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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

and I commend it to you. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . is open-source. This toolbox predates IPT by many years.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This is extravagant on storage. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. However the book “Robotics. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform.

. . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . 6 . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . inormhist . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . R . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . rg addticks . plot homline . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

You need to signup in order to post.com.google. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. That’s what you your teachers. tutors. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.

6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Corke}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Volume = {12}.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. the table of content to functions. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. type of organization and application. Month = nov. Number = {4}.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. The ﬁle robot.petercorke. 1.3. 1.1.html on a server for class use. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.I. 1. 1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.gz) or zip format (.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. and the “See also” functions to each other. Author = {P.zip). This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. The details are @article{Corke05f. Year = {2005}.

Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Corke. Twente.I.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. November 2005. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. VLFeat http://www.vlfeat. Vincent Lepetit. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.S. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. 1. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.Functions such as SURF. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. 12(4).com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.7. P.7 Acknowledgements Last. Coimbra. but not least.mathworks. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. 1994 University of British Columbia. 1.1. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. and there are hundreds of modules available.6. MSER..R. pp 16–25. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. Options ‘name’. Camera. N ‘sensor’. used by all subclasses.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane.CHAPTER 2. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘noise’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. T ‘color’. IM ‘resolution’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. S ‘centre’. N ‘image’. P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

display Display value C.centre Get camera position p = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clf Clear the image plane C. SphericalCamera Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.delete Camera object destructor C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.char Convert to string s = C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Camera. Camera. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera.

Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.CHAPTER 2.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.u + b.char Camera. Camera.v + c = 0. See also Camera. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. otherwise false (0).

plot.plot Plot points on image plane C. Options ‘Tobj’. uv = C.CHAPTER 2. Camera.hold. mkcube.mesh(x.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. y. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. z.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). T ‘Tcam’. See also mesh. sphere.plot(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.clf Camera.T. The matrices x. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. y. Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y. cylinder. z to the image plane and plots them. Camera. Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.

2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.clf Camera. ‘Tcam’. T See also Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C. Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. ‘Tobj’. T ‘scale’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tcam’.hold.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘fps’.CHAPTER 2. Camera.mesh.T. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.

rpy Set camera attitude C. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted.y]. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. a subclass of Camera. C. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.p.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.rpy(R. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. p.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C Camera matrix C = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

CentralCamera.8]) See also Camera. N ‘sensor’. E = C.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). S. SIGMA ‘pose’. Reference Y.177 See also CentralCamera. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. p. N ‘focal’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. F ‘distortion’.and y-axes respectively. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. optical axis is z-axis. ﬁsheyecamera. camera at origin. S ‘centre’.E Essential matrix E = C.Sastry. Springer.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. CatadioptricCamera.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”.Soatto. u.and v-axes parallel to x. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. J.CHAPTER 2. D ‘default’ ‘image’. E = C. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. IM ‘resolution’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. T ‘color’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003. 10um pixels. S. P ‘pixel’.F.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Kosecka. f=8mm. S ‘noise’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.

T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. See also CentralCamera.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Springer.Soatto.CHAPTER 2. from two viewpoints.Kosecka.H Homography matrix H = C. F = C.177 See also CentralCamera. n. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. 2003.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. S. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). S. Reference Y. p.E CentralCamera. J.H CentralCamera.H(T.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Sastry. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Feb. vol. 155-166. Fua. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Journal on Computer Vision. Lepetit. a = C. Moreno-Noguer. 2009. V. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. F. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. 81. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. See also quiver CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Int.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. pp.estpose(xyz. and P. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.

259 Y.invE(E. s. s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “An invitation to 3D”. p.Soatto. section 5. Reference Y.Kosecka. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. J. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Ma.CHAPTER 2.E CentralCamera.Sastry.Soatto. Springer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Ma. 2003. s. p116. “Multiview Geometry”. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Kosecka. See also CentralCamera.Sastry. s. Springer.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. “An invitation to 3D”.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). translation not to scale • n. Chap 9. 2003. J.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.

T. ‘Tcam’. p. one per line.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Hough CentralCamera. H = C.plot epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.H CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ‘Tobj’. C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.project(p.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.

2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.c. See also Camera. 313-326. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. 8.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Rives.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. vol. F. “Multiview Geometry”. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. June 1992. Chaumette.plot CentralCamera. and P. pp. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Reference B. Espiau. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac e(E.CHAPTER 2.b.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac p(uv.visjac l CentralCamera. CentralCamera. vol.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p. pp. and P.visjac e CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. Rives. Oct. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Hager & Corke. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac p polar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p.c. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. R&A. F. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Espiau. 8.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. June 1992. 313-326. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Chaumette. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Hutchinson. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac l(L.b. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. CentralCamera.visjac p polar.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. 1996. See also CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Reference B. pp 651-670. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Vol 12(5).

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). in Proc. pp. CentralCamera. Louis). radius and theta.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera. Corke. 2009. I.visjac e CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. and F.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. F. P. (St. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac l.visjac l. 5962-5967.visjac p polar.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac p. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Int.visjac p polar(rt. Chaumette. Oct. Spindler.

vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Int.Lowe.60. Journal on Computer Vision.SIFT. pp.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. See README. See also isift. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .91-110. PointFeature. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. 2004. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. Nov. D.

v. F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u. 1=opaque. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. 0=transparent (default 0. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also isift SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. SiftPointFeature.match(f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F. C ‘alpha’. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. f = PointFeature(u.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(images. [out. out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.T] = F.support(images.support Support region of feature out = F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘Tobj’. N ‘pixel’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project(p. S ‘pose’. Overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘name’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. See also SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ﬁsheyecamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. CentralCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project Project world points to image plane pt = C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T ‘Tcam’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T.

of 4-vector.0. image plane size and desired feature locations.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. camera pose. The camera view.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error.gain. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The camera view. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. error norm. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.depth of points to use for Jacobian. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . defaults in parentheses: target size .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .01) .5) target center . The external view.the side length of the target in world units (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .CHAPTER 2. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.center of the target in world coords (0.

I.depth of points to use for Jacobian.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . 5550-5555.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.gain. pp. Corke. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. of 4-vector. defaults in parentheses: target size . CentralCamera.visjac l. See also CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The external view. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.0. in Proc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. error. (Anchorage).CHAPTER 2. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .5) target center . P.center of the target in world coords (0. Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).visjac p polar. May 3-7 2010.visjac p(pt.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the side length of the target in world units (0. error norm. image plane size and desired feature locations. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. scalar for If null take actual value all points. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. for all points. camera pose.01) . IEEE Int. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Conf.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 346–359. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Vol. 3. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. No. Tinne Tuytelaars. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. 110. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Andreas Ess. pp. Luc Van Gool. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.

f = PointFeature(u. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘thresh’.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ScalePointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. v. [m. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.C] = F.match Match SURF point features m = F. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.

0=transparent (default 0. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. [out. out = F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im.T] = F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2) SurfPointFeature.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.support(images. C ‘alpha’. F.plot scale(options. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. 1=opaque.support(images. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.CHAPTER 2.

axis. S ‘resolution’. otherwise the result is not predictable.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.CHAPTER 2. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com). options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Video AxisWebCamera. G ‘scale’.axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com) web camera.

close() closes the connection to the web camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. See also AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.close Close the image source A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.CHAPTER 2.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.

2003. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. f can also be a cell array.1470-1477.org). in Proc. Ninth IEEE Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. on Computer Vision. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.CHAPTER 2.Zisserman. Conf. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.Sivic and A. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. b = BagOfWords(f. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Oct.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.

BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .exemplars(w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char BagOfWords. images. BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.char Convert to string s = B.display Display value B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.CHAPTER 2.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars display exemplars of words B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

n] = B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.CHAPTER 2.remove stop Remove stop words B. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. BagOfWords.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.isword Features from words f = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. M ‘width’. Options ‘ncolumns’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.

subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.

Camera CatadioptricCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘sine’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. S ‘centre’.project(p. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. See also Camera. N ‘focal’.CHAPTER 2. f=8mm. P ‘pixel’. N ‘sensor’.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. u. M ‘k’. camera at origin. ‘equisolid’. T ‘Tcam’.and v-axes parallel to x. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. K ‘maxangle’. A ‘resolution’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. S ‘noise’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. 10um pixels.and y-axes respectively. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Options ‘Tobj’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera. CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.

SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. See also PointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SurfPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature.

If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value M. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. f2. m = FeatureMatch(f1.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = M.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. See also PointFeature. SurfPointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. one per element.

inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.CHAPTER 2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v2]. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.v1. See also FeatureMatch.u2.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch.

FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p1.plot Show corresponding points M.p2. FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.im2}) m. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch.plot() M.p2 FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. These are the (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.ransac( @fmatrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homography. Example f1 = isurf(im1). inliers and outliers (and their percentages). 1e-4).CHAPTER 2. ransac FeatureMatch. m. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. See also idisp FeatureMatch. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. m = f1.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.match(f2). f2 = isurf(im2).ransac Apply RANSAC M.ransac(func. See also fmatrix.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted. Y This camera model assumes central projection. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v. that is.CHAPTER 2.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.

axes respectively. 10um pixels. u. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.and y.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. S ‘centre’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘equisolid’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘sensor’.and v-axes are parallel to x. f=8mm. Options ‘name’. ‘sine’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . M ‘k’.CHAPTER 2. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. camera at origin. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. optical axis is z-axis. K ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. SIGMA ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. P ‘pixel’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’.

CatadioptricCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T ‘Tcam’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.T. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. See also FishEyeCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.CHAPTER 2. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. A horizontal line has theta = 0. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.CHAPTER 2.H). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. The voting array is 2-dimensional.0) and the line. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). See also LineFeature Hough. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.

Nrho]. T ‘edgethresh’. Hough. W ‘houghthresh’. Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. W ‘nbins’. N All edge pixels have equal weight. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.1). The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. T ‘suppress’.5) Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.edgeThresh.display Display value HT.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Convert to string s = HT.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. else N = [Ntheta.houghThresh (default 0. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.CHAPTER 2. See also Hough. Default 400 × 401.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.lines Find lines L = HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. LineFeature Hough. The highest peak is found.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot(n. HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. HT. L = HT.plot.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. See also Hough.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. See also Hough. then all elements in an HT.plot Plot line features HT.lines Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. reﬁned to subpixel precision.

RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. theta. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. L = LineFeature(rho. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. strength. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.char Convert to string s = L.display Display value L. See also LineFeature. LineFeature.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. L = LineFeature(rho.

L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the line on current plot.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.plot Plot line L. LineFeature. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. Small gaps.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.CHAPTER 2.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge. l2 = L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. l2 = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated. See also icanny LineFeature.

char Convert to string M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.com).close Close the image source M. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie. S ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. S ‘frame’. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. Options ‘skip’. F Skip frames.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. undirected graph create an n-d.CHAPTER 2. planar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.

Object properties (read/write) g.CHAPTER 2.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().goal(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.path(v) set goal vertex.plot() g.clear() add vertex.neighbours(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. v2) g.distance(v1.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(coord) g.connectivity() g.add edge(v1.cost(e) g. v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.next(v) g.component(v) g.edges(e) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.add node(coord.coord(v) g.

Options ‘distance’. v = G.add edge(v1. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. where x is D × 1.add node(x. and returns the edge id E. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.CHAPTER 2. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. PGraph.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add node(x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. PGraph.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. v.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v = G.add edge(v1. and returns the node id v. E = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.

PGraph.CHAPTER 2.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph. of node id v. PGraph.clear Clear the graph G. PGraph. edges and components.char Convert graph to string s = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.coord(v) return coordinate vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D × 1.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. [v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.closest Find closest node v = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. and the distance d.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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See also ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value F. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. one per element. PointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. f = PointFeature(u. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. v. f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SurfPointFeature.

match(f2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. the norm of the Euclidean distance. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match Match point features m = F. PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. [m. where 1 is perfect match. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Options ‘thresh’.CHAPTER 2.C] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char PointFeature.

plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F.plot Plot feature F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon .

Polygon. difference.html and require a licence.mit. HEIGHT]. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. union.area Area of polygon a = P. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. one column per vertex.CHAPTER 2.area() is the area of the polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. so use with care.edu. p = Polygon(C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . http://puddle.char String representation s = P. kirill@plume. Polygon.mit.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. intersection. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Pankratov.

The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. returns coordinates of P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display Display polygon P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.CHAPTER 2. See also Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.char Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.difference Difference of polygons d = P. else 0.

perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns empty polygon. each column is [x y]’. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.moments(p. Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. y1 y2].moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.

xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.CHAPTER 2.union Union of polygons i = P. Polygon. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.

closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. one per element.char Convert to string s = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. [x.E] = R. See also Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.E] = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Ray3D.char Ray3D. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value R.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.

vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2.c. horizontal coordinate centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.b. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. See also iblobs. RegionFeature. ymax].xmax.CHAPTER 2. ymin.char Convert to string s = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.box Return bounding box b = R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. For example R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. imoments RegionFeature. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .th] = R. one per element.

char RegionFeature.display Display value R. It is indicated with overlaid o. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot boundary plot boundary R. See also RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.and xmarkers.

plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.CHAPTER 2. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

1=opaque.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. f = ScalePointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. SurfPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. C ‘alpha’. See also PointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options. ScalePointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v. F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u.

M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. T ‘movie’. R ‘nslots’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. N ‘thresh’. one per active track. See also PointFeature Tracker. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. options) is a new tracker object. Options ‘radius’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.

display Display value T.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Tracker. See also Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char Convert to string s = T. Tracker.

otherwise the result is not predictable. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. and their characteristics is displayed. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. G ‘scale’. Movie Video. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

Video. Video.char Convert to string V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the camera.close Close the image source V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.

The result is in the interval [-pi pi). right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. color. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a = anaglyph(left. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. By default the left image is red.CHAPTER 2. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. If th1 is a column vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. the ﬁrst for left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. right. and the right image is cyan. the second for right. if negative it is reduced.

x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. If lambda is a column vector.y2]. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y2). % emission of sun plot(l. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.y1) to (x2.boundary. p = bresenham(p1. Endpoints must be integer.s] = boundmatch(R1. [x.CHAPTER 2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. See also RegionFeature. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. p2) as above but p1=[x1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. 6500). r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.y1] and p2=[x2. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. y1.

CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. [C.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.

green and blue primaries respectively. Options ‘n’. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.CHAPTER 2. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. x = circle(C. [k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.d1] = closest(a. k = closest(a. and x is N × 3. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). that is. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.

b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.16).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.d1. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. 335 of Table 1(5. (Table 1(5.5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.5. they were measured directly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. • From Table I(5.ac. since. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. 19000 (526.5.ucl. As noted in footnote a on p.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. while Table I(5.ioo. and 22500 (444.32). The data are referred to as pilot data. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).d2] = closest(a. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.

ac. imsize is a 2-vector (N.CHAPTER 2. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ioo. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.uk See also cmfrgb. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.M).ucl. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. out = col2im(pix. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.

@isnan. eg. im<100.B).C] = colorkmeans(im. func. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. @isnan. out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. mask. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. icolor. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .G. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.CHAPTER 2. [L. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. See also imono. and returns a per-pixel logical result. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. k.

See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.C. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.R] = colorkmeans(im. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. L = colorkmeans(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. XYZ = colorname(name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. k) as above but also returns the residual R. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. eg. name = colorname(XYZ. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. low is good.CHAPTER 2. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space.

As MATLAB’s native datatype.CHAPTER 2. it can be omitted. double data is the natural choice. [o1. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.o3] = colorspace(s. colorspace(s. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. s = ‘src->dest’. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Input and output images have 3 planes. i1. • Color space names are case insensitive. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i2. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.o2.txt. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. s = ‘dest<-src’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. or alternatively.

100). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.2*A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. out will also have size M × 3. B = rand(400.200).b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. However. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. like a colormap. for memory and computational performance. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.CHAPTER 2.B). Example A = rand(400.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I. d = distance(A. • If im is an M × 3 array.

direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.uva. non-zero is an object. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(+31)20-5257524. seed. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.3. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.j). E = edgelist(im. The result E is a matrix.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. not image frame. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Tested: PC Matlab v5. University of Amsterdam. tel. bunschot@wins. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.y). in matrix coordinate frame.CHAPTER 2. non zero is counter-clockwise.

d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. one per line drawn. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p. Oct 27. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. I. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.S. See also epiline. p. epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. 1998. See also fmatrix. H = epiline(f. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Coimbra. p1. Author Based on fmatrix code by.CHAPTER 2.R.

c. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. The University of Western Australia. no outlier rejection is performed.au/. http://www.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. it is singular. page 270. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.csse. See also ransac. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). Reference Hartley and Zisserman. homography. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. Notes • The points must be corresponding. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. epiline. that is. • Contains a RANSAC driver. p2. which means it can be passed to ransac(). School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • f is a rank 2 matrix. that is. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma.uwa. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.

x2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . itriplepoint. ithin.CHAPTER 2. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.y2). 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. See also imorph.y1) and (x2.

http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. no outlier rejection is performed. See also ransac.csse.au/. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. invhomog. The University of Western Australia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. Notes • The points must be corresponding.uwa. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. which means it can be passed to ransac().CHAPTER 2. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu.

set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. S output image contains all the warped pixels. See also homography. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. im. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. R ‘scale’. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. D ‘size’. that is tp=T*T1. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘roi’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. itrim. See also e2h. [out. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs.CHAPTER 2. im. ie. S ‘dimension’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP.offs] = homwarp(H. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.

on Information Theory. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). ’gs’). 1962. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IRE Trans. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features. Hu. ’nfeat’. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. features. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. 179-187. IT-8:pp. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. ianimate(seq.CHAPTER 2. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 200). ianimate(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im.

I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. YMIN YMAX]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. isurf. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.CHAPTER 2. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). iblobs features f = iblobs(im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. N ‘only’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. M ‘npoints’.

C set connectivity. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.0 ‘connect’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. [S1. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. [A1. ilabel. horizontal coordinate centroid. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. A set pixel aspect ratio. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. default 1.

This is an dilation followed by erosion.CHAPTER 2. S ‘th0’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. T ‘th1’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. 1996-7. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Tel Aviv University. out = iclose(im. See also isobel. See also iopen.

C = icolor(im. colorize. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). See also imono. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. D ‘bgval’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. [C. Options ‘dir’.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. [0 1 1]). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).u] = iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. The images do not have to be of the same size. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. options) convolves im1 with im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.

options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. K ‘patch’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. R ‘nfeat’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. D ‘sigma’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CT ‘edgegap’. S ‘deriv’. CM ‘cminthresh’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). N ‘detector’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. D ‘k’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. E ‘suppress’.

Stephens. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. J.5 [sec]. Options ‘dplot’.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Harris and M.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. vol.. pp 147-151. Image and Vision Computing. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. pp.Noble. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. T ‘distthresh’. 593-593. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. 1994. IEEE Computer Society. • “Good features to track”. J. p2. with a delay of d [sec]. 1988. Tomasi. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Proc.121-128. T ‘maxiter’.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. N ‘mindelta’.J. pp. • “Finding corners”. Proc. Shi and C. p2. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. May 1988. See also PointFeature.d] = icp(p1. with a delay of 0.G.6. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Manchester. [T.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. no. 2. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. 14.CHAPTER 2.McKay.or 3-dimensional. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. P. Mach. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Pattern Anal. vol.. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. IEEETrans. s = idecimate(im. m. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Intell. 1992. Feb. each plane is decimated. pp. See also iscale. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. 239-256. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = idecimate(im. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.Besl and H. m.

C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . positive is blue. If the image is zoomed. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value.and y-axes respectively. C ‘xydata’. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. zero is white color map: random values. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is black. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. histogram and zooming. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. zero is white. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. positive is blue. darker than ‘grey’. linear proﬁle. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. Options ‘ncolors’. XY ‘colormap’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. negative is red. If im is a cell array of images. negative is red. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.CHAPTER 2. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x.

CHAPTER 2. caxis. colormap. idisplabel(im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. icolorize. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labelimage. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. labels. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iblobs. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. See also image.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. ithin. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. out = igamma(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.45.2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. See also itriplepoint.

Sept. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Huttenlocher. k. 59. Journal on Computer Vision. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. k. Int. L = igraphseg(im. 0. pp. min. Example im = iread(’58060. min. 2004. 1500. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 100. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. Felzenszwalb and D.CHAPTER 2. k.5). [L.m] = igraphseg(im. See also ithresh. [l. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.m] = igraphseg(im. vol. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . min is the minimum region size (pixels).5). k is the scale parameter.jpg’). 2006. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 167181.

plot(x.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.x] = ihist(im.h).h). bar(x. [H. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im).x] = ihist(im. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. H = ihist(im. ’normcdf’). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. [h. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.

y1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.m. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. [L. same size as im.y2). x1.y1) and bottom-right (x2.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. [L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ii is a precomputed integral image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. y2. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.

iproﬁle. out = iline(im. p2.Y]. p1.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. [L. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. each a 2-vector [X. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.CHAPTER 2. • This is a “low level” function. ilabel(im.maxlabel. The pixels on the line are set to 1. otherwise it does not.class.parents. p1. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. See also iblobs. eg. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.maxlabel. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.parents. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. 8).

[xm. xmax. • ZNCC matching is used. and columns the vertical position. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. centred at (x. H. The template in im1 is centred at (x.y) and its half-width is H.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. s.score] = imatch(im1. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. • Is a MEX ﬁle. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.DY.y).DY) are the x. im2.y) and of size s. The return value is xm=[DX. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. w2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. ymin.and y-offsets relative to (x. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.CC] where (DX. y. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. x. ymax] relative to (x.y). a perfect match score is 1. s] % relative to (x. x. -s. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.CHAPTER 2.

u) = v. [u.u) = u and v(v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All pixels are equally weighted. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.CHAPTER 2.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. f = imoments(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. effectively a binary image. [u. f = imoments(u. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(w. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. effectively a greyscale image.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.

options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. or its area. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. horizontal coordinate centroid. the elements are m00. m11. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icolor. See also RegionFeature. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m20. m10. Different conversion functions are supported. m01. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. ilabel. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. • This function does not perform connectivity. m02.CHAPTER 2.

part of VLFeat (vlfeat. 2004. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. O.png’. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. 761767. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. ’light’). Sept. Pajdla. pp. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. ’grey’.CHAPTER 2. The labels [L. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. se. ’double’). m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. [label. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im.m] = imser(im.m] = imser(im. and T. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org). J. Image and Vision Computing. Urban. Chum. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. 22. Matas. vol.

Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.ˆ2). Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.

Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. See also iclose.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides. sides. This is an erosion followed by dilation. se. n. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. out = iopen(im.

ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. im1. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. im2.V]. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 20. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’tblr’. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. otherwise im2 is selected. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 10. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ’t’. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer.

p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. [p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. See also bresenham.CHAPTER 2. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uv] = iproﬁle(im. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.v) for the corresponding row of p. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.

CHAPTER 2. nbins. order. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. out = ipyramid(im. See also iscalespace. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im.2) = 0. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. op. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the maximum. se(2. out = imorph(image. idecimate. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. out = imorph(image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. sigma. se. 1. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The highest rank. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. op. se). 12. out = ipyramid(im. is order=1. im > irank(im.5)).3). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. ones(5.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. See also imorph. G ‘reduce’. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. R ‘roi’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call.CHAPTER 2. ivar. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. where R=[umin umax. vmin vmax]. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. im = iread(ﬁle.

istereo. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. See also FeatureMatch.h2] = irectify(f. Notes • Color images are not supported.out2] = irectify(f. homwarp. igamma. imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. m. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. imwrite.out2. im1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).h1. m. [out1. im1.

R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘extrapval’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. vmin. angle.vmin vmax]. See also idisp. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. Options ‘outsize’.H] return central part of image. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmax]. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.umax. [out.CHAPTER 2. V ‘smooth’.

• Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias=0. s>1 makes the image larger. Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s<1 makes it smaller. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bias<0.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.5 is symmetric cropping.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.CHAPTER 2. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. while bias>0. out = isamesize(im1. s ‘extrapval’. im2.

corresponding to each step of the sequence. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. n) as above but sigma=1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.s] = iscalespace(im. [g. See also iscalespace. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . in space and scale. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. n. idecimate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.L.CHAPTER 2. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im.

ishomog(T. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. else false (0). See also isrot. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ismooth. ilaplace. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. it its third dimension is equal to three.CHAPTER 2. ‘valid’) as above. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN.

• Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. See also SiftPointFeature. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • Features are returned in descending strength order.vlfeat. N ‘suppress’. Lowe. isurf. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. Reference David G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 60. 2 (2004). im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. International Journal of Computer Vision. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.CHAPTER 2.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. pp. 91-110. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.

ssd.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. zssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. s = isimilarity(T. sad. s is same size as im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. im. @ssd. See also imatch. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. and these output pixels are set to NaN. @ncc.CHAPTER 2.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.H. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. zsad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [w. @zssd. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @zsad. ncc.

then converted back to integer.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. sigma. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.gy] = isobel(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. convolved. See also iconv. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx. [gx. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.

the disparity d=d(v.u). options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).M] for an N × M window. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. See also ishomog. range is the disparity search range. H is the half size of the matching window. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) means that imr(v. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. else false (0). imr.sim] = istereo(iml.CHAPTER 2. range. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. w. ‘valid’) as above. That is. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. imr. [d. See also ksobel. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. range. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. isrot(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. H. icanny.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. out = istretch(im. range. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. ‘ncc’. p.CHAPTER 2. imr. dx.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. Options ‘metric’. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. range.5). w. That is. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.sim. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.dsi] = istereo(iml.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. imr. 3) See also irectify.p] = istereo(iml. [d. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). w. • sim = max(dsi. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.sim. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.A and p.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. [d. B.5 to +0.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘thresh’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).CHAPTER 2. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Notes • Color images. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. or sequences. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Kroon (U. T ‘octaves’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.

isvec(v. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. out = ithin(im. Otherwise false (0). 3. See also hitormiss. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. pp. 346–359. See also ishomog. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . either a row. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.CHAPTER 2. isift. Luc Van Gool. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 110. Tinne Tuytelaars. else false (0).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. itriplepoint. No.or columnvector. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Vol. Andreas Ess.

a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. The default is 0.CHAPTER 2. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. Notes • Greyscale image only. a lower value will include more. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also homwarp.im2. The same cropping is applied to each input image. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.out2] = itrim(im1.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.5. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.out2] = itrim(im1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. ithresh(im.

The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. ithin. See also iendpoint. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. op. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im.CHAPTER 2. se. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled.

the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. @max). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3). se. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. out = iwindow(image. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. @std). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. func. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. See also ivar. ones(5.5). The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. ktriangle. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. dG/dy. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. kdog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. k = kcircle(R. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. is k’. dG/dx. k = kdgauss(sigma. • The vertical derivative. See also kgauss. See also ones. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.

kdog. k = kdog(sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. By default SIGMA2 = 1. sigma2. k = kgauss(sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. klog.6*sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . kdgauss. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. See also kdgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). See also kgauss. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1.

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. iconv. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = klog(sigma. See also ilaplace. kdog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also kgauss.

Reference Tou and Gonzalez. it is assumed to have been completed previously. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.CHAPTER 2. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. k. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. [L. L = kmeans(x. Pattern Recognition Principles. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. and D is the dimension.C] = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. k.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. s. The points are the columns of p. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.y. Options ‘T’. See also cylinder. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. ‘edge’. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. symmetric about the origin.y.CHAPTER 2. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.z] = mkcube(s. C ‘T’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).z] = mkcube(s. [x.

or y(:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. That is. y) MPLOT(t. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.xp . upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .yq . p. or y(:. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). the sum of I(x. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.2)). n) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(t.CHAPTER 2. MPLOT(t. npq. y. See also mpq poly. y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. n. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.y).

q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). they are considered to be a single vertex. npq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. p. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. upq poly.

isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Prentice-Hall.2. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. k.CHAPTER 2. 20). See also zncc. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • A common choice of k=-0. k. where W=2*w2+1. W. in text segmentation. niblack. -0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. T has the same dimensions as im. 1986. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. sad. the height of a character. Example t = niblack(im. [T. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.m. ssd.s] = niblack(im. for example. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. idisp(im >= t).

mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.q)/MPQ(im. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.0.0). p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. p.CHAPTER 2. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. That is UPQ(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. See also npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. mpq. they are considered as a single vertex. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq.CHAPTER 2. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. upq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also mpq poly.

idisp(im >= t). Jan 1979.i] = peak(y.xp] = peak(y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. [yp. x. otsu IEEE Trans. Example t = otsu(im). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. N. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. [yp. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms.CHAPTER 2. Systems. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).

options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.S points. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’. use peak(-V). N ‘scale’.ij] = peak2(z. [zp. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Typically choose N to be odd. use peak2(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.S points. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘scale’.

iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. See also pnmﬁlt. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ie. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. If p has three dimensions.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2(p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. r. plot_circle(c. ‘r’. r.CHAPTER 2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.y2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. PLOT BOX(x1. P. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ‘size’. W. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. W. ’edgecolor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’b’).y1) and (x2. ’fillcolor’. ’r’). plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Examples plot_circle(c. 1=solid. r.y2). Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’LineWidth’. x2.y1. PLOT BOX(’centre’. 5).Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. P. or a set of name. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’g’.

Options ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. If C=[X. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. with Matlab line style ls. current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. C. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. centred at the origin. ls) ls is the standard line styles. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. c Specify color of the axes. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. xc.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.Y].CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’r’).X = 0. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’color’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. Options ‘textcolor’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. trplot( T. ‘printf’. fmt. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’.CHAPTER 2. n ‘text opts’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’color’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’name’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’r’. to ‘view’. options) adds point markers to a plot. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ‘framename’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines.

either a letter or 3-vector. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. NOTES • The sphere is always added. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. patch. 1=solid. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns.CHAPTER 2. R. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. The default is 1. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. See also plot. color.

CHAPTER 2. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. plotp(p. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also pgmﬁlt. See also plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.

At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. [gr.

N ‘maxDataTrials’. x. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. one column per point pair. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.CHAPTER 2. x typically contains corresponding point data. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. [m. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. Options ‘maxTrials’. x. [m. T. x. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T.in. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. d) as above but elements increment by d.resid] = ransac(func.in] = ransac(func.

[out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. [out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.theta] = ERR(R. that is they will produce a model.x.out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.resid] = EST(R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. If multiple models are found out. No 6. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. pp 101-113.x data to work on.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. Fishler and R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. they detect a structure argument.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .out.misc element. Cambridge University Press.theta = DECONDITION(R. Boles.theta is a cell array.C. Comp. Vol 24.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. that is. Comm.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.theta to the points R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x and returns the best model out.CHAPTER 2.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.s out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta and the subset of R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x.inlier.theta.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. pp 381-395.R.misc private data (cell array) out.x = CONDITION(R.x) condition the point data out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta. Assoc.A.theta = [].debug display what’s going on (logical) R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. References • m.s sample size (1 × 1) out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. Mach..theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.

edu.uwa.CHAPTER 2.au/ pk See also fmatrix.csse. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.

rotz.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. See also roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. roty.

pitch. Z axes respectively. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. yaw. Y. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. • many texts (Paul. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. T = rpy2tr(roll. See also tr2rpy. If roll.

theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and rotation theta in the plane. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. See also zsad. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. theta) as above where xy=[x.y. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ncc. y. r2t.

ncc. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. sad. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows.CHAPTER 2. See also zsdd. Two cross-hairs are created. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image.

It supports options that have an assigned value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.blah = [].bar = false. ’that’. then R is 3 × 3. tr2rt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. c. opt. then R is 2 × 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt. The software pattern is: function(a.CHAPTER 2.foo = true. varargin) opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. opt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.choose = {’this’. – If T is 3 × 3. ’other’}. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). b.

false ‘blah’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.verbose <.choose <.blah <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.y sets opt. 3 sets opt. ’#yes’}. x. args) creates a test pattern image. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. varargin).blah <.debug <. opt = tb_optparse(opt.‘this’. N ‘setopt’. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.select = {’#no’.3 ‘blah’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.select <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.1. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.CHAPTER 2. varargin).foo <.foo <.true sets opt. w.x.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. If neither of ‘this’.select <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.y ‘that’ sets opt.choose <.N sets opt <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.

intercept. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. 50. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are pitch (distance between centres). The trajectory s. sf. 256. dot diameter. args is the number of cycles. binary square pattern. args is the number of cycles. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. [s. 2). Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 25). Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args are theta (rad). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. args is the number of cycles.sd. sf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sd and sdd are n-vectors. binary dot pattern.CHAPTER 2.sd. args is the number of cycles. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). square side length. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. a line. 256. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’.

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. See also angvec2r. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Y and Z axes respectively. rpy = tr2rpy(R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. [theta.P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The 3 angles rpy=[R. Y.

then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. r2t. – If TR is 3 × 3.z]. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.y. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.CHAPTER 2. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. • The validity of R is not checked. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. If T has three dimensions. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. See also rpy2tr.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. See also rt2tr. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.:. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. y. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.

or x and y. each N × 1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3).CHAPTER 2. [o1.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. [c1. An historical anomaly. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. and displays in RPY format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. f ‘label’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotx. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotx. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trprint T is the command line form of above. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers.

(y-y0)q where (x0. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. That is. p. the sum of I(x. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y0) is the centroid.y). tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. mpq. tr2rpy.(x-x0)p . q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. See also upq poly. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ncc. See also sad. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ssd.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. See also ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale).

ncc. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. See also sdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. sad.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.