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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface
This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,
Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the field this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and figures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and finally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,
Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1
Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reflecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image file reading and writing, acquisition, display, filtering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufficiently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a firewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, filtering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-files that implement functions and classes, and mex-files for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-files to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for firewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efficiency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and figures in the manual. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. However the book “Robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. is open-source. though this is much less significant today than it was in the past. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This is extravagant on storage. nearly 400 figures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-files and may need to be compiled for the particular platform.

. . . Movie . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . igraphseg . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . h2e . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . kdog . . . . . . . . iprofile . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxfilt . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medfilt1 . . 8 . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . usefig . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . trprint . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.1 • x New features: • x Bugfixes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. tutors. lecturers and professors are paid to do.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you find it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You need to signup in order to post.google.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deficiencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.com. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and you will be suitably acknowledged. That’s what you your teachers.

The file robot. the table of content to functions. Volume = {12}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Number = {4}. Author = {P. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1. 1.3.com The files are available in either gzipped tar format (. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the first two pages (cover and licence). HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Corke}. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.gz) or zip format (.zip). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.petercorke. Month = nov. and the “See also” functions to each other. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Year = {2005}.html on a server for class use. type of organization and application. The details are @article{Corke05f.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.1.I.5 Use in teaching This is definitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. 1.

I. Coimbra. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. 1994 University of British Columbia.S. Vincent Lepetit. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 1.7 Acknowledgements Last.R. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.mathworks. See the file CONTRIB for details. VLFeat http://www. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but not least. and there are hundreds of modules available.vlfeat.7. November 2005. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodified. P.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.6. 1. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION file. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX file use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. Twente. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. MSER. pp 16–25. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi..Functions such as SURF. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. 12(4). Corke.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control figure hold for image plane window test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. N ‘sensor’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. Camera.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the specified image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. T ‘color’. N ‘image’. S ‘noise’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method defined. P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’. IM ‘resolution’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S ‘centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . used by all subclasses. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. Options ‘name’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.

CatadioptricCamera. Camera.char Convert to string s = C. SphericalCamera Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.CHAPTER 2. fisheyecamera.centre Get camera position p = C.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.display Display value C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.delete() destroys all figures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Camera. See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.char Camera. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are defined by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.figure() is the handle of the figure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. C. otherwise false (0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.v + c = 0.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.u + b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .figure Return figure handle H = C.

hold.plot. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. mkcube. Options ‘Tobj’. y.clf Camera. See also mesh. z to the image plane and plots them. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices define 3D points.mesh(x.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . cylinder. Camera.T.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). y. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) projects a 3D shape defined by the matrices x.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.CHAPTER 2. Camera. Camera. T ‘Tcam’.plot(p. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. y. z. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. uv = C. sphere.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.plot Plot points on image plane C. The matrices x. Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

T See also Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C.clf Camera.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Camera. Camera.mesh. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. ‘fps’.CHAPTER 2.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are defined by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. T ‘scale’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current figure. ‘Tcam’. ‘Tobj’.T.hold. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Options ‘Tcam’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.

p. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.y].rpy(R. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy Set camera attitude C.p. C. The image is not inverted.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. a subclass of Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y) sets the camera attitude to the specified roll-pitch-yaw angles. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline flowfield visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix field of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical flow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters.C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

E = C.8]) See also Camera.and v-axes parallel to x.177 See also CentralCamera. S ‘centre’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (first view) and C2 (second view). N ‘sensor’. J. CatadioptricCamera.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. P ‘pixel’.Kosecka.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. f=8mm. camera at origin.F. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. S. F ‘distortion’.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. fisheyecamera. N ‘focal’. Springer. S.and y-axes respectively. optical axis is z-axis. 10um pixels. p. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. The first view is from the current camera pose C. Reference Y. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. E = C. 2003. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’.E Essential matrix E = C. IM ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. D ‘default’ ‘image’.Sastry.CHAPTER 2. T ‘color’. CentralCamera.Soatto.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. u.

T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S.H(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.Soatto.Sastry. p. from two viewpoints. Springer.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (first view) and C2 (second view). The first view is from the current camera pose C.H Homography matrix H = C. S. n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Kosecka.CHAPTER 2.E CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.Ma.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. “An invitation to 3D”.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. F = C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. Reference Y. 2003. J. The first view is from the current camera pose C. See also CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C.177 See also CentralCamera.

CentralCamera.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object defined by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. pp.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 81. Fua. Journal on Computer Vision. Lepetit. vol. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.fov Camera field-of-view angles. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. and P.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. 2009. F. V. See also quiver CentralCamera.flowfield(v) displays the optical flow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a = C. CentralCamera.estpose(xyz. Moreno-Noguer.CHAPTER 2.fov() are the field of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. 155-166. Int.flowfield Optical flow C. Feb.

Soatto. section 5. “An invitation to 3D”. 259 Y. s.Soatto. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Springer. Springer. Chap 9.E CentralCamera. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Sastry. p.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . J. Reference Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. translation not to scale • n. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Ma.CHAPTER 2. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. J.invE(E.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Kosecka. 2003. 2003.Sastry. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. s. See also CentralCamera.Kosecka.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “Multiview Geometry”. s. p116.

project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot epiline(f. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p. H = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. one per line. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. ‘Tcam’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f.T.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.plot epiline(f. CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. C. See also Hough CentralCamera. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).

Rives. Chaumette. 8. “Multiview Geometry”.CHAPTER 2.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. one for each point defined by the columns of p.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. See also Camera.c. vol. June 1992. Espiau. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. and P. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.plot CentralCamera. Reference B. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pp. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 313-326. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.visjac e(E. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .b. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. F.

Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. CentralCamera. pp 651-670. R&A. Rives. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.visjac l CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). 313-326. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac l(L. Oct.visjac p. Espiau. and P.visjac p.visjac p(uv. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. 8. IEEE Trans. Hager & Corke. See also CentralCamera. Hutchinson. 1996.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Chaumette. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Reference B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .c.visjac p polar. pp.visjac p polar. Vol 12(5). CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. June 1992. CentralCamera.b. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. F. vol.

CentralCamera.visjac l. See also CentralCamera.visjac l.visjac p polar(rt. Chaumette. P. 2009. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. (St.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Int. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p.visjac p polar. I.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. 5962-5967. Louis). radius and theta. Spindler. F. CentralCamera. Oct.visjac e CentralCamera. in Proc. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Corke. and F.

Int. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .91-110. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Nov. D.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.CHAPTER 2. Journal on Computer Vision.60. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. ScalePointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. vol.SIFT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. pp.Lowe. See also isift. See README. 2004. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. PointFeature.

plot scale(options. 1=opaque.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. C ‘alpha’.CHAPTER 2. 0=transparent (default 0. SiftPointFeature. F.match Match SIFT point features m = F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. See also isift SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. strength) as above but with specified strength. f = PointFeature(u. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

[out. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support Support region of feature out = F.T] = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the support region is displayed. out = F.support(im.support(im.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Overrides the current camera pose C.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. S ‘pose’. See also SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. Options ‘name’. Options ‘Tobj’.T. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p. fisheyecamera. T ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). CentralCamera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.center of the target in world coords (0.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera pose. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. of 4-vector. image plane size and desired feature locations.CHAPTER 2.the side length of the target in world units (0.gain. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error norm. error. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. defaults in parentheses: target size .5) target center . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Jacobian condition number. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The camera view. The external view. The camera view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.depth of points to use for Jacobian.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .01) .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.0.

scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac p polar. CentralCamera.5) target center . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.depth of points to use for Jacobian.the side length of the target in world units (0.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Jacobian condition number. image plane size and desired feature locations.CHAPTER 2. (Anchorage). Conf. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. camera pose.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .0. Robotics and Automation. May 3-7 2010. P. Corke. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. defaults in parentheses: target size . The external view. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. error norm.01) . Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .center of the target in world coords (0.visjac p(pt.visjac l. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. pp. See also CentralCamera. of 4-vector.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 5550-5555. for all points. error.gain. in Proc. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. IEEE Int. I.

“SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.CHAPTER 2. Luc Van Gool.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp. No. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 3. Andreas Ess. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 110. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Tinne Tuytelaars. 346–359. Vol.

strength) as above but with specified strength. f = PointFeature(u. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. [m. PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match Match SURF point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2.C] = F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘thresh’. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature.

w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. 0=transparent (default 0. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F.2) SurfPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.support(images. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options.T] = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. out = F.support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. [out.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.support Support region of feature out = F. C ‘alpha’.support(images.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. F. 1=opaque. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com) web camera. • The specified ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. G ‘scale’.axis.com). S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. otherwise the result is not predictable. Video AxisWebCamera.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. S ‘resolution’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

Notes • Some web cameras have a fixed picture taking interval.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.close() closes the connection to the web camera. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. See also AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.close Close the image source A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.

pp.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Ninth IEEE Int. Oct. b = BagOfWords(f.Zisserman. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. f can also be a cell array. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. 2003. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.org). b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Conf.Sivic and A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters specified The number of stop words specified The number of images in the bag Reference J.CHAPTER 2.1470-1477. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. in Proc. on Computer Vision. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.

options) displays examples of the support regions of the words specified by the vector w. See also BagOfWords.exemplars(w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char Convert to string s = B.contains Find images containing word k = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . images. isurf BagOfWords.display Display value B.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.exemplars display exemplars of words B. BagOfWords.

All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.CHAPTER 2.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.isword Features from words f = B. M ‘width’. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. N ‘maxperimage’.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.n] = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. Options ‘ncolumns’.

The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the first call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera.CHAPTER 2.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

Camera CatadioptricCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. S ‘centre’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. N ‘focal’. CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera.and v-axes parallel to x. N ‘sensor’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).CHAPTER 2.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . optical axis is z-axis.and y-axes respectively. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. S ‘noise’. ‘sine’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].project Project world points to image plane uv = C. M ‘k’.project(p. See also Camera. 10um pixels. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘equisolid’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. K ‘maxangle’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. camera at origin. fisheyecamera. T ‘Tcam’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. A ‘resolution’. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’. f=8mm.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tobj’. u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.

p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . such as ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. See also PointFeature.

See also PointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. one per element. m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Convert to string s = M.display Display value M.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. f2.

ransac FeatureMatch.v1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. FeatureMatch.outlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier.v2]. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.CHAPTER 2.u2. See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

p1. These are the (u.p FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.im2}) m.plot Show corresponding points M. for example by: idisp({im1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current figure. See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. These are the (u.p1. The figure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot() M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.

CHAPTER 2. See also idisp FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac Apply RANSAC M.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to fit the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.ransac( @fmatrix. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). m = f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the figure.ransac(func. See also fmatrix. Example f1 = isurf(im1). m.match(f2). 1e-4). homography. ransac FeatureMatch. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. f2 = isurf(im2).

subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.CHAPTER 2. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a fisheye lense projection camera. The image is not inverted. Y This camera model assumes central projection. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. that is. Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .subset Subset of matches m2 = M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v.

K ‘resolution’.FishEyeCamera Create fisheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a fisheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. S ‘noise’. u. ‘equisolid’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘centre’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. f=8mm. ‘sine’. M ‘k’.and y. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. camera at origin. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.and v-axes are parallel to x. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. 10um pixels. optical axis is z-axis.axes respectively. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Options ‘name’.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not specified it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally fills the square image plane.project(p. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FishEyeCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera.T.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for finding lines in an image using a voting scheme. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. CatadioptricCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.CHAPTER 2. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.

See also LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.CHAPTER 2. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.0) and the line. The voting array is 2-dimensional. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.H). A horizontal line has theta = 0.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.

Set ht. See also Hough. T ‘suppress’.5) Set ht. Hough.houghThresh (default 0. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. T ‘edgethresh’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0. Hough. W ‘houghthresh’.CHAPTER 2.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.char Convert to string s = HT.1). Default 400 × 401. W ‘nbins’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.display Display value HT.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edgeThresh. else N = [Ntheta.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Nrho]. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.

HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. H = HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current figure.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.lines Find lines L = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current figure. See also Hough.plot. LineFeature Hough. L = HT. then all elements in an HT. HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. See also Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. The highest peak is found.lines Hough.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. refined to subpixel precision.plot(n. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.CHAPTER 2. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.plot Plot line features HT.

hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. RegionFeature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.

L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. one per element. theta.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LENGTH is undefined. theta.char Convert to string s = L. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value L. length) is a line feature object with the specified properties. L = LineFeature(rho. See also LineFeature. strength.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the specified properties. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2.

l2 = L. See also icanny LineFeature. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. less than gap pixels are tolerated.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identifies lines but cannot determine their length.plot Plot line L. l2 = L. L. LineFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the line on current plot.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge. Small gaps. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).CHAPTER 2. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.

S ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . G ‘scale’.com).axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie file A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(file.char Convert to string M. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. Movie.close Close the image source M. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie file file. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

Options ‘skip’.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. S ‘frame’.CHAPTER 2. F Skip frames. planar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vid • edges are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. undirected graph create an n-d. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be specified.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.

add node(coord) g.path(v) set goal vertex.neighbours(v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().next(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.clear() add vertex.add node(coord.distance(v1. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. Object properties (read/write) g.goal(v) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.CHAPTER 2.plot() g.coord(v) g.connectivity() g.cost(e) g. v) g.component(v) g.add edge(v1. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow flies g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. v2) g.edges(e) g.

v2. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node(x.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add edge(v1. and returns the node id v.add node(x. PGraph. and returns the edge id E. v = G. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v. where x is D × 1. v = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. Options ‘distance’. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.CHAPTER 2.add edge(v1. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. E = G.

[v.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.clear Clear the graph G.char Convert graph to string s = G. and the distance d. of node id v.CHAPTER 2.d] = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. edges and components.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph. PGraph. D × 1.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost
Cost of edge
C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display
Display state of the graph
G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also
PGraph.char

PGraph.distance
Distance between nodes
d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances
distance to all nodes
d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges
Find edges given vertex
E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal
Set goal node
G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also
PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours
Neighbours of a node
n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next
Find next node toward goal
v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also
PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path
Find path to goal node
p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously specified goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also
PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick
Graphically select a node
v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also
PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot
Plot the graph
G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current figure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options
‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent
t
G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex
Highlight a vertex
G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices
Find vertices given edge
v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that define edge E.

PointFeature
PointCorner feature object
A superclass for image corner features.

Methods
plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. SurfPointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. strength) as above but with specified strength.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. one per element.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also ScalePointFeature.display Display value F. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature.

If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.match(f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.C] = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘thresh’. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.char PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.match Match point features m = F. [m. where 1 is perfect match.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. Polygon .CHAPTER 2. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.

However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.edu. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. intersection.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.mit.area() is the area of the polygon. HEIGHT].area Area of polygon a = P.char String representation s = P. Polygon. kirill@plume. union. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pankratov.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. one column per vertex. http://puddle. p = Polygon(C.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Polygon. so use with care.CHAPTER 2.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.html and require a licence. difference.

returns coordinates of P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. See also Polygon. Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.char Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. else 0.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).CHAPTER 2.difference Difference of polygons d = P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.

i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Polygon. returns empty polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. each column is [x y]’. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments(p.moments Moments of polygon a = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. y1 y2].CHAPTER 2.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. See also mpq poly Polygon.

Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Polygon. Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot polygon P.CHAPTER 2.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P.plot() plot the polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. P.

defined by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. d) is a new Ray3D object defined by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.

closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. [x.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. one per element. See also Ray3D.char Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.E] = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. Ray3D.

b.CHAPTER 2.c. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.

char Convert to string s = R. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. ymin. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.box Return bounding box b = R.uc will be a list not a vector.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.xmax. For example R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature.th] = R. See also iblobs. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax]. one per element.

display Display value R. R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary plot boundary R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. See also RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. RegionFeature.

R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.

strength) as above but with specified strength. 0=transparent (default 0. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. scale) as above but with specified feature scale. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. v.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = ScalePointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. C ‘alpha’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. 1=opaque. See also PointFeature. strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F.

See also PointFeature Tracker.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘radius’. options) is a new tracker object. one per active track. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. R ‘nslots’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identifier and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential filenames. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. T ‘movie’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identifier of the track. N ‘thresh’. C.

tracklengths Length of all tracks T.plot Show feature trajectories T. See also Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char Convert to string s = T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Tracker.char Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display Display value T.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera specified by the string camera. • The specified ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. and their characteristics is displayed. Movie Video. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. AxisWebCamera.

close() closes the connection to the camera.CHAPTER 2. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char Convert to string V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video.

Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. if negative it is reduced. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. The result is in the interval [-pi pi).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. By default the left image is red. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or field of view. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. the second for right. a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. color. right. and the right image is cyan. the first for left. right. If th1 is a column vector.

x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one profile with respect to the other. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. p2) as above but p1=[x1.y2). If lambda is a column vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 6500).y2]. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary profiles R1 and r2. y1. x2.y1] and p2=[x2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y1) to (x2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. e) boundmatch Match boundary profiles x = boundmatch(R1. Endpoints must be integer.boundary. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. See also RegionFeature.s] = boundmatch(R1.CHAPTER 2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. p = bresenham(p1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. % emission of sun plot(l. [x.

Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.CHAPTER 2. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. [C. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR filter fitted.Y.

N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. Options ‘n’. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. and x is N × 3. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. R. R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = closest(a. [k. green and blue primaries respectively. that is. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows define the coordinates [x. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Define CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red.CHAPTER 2.d1] = closest(a. x = circle(C.

the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.d1. 335 of Table 1(5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). • From Table I(5. Notes • Is a MEX file. since.16).ucl. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ioo.5.CHAPTER 2. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. they were measured directly. 19000 (526. while Table I(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). and 22500 (444. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). (Table 1(5. As noted in footnote a on p.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5.d2] = closest(a.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum defined by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.32). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.ac.

xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ioo. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ucl. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum defined by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.M).ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.CHAPTER 2.g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

icolor. out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. See also imono.C] = colorkmeans(im.B). eg. k. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a specified color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. im<100. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. @isnan. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. func. [L. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. mask. @isnan. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.CHAPTER 2. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.G. The color is specified as a 3-vector (R. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.

Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. name = colorname(XYZ. eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. L = colorkmeans(im. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. k) as above but also returns the residual R. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. • The residual is an indication of quality of fit.CHAPTER 2. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R] = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color specified by the string name.C. low is good. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. XYZ = colorname(name. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color specified by the string name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the first three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are defined by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space.

im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which specifies the source and destination color spaces. it can be omitted.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.txt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. Input and output images have 3 planes. im) as above but specifies separate output channels or planes.i2. i1. colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. double data is the natural choice. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. [o1.o2.o3] = colorspace(s. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. s = ‘src->dest’.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. • Color space names are case insensitive. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.i3) as above but specifies separate input channels. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or alternatively.CHAPTER 2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. As MATLAB’s native datatype.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.100).2*A. like a colormap. for memory and computational performance. colorspace will first cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B).200). • If im is an M × 3 array.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. d = distance(A.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. out will also have size M × 3. However. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.CHAPTER 2. Example A = rand(400. B = rand(400. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.

Tested: PC Matlab v5. The result E is a matrix. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y). University of Amsterdam. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. non zero is counter-clockwise. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. • The seed point is always the first element of the returned edgelist. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.j). tel. but the direction of edge following is specified.3.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. E = edgelist(im. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.(+31)20-5257524. non-zero is an object. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. in matrix coordinate frame.uva.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. seed. not image frame. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. bunschot@wins. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.

one per line drawn.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Oct 27. p) draws epipolar lines in current figure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p1. See also fmatrix. See also epiline. Coimbra. H = epiline(f.S. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Points are specified by the columns of p. Author Based on fmatrix code by. epiline(f.CHAPTER 2. p. 1998. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p. I. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.R. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• f is a rank 2 matrix. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). See also ransac. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .csse. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. that is. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.uwa. http://www. epiline. The University of Western Australia.au/.CHAPTER 2. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. that is. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. homography. If w is not specified it defaults to 2*sigma. it is singular. no outlier rejection is performed.edu. Notes • The points must be corresponding. • Contains a RANSAC driver. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. p2. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. which means it can be passed to ransac(). c. page 270.

See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. itriplepoint. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). See also imorph. y1.CHAPTER 2. x2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y2). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. ithin.

p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.csse. Notes • The points must be corresponding. The University of Western Australia.uwa. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.edu. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.au/. See also ransac. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. no outlier rejection is performed. invhomog. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. http://www. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as defined by the first two dimensions. See also homography. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. See also e2h. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. im.offs] = homwarp(H. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the specified ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘size’. itrim. that is tp=T*T1. [out. S ‘dimension’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. im. S output image contains all the warped pixels. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. R ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. V ‘roi’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.

CHAPTER 2. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. IRE Trans. IT-8:pp. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. on Information Theory. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. ’gs’). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ianimate(im. 1962. features. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 200). ’nfeat’. 179-187. features. ianimate(seq. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Hu. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

N ‘only’. YMIN YMAX]. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. M ‘npoints’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. iharris. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. isurf.

0) 1 for a circle.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. A set pixel aspect ratio. horizontal coordinate centroid.0 ‘connect’. vertical coordinate bounding box. [A1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. [S1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ilabel. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. C set connectivity. default 1.

imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. S ‘th0’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.CHAPTER 2. out = iclose(im. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. Tel Aviv University. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also isobel.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. T ‘th1’. 1996-7. se. See also iopen.

colorize. C = icolor(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.CHAPTER 2. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. Options ‘dir’. [C. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). The images do not have to be of the same size. iconcat(im. [0 1 1]). and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be specified.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. D ‘bgval’. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.u] = iconcat(im. See also imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justified • In horizontal mode all images are top justified See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.CHAPTER 2. im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to first character. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. options) convolves im1 with im2.

D ‘sigma’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. S ‘deriv’. E ‘suppress’. R ‘nfeat’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. CT ‘edgegap’. D ‘k’. K ‘patch’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. N ‘detector’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CM ‘cminthresh’.

options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. 1988. Proc. Stephens. with a delay of 0. pp 147-151. 593-593. N ‘mindelta’. Image and Vision Computing.Noble. pp. J. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. • “Finding corners”. with a delay of d [sec]. • The descriptor is a vector of float types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. T ‘maxiter’. Manchester. 1994. vol. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.CHAPTER 2. J. [T.6. p2.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.. p2. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.d] = icp(p1. T ‘distthresh’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Tomasi. • “Good features to track”. where * denotes squared and smoothed. May 1988. pp.J. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.G. Shi and C.121-128. Options ‘dplot’. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Proc. C. IEEE Computer Society. See also PointFeature.5 [sec]. Harris and M. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.

IEEETrans.CHAPTER 2. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. no. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. s = idecimate(im. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. each plane is decimated.. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. 239-256. Mach. vol. m. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. See also iscale. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. 1992. s = idecimate(im. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. 2. 14. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Intell.McKay. Feb. pp.or 3-dimensional. Pattern Anal. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im.Besl and H. m.

Options ‘ncolors’. zero is white. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . highlights fine structure color map: greyscale unsigned. darker than ‘grey’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. The image is displayed in a figure with a toolbar across the top. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to file F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make figure very wide. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. they are first concatenated (horizontally). image is inverted C is a 2-vector that specifies the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is black. zero is black color map: greyscale signed.CHAPTER 2. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. linear profile. positive is blue. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘flatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. positive is blue. XY ‘colormap’. negative is red.and y-axes respectively. zero is white color map: random values. histogram and zooming. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which defines the zoomed view. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. negative is red. If the image is zoomed. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. • The “line” button allows two points to be specified and a new figure displays intensity along a line between those points. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new figure. If im is a cell array of images. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. C ‘xydata’.

idisplabel(im. colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the first and last element of the color map. labelimage. icolorize. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. See also iblobs.CHAPTER 2. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. See also image. caxis. labels. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is specified by bg in the range 0 to 1. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a specific class. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage.

45. ithin. out = igamma(im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). See also itriplepoint. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.CHAPTER 2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.

167181. [L. Example im = iread(’58060. min.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Is a MEX file Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. See also ithresh. Int. [l. Sept. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.m] = igraphseg(im. 1500. vol.m] = igraphseg(im. 100. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. k is the scale parameter. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. 59. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 0. L = igraphseg(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.5). min. k. Felzenszwalb and D. 2006. Huttenlocher. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .jpg’). min is the minimum region size (pixels). idisp(im) Reference “Efficient graph-based image segmentation”. Journal on Computer Vision. P. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. k.5). pp. 2004.

• For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im). [h.h).CHAPTER 2. ’normcdf’). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [H. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a floating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For floating point images all NaN and Inf values are first removed. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.x] = ihist(im. plot(x. bar(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. options) displays the image histogram.h).x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.

m.y2).parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.CHAPTER 2. The floating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. x1. same size as im. y2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region defined by its top-left (x1. [L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. y1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.y1) and bottom-right (x2. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. ii is a precomputed integral image.

The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. ilabel(im. The pixels on the line are set to 1. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. out = iline(im. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.class. p1.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. iprofile. [L. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. eg.maxlabel.maxlabel. • This is a “low level” function. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.Y]. 8). IBLOBS is a higher level interface. See also iblobs. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. otherwise it does not. Notes • Is a MEX file.parents. p2. each a 2-vector [X. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.parents. p1.

DY.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .score] = imatch(im1. ymin. [xm. a perfect match score is 1. ymax] relative to (x.CC] where (DX. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.and y-offsets relative to (x. -s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).CHAPTER 2. im2.y). y. w2.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. • Is a MEX file. xmax. The return value is xm=[DX. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.y) and its half-width is H. x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. im2. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. y. centred at (x. x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.y). • im1 and im2 must be the same size. The template in im1 is centred at (x. s] % relative to (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. H. and columns the vertical position. • ZNCC matching is used.DY) are the x.y) and of size s.

All pixels are equally weighted.u) = u and v(v. [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. effectively a binary image.u) = v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. The element u(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H.v] = imeshgrid(w. effectively a greyscale image. f = imoments(u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].CHAPTER 2. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. [u. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.

CHAPTER 2. m10. m01. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. Different conversion functions are supported. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m02. ilabel. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used first. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. horizontal coordinate centroid. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. See also RegionFeature. m11. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or its area. • This function does not perform connectivity. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m20. the elements are m00. icolor.

Pajdla. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. [label. pp. The labels [L. and T. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. 22.m] = imser(im. vol. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = imser(im. ’grey’. ’double’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Sept. 761767. Chum. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX file Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. 2004. J.png’. Image and Vision Computing. ’light’).CHAPTER 2. se. O. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Urban.org). Matas. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. m. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.ˆ2). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.CHAPTER 2. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.

See also iclose. that is n erosions followed by n dilations.CHAPTER 2. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. This is an erosion followed by dilation. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. out = iopen(im. sides. sides. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as specified by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. se.

im1. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. 10. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. ’t’.V]. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.CHAPTER 2. 20. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. im2. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. otherwise im2 is selected. ’tblr’. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im.

See also bresenham. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iprofile Extract pixels along a line v = iprofile(im. p1.uv] = iprofile(im. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.v) for the corresponding row of p.CHAPTER 2. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to find points along the line. [p. p1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.

2) = 0. se). idecimate. im > irank(im. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. See also iscalespace.3). Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. op. ones(5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. out = ipyramid(im. ismooth irank Rank filter out = irank(im. out = imorph(image. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median filter: irank(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma.5)). 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. The highest rank. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. sigma. 12. the maximum. is order=1. 1. se(2. order. out = imorph(image. nbins. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se) is a rank filtered version of im. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be specified. out = ipyramid(im. op.

If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. return an image with double precision floating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. R ‘roi’. im = iread(file. options) reads the specified file and returns a matrix. See also imorph. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. If multiple files match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision floating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. Wildcards are allowed in file names. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX file. ivar. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. where R=[umin umax. iwindow iread Read image from file im = iread() presents a file selection GUI from which the user can select an image file which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. vmin vmax]. G ‘reduce’. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. igamma.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Color images are not supported.h2] = irectify(f.h1. imwrite. imono. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. [out1.out2.out2] = irectify(f. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m. im1. istereo. m. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) is a rectified pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. See also FeatureMatch. im1. homwarp. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.

CHAPTER 2. vmin.H] return central part of image. [out.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. See also idisp. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S ‘extrapval’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.vmax]. V ‘smooth’. Options ‘outsize’.umax.vmin vmax]. angle. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.

CHAPTER 2.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. bias<0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. Options ‘outsize’. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 is symmetric cropping.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s>1 makes the image larger. V ‘smooth’. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. while bias>0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is defined with respect to a z-axis into the image. out = isamesize(im1. bias=0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s<1 makes it smaller. im2. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s ‘extrapval’.

sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n) as above but sigma=1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.L.s] = iscalespace(im. n. [g. See also iscalespace. corresponding to each step of the sequence.L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.s] = iscalespace(im. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. in space and scale. The first step in the sequence is the original image. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. idecimate. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .

else false (0). klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ismooth. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. it its third dimension is equal to three. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. See also isrot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. that is. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.

• The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. Lowe. 91-110. pp. • Wraps a MEX file from www. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See also SiftPointFeature. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.vlfeat. 2 (2004). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Reference David G. International Journal of Computer Vision. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T.CHAPTER 2. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. 60. N ‘suppress’. isurf. • Features are returned in descending strength order.

zsad.CHAPTER 2. s = isimilarity(T. @ssd.H. zssd. s is same size as im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @zssd. • The ZNCC function is a MEX file and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. [w.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is specified by the function metric which can be any of @sad. ncc. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. ssd. im. See also imatch. @zsad. @ncc. and these output pixels are set to NaN. [w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.

See also iconv. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.gy] = isobel(im. [gx.CHAPTER 2. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. sigma. then converted back to integer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. [gx. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to float. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. convolved.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.

u). w. [d. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isrot(R. range is the disparity search range. range. imr. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. H. range. the disparity d=d(v. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.CHAPTER 2. icanny.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.M] for an N × M window.sim] = istereo(iml. ‘valid’) as above. else false (0). See also ishomog. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). That is. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. See also ksobel. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. H is the half size of the matching window. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.u) means that imr(v. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. imr.

M ‘interp’ string that specifies the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).sim. [d.A and p. w. Options ‘metric’. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). range. imr.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. B. w.p] = istereo(iml. • sim = max(dsi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.5).B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefficients. 3) See also irectify. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. p. That is. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.CHAPTER 2.dsi] = istereo(iml.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.sim. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. dx. p. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.5 to +0. ‘ncc’. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. [d. out = istretch(im. imr. range.

Twente) or a MEX-file OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘thresh’. • Wraps an M-file implementation of OpenSurf by D. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time.CHAPTER 2. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). are first converted to greyscale. or sequences. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Notes • Color images. Kroon (U. T ‘octaves’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. pp. isvec(v. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = ithin(im. isift.or columnvector. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. No. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). either a row. Otherwise false (0).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 346–359. See also ishomog. itriplepoint.CHAPTER 2. Tinne Tuytelaars. Luc Van Gool. 110. Andreas Ess. else false (0). See also hitormiss. 3. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Vol. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5. It assumes that the undefined pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. a lower value will include more. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. [out1. The same cropping is applied to each input image. Notes • Greyscale image only.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. When images are rectified or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.out2] = itrim(im1.im2. • For a floating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The default is 0. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.out2] = itrim(im1.CHAPTER 2. See also homwarp.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. ithresh(im.

ithin. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. See also iendpoint. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. op) is an image where each output pixel is the specified statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. op.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX file. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.

edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. hence output image had reduced dimensions.5). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the specified function handle func. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. @max). ones(5. @std). out = iwindow(image.3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. func.CHAPTER 2. se. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. Notes • Is a MEX file. See also ivar. se. ones(3. The neighbourhood is defined by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.

and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The vertical derivative. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. See also kgauss. See also ones. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. k = kdgauss(sigma.s) as above but s is explicitly specified. kdog. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. k = kcircle(R. is k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.CHAPTER 2. ktriangle. H) as above but the half-width is explictly specified. dG/dx. dG/dy.

and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . See also kdgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is specified. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default SIGMA2 = 1. See also kgauss. kdog. k = kgauss(sigma.KGAUSS(SIGMA2).CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is specified. k = kdog(sigma1.6*sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. klog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. sigma2. kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efficient approximation. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is specified directly.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also ilaplace. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.CHAPTER 2. k = klog(sigma. kdgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is specified. See also kgauss. and W=2 × H+1. iconv. kdog.

The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). [L. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. Pattern Recognition Principles. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. k. L = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. and D is the dimension. it is assumed to have been completed previously. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.C] = kmeans(x. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.C] = kmeans(x. k. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also
isobel

ktriangle
Triangular kernel
k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples
>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also
kcircle

lambda2rg
RGB chromaticity coordinates
rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the specific wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also
cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy
= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for
illumination at the specific wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also
cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum
Load spectrum data
s = loadspectrum(lambda, filename) is spectral data (N × D) from file filename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] specified in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, filename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes
• The file is assumed to have its first column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos
Photopic luminosity function
p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also
rluminos

maxfilt
maximum filter
MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum filter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medfilt, minfilt pic 6/93

medfilt1
Median filter
y = medfilt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median filter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes
• A median filter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing filters.

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options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.CHAPTER 2. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. [x. C ‘T’. The points are the columns of p. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that define a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. ‘edge’. symmetric about the origin. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. s. Options ‘T’.y. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. [x. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that define the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.z] = mkcube(s.y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.z] = mkcube(s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. options) is a mesh that defines the edges of a cube. See also cylinder.

y) MPLOT(t. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and first column is time.2)). labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is first data column. n. npq. Subplots are labelled as per the data fields. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.2)). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.y). n) MPLOT(y. See also mpq poly. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.xp . That is. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is first data column. MPLOT(t. p. the sum of I(x.yq . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. or y(:. or y(:.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in figure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. • If the first and last point in the list are the same. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. p. See also mpq. npq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered to be a single vertex.

isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. k. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. the height of a character.m. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.CHAPTER 2.2. niblack. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. -0. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.s] = niblack(im. W. for example. See also zncc. Prentice-Hall. T has the same dimensions as im. idisp(im >= t). • A common choice of k=-0.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. 1986. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. k. [T. Example t = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 20). where W=2*w2+1. in text segmentation. Notes • This is an efficient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. ssd.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. See also npq poly. p. mpq. That is UPQ(im.0). b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.q)/MPQ(im.0.p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

so centroids will be still be correct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). upq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. npq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. mpq. they are considered as a single vertex. See also mpq poly.CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the first and last point in the list are the same.

Jan 1979. otsu IEEE Trans. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. x. [yp.i] = peak(y. pp 62-66 See also niblack.xp] = peak(y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.CHAPTER 2. Systems. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Example t = otsu(im). options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. N. [yp. idisp(im >= t).

Typically choose N to be odd.CHAPTER 2.S points. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To find minima. use peak(-V). Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options fits points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To find minima. use peak2(-V). N ‘scale’. • The interp options fits points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. [zp. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. S ‘interp’.ij] = peak2(z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. N ‘scale’.

If p has three dimensions. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ie.CHAPTER 2. sub2ind pgmfilt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmfilt(im. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. plot2(p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also pnmfilt. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix filter program and returns its output as an image.

or a set of name. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘fillcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. W. Examples plot_circle(c. ‘g:’) for a non-filled circle. plot_circle(c. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’LineWidth’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C.y2. ’r’). 5). P.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. W. r. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ls) draws a box defined by b=[XL XR. ’fillcolor’.y1. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’edgecolor’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. r. plot_circle(c. ’b’).y2). options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. value pairs that are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ’g’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. 1=solid. R. PLOT BOX(x1. P. Matlab color spec transparency of the filled circle: 0=transparent. x2. ‘size’. r. PLOT BOX(’centre’.y1) and (x2. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg.CHAPTER 2. ‘r’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Options ‘color’. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.Y. xc. current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Y].CHAPTER 2. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. centred at the origin. C. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) ls is the standard line styles. c Specify color of the axes. with Matlab line style ls. ls) draws an ellipse defined by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.

‘printf’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. options) adds point markers to a plot. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ’name’. trplot( T. n ‘text opts’. ’color’. Options ‘textcolor’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ls) draws a line in the current figure L. fmt. ’r’). ’color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n Specify the name of the coordinate frame.X = 0.CHAPTER 2. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. Matlab line specification ls can be set. ‘framename’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. to ‘view’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ’r’.

• The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . NOTES • The sphere is always added. irrespective of figure hold state. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R. options) plot a polygon defined by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. R. R. patch. 1=solid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. Matlab color spec transparency of the filled circle: 0=transparent. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. alpha) as above but alpha specifies the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. color. either a letter or 3-vector. The default is 1. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. color) add spheres to the current figure. options ‘fill’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. See also pgmfilt. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix filter program and returns its output as an image. See also plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. plot2 pnmfilt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmfilt(im. plotp(p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.

gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.CHAPTER 2. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. centre) as above but the centre of the image is specified as centre=[X.gt] = radgrad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. [gr.

See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. [m.resid] = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .in] = ransac(func. x.in. x typically contains corresponding point data. x. T. ransac classifies Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. T. one column per point pair. T. if the fit residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly fits data x to the model represented by the function func. N ‘maxDataTrials’.CHAPTER 2. x. options) as above but returns the final residual of applying func to the inlier set. T is a threshold on how well a point fits the estimated. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best fit the model described by the function func and the parameter m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. Options ‘maxTrials’. [m.

s out. Comp.theta] = ERR(R.theta is a cell array. Assoc.theta to the points R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.C.t threshold (1 × 1) R. If this function cannot fit a model then out.CHAPTER 2. pp 381-395. For efficiency the data is conditioned once.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.x = CONDITION(R.resid] = EST(R. Vol 24.theta. No 6.x data to work on. Cambridge University Press.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC..A.resid model fit residual (1 × 1) The values of R. Comm. pp 101-113. If multiple models are found out.misc element.inlier. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Fishler and R.theta. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. that is they will produce a model.out.x) condition the point data out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.theta = DECONDITION(R.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.x and returns the best model out.misc private data (cell array) out.out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.x.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. Boles.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.theta = [].theta and the subset of R. [out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.x.s sample size (1 × 1) out. Mach. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.x) returns the best fit model and residual for the subset of points R.R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they detect a structure argument. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. [out. References • m. that is. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.

CHAPTER 2.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.csse. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. If lambda is a vector.edu. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix.

rotz.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. roty. See also rotx. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also roty. rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. See also tr2rpy. If roll. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Z axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the specified roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch. T = rpy2tr(roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Y. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. • many texts (Paul. yaw.

i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. and rotation theta in the plane. See also zsad. y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. theta) as above where xy=[x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. r2t. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ncc. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.CHAPTER 2.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

sad. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also zsdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Two cross-hairs are created. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. ncc. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

– If T is 3 × 3. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. c.blah = []. then R is 2 × 2.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.choose = {’this’.bar = false. ’that’. opt. opt.foo = true. b. The software pattern is: function(a. varargin) opt. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). It supports options that have an assigned value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. tr2rt.CHAPTER 2. ’other’}. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. then R is 3 × 3.

w. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the field names. x.blah <.blah <.choose <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. varargin). The return structure is automatically populated with fields: verbose and debug. args) creates a test pattern image.select = {’#no’.x.‘this’.choose <. ’#yes’}.CHAPTER 2. The image is specified by the string type and one or two (type specific) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1. opt = tb_optparse(opt.foo <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.false ‘blah’.debug <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are specified then opt. varargin).true sets opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. The allowable options are specified by the names of the fields in the structure opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are specified then opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.y ‘that’ sets opt.select <. If neither of ‘this’.verbose <. 3 sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a field.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).3 ‘blah’.y sets opt. N ‘setopt’. By default if an option is given that is not a field of opt an error is declared.N sets opt <.foo <.select <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.

256.sd. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. The trajectory s.CHAPTER 2. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. a line. square side length. binary square pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sf.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. intercept. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 256. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. sd and sdd are n-vectors. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args are pitch (distance between centres). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. sf. binary dot pattern. args are theta (rad). See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. 2). args is the number of cycles.sd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args is the number of cycles. dot diameter. 25). [s. 50. T) as above but specifies the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.

If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. [theta. Y and Z axes respectively. See also angvec2r. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. The 3 angles rpy=[R.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). rpy = tr2rpy(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are specified the result is displayed. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.

z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. If T has three dimensions.y.:.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. See also rpy2tr. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. See also rt2tr. • The validity of R is not checked. – If TR is 3 × 3. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y.z]. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. ie. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. r2t.CHAPTER 2. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). each N × 1. [o1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.CHAPTER 2. [c1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). or x and y.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. An historical anomaly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent finite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. and displays in RPY format. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. f ‘label’.CHAPTER 2. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

(y-y0)q where (x0. the sum of I(x. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(x-x0)p . upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy. p. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.y).CHAPTER 2.y0) is the centroid. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. mpq. That is. See also upq poly.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly
Central polygon moments
m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes
• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the first and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also
upq, mpq poly, npq poly

usefig
a named figure or create a new figure
usefig(’Foo’) make figure ‘Foo’ the current figure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = usefig(’Foo’) as above, but returns the figure handle

vex
Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector
v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes
• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also
skew

xaxis
X-axis scaling
xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace
Display spectral locus
xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes
• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also
rg addticks

yaxis
Y-axis scaling
yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross
Zero-crossing detector
iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes
• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also
ilog

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See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to affine changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. See also ncc. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ssd. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. ssd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.

See also sdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2.

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