units (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The external view.0. Jacobian condition number. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. of 4-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.center of the target in world coords (0.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.

visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).center of the target in world coords (0. image plane size and desired feature locations.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .5) target center . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. of 4-vector. Robotics and Automation. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. Corke.depth of points to use for Jacobian. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. May 3-7 2010.visjac p(pt.gain. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.visjac p polar.the side length of the target in world units (0. error norm. CentralCamera.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I. camera pose. See also CentralCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .01) . P.0. Jacobian condition number.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. IEEE Int. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. defaults in parentheses: target size . scalar for If null take actual value all points. 5550-5555. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. pp. error. in Proc. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .visjac l. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Conf. for all points. (Anchorage). The external view.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 110. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3.CHAPTER 2. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Luc Van Gool. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. No. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Vol. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 346–359. Andreas Ess.

match(f2.match Match SURF point features m = F. v.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature. [m. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2.C] = F. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. Options ‘thresh’. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.

The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. 1=opaque.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(images. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale Plot feature scale F.T] = F.support(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.support(images.2) SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. C ‘alpha’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 0=transparent (default 0.support(im. [out.support Support region of feature out = F.

Video AxisWebCamera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com). S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. otherwise the result is not predictable.axis. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com) web camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.axis.

grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.close Close the image source A. See also AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close() closes the connection to the web camera.char Convert to string A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Oct. b = BagOfWords(f.1470-1477. Conf. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.CHAPTER 2.Zisserman. f can also be a cell array. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. pp.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Ninth IEEE Int. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. in Proc. 2003.org).Sivic and A. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.

contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.contains Find images containing word k = B.char Convert to string s = B. images.char BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value B. See also BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars(w.

BagOfWords. N ‘maxperimage’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.CHAPTER 2.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. M ‘width’.remove stop Remove stop words B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.n] = B.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2.

Camera CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

ﬁsheyecamera. P ‘pixel’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘noise’. See also Camera. f=8mm. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. M ‘k’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.T. N ‘focal’. u.project(p. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. S ‘centre’.and y-axes respectively. 10um pixels. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. ‘sine’. ‘equisolid’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.CHAPTER 2. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. K ‘maxangle’. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘sensor’. optical axis is z-axis. CatadioptricCamera. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.and v-axes parallel to x. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A ‘resolution’. T ‘Tcam’. camera at origin.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. See also PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature.

SurfPointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.CHAPTER 2. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element.display Display value M.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.char Convert to string s = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2. FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also PointFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.

outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.u2. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v2]. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier.outlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch.p1. FeatureMatch.im2}) m.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.CHAPTER 2.plot() M.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. These are the (u.p2 FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. See also FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.p1.

homography. 1e-4). m = f1. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. f2 = isurf(im2). Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac Apply RANSAC M. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac(func. m.CHAPTER 2. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.ransac( @fmatrix. ransac FeatureMatch. See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.match(f2). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.

that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Y This camera model assumes central projection. v. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The image is not inverted.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.CHAPTER 2.

u. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. SIGMA ‘pose’. f=8mm.axes respectively. ‘sine’. optical axis is z-axis. M ‘k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. P ‘pixel’. camera at origin. 10um pixels. S ‘noise’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Options ‘name’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘centre’. N ‘sensor’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. K ‘resolution’.and y. ‘equisolid’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’.and v-axes are parallel to x.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.

See also Camera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tobj’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.T. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.CHAPTER 2.project(p. See also FishEyeCamera. T ‘Tcam’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.

with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).CHAPTER 2.0) and the line.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. The voting array is 2-dimensional. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A horizontal line has theta = 0.H). See also LineFeature Hough. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.

char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value HT.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Default 400 × 401. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.CHAPTER 2. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Set ht. else N = [Ntheta.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Nrho].1). if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Hough. Hough.edgeThresh.5) Set ht. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0.houghThresh (default 0. T ‘edgethresh’. T ‘suppress’. W ‘houghthresh’.char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘nbins’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. See also Hough. N All edge pixels have equal weight.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.lines Find lines L = HT.plot Plot line features HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. H = HT.plot. L = HT.CHAPTER 2.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.lines Hough. See also Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision. LineFeature Hough.plot(n. HT. The highest peak is found. then all elements in an HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. HT. The process is repeated for all peaks.

Note • LineFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.

LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(rho.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. strength. LENGTH is undeﬁned. L = LineFeature(rho. LineFeature. theta. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.display Display value L. LineFeature.char Convert to string s = L.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta. See also LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. one per element. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.

See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.CHAPTER 2.seglength(edge. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).points Return points on line segments p = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated. Small gaps.plot Plot line L. L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the line on current plot. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. l2 = L.

options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie.char Convert to string M.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.close Close the image source M. S ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com). Movie.

S ‘frame’. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. F Skip frames.CHAPTER 2. undirected graph create an n-d.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. planar. Options ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

clear() add vertex.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.next(v) g.plot() g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().CHAPTER 2.connectivity() g. v2) g.coord(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex. v) g.add node(coord. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.goal(v) g.edges(e) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.component(v) g.distance(v1. return vid add vertex and edge to v.add edge(v1.cost(e) g.neighbours(v) g.

PGraph. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v = G. E = G. PGraph.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘distance’. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v2.add node(x.add edge(v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add edge(v1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node(x. and returns the edge id E. where x is D × 1.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. v. v = G. and returns the node id v.

and the distance d. D × 1.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph. edges and components.d] = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. PGraph. PGraph.CHAPTER 2. of node id v.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. [v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.clear Clear the graph G.coord(v) return coordinate vector.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v. See also ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. PointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. SurfPointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.

match Match point features m = F.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.CHAPTER 2. the norm of the Euclidean distance. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. where 1 is perfect match. PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. [m.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.char PointFeature.C] = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon . F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot Plot feature F.

Polygon. Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. intersection.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon.mit. http://puddle. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. union.edu.mit.html and require a licence. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. difference. HEIGHT]. one column per vertex.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.area Area of polygon a = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. kirill@plume. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. so use with care.char String representation s = P. p = Polygon(C. Pankratov. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).difference Difference of polygons d = P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.display Display polygon P. See also Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns coordinates of P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.char Polygon.CHAPTER 2. else 0. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.

intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. returns empty polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.moments(p. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. y1 y2].intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. each column is [x y]’.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Polygon.

CHAPTER 2. P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union Union of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.plot() plot the polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.

Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.CHAPTER 2. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.CHAPTER 2.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.E] = R.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. [x.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.E] = R. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.char Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R. [x. Ray3D.display Display value R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. See also Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.

If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.0) 1 for a circle.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b.CHAPTER 2. horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. vertical coordinate bounding box.

box Return bounding box b = R. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature. one per element.char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature.th] = R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. ymax]. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.CHAPTER 2.xmax.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iblobs.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. ymin. RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector. For example R.

Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. RegionFeature.and xmarkers. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot centroid R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.display Display value R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot boundary plot boundary R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. See also RegionFeature.char RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R. R.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F.plot scale(options. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. C ‘alpha’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 1=opaque. F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature. v. ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. v. SurfPointFeature. strength.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.

During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. one per active track.CHAPTER 2.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. options) is a new tracker object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. N ‘thresh’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. R ‘nslots’. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. See also PointFeature Tracker. Options ‘radius’. T ‘movie’.

display Display value T.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. See also Tracker. Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2.

otherwise the result is not predictable. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. and their characteristics is displayed.CHAPTER 2. Movie Video. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S ‘resolution’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. G ‘scale’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source V.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the camera. Video.CHAPTER 2. Video.char Convert to string V.

See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. and the right image is cyan.CHAPTER 2. color. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. right. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. the second for right. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. By default the left image is red. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. the ﬁrst for left. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. If th1 is a column vector. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. a = anaglyph(left.

y2). See also RegionFeature. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y2].s] = boundmatch(R1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. y1. [x.CHAPTER 2. 6500). T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. % emission of sun plot(l. p = bresenham(p1.y1) to (x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.boundary. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.y1] and p2=[x2. If lambda is a column vector. Endpoints must be integer. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. [C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].

d1] = closest(a. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.CHAPTER 2. green and blue primaries respectively. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. Options ‘n’. R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). [k. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R. and x is N × 3. x = circle(C. k = closest(a. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.

44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. As noted in footnote a on p. 19000 (526. The data are referred to as pilot data. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5. they were measured directly. 335 of Table 1(5.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).16).ac.32).ioo. and 22500 (444.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. since. • From Table I(5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].d1.5. while Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.d2] = closest(a. (Table 1(5.CHAPTER 2.

ioo. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize is a 2-vector (N. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ucl. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.CHAPTER 2. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ac. out = col2im(pix.M).uk See also cmfrgb. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.

rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.

im<100. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. icolor. @isnan.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.G. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. See also imono. k. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. @isnan.B). [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. func. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.CHAPTER 2. eg. mask. out = colorize(im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. eg. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. XYZ = colorname(name.C. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R] = colorkmeans(im. low is good. L = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(XYZ. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.CHAPTER 2. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. k) as above but also returns the residual R.

i1.i2. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. • Color space names are case insensitive.o3] = colorspace(s. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.CHAPTER 2. [o1.o2. colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. Input and output images have 3 planes.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. double data is the natural choice. s = ‘dest<-src’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. s = ‘src->dest’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. or alternatively. it can be omitted.txt. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.

2*A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . like a colormap.200). Example A = rand(400. • If im is an M × 3 array.100).B).CHAPTER 2. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. B = rand(400. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. out will also have size M × 3. for memory and computational performance.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. However. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. d = distance(A.

The result E is a matrix.uva.(+31)20-5257524. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. E = edgelist(im. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. bunschot@wins. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. not image frame. University of Amsterdam.y). Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. non zero is counter-clockwise. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.j).2 and Solaris Matlab v5. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. in matrix coordinate frame. seed. non-zero is an object. Tested: PC Matlab v5. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.3. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. tel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2.

j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). H = epiline(f. 1998. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. See also fmatrix. See also epiline. Oct 27. epiline(f. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. Author Based on fmatrix code by.CHAPTER 2. p1. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.S. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Coimbra. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. one per line drawn. I.R. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p.

Notes • The points must be corresponding. The University of Western Australia. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. See also ransac. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. homography. epiline. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. p2. no outlier rejection is performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.uwa. that is. • Contains a RANSAC driver. page 270. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. that is.edu. c. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.CHAPTER 2. • f is a rank 2 matrix.csse. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. which means it can be passed to ransac().au/. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. it is singular.

CHAPTER 2. x2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. See also imorph. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. itriplepoint. ithin.y1) and (x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. y1.y2).

uwa. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. http://www.csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.au/. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Notes • The points must be corresponding. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ransac. invhomog. The University of Western Australia. no outlier rejection is performed.CHAPTER 2. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.edu.

S output image contains all the warped pixels. R ‘scale’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. See also homography. D ‘size’. See also e2h. S ‘dimension’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. im. V ‘roi’. ie. that is tp=T*T1. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. im. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. itrim.CHAPTER 2.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions.offs] = homwarp(H. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1.

on Information Theory. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. IRE Trans. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 1962. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. IT-8:pp. Hu. ianimate(seq. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 200). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ’nfeat’. ’gs’). features. features. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. ianimate(im. 179-187. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. M ‘npoints’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. N ‘only’. isurf. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. iharris. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. YMIN YMAX]. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.

[A1.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. vertical coordinate bounding box.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. A set pixel aspect ratio. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. C set connectivity.0 ‘connect’. default 1. [S1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.CHAPTER 2. ilabel. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. horizontal coordinate centroid. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.

1996-7. Tel Aviv University. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also iopen. See also isobel. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.CHAPTER 2. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. S ‘th0’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.

Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. C = icolor(im. iconcat(im. Options ‘dir’. colorize.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. The images do not have to be of the same size. [C. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.CHAPTER 2. D ‘bgval’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. See also imono.u] = iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. [0 1 1]).

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2.CHAPTER 2. options) convolves im1 with im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.

The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. N ‘detector’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E ‘suppress’. D ‘sigma’.CHAPTER 2. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CM ‘cminthresh’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. CT ‘edgegap’. R ‘nfeat’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. S ‘deriv’. K ‘patch’. D ‘k’.

G. pp 147-151. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Tomasi.121-128. p2. May 1988. T ‘distthresh’. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. • “Good features to track”. Manchester. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. pp. Harris and M. • “Finding corners”. C. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. N ‘mindelta’. Proc.CHAPTER 2. Stephens.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. 1994. J. Shi and C.5 [sec]. vol.J. See also PointFeature.Noble. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. J. 593-593. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. with a delay of d [sec].6. pp.. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. [T. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.d] = icp(p1. Proc. 1988. Image and Vision Computing. p2. with a delay of 0.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. T ‘maxiter’. Options ‘dplot’. IEEE Computer Society.

idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.McKay. s = idecimate(im. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. 239-256. each plane is decimated. m. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. no. 14. See also iscale.or 3-dimensional. pp. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pattern Anal. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. 1992.Besl and H. Intell. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. IEEETrans.. 2. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. vol. Mach. P. s = idecimate(im. m. Feb.

good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. positive is blue. negative is red. positive is blue. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. C ‘xydata’.and y-axes respectively. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. histogram and zooming. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. darker than ‘grey’. linear proﬁle. Options ‘ncolors’. zero is white color map: random values. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. negative is red. If the image is zoomed. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. XY ‘colormap’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. If im is a cell array of images. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide.CHAPTER 2. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. zero is black. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. zero is white. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’.

See also image.CHAPTER 2. labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labelimage. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. icolorize. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. labels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . caxis. See also iblobs. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colormap.

Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. out = igamma(im. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. See also itriplepoint. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.45.CHAPTER 2. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. pp. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. Sept.jpg’). min. 2004. k. min. vol. Felzenszwalb and D. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. min is the minimum region size (pixels). k. Huttenlocher. 167181. 2006. 0.m] = igraphseg(im. P. k. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. L = igraphseg(im. Journal on Computer Vision. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = igraphseg(im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5). Example im = iread(’58060. k is the scale parameter. See also ithresh. [L. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. [l. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.5). 1500. Int. 100. 59.

options) displays the image histogram. ’normcdf’). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. H = ihist(im. bar(x. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.h).h).x] = ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. [h. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. plot(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im). [H.

The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. same size as im. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. x1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. [L. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. ii is a precomputed integral image.CHAPTER 2.y1) and bottom-right (x2.m. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y1. [L. y2.

ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .parents. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.parents.maxlabel. See also iblobs.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. • This is a “low level” function. iproﬁle. otherwise it does not. 8).maxlabel. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p1. [L. out = iline(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The pixels on the line are set to 1. ilabel(im. eg.Y]. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.class. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. each a 2-vector [X. p1.

ymin. centred at (x. y.DY) are the x. H. s] % relative to (x. w2.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. xmax.CC] where (DX. -s. The template in im1 is centred at (x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.DY. im2. ymax] relative to (x.y). The return value is xm=[DX. a perfect match score is 1. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. • Is a MEX ﬁle. and columns the vertical position. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. • ZNCC matching is used.CHAPTER 2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.and y-offsets relative to (x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). y.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x.y) and its half-width is H. x. [xm. im2.y) and of size s. s. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.score] = imatch(im1. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.y). The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.

All pixels are equally weighted. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. effectively a binary image.u) = u and v(v.CHAPTER 2. The element u(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. f = imoments(u. v. effectively a greyscale image.u) = v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. [u. f = imoments(u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. [u.v] = imeshgrid(w. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.

m20. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m01. m10. ilabel. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. icolor. the elements are m00. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. Different conversion functions are supported.CHAPTER 2. See also RegionFeature. horizontal coordinate centroid. m11. • This function does not perform connectivity. m02. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. or its area. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.

CHAPTER 2.png’. 22. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.org). ’light’). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Urban. se. [label. ’grey’. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pajdla. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. ’double’). Chum.m] = imser(im.m] = imser(im. 2004. The labels [L. 761767. pp. Matas. Sept. Image and Vision Computing. m. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. O. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. J. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. and T.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2).CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.

the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. se. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. out = iopen(im. See also iclose. sides. n. sides. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.V]. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. im1. otherwise im2 is selected. 20. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.CHAPTER 2. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 10. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. im2. ’t’. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ’tblr’.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.v) for the corresponding row of p.uv] = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.

n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. is order=1.3). nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. se(2.CHAPTER 2. order. se. 12. se. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. See also iscalespace. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. op. the maximum.2) = 0. op. nbins. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. out = imorph(image. sigma. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se). out = ipyramid(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. out = ipyramid(im.5)). out = imorph(image. The highest rank. ones(5. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. idecimate. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. im > irank(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1.

Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix.CHAPTER 2. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R ‘roi’. im = iread(ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. G ‘reduce’. vmin vmax]. where R=[umin umax. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). ivar. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. See also imorph.

If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.out2. m. imwrite.out2] = irectify(f. igamma. im1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. istereo. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.h2] = irectify(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. [out1. homwarp.h1. m. Notes • Color images are not supported. imono. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. See also FeatureMatch. im1.

vmax].R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.umax.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.CHAPTER 2. V ‘smooth’. Options ‘outsize’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. [out.vmin vmax]. vmin. See also idisp. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angle. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.H] return central part of image. S ‘extrapval’.

V ‘smooth’.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s ‘extrapval’.5 is symmetric cropping. bias=0. im2. out = isamesize(im1. s<1 makes it smaller.CHAPTER 2. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. Options ‘outsize’. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias<0. while bias>0. s>1 makes the image larger. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.

of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). [g.L. n.CHAPTER 2. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.s] = iscalespace(im.s] = iscalespace(im. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.L. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. n) as above but sigma=1. idecimate. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. in space and scale. See also iscalespace. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. corresponding to each step of the sequence.

ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. See also isrot. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ismooth. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. else false (0). The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it its third dimension is equal to three. ‘valid’) as above.CHAPTER 2. that is. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ilaplace. ishomog(T.

• The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. Lowe. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. 91-110. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. See also SiftPointFeature.vlfeat. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. 2 (2004). International Journal of Computer Vision. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 60. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. N ‘suppress’. isurf.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. pp.CHAPTER 2. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference David G. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.

Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. im.H. @ncc.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. and these output pixels are set to NaN. ncc. sad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. zssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zsad.CHAPTER 2. See also imatch. [w. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. @ssd. @zsad. [w. s is same size as im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. ssd. s = isimilarity(T. @zssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.

kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.CHAPTER 2. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. See also iconv. sigma. [gx. then converted back to integer. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. [gx. convolved.

or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. imr. the disparity d=d(v. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. That is. imr.u) means that imr(v. isrot(R. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. See also ishomog. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. range.CHAPTER 2. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u).sim] = istereo(iml. else false (0). w. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. [d. H. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). ‘valid’) as above. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. H is the half size of the matching window. range.M] for an N × M window. range is the disparity search range. icanny. See also ksobel.

p] = istereo(iml. • sim = max(dsi. imr. [d.5 to +0. [d. B. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. ‘ncc’. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). w. range. range. imr. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.sim. That is.5). p. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. dx. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. Options ‘metric’. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. 3) See also irectify.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.sim.dsi] = istereo(iml. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.CHAPTER 2.A and p. w. out = istretch(im.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.

R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘thresh’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale.CHAPTER 2. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. or sequences. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. T ‘octaves’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Notes • Color images. Kroon (U.

isift. out = ithin(im. Andreas Ess. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). isvec(v. See also ishomog.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. either a row. Tinne Tuytelaars. Luc Van Gool. See also hitormiss. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. No. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 346–359. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 110.CHAPTER 2.or columnvector. else false (0). itriplepoint. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. pp. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Otherwise false (0). isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 3. Vol.

The same cropping is applied to each input image.out2] = itrim(im1. a lower value will include more.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. The default is 0. Notes • Greyscale image only. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.out2] = itrim(im1.5. [out1. ithresh(im.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.im2. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. See also homwarp.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op. See also iendpoint. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.

irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. hence output image had reduced dimensions. func. ones(3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. out = iwindow(image. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.CHAPTER 2. @max). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. se.5). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. See also ivar. ones(5. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. @std).

dG/dy. k = kcircle(R. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. See also ones. is k’. k = kdgauss(sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog. • The vertical derivative. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. ktriangle. kdog. See also kgauss. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. dG/dx.CHAPTER 2. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones.

Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma. See also kdgauss. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kdog(sigma1. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). kdog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kgauss. sigma2. klog.6*sigma1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. By default SIGMA2 = 1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also ilaplace. iconv. kdgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. kdog. k = klog(sigma. and W=2 × H+1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. and D is the dimension.C] = kmeans(x. L = kmeans(x.CHAPTER 2. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. [L. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.C] = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). k. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. Pattern Recognition Principles. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. it is assumed to have been completed previously.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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C ‘T’. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.y.y. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). [x. ‘edge’. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. See also cylinder. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. symmetric about the origin.z] = mkcube(s. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘T’.z] = mkcube(s. [x. The points are the columns of p. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.

y. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. y) MPLOT(t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.yq . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. MPLOT(t. See also mpq poly. the sum of I(x. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. n) MPLOT(y.2)). n. npq.CHAPTER 2. p. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n) MPLOT(t. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.xp . or y(:. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. y. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.2)).y). or y(:. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also mpq. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. they are considered to be a single vertex. upq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. so centroids will be still be correct. npq poly. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. p. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.CHAPTER 2.

W. 1986. idisp(im >= t). w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. k. [T.2. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. -0. k.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Example t = niblack(im. Prentice-Hall. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. the height of a character. 20). in text segmentation.s] = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. ssd. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. T has the same dimensions as im. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. niblack.CHAPTER 2. • A common choice of k=-0. where W=2*w2+1.m. for example. See also zncc.

q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. mpq.q)/MPQ(im.0.p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. That is UPQ(im. See also npq poly. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.0).

See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. they are considered as a single vertex. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq poly. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. upq.

ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t). [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. pp 62-66 See also niblack. x. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Jan 1979. N.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.xp] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). otsu IEEE Trans.i] = peak(y. Systems.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘scale’. Typically choose N to be odd. use peak(-V). N ‘scale’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. [zp. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.ij] = peak2(z.S points.S points. use peak2(-V). See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. S ‘interp’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.

See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pnmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ie. plot2(p. If p has three dimensions. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot.CHAPTER 2. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.

W. R. x2. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’r’). r. or a set of name. P. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. 5). ’fillcolor’.y1) and (x2. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ‘size’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y2). ‘size’. P.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ’g’. ’LineWidth’.CHAPTER 2. W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. plot_circle(c. r. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C.y1. r. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. PLOT BOX(x1.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. plot_circle(c. 1=solid. Examples plot_circle(c. ’edgecolor’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ’b’). options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ‘r’.y2. PLOT BOX(’centre’.

Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.Y. xc. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. Options ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. centred at the origin. c Specify color of the axes. If C=[X. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. C. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. with Matlab line style ls. ls) ls is the standard line styles.CHAPTER 2.Y]. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . current plot.

fmt. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. options) adds point markers to a plot. ‘printf’. ’color’. n ‘text opts’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L.CHAPTER 2. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. to ‘view’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ‘framename’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’r’). ’name’. trplot( T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’color’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate.X = 0. ’r’. Options ‘textcolor’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. patch. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. color. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. See also plot. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. 1=solid. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. The default is 1. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . either a letter or 3-vector. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres.

CHAPTER 2. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plotp(p. See also plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also pgmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. [gr. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.

N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. T.in] = ransac(func. one column per point pair. x. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. N ‘maxDataTrials’.CHAPTER 2. x. x typically contains corresponding point data. T. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. d) as above but elements increment by d.resid] = ransac(func. T. x. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.in. [m. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. Options ‘maxTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.

inlier.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.CHAPTER 2.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. that is they will produce a model.x data to work on.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Comm.x) condition the point data out.x and returns the best model out. they detect a structure argument.theta] = ERR(R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.. that is. [out. [out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . No 6.t threshold (1 × 1) R.resid] = EST(R.misc private data (cell array) out.theta and the subset of R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. If multiple models are found out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.x. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. pp 101-113. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. Assoc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. Vol 24.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. Mach. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.x = CONDITION(R.out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta = []. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta.s sample size (1 × 1) out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.misc element. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. pp 381-395. Comp.out. Cambridge University Press.theta.theta to the points R. References • m. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.R.s out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. Fishler and R.x.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.A.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta is a cell array.theta = DECONDITION(R. Boles.C.

See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.edu. If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.csse.au/ pk See also fmatrix.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. See also roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz.CHAPTER 2. rotz. See also rotx.

then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. yaw. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Y. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Z axes respectively. If roll. pitch. T = rpy2tr(roll. See also tr2rpy. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch. • many texts (Paul. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1.CHAPTER 2. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. and rotation theta in the plane. See also zsad. ncc. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.y. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. y. theta) as above where xy=[x. r2t. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ssd. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.CHAPTER 2.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

sad. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also zsdd. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1.

opt. tr2rt. – If T is 3 × 3.foo = true.bar = false. ’other’}.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose = {’this’. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. The software pattern is: function(a.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. c. then R is 3 × 3. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. then R is 2 × 2. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. opt. varargin) opt. ’that’. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). It supports options that have an assigned value.blah = []. b.

x. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.y sets opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.select = {’#no’.choose <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If neither of ‘this’.choose <.1.N sets opt <.verbose <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).foo <.3 ‘blah’. varargin).CHAPTER 2.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.false ‘blah’.‘this’.y ‘that’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.blah <. 3 sets opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.blah <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.select <. w.select <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. args) creates a test pattern image. x. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. varargin).true sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.foo <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. ’#yes’}.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt.debug <. N ‘setopt’.

Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. sf. 50.sd. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args are theta (rad). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args are pitch (distance between centres).CHAPTER 2. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. 25). square side length. The trajectory s. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. [s. sd and sdd are n-vectors. binary dot pattern. args is the number of cycles. dot diameter. args is the number of cycles. binary square pattern. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 256.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sd. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. a line. args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 256. args is the number of cycles. 2). See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. intercept. sf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. See also angvec2r.CHAPTER 2. Y and Z axes respectively.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. [theta. The 3 angles rpy=[R.P. Y.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.

then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. • The validity of R is not checked. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.z]. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. r2t. See also rt2tr. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If T has three dimensions. See also rpy2tr. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.:. ie. – If TR is 3 × 3. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. y.

Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). [c1. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. or x and y. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If tri is RGB then cc is rg. An historical anomaly.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. each N × 1.CHAPTER 2. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [o1.

CHAPTER 2. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. and displays in RPY format. trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers.CHAPTER 2. trotx. f ‘label’. trprint T is the command line form of above. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. the sum of I(x.(y-y0)q where (x0.y). That is. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. p. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. See also upq poly. tr2rpy.(x-x0)p .CHAPTER 2. mpq.y0) is the centroid.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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See also sad. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.CHAPTER 2. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. ncc. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.

isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also sdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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