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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. is open-source. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. and I commend it to you. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. However the book “Robotics. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . Tracker . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . 1 Introduction 1. . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . colorname . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . homline . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . .

. iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . itrim . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . plot poly . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . mkgrid . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . troty . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . vex . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . .

au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and you will be suitably acknowledged.google. lecturers and professors are paid to do.com. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tutors. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. That’s what you your teachers.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You need to signup in order to post. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.

the table of content to functions. 1.html on a server for class use.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.gz) or zip format (.3. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.petercorke. Number = {4}. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.zip). The ﬁle robot. 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Volume = {12}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Corke}. 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. The details are @article{Corke05f.1.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Author = {P.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Year = {2005}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Month = nov.I. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). and the “See also” functions to each other. 1. type of organization and application.

pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Vincent Lepetit.7 Acknowledgements Last. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. November 2005. Coimbra. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.Functions such as SURF.I. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.mathworks.. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.S.R.vlfeat. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. Corke. VLFeat http://www. pp 16–25.7. and there are hundreds of modules available. 1.1.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. 12(4). Twente. 1994 University of British Columbia. but not least. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. MSER. 1.6. P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

• The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. Camera. S ‘noise’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. used by all subclasses. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. T ‘color’. SIGMA ‘pose’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Options ‘name’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. N ‘image’. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’. IM ‘resolution’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘centre’.

display Display value C. Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. SphericalCamera Camera.char Convert to string s = C.clf Clear the image plane C. ﬁsheyecamera.CHAPTER 2.centre Get camera position p = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). CatadioptricCamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.char Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).CHAPTER 2. C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.v + c = 0. See also Camera. otherwise false (0).u + b.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.

If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. The matrices x. sphere.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Options ‘Tobj’.hold. uv = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). Camera. y. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. T ‘Tcam’. z to the image plane and plots them. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.plot Plot points on image plane C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. See also mesh.plot(p. y.clf Camera. Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.mesh(x.CHAPTER 2. z. y.T. cylinder. mkcube. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.

T See also Camera. Options ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2.mesh. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C.hold. ‘Tobj’. ‘fps’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.clf Camera. T ‘scale’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. ‘Tcam’.

rpy(R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. p. C. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.CHAPTER 2.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. that is.rpy Set camera attitude C.y]. The image is not inverted. a subclass of Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C Camera matrix C = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. J.Soatto.177 See also CentralCamera.Ma. S ‘noise’. N ‘sensor’. N ‘focal’.8]) See also Camera. T ‘color’. Reference Y. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.F. E = C.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). 10um pixels. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. f=8mm. optical axis is z-axis.and v-axes parallel to x. P ‘pixel’.E Essential matrix E = C.Kosecka. S. E = C. u. p.Sastry. 2003. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. “An invitation to 3D”. S.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IM ‘resolution’. ﬁsheyecamera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Springer. CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.and y-axes respectively. camera at origin. F ‘distortion’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. D ‘default’ ‘image’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.

d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. n. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).H CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.F Fundamental matrix F = C. See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. p. Springer.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.E CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. Reference Y.H(T. J. F = C.Soatto.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Ma.H Homography matrix H = C. S.177 See also CentralCamera.Kosecka. 2003.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. from two viewpoints. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sastry.

F. 155-166. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. a = C. pp. Journal on Computer Vision.estpose(xyz. Feb.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Lepetit.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. 81. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Moreno-Noguer.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. V. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. vol. CentralCamera. 2009. Fua.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. See also quiver CentralCamera. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. and P.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Int. CentralCamera.

E CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Sastry.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference Y. section 5. 2003. Springer. s. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Kosecka. translation not to scale • n. Chap 9.Sastry. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Springer.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. 259 Y. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Kosecka.Ma. “Multiview Geometry”. s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. J.Soatto. 2003. p116. p. s. J.Soatto.invE(E. s. See also CentralCamera. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).

plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Tcam’.plot epiline(f.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. H = C. CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. See also Hough CentralCamera. p.project(p. one per line.CHAPTER 2. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot epiline(f. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. C. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.

pp.CHAPTER 2. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Reference B. See also Camera. and P. Rives. June 1992.plot CentralCamera. Chaumette. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. vol.c. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 8. F. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.b. Espiau. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 313-326.visjac e(E. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.

d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac p. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. F. pp.c. CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. Hager & Corke. vol. June 1992. 1996. Vol 12(5).b. 8. CentralCamera.visjac p(uv. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. R&A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Chaumette. Reference B. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. 313-326. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Espiau.visjac p polar.visjac p. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Rives. and P.visjac l(L. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Oct.visjac e CentralCamera. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p polar.visjac l CentralCamera. Hutchinson. pp 651-670. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.CHAPTER 2.

or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Louis). pp. radius and theta. F. Corke. 5962-5967.visjac p polar. P. CentralCamera. Spindler.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. Oct. See also CentralCamera.visjac p. Int. (St. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. and F. Chaumette. 2009. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. in Proc.visjac l. I.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac p polar(rt.

vol. pp.Lowe. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. ScalePointFeature. See also isift.SIFT. Journal on Computer Vision. 2004. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. PointFeature.60. Nov. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See README. Int. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.91-110.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. D.CHAPTER 2. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.

plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque.plot scale(options. C ‘alpha’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. See also isift SiftPointFeature.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. 0=transparent (default 0. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v. SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SIFT point features m = F.CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.match(f2.

support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support Support region of feature out = F.support(images.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F.T] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. [out. out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. See also SphericalCamera. Options ‘name’. N ‘pixel’. CentralCamera.T. Overrides the current camera pose C.project(p. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. Options ‘Tobj’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). T ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. S ‘pose’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.depth of points to use for Jacobian. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. error norm.center of the target in world coords (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. camera pose. The camera view. image plane size and desired feature locations.01) .CHAPTER 2.0.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The external view. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .gain. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. of 4-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number. error. The camera view.5) target center . defaults in parentheses: target size . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. scalar for If null take actual value all points.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .the side length of the target in world units (0.

0. CentralCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.visjac p polar. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . I.visjac p(pt. (Anchorage). z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.CHAPTER 2. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.5) target center .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. image plane size and desired feature locations. CentralCamera. error norm. IEEE Int. of 4-vector. error. in Proc. P. Jacobian condition number. Corke. defaults in parentheses: target size .visjac l.gain. pp. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. May 3-7 2010.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The external view. Conf. Robotics and Automation.the side length of the target in world units (0.01) . for all points.depth of points to use for Jacobian. 5550-5555.center of the target in world coords (0. camera pose. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.

Luc Van Gool. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. pp.CHAPTER 2. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 3. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 346–359. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 110.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Tinne Tuytelaars. No.

Options ‘thresh’. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.C] = F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match(f2.match Match SURF point features m = F. f = PointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

2) SurfPointFeature. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.T] = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.plot scale Plot feature scale F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. F.support Support region of feature out = F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. w) as above but the support region is displayed. 1=opaque.plot scale(options. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(im. [out. C ‘alpha’.support(images. out = F.CHAPTER 2. 0=transparent (default 0.

Video AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.axis.CHAPTER 2.com).AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S ‘resolution’.axis.com) web camera. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.

grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.display AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. See also AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.close Close the image source A.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.

k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.Sivic and A. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.org). Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. f can also be a cell array. Conf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.Zisserman. pp. in Proc. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. 2003. b = BagOfWords(f. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Ninth IEEE Int.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Oct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1470-1477. on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2.

BagOfWords. BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.char BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. isurf BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. images.exemplars display exemplars of words B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.exemplars(w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value B.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.

If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.remove stop Remove stop words B. N ‘maxperimage’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. M ‘width’.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B. Options ‘ncolumns’.n] = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. subclass of Camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

T ‘Tcam’.and y-axes respectively. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. 10um pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and v-axes parallel to x. N ‘focal’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. M ‘k’. optical axis is z-axis. camera at origin. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Options ‘Tobj’. ﬁsheyecamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. CatadioptricCamera. f=8mm. See also Camera. P ‘pixel’.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. S ‘centre’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘sine’. u. S ‘noise’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. A ‘resolution’. K ‘maxangle’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘sensor’.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Camera.

Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. such as ScalePointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. f2. See also FeatureMatch.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature.display Display value M. FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M. one per element. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.

Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.v2].outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.inlier. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.ransac FeatureMatch.v1.CHAPTER 2.outlier. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.u2.ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

CHAPTER 2. These are the (u. for example by: idisp({im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.im2}) m.plot() M.FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot Show corresponding points M. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p FeatureMatch.p1. These are the (u.p FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2. FeatureMatch.p1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.

options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.ransac Apply RANSAC M.match(f2). f2 = isurf(im2).ransac( @fmatrix.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m = f1. homography. 1e-4). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. Example f1 = isurf(im1). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.CHAPTER 2. ransac FeatureMatch. See also fmatrix. See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac(func. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). and an error is created if this UserData is not found.

that is. The image is not inverted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y This camera model assumes central projection. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. v.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

camera at origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object.and y. ‘equisolid’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. M ‘k’.and v-axes are parallel to x. K ‘resolution’. ‘sine’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘default’ ‘projection’. 10um pixels.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. u. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’.axes respectively. optical axis is z-axis. S ‘centre’. Options ‘name’. S ‘noise’. SIGMA ‘pose’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. P ‘pixel’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). f=8mm. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. T ‘Tcam’.project(p.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. CatadioptricCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. See also FishEyeCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.CHAPTER 2. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. See also LineFeature Hough.H). A horizontal line has theta = 0. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.0) and the line. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. The voting array is 2-dimensional.

Hough.char Convert to string s = HT.1).CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh. T ‘suppress’. Nrho]. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Default 400 × 401. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. T ‘edgethresh’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. W ‘nbins’.display Display value HT. else N = [Ntheta. Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0. N All edge pixels have equal weight. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. See also Hough.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.houghThresh (default 0. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. W ‘houghthresh’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.5) Set ht.

H = HT. HT. The highest peak is found. The process is repeated for all peaks. See also Hough. See also Hough.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. HT.lines Find lines L = HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. reﬁned to subpixel precision. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot(n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. then all elements in an HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line features HT.plot. L = HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.lines Hough.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. LineFeature Hough.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. RegionFeature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned.display Display value L.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = L. theta. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(rho. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. theta. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength.

l2 = L.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. See also icanny LineFeature. Small gaps. less than gap pixels are tolerated. L.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the line on current plot.plot Plot line L. LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength(edge.

options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the movie.close Close the image source M.char Convert to string M. Movie.CHAPTER 2. S ‘skip’.com).char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. G ‘scale’. Movie.axis.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

planar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘skip’.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. S ‘frame’. F Skip frames.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. undirected graph create an n-d.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.

n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity() g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add node(coord.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. v2) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().distance(v1.edges(e) g.CHAPTER 2. Object properties (read/write) g.component(v) g.plot() g.add node(coord) g.goal(v) g.clear() add vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.cost(e) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.neighbours(v) g.coord(v) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.add edge(v1.next(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.

PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node(x.add node(x. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge(v1.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v. Options ‘distance’. where x is D × 1. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph. and returns the node id v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add edge(v1. E = G. v = G. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. v = G.CHAPTER 2. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. and returns the edge id E.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.closest Find closest node v = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph. and the distance d.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. of node id v.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord(v) return coordinate vector.CHAPTER 2.d] = G. PGraph.clear Clear the graph G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. [v. edges and components. D × 1.char Convert graph to string s = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.char Convert to string s = F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value F. PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. v. f = PointFeature(u.

T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. the norm of the Euclidean distance.match Match point features m = F.CHAPTER 2.char PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.match(f2. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where 1 is perfect match. Options ‘thresh’. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. PointFeature.C] = F. [m.

Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon .plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot Plot feature F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.

mit.html and require a licence.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. difference. Polygon.edu. one column per vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. HEIGHT]. so use with care.CHAPTER 2. p = Polygon(C.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.char String representation s = P. Polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Pankratov.area() is the area of the polygon. union. kirill@plume.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.mit. Polygon. intersection. http://puddle.

See also Polygon. else 0. returns coordinates of P.char Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference Difference of polygons d = P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).display Display polygon P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.

moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. each column is [x y]’. Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments(p.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. returns empty polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. y1 y2]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.CHAPTER 2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.

returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.plot() plot the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. P.plot Plot polygon P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2.

deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.

display Display value R.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.char Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. [x.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.E] = R.char Convert to string s = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. See also Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. Ray3D. [x.CHAPTER 2. one per element. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.

vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.CHAPTER 2.c. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.0) 1 for a circle.

RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. ymin.xmax. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. one per element.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.box Return bounding box b = R. For example R.char Convert to string s = R.uc will be a list not a vector. imoments RegionFeature. See also iblobs. RegionFeature. ymax].box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.th] = R.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.

and xmarkers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary plot boundary R. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. It is indicated with overlaid o. R. RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display Display value R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.

Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R. RegionFeature.

f = ScalePointFeature(u. 1=opaque. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. strength.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. C ‘alpha’. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. 0=transparent (default 0. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options. ScalePointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also PointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.

A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. T ‘movie’. R ‘nslots’. one per active track.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. options) is a new tracker object. C.CHAPTER 2. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. See also PointFeature Tracker. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. N ‘thresh’.

Tracker.char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .tracklengths Length of all tracks T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Tracker.display Display value T.char Tracker. See also Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.

Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. otherwise the result is not predictable. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S ‘resolution’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Movie Video. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and their characteristics is displayed. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.char Convert to string V. Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera.close Close the image source V.

disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. and the right image is cyan. If th1 is a column vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. By default the left image is red. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. the ﬁrst for left. if negative it is reduced. the second for right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). a = anaglyph(left.CHAPTER 2. color. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. right. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left.

y1] and p2=[x2. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. 6500). See also RegionFeature. If lambda is a column vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. y1.y1) to (x2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. Endpoints must be integer. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. % emission of sun plot(l.y2]. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. [x.y2). p = bresenham(p1.CHAPTER 2.s] = boundmatch(R1.boundary. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. [C.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.CHAPTER 2. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.

N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).CHAPTER 2. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. x = circle(C. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. green and blue primaries respectively.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. R. k = closest(a. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. Options ‘n’. [k. that is.d1] = closest(a. and x is N × 3.

19000 (526.32). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. and 22500 (444. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. since.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. while Table I(5. 335 of Table 1(5.ucl. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . As noted in footnote a on p. they were measured directly.CHAPTER 2.5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). (Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.d1.ac. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. • From Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).d2] = closest(a.ioo. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.5.5.16).5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.

ac. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .ucl. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.M). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.CHAPTER 2. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].uk See also cmfrgb. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize is a 2-vector (N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ioo. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.

g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.

A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. See also imono.G.C] = colorkmeans(im. icolor. eg. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to.CHAPTER 2. [L. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. func. @isnan. mask. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. out = colorize(im. im<100. k. and returns a per-pixel logical result. @isnan. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.

Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.R] = colorkmeans(im. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. eg. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . XYZ = colorname(name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. low is good. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.C. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. name = colorname(XYZ. k) as above but also returns the residual R.CHAPTER 2. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im.

[o1. i1. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o2. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • Color space names are case insensitive. s = ‘src->dest’. s = ‘dest<-src’. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. double data is the natural choice.txt. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. colorspace(s.CHAPTER 2.o3] = colorspace(s.i2. As MATLAB’s native datatype. it can be omitted. or alternatively.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.

Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. However.200).CHAPTER 2. Example A = rand(400. out will also have size M × 3.2*A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B = rand(400. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . for memory and computational performance. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. d = distance(A. • If im is an M × 3 array. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.100). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.B). like a colormap.

Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Tested: PC Matlab v5.3. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. tel. University of Amsterdam. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. bunschot@wins.j). The result E is a matrix. non-zero is an object.CHAPTER 2. E = edgelist(im. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.uva. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.(+31)20-5257524.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. in matrix coordinate frame.y). See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . seed. non zero is counter-clockwise. not image frame. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.

j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Oct 27. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. 1998.CHAPTER 2. p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Coimbra. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Author Based on fmatrix code by. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p1. I. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. p.R. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f.S. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. See also epiline. epiline(f. H = epiline(f. one per line drawn. See also fmatrix.

‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. that is. it is singular. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac().CHAPTER 2. that is. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p2.csse. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). epiline. • f is a rank 2 matrix. The University of Western Australia. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.uwa. • Contains a RANSAC driver. no outlier rejection is performed. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. http://www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu. See also ransac.au/. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. homography. page 270.

iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and (x2. y1. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also imorph. x2. itriplepoint. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y2).CHAPTER 2. ithin.

edu. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. http://www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.au/. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.uwa. invhomog. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.csse.CHAPTER 2. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be corresponding. no outlier rejection is performed. See also ransac. The University of Western Australia.

that is tp=T*T1. [out. D ‘size’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.offs] = homwarp(H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. im. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. ie. S output image contains all the warped pixels.CHAPTER 2. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. V ‘roi’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. S ‘dimension’. im. See also e2h. R ‘scale’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. itrim. See also homography. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq).CHAPTER 2. IRE Trans. 200). See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. IT-8:pp. 1962. ’gs’). Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. 179-187. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. features. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. Hu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. ianimate(seq. ’nfeat’. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ianimate(im. on Information Theory. features. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. iharris. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. isurf. M ‘npoints’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. N ‘only’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. YMIN YMAX]. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). iblobs features f = iblobs(im.

[S1. vertical coordinate bounding box.0 ‘connect’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.0) 1 for a circle. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. horizontal coordinate centroid. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. ilabel. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. A set pixel aspect ratio. [A1. default 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. C set connectivity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.

se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. S ‘th0’.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also isobel. This is an dilation followed by erosion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. Tel Aviv University. 1996-7. out = iclose(im.CHAPTER 2. T ‘th1’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iopen.

value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) concatenates images from the cell array im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. See also imono.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. Options ‘dir’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. D ‘bgval’. colorize.u] = iconcat(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). The images do not have to be of the same size. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.CHAPTER 2. [0 1 1]). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. [C. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.

options) convolves im1 with im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.CHAPTER 2. im2.

The vector has zero mean and unit norm. R ‘nfeat’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. E ‘suppress’. CT ‘edgegap’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. D ‘k’. D ‘sigma’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. N ‘detector’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest.CHAPTER 2. K ‘patch’. CM ‘cminthresh’. S ‘deriv’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im.

• “Finding corners”. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. N ‘mindelta’. T ‘maxiter’.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.J. J. Harris and M. with a delay of d [sec]. pp. See also PointFeature. [T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Image and Vision Computing. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. 1988. with a delay of 0. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Tomasi. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. p2. pp. where * denotes squared and smoothed. pp 147-151.G. J. Manchester. Proc. • “Good features to track”.5 [sec]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 593-593.. 1994. vol. IEEE Computer Society.CHAPTER 2. May 1988. Proc. Stephens. T ‘distthresh’. Options ‘dplot’. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.d] = icp(p1. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.121-128.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Shi and C. C. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. p2.6.Noble. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.

14.. vol. s = idecimate(im. no.or 3-dimensional.McKay.Besl and H. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pattern Anal. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. pp. 2. 239-256. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Feb. See also iscale. Intell. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. 1992. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. IEEETrans. each plane is decimated.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Mach. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. P. m. s = idecimate(im.

C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. zero is white color map: random values. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. histogram and zooming. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. If the image is zoomed. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. zero is white. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. positive is blue. negative is red. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.and y-axes respectively. XY ‘colormap’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x.CHAPTER 2. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . linear proﬁle. Options ‘ncolors’. zero is black. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. darker than ‘grey’. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. positive is blue. C ‘xydata’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. If im is a cell array of images. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. negative is red.

im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. labelimage. See also iblobs. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colormap. caxis. labels. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icolorize. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. idisplabel(im. See also image. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map.

out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.2. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. See also itriplepoint. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.45.

See also ithresh.m] = igraphseg(im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [L. k. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.jpg’).CHAPTER 2. 167181. 2004. min is the minimum region size (pixels). sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.5).m] = igraphseg(im. Int. L = igraphseg(im. 2006. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 1500. k is the scale parameter. Huttenlocher. k.5). Example im = iread(’58060. [l. Felzenszwalb and D. Journal on Computer Vision. k. Sept. min. min. vol. pp. 0. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. P. 100. 59. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.

[h.h).h). H = ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [H. ’normcdf’). For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. plot(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.x] = ihist(im). bar(x.x] = ihist(im. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.

m.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. ii is a precomputed integral image. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Region labels are in the range 1 to M. x1. same size as im. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. [L.CHAPTER 2.y1) and bottom-right (x2. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. y2.y2). x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. [L. y1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.

The pixels on the line are set to 1. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. • This is a “low level” function. See also iblobs. p1. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. [L.maxlabel.parents. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. p1.parents. otherwise it does not. ilabel(im.CHAPTER 2.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.class. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. out = iline(im. eg. iproﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.maxlabel.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. 8). each a 2-vector [X. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.Y]. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IBLOBS is a higher level interface.

More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.y) and its half-width is H. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).CHAPTER 2. • Is a MEX ﬁle. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. -s.y).DY. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.y) and of size s. a perfect match score is 1. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. centred at (x. The return value is xm=[DX. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. ymax] relative to (x. [xm.DY) are the x. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and columns the vertical position.score] = imatch(im1. y. • ZNCC matching is used. H. The template in im1 is centred at (x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. im2. y. im2. w2. xmax. ymin. x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. x.y).CC] where (DX. s] % relative to (x.and y-offsets relative to (x.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. [u.u) = u and v(v. [u. f = imoments(u. v.CHAPTER 2. effectively a greyscale image.u) = v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.v] = imeshgrid(w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The element u(v. effectively a binary image. All pixels are equally weighted. H) as above but the domain is w × H.

Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. horizontal coordinate centroid. ilabel.CHAPTER 2. the elements are m00. m11. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. or its area. m01. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also RegionFeature. m10. icolor. m02.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. Different conversion functions are supported. • This function does not perform connectivity. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m20.

pp. 2004. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.png’. J. ’double’). vol. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.m] = imser(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 761767. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. [label. m. ’grey’. Pajdla. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.org).CHAPTER 2. and T. Matas. ’light’).m] = imser(im. Urban. Sept. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. se. 22. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Image and Vision Computing. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. The labels [L. O. Chum.

ˆ2). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.

n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.CHAPTER 2. se. out = iopen(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iclose. n. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. sides.

’t’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise im2 is selected.V]. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 20.CHAPTER 2. im1. im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. ’tblr’. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. p. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.

CHAPTER 2. p1. [p. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. See also bresenham. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.uv] = iproﬁle(im. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.

1. ones(5. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. See also iscalespace. out = imorph(image. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. the maximum. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed.5)). 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. hence output image had reduced dimensions. out = ipyramid(im. 12. idecimate. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. se.2) = 0. out = ipyramid(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. op. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im > irank(im.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. out = imorph(image. se). op. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. sigma. The highest rank. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. se(2.3). order. nbins. se. is order=1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. im = iread(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. ivar. See also imorph. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. G ‘reduce’. R ‘roi’. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. vmin vmax]. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. where R=[umin umax. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256).

[out1. homwarp. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Notes • Color images are not supported. igamma. See also FeatureMatch. m. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. imono.out2] = irectify(f. im1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. • The resulting images may have negative disparity.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. istereo. imwrite.h1.h2] = irectify(f. im1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. m.out2.

out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.H] return central part of image. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.CHAPTER 2. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. See also idisp.vmax].R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmin vmax]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’. angle. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin. S ‘extrapval’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.umax. [out.

im2. V ‘smooth’. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘outsize’. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. while bias>0. bias<0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s ‘extrapval’.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.CHAPTER 2. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. out = isamesize(im1. bias=0.5 is symmetric cropping.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s>1 makes the image larger. s<1 makes it smaller.

n) as above but sigma=1. idecimate.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.s] = iscalespace(im. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. [g. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . See also iscalespace. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. corresponding to each step of the sequence. in space and scale. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.s] = iscalespace(im. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.L.L. n. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).

else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. it its third dimension is equal to three.CHAPTER 2. ishomog(T. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. See also isrot. ‘valid’) as above. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ismooth. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ilaplace. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.

N ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. isurf. Lowe. 2 (2004). “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.vlfeat. 91-110. 60. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • Features are returned in descending strength order. Reference David G. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. pp. International Journal of Computer Vision. See also SiftPointFeature. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. @zsad. im. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. [w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ncc. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zssd. ssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. s is same size as im. @ssd. zsad. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. [w.H. and these output pixels are set to NaN. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. s = isimilarity(T. @ncc. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @zssd. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. See also imatch.

options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. [gx. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. [gx.gy] = isobel(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. convolved. then converted back to integer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iconv. sigma.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.CHAPTER 2.

imr. [d. See also ishomog. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. icanny. H. the disparity d=d(v. range.sim] = istereo(iml. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. else false (0). d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. range is the disparity search range. isrot(R.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. That is.u). See also ksobel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. ‘valid’) as above. imr. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u) means that imr(v. H is the half size of the matching window. w. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).CHAPTER 2.M] for an N × M window. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. 3) See also irectify.dsi] = istereo(iml. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. • sim = max(dsi.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w. range. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).CHAPTER 2.sim. ‘ncc’. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. [d. imr.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). That is. Options ‘metric’.A and p.5). ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. range.sim. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. w. imr. p. dx. out = istretch(im. p.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. [d. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.p] = istereo(iml. B.5 to +0. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Kroon (U. N ‘thresh’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. T ‘octaves’. or sequences. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Notes • Color images. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Luc Van Gool. isift. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. itriplepoint.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. else false (0). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. either a row. See also hitormiss. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). pp. No. Otherwise false (0). out = ithin(im. Vol.or columnvector. 110. Andreas Ess. 3. 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. isvec(v. See also ishomog.CHAPTER 2.

The same cropping is applied to each input image. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. See also homwarp. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.im2.5. Notes • Greyscale image only. [out1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. ithresh(im.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.CHAPTER 2. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The default is 0. a lower value will include more.

The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op. se. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. ithin.CHAPTER 2. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. See also iendpoint. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.

ones(3. out = iwindow(image. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5). ones(5.3). func. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. hence output image had reduced dimensions. @std). See also ivar. @max). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. se.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se.

CHAPTER 2. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. is k’. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dy. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. k = kcircle(R. k = kdgauss(sigma. dG/dx. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. • The vertical derivative.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. klog. See also ones. kdog. ktriangle. See also kgauss. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdgauss. sigma2. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .KGAUSS(SIGMA2).6*sigma1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly.CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kdog(sigma1. kdog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. klog. See also kdgauss. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kgauss(sigma. See also kgauss. klog. k = kdog(sigma1.

See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2. iconv. k = klog(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog. kdgauss. and W=2 × H+1. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also ilaplace.

Pattern Recognition Principles.C] = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.C] = kmeans(x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = kmeans(x. k. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). it is assumed to have been completed previously. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. [L. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. and D is the dimension.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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C ‘T’. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated.z] = mkcube(s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. The points are the columns of p.CHAPTER 2. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.z] = mkcube(s.y. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.y. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [x. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. s. symmetric about the origin. Options ‘T’. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. See also cylinder. ‘edge’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).

Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. n) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. n) MPLOT(y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. See also mpq poly. y) MPLOT(t. n. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.y). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)).2)). Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. npq.xp . q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. the sum of I(x.CHAPTER 2. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. or y(:. y. That is.yq . MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. or y(:. MPLOT(t. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.

p. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. See also mpq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. upq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered to be a single vertex. npq poly.

• The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. k. ssd. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.CHAPTER 2. idisp(im >= t). w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. sad. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. niblack.m. for example. Prentice-Hall. the height of a character. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.2. • A common choice of k=-0. 20). W. k. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = niblack(im. in text segmentation. T has the same dimensions as im. 1986. where W=2*w2+1.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. -0. Example t = niblack(im. [T. See also zncc.

ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. That is UPQ(im.q)/MPQ(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. p.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. mpq.0).CHAPTER 2. See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. they are considered as a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. upq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. npq. so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.

otsu IEEE Trans. N. idisp(im >= t). x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. [yp.xp] = peak(y. Systems. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. x.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Jan 1979. Example t = otsu(im). Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y.i] = peak(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.

Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak2(-V). Typically choose N to be odd. N ‘scale’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘scale’.S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.ij] = peak2(z. [zp. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.CHAPTER 2. S ‘interp’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. use peak(-V). See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.

pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. plot2(p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. ie. See also pnmﬁlt. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. If p has three dimensions. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak.

value pairs that are passed to plot. ’fillcolor’. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ‘size’. 5). P. r. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.y1) and (x2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Examples plot_circle(c. ’r’).Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].CHAPTER 2. plot_circle(c. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. x2. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ‘r’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. R. r. PLOT BOX(x1. W.y1. ’LineWidth’. or a set of name. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=solid. r. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. plot_circle(c. ’b’). ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.y2). Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ’g’.y2. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. PLOT BOX(’centre’. P. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. W. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ‘size’. ’edgecolor’.

with Matlab line style ls.CHAPTER 2. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. current plot. c Specify color of the axes. ls) ls is the standard line styles. C. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Y. Options ‘color’. xc. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. If C=[X. centred at the origin. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.Y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’name’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T.X = 0. trplot( T. ’r’. Options ‘textcolor’. ‘printf’. fmt. ’r’). ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’color’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’color’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. n ‘text opts’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. to ‘view’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ‘framename’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. options) adds point markers to a plot.

R. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. color. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. 1=solid. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. NOTES • The sphere is always added. either a letter or 3-vector. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. patch. The default is 1. R. R.CHAPTER 2. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also plot. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N.

plotp(p. See also plot.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. See also pgmﬁlt.

Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.CHAPTER 2.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. [gr. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

x. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. [m. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.in] = ransac(func. one column per point pair. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. [m.in.CHAPTER 2. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T. N ‘maxDataTrials’. d) as above but elements increment by d. Options ‘maxTrials’. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. T. x typically contains corresponding point data. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .resid] = ransac(func. x. x. T.

No 6. If multiple models are found out.A. Fishler and R.x data to work on.theta. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.x = CONDITION(R. Mach.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. that is they will produce a model. pp 101-113. Comp.theta is a cell array. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.theta = DECONDITION(R.theta to the points R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.x and returns the best model out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.out.theta and the subset of R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.out. that is.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x. [out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. Boles.misc private data (cell array) out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.inlier.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.misc element.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. pp 381-395.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.s out. Vol 24.x) condition the point data out.resid] = EST(R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. Comm.C. [out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.t threshold (1 × 1) R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta = []. References • m. Assoc.R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. Cambridge University Press.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.theta. they detect a structure argument. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.theta] = ERR(R..

If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.CHAPTER 2.edu. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix.csse.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.

angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. See also rotx. rotz. See also roty. rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• many texts (Paul. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R.CHAPTER 2. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. T = rpy2tr(roll. If roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. pitch. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Z axes respectively. yaw. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Y. See also tr2rpy.

tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ncc. r2t. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.CHAPTER 2. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ssd. and rotation theta in the plane. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsad.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. theta) as above where xy=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. sad. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. ncc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also zsdd. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image.

c. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.choose = {’this’. – If T is 3 × 3.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’other’}.foo = true. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.blah = []. opt. opt. ’that’.bar = false. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. then R is 3 × 3. varargin) opt.CHAPTER 2. The software pattern is: function(a. then R is 2 × 2. b. It supports options that have an assigned value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. tr2rt.

2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. 3 sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.foo <. If neither of ‘this’.1.false ‘blah’. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.debug <. ’#yes’}. N ‘setopt’.3 ‘blah’. x.select = {’#no’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.‘this’.N sets opt <.x. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.select <.y sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.foo <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. varargin).true sets opt.select <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.blah <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. w. opt = tb_optparse(opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.verbose <.CHAPTER 2. args) creates a test pattern image.blah <.choose <.choose <. varargin).

256. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. a line.sd. args is the number of cycles. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). sd and sdd are n-vectors. dot diameter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 50. args are theta (rad). intercept. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. sf. args are pitch (distance between centres). 256. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. square side length. binary square pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. 25). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.CHAPTER 2. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. binary dot pattern. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. [s. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. sf. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.sd. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. 2).

The 3 angles rpy=[R. See also angvec2r.CHAPTER 2. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Y.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y and Z axes respectively. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.P. [theta. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R.

tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. – If TR is 3 × 3. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. See also rt2tr. See also rpy2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.CHAPTER 2. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.z].:. y. • The validity of R is not checked. ie.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. r2t.y. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. If T has three dimensions.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.

Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). An historical anomaly. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). each N × 1. [c1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). or x and y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. [o1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.CHAPTER 2.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. troty. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. trotx. f ‘label’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trprint T is the command line form of above. and displays in RPY format.CHAPTER 2. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line.

CHAPTER 2. tr2rpy. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(y-y0)q where (x0.y0) is the centroid. mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. the sum of I(x.y).(x-x0)p . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. p. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. That is. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. See also upq poly. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. ncc. See also ncc. See also sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sdd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2.

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