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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This is extravagant on storage. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. is open-source. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. and I commend it to you. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . However the book “Robotics.

.1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . SphericalCamera . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . Movie . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . mkcube . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . ransac . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

tutors. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.com.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.google. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. That’s what you your teachers. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and you will be suitably acknowledged. You need to signup in order to post. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.

the table of content to functions. Author = {P.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.gz) or zip format (. The ﬁle robot. Year = {2005}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.zip).1. type of organization and application. 1.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). 1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Month = nov. Corke}. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.3.petercorke. Number = {4}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.I. The details are @article{Corke05f. 1. and the “See also” functions to each other.html on a server for class use.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. 1. Volume = {12}.

MSER. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.R.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.Functions such as SURF. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. Coimbra. P. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.6.7 Acknowledgements Last.1. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .7. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Vincent Lepetit.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. Twente. pp 16–25.mathworks. but not least. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. and there are hundreds of modules available.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.vlfeat. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. Corke. 1. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.S. 12(4).. 1. 1994 University of British Columbia. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. VLFeat http://www. November 2005.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

N ‘image’. T ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. SIGMA ‘pose’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘noise’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. Options ‘name’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. N ‘sensor’. Camera. used by all subclasses. P ‘pixel’. IM ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.display Display value C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.char Convert to string s = C.delete Camera object destructor C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.CHAPTER 2.clf Clear the image plane C. ﬁsheyecamera.centre Get camera position p = C. CatadioptricCamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.

line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera.char Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. C.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. Camera. otherwise false (0). See also Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.u + b.v + c = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. and off if H is false (or 0).

Camera.clf Camera. See also mesh.CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Camera. mkcube. sphere. z. uv = C.T.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. y.mesh(x.plot(p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.hold. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The matrices x.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Camera.plot. y. cylinder. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.plot Plot points on image plane C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. z to the image plane and plots them. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. y. Camera.

point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2.hold.clf Camera. Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.mesh.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Camera.T. T See also Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tcam’. ‘fps’. T ‘scale’. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘Tobj’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.

that is. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(R.rpy Set camera attitude C. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. C. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.CHAPTER 2.p.y]. The image is not inverted. a subclass of Camera.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C. CentralCamera.

invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SphericalCamera CentralCamera.and v-axes parallel to x.E Essential matrix E = C. Reference Y. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. p. u. 2003. camera at origin. F ‘distortion’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.F.Ma. S ‘centre’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. SIGMA ‘pose’. J. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. P ‘pixel’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. ﬁsheyecamera. optical axis is z-axis. 10um pixels.and y-axes respectively.Soatto. f=8mm. S. CentralCamera.8]) See also Camera.Kosecka.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).CHAPTER 2. E = C. IM ‘resolution’. D ‘default’ ‘image’. E = C. T ‘color’. CatadioptricCamera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. Springer. N ‘sensor’.177 See also CentralCamera. N ‘focal’.Sastry. S ‘noise’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S. “An invitation to 3D”.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.

E CentralCamera. S.F Fundamental matrix F = C.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. J.H Homography matrix H = C. Reference Y.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. n. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.177 See also CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).H CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. S. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. from two viewpoints. 2003. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Ma. Springer.Soatto.H(T. p. “An invitation to 3D”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. F = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Kosecka.Sastry. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.

invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. a = C. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Fua. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. 155-166.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.estpose(xyz.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Moreno-Noguer. pp. V. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. 81. Lepetit. and P.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. See also quiver CentralCamera. 2009.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. vol. CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. F. Feb. Int.

J.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. section 5.Ma.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Soatto. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Sastry. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. J.CHAPTER 2. “An invitation to 3D”. s.Soatto.invE(E. 259 Y.Sastry.E CentralCamera.Ma. translation not to scale • n. Springer. Chap 9. “An invitation to 3D”. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. 2003. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference Y. s.Kosecka. See also CentralCamera. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p. 2003. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Kosecka. p116. Springer.

T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.project(p.plot epiline(f. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. C.T.CHAPTER 2. one per line. CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. See also Hough CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. p. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. H = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Rives.c. 313-326.CHAPTER 2. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. F. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”. See also Camera.b. Reference B. and P. vol. pp.visjac e(E. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Chaumette.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.plot CentralCamera. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Espiau. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. June 1992.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. 8.

The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.visjac l(L. Hager & Corke. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). June 1992. 8.c. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. Chaumette. vol. 313-326. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac p polar.visjac p polar. and P. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. F. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Vol 12(5).visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.b. See also CentralCamera.visjac p.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Espiau. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Oct. Rives.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1996. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Reference B. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.visjac p. R&A. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Hutchinson.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. pp.visjac p(uv. pp 651-670.visjac l CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.

CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. See also CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. (St. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. Louis). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac e CentralCamera. I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. P. radius and theta. 2009. Corke. Oct. Spindler. F.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac p polar(rt. 5962-5967. and F.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Chaumette. CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Int.visjac l. in Proc.visjac p. pp. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l.

See also isift. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Journal on Computer Vision. PointFeature. vol.60. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Lowe. 2004.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. D.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. See README. ScalePointFeature. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.91-110.SIFT. pp. Int. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Nov.

CHAPTER 2. v.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options.match Match SIFT point features m = F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 0=transparent (default 0.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. C ‘alpha’. See also isift SiftPointFeature. 1=opaque. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. F. SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

support Support region of feature out = F.T] = F.support(im.support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) as above but the support region is displayed.CHAPTER 2. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out.support(im. F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. out = F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Overrides the current camera pose C. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. CentralCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. S ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. See also SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p.T. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). N ‘pixel’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘name’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. ﬁsheyecamera. T ‘Tcam’.

showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. defaults in parentheses: target size .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The camera view.center of the target in world coords (0.0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The external view. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.CHAPTER 2. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Jacobian condition number. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera view. image plane size and desired feature locations. error norm.the side length of the target in world units (0. error. of 4-vector. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.01) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.gain.5) target center . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. camera pose. scalar for If null take actual value all points. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.

CentralCamera. I. See also CentralCamera. scalar for If null take actual value all points. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. of 4-vector. P. May 3-7 2010. for all points. 5550-5555. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.center of the target in world coords (0.visjac l.visjac p polar.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .the side length of the target in world units (0. image plane size and desired feature locations. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.5) target center . Conf. (Anchorage).camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . CentralCamera. error. pp. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .gain. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. in Proc.0. error norm.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Robotics and Automation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.CHAPTER 2.01) . Corke. The external view.visjac p(pt. camera pose.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IEEE Int.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . Jacobian condition number. defaults in parentheses: target size . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.

If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 110. 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . No. Tinne Tuytelaars.CHAPTER 2. pp. Luc Van Gool. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Vol. 346–359. Andreas Ess. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. v. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. [m. ScalePointFeature.match(f2. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘thresh’.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.C] = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match Match SURF point features m = F. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.

support(im. 1=opaque.CHAPTER 2. [out.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.T] = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 0=transparent (default 0.support(images.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale(options.2) SurfPointFeature. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F. F.

CHAPTER 2.com).axis. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com) web camera.axis. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Video AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.

Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.char Convert to string A. See also AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.

“Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.1470-1477. on Computer Vision. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Ninth IEEE Int. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.Sivic and A.CHAPTER 2.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. b = BagOfWords(f.Zisserman. 2003. Conf. in Proc. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org). pp. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Oct. f can also be a cell array.

The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.exemplars(w. images. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. isurf BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.display Display value B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char Convert to string s = B.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.n] = B.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. M ‘width’.isword Features from words f = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. N ‘maxperimage’.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. Options ‘ncolumns’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.

The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

CHAPTER 2. S ‘centre’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. N ‘focal’. K ‘maxangle’. CatadioptricCamera.and v-axes parallel to x. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).project(p. M ‘k’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. N ‘sensor’. 10um pixels. SIGMA ‘pose’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also Camera. camera at origin. ‘sine’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. A ‘resolution’. See also Camera. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. optical axis is z-axis.T. f=8mm. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘noise’. P ‘pixel’. u. T ‘Tcam’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.and y-axes respectively. ‘equisolid’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.

See also PointFeature. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. one per element. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.CHAPTER 2.display Display value M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. f2.char Convert to string s = M. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.v2].outlier. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.inlier.u2. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1.

p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch. These are the (u.plot() M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot Show corresponding points M.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2.p1. for example by: idisp({im1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.im2}) m. FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p1.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.

m.ransac Apply RANSAC M. f2 = isurf(im2).ransac( @fmatrix. 1e-4).ransac(func. See also idisp FeatureMatch.match(f2). homography.CHAPTER 2. See also fmatrix. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Example f1 = isurf(im1). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. m = f1. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. ransac FeatureMatch.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.

FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.CHAPTER 2.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.

CHAPTER 2. ‘sine’. f=8mm. u. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. P ‘pixel’. S ‘noise’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Options ‘name’.and y. camera at origin. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). 10um pixels.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. M ‘k’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].and v-axes are parallel to x.axes respectively. optical axis is z-axis. SIGMA ‘pose’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘equisolid’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. S ‘centre’. K ‘resolution’. N ‘sensor’.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. T ‘Tcam’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera.project(p.T. See also FishEyeCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The voting array is 2-dimensional.0) and the line. A horizontal line has theta = 0.CHAPTER 2. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. See also LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.H). a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.

Hough. Hough.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.char Convert to string s = HT. Set ht.edgeThresh. See also Hough.1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. T ‘edgethresh’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.houghThresh (default 0. Default 400 × 401. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. N All edge pixels have equal weight. W ‘nbins’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.display Display value HT. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. else N = [Ntheta.CHAPTER 2.5) Set ht. W ‘houghthresh’. T ‘suppress’. Nrho].display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edgeThresh (default 0. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. L = HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. then all elements in an HT. The process is repeated for all peaks.lines Find lines L = HT. HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.CHAPTER 2. See also Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. LineFeature Hough. HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. The highest peak is found.plot.plot(n. H = HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot line features HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines Hough.

hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. RegionFeature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. one per element. theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. L = LineFeature(rho.char Convert to string s = L. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. theta.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. See also LineFeature. strength.display Display value L. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(rho.CHAPTER 2.

plot Plot line L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.points Return points on line segments p = L. l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.plot() overlay the line on current plot.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.seglength(edge. less than gap pixels are tolerated. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Small gaps. LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). See also icanny LineFeature.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. L. l2 = L.CHAPTER 2.

Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.close() closes the connection to the movie.char Convert to string M. Movie.axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com).CHAPTER 2. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’.close Close the image source M. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. S ‘skip’.

and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph create an n-d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. planar. F Skip frames. Options ‘skip’. S ‘frame’. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.CHAPTER 2.

add node(coord) g.path(v) set goal vertex.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.add edge(v1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.edges(e) g. v2) g.plot() g.coord(v) g.CHAPTER 2. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .neighbours(v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. v) g.connectivity() g.component(v) g.clear() add vertex.goal(v) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.distance(v1. return vid add vertex and edge to v.cost(e) g.next(v) g.

CHAPTER 2. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. where x is D × 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add node(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v.add edge(v1. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. v2. and returns the edge id E. Options ‘distance’.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. PGraph. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v = G. v = G. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. PGraph. and returns the node id v.add edge(v1. E = G. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add node(x.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.

of node id v. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. [v. PGraph. PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CHAPTER 2.closest Find closest node v = G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. edges and components.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G. D × 1. and the distance d.clear Clear the graph G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.display Display value F. SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. one per element. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = F. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. v. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. PointFeature. PointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. See also ScalePointFeature.

If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. PointFeature. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the norm of the Euclidean distance.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.char PointFeature.C] = F.match Match point features m = F.CHAPTER 2. where 1 is perfect match.

plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon . miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot feature F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F.

mit. difference. Polygon.edu. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.area() is the area of the polygon.CHAPTER 2.char String representation s = P. kirill@plume. Polygon.mit. p = Polygon(C.html and require a licence.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. HEIGHT]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . union.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. so use with care. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.area Area of polygon a = P. one column per vertex. Pankratov.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. http://puddle. Polygon. intersection.

intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). else 0.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.display Display polygon P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. See also Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns coordinates of P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.char Polygon.CHAPTER 2. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. Polygon. Polygon.

intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. each column is [x y]’.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments(p.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.CHAPTER 2. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. y1 y2]. returns empty polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.

union Union of polygons i = P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot() plot the polygon. Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot polygon P. Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.CHAPTER 2. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. See also Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R.char Ray3D.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.display Display value R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.E] = R. [x.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. [x. Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.E] = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.

b.c. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. vertical coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.

char Convert to string s = R.th] = R. ymax]. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.xmax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .box Return bounding box b = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2.uc will be a list not a vector. imoments RegionFeature. RegionFeature. one per element. ymin.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. See also iblobs. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. For example R. RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. RegionFeature.

R. See also RegionFeature.and xmarkers.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot Plot centroid R.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.char RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. R.

R. RegionFeature.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box Plot bounding box R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

v. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. C ‘alpha’. 0=transparent (default 0. strength. ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = ScalePointFeature(u. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. v.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.CHAPTER 2.plot scale Plot feature scale F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. See also PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 1=opaque.

options) is a new tracker object. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. T ‘movie’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. one per active track. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Options ‘radius’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. C. See also PointFeature Tracker. R ‘nslots’. N ‘thresh’.

plot Show feature trajectories T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. See also Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value T.CHAPTER 2.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Tracker. Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Convert to string s = T.char Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

S ‘resolution’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’. and their characteristics is displayed. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.CHAPTER 2. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Movie Video. AxisWebCamera.

char Convert to string V. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source V.grab() acquires an image from the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the camera. Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. if negative it is reduced. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. and the right image is cyan. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. If th1 is a column vector. a = anaglyph(left. right. the second for right. color. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. the ﬁrst for left. right. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left.CHAPTER 2. By default the left image is red. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters.

e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.s] = boundmatch(R1.y1) to (x2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.y1] and p2=[x2. y1. % emission of sun plot(l. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y2].y2). x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Endpoints must be integer. See also RegionFeature. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. p = bresenham(p1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. If lambda is a column vector. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.boundary. 6500). [x.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. [C.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.

but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. k = closest(a. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). x = circle(C. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.CHAPTER 2.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and x is N × 3. green and blue primaries respectively.d1] = closest(a. R. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. that is. Options ‘n’. [k.

As noted in footnote a on p. and 22500 (444. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. • From Table I(5. since.5. they were measured directly.d2] = closest(a.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.5.d1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. (Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].32).5.ac.5. 19000 (526.ucl.ioo. 335 of Table 1(5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. while Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.16). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).

M). ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. out = col2im(pix. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ac.uk See also cmfrgb.ucl. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize is a 2-vector (N.CHAPTER 2. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.

rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.g] to every pixel in the color image im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.

[0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. @isnan. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.CHAPTER 2. im<100. [L. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.G. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.B). @isnan.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. out = colorize(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. k. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. func. See also imono. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icolor. and returns a per-pixel logical result. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. mask. eg.

XYZ = colorname(name. low is good.R] = colorkmeans(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.C. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. k) as above but also returns the residual R. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. name = colorname(XYZ. eg. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre.CHAPTER 2.

o2. Input and output images have 3 planes. it can be omitted.txt.o3] = colorspace(s. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • Color space names are case insensitive. s = ‘dest<-src’. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. [o1. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . As MATLAB’s native datatype. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.i2. s = ‘src->dest’. i1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.CHAPTER 2. or alternatively. double data is the natural choice. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.

Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Example A = rand(400. • If im is an M × 3 array. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).2*A. like a colormap. However. out will also have size M × 3.CHAPTER 2. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. d = distance(A. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .200). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. B = rand(400.100).B). for memory and computational performance. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.

Tested: PC Matlab v5. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.CHAPTER 2. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.uva. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. The result E is a matrix. tel. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. in matrix coordinate frame.j).3. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y). seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. bunschot@wins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. seed. not image frame. University of Amsterdam. E = edgelist(im.(+31)20-5257524.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. non zero is counter-clockwise.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. non-zero is an object. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.

fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Author Based on fmatrix code by. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. 1998. p. p1.CHAPTER 2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.R. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also epiline. H = epiline(f. Coimbra. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. I.S. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). one per line drawn. epiline(f. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. See also fmatrix. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Oct 27. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. See also ransac. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. homography.edu. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. that is. epiline.csse. no outlier rejection is performed.uwa. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. which means it can be passed to ransac(). School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. The University of Western Australia. p2. • Contains a RANSAC driver. page 270. that is. it is singular. http://www. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.au/. Notes • The points must be corresponding.CHAPTER 2. c. • f is a rank 2 matrix. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.

ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.CHAPTER 2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.y2). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. y1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. x2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. itriplepoint. See also imorph. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and (x2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse.CHAPTER 2. invhomog. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.uwa. http://www. no outlier rejection is performed. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.edu. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. See also ransac. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Notes • The points must be corresponding. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia.au/.

See also e2h. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. that is tp=T*T1. [out.offs] = homwarp(H. im. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. S ‘dimension’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. itrim. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. im. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. ie. See also homography. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. S output image contains all the warped pixels. V ‘roi’. D ‘size’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. R ‘scale’.

ianimate(seq. 179-187. IRE Trans. Hu. 1962. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ’nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im.CHAPTER 2. ianimate(im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. 200). See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. on Information Theory. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ’gs’). features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. features. IT-8:pp. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants.

F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. iharris. YMIN YMAX]. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. N ‘only’. M ‘npoints’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [A1.0) 1 for a circle. default 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and larger values correspond to stronger edges. C set connectivity. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.CHAPTER 2. [S1. ilabel. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. A set pixel aspect ratio.0 ‘connect’.

Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’. out = iclose(im.CHAPTER 2. 1996-7. S ‘th0’. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. Tel Aviv University. See also isobel. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iopen. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. This is an dilation followed by erosion.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay.

options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.CHAPTER 2. iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. colorize. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. [0 1 1]). Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. D ‘bgval’. Options ‘dir’. See also imono. [C.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. The images do not have to be of the same size.u] = iconcat(im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.CHAPTER 2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. options) convolves im1 with im2.

This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. K ‘patch’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. D ‘k’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. CT ‘edgegap’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. S ‘deriv’. E ‘suppress’. N ‘detector’.CHAPTER 2. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CM ‘cminthresh’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. D ‘sigma’. R ‘nfeat’.

1994.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. C.J. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. See also PointFeature.Noble. IEEE Computer Society.6. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf.5 [sec]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Shi and C. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. • “Finding corners”.d] = icp(p1. pp. Options ‘dplot’. T ‘distthresh’. J. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Proc. with a delay of 0. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. May 1988. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Tomasi. pp 147-151.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Harris and M. • “Good features to track”. where * denotes squared and smoothed. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. 1988. [T. J. pp.G. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Manchester. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. with a delay of d [sec].121-128. T ‘maxiter’. vol.. 593-593. N ‘mindelta’. Proc. Image and Vision Computing. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Stephens. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. p2. p2.

pp. Mach.Besl and H.McKay.or 3-dimensional.CHAPTER 2. vol. 1992. m. Pattern Anal. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. P. 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. m. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Intell. Feb. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. each plane is decimated. 14. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. See also iscale. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. s = idecimate(im. 239-256. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IEEETrans. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. no. s = idecimate(im.. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.

If the image is zoomed.CHAPTER 2. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. Options ‘ncolors’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. darker than ‘grey’. zero is black. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. XY ‘colormap’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. positive is blue. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. zero is white color map: random values. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. negative is red. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. C ‘xydata’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. linear proﬁle. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. histogram and zooming. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. If im is a cell array of images.and y-axes respectively. zero is white. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. negative is red. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. positive is blue. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally).

labels. caxis. icolorize. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class.CHAPTER 2. colormap. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage. See also iblobs. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. idisplabel(im. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. See also image. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map.

Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. See also itriplepoint. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin.CHAPTER 2. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.45. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.2. out = igamma(im.

m] = igraphseg(im. 0.jpg’). 100. min. Example im = iread(’58060. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 2006. P. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Journal on Computer Vision. min. [l. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Sept. vol. See also ithresh. Int. k. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 1500. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. 2004. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.5). k. 59. L = igraphseg(im.5).m] = igraphseg(im. k. [L. Felzenszwalb and D. 167181. k is the scale parameter. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. Huttenlocher.

Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.x] = ihist(im. [h. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.x] = ihist(im). ’normcdf’). plot(x. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. bar(x.h). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. options) displays the image histogram. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. H = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H.

same size as im. y2. [L. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. y1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. [L. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.y1) and bottom-right (x2. x1.CHAPTER 2. ii is a precomputed integral image.

p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.parents. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.maxlabel. 8). ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The pixels on the line are set to 1. out = iline(im. eg. p2. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. See also iblobs. otherwise it does not. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. iproﬁle. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. each a 2-vector [X. [L.Y]. p1. ilabel(im.class. • This is a “low level” function. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.maxlabel.CHAPTER 2.parents.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.

-s. ymax] relative to (x. x. s] % relative to (x.score] = imatch(im1. and columns the vertical position. ymin. im2. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The template in im1 is centred at (x. xmax.y) and its half-width is H. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y) and of size s.y). s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. im2. w2. s. a perfect match score is 1. y.DY. centred at (x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). y.DY) are the x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.CC] where (DX.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. [xm. The return value is xm=[DX. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.CHAPTER 2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y). More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.and y-offsets relative to (x. • Is a MEX ﬁle. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. H. • ZNCC matching is used.

H) as above but the domain is w × H. [u. All pixels are equally weighted. effectively a binary image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. f = imoments(u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. f = imoments(u. effectively a greyscale image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. v.u) = v. [u.v] = imeshgrid(w. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. The element u(v.u) = u and v(v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. • This function does not perform connectivity. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. or its area. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. See also RegionFeature. Different conversion functions are supported. ilabel. horizontal coordinate centroid. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m11. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m10. m01. the elements are m00. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. icolor. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m20. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m02.

options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. 761767. J. Pajdla. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. pp.CHAPTER 2. Matas. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. and T. vol. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. part of VLFeat (vlfeat.m] = imser(im. se. Urban.m] = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing. Chum. ’double’). 22. ’light’).png’. [label. 2004. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. The labels [L. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m. O. ’grey’.org). Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Sept. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.ˆ2). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. out = iopen(im. See also iclose. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides. se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se.

CHAPTER 2. 20. otherwise im2 is selected. im2. ’tblr’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .V]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 10. ’t’. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. im1. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. p.

p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.uv] = iproﬁle(im. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. See also bresenham. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.v) for the corresponding row of p.CHAPTER 2. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. [p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p1.

5)).CHAPTER 2.3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. out = ipyramid(im. out = imorph(image. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. See also iscalespace. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. sigma. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. is order=1. se. nbins. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. idecimate. im > irank(im.2) = 0. 1. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. order. ones(5. The highest rank. out = ipyramid(im. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. 12. op. out = imorph(image. se). se(2. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. the maximum. op. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.

im = iread(ﬁle. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. ivar. vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2. where R=[umin umax. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. R ‘roi’. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. G ‘reduce’.

igamma. m. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. [out1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.out2] = irectify(f.h2] = irectify(f. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. imono. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Notes • Color images are not supported. homwarp.h1. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. im1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The resulting images may have negative disparity.CHAPTER 2. imwrite. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im1. istereo. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). m.out2.

vmin.umax. [out. S ‘extrapval’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.CHAPTER 2.H] return central part of image. angle. Options ‘outsize’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .vmin vmax]. V ‘smooth’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. See also idisp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.vmax].

s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. V ‘smooth’. while bias>0. bias<0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s<1 makes it smaller. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. s>1 makes the image larger. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. Options ‘outsize’.5 is symmetric cropping. bias=0. im2. out = isamesize(im1.

L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. See also iscalespace. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.s] = iscalespace(im. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. n) as above but sigma=1. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.L. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. corresponding to each step of the sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . n. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. idecimate. in space and scale. [g.CHAPTER 2.

ismooth. See also isrot.CHAPTER 2. ‘valid’) as above. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. else false (0). The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. that is. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog(T. ilaplace. it its third dimension is equal to three.

vlfeat. isurf. pp.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. N ‘suppress’. See also SiftPointFeature. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. 2 (2004). • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Lowe. Reference David G. 91-110. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. International Journal of Computer Vision. 60. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T.

Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. [w. ssd. @ssd. @zsad. sad. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. im. zsad. s is same size as im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. @zssd. zssd. s = isimilarity(T.H.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im.CHAPTER 2. @ncc. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. ncc. See also imatch. [w. and these output pixels are set to NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.

convolved. [gx. then converted back to integer. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. sigma. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.gy] = isobel(im. See also iconv.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.CHAPTER 2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx.

imr. H is the half size of the matching window. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w.u). imr. H. See also ksobel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. range is the disparity search range. range. ‘valid’) as above. See also ishomog. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. [d. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml.M] for an N × M window. icanny.u) means that imr(v. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. That is. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.sim] = istereo(iml. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.CHAPTER 2. range. else false (0). isrot(R. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. the disparity d=d(v.

options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. ‘ncc’.p] = istereo(iml. imr.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. p. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). range.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. 3) See also irectify.dsi] = istereo(iml. • sim = max(dsi. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.CHAPTER 2. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.5).sim. w. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). B. [d. dx. w.A and p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range. Options ‘metric’.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. out = istretch(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. p.5 to +0. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. That is. imr.sim. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. [d. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.

• The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im.CHAPTER 2. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. or sequences. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. T ‘octaves’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. N ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Kroon (U. Notes • Color images. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature.

See also ishomog. Otherwise false (0).CHAPTER 2. 110. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 346–359. No. Andreas Ess. else false (0). isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). out = ithin(im. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. either a row. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3. Luc Van Gool. Vol. isvec(v.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. See also hitormiss. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector.or columnvector. pp. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. isift. itriplepoint.

im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.out2] = itrim(im1.5.CHAPTER 2. ithresh(im. The same cropping is applied to each input image. See also homwarp. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. a lower value will include more. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.out2] = itrim(im1. [out1.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. Notes • Greyscale image only. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The default is 0. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.

The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. ithin. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. See also iendpoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. op. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.

3). se. out = iwindow(image. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. See also ivar. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. ones(3. @max).5). func. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. ones(5. @std). se. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.

See also kgauss. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. is k’. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. • The vertical derivative. k = kdgauss(sigma.CHAPTER 2. dG/dx.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. klog. kdog. See also ones. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kcircle(R. ktriangle. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. dG/dy. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.

sigma2. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2).6*sigma1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2. klog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kgauss(sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kdog(sigma1. kdog. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. See also kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. See also kgauss.

k = klog(sigma. and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog. See also kgauss. See also ilaplace. iconv.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.

The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. k. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.C] = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. and D is the dimension. it is assumed to have been completed previously. k. L = kmeans(x.CHAPTER 2. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. [L. Pattern Recognition Principles.C] = kmeans(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.z] = mkcube(s. ‘edge’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). By default the grid lies in the XY plane. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. symmetric about the origin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. C ‘T’. [x.y.y. [x. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.z] = mkcube(s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).CHAPTER 2. The points are the columns of p. Options ‘T’. See also cylinder.

n) MPLOT(t. See also mpq poly.xp . n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.2)). the sum of I(x. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n) MPLOT(y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(t. y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. or y(:. p. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. That is. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. n. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. y. y) MPLOT(t. npq. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. or y(:.y). Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.yq . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. p. upq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. npq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq.

20).s] = niblack(im. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. W. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = niblack(im. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. [T. for example. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. in text segmentation.CHAPTER 2. k. T has the same dimensions as im. niblack. k. Prentice-Hall. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. • A common choice of k=-0. idisp(im >= t). 1986. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. ssd. sad. -0. the height of a character. where W=2*w2+1. See also zncc.m.2. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.

See also npq poly. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.CHAPTER 2. p.0.p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. That is UPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.q)/MPQ(im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.0). p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. mpq.

See also mpq poly. npq.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered as a single vertex. upq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. mpq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m.

options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [yp. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Systems.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.xp] = peak(y.i] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. idisp(im >= t). x. otsu IEEE Trans. [yp. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Jan 1979. Example t = otsu(im). Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. N.

S ‘interp’.S points. N ‘scale’. use peak(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.ij] = peak2(z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.CHAPTER 2.S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. [zp. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘scale’. use peak2(-V). Typically choose N to be odd.

ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. plot2(p. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. ie.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. If p has three dimensions. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also pnmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

y2. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. PLOT BOX(x1. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Examples plot_circle(c. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. 5). x2. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ’b’). ’r’). ’g’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. r. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’fillcolor’.y2). and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. R. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. value pairs that are passed to plot. r. W. P. ’LineWidth’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. r. ’edgecolor’. P. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. 1=solid.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].y1) and (x2. or a set of name. plot_circle(c.CHAPTER 2. plot_circle(c. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].y1. ‘size’. W. ‘r’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z.

ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.Y]. centred at the origin. c Specify color of the axes. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. Options ‘color’.Y. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) ls is the standard line styles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. with Matlab line style ls.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. current plot. xc. C. If C=[X. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.CHAPTER 2.

’name’.X = 0. n ‘text opts’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. fmt. ’r’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’color’. ‘printf’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. to ‘view’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. Options ‘textcolor’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’r’). where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. trplot( T. ‘framename’. ’color’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. See also plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=solid. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. either a letter or 3-vector. color. R. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2. The default is 1. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. patch. R.

See also pgmﬁlt. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. plotp(p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.

radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.CHAPTER 2.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.gt] = radgrad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. [gr. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.

resid] = ransac(func. T. one column per point pair. x.in. T. [m. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. N ‘maxDataTrials’. T. [m. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.in] = ransac(func. d) as above but elements increment by d.CHAPTER 2. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x typically contains corresponding point data. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.

References • m.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.x. Mach. they detect a structure argument. No 6..x and returns the best model out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.x = CONDITION(R.x. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. [out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. pp 381-395. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. Comp.theta to the points R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.s out. [out.x) condition the point data out. Comm.out. If multiple models are found out. Vol 24. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.theta is a cell array. Assoc.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Fishler and R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.resid] = EST(R.theta.t threshold (1 × 1) R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. Cambridge University Press.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta] = ERR(R.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.misc private data (cell array) out.misc element.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. that is.theta = [].T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta.C.R.theta and the subset of R.theta = DECONDITION(R. Boles. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .inlier.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.A. pp 101-113.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.s sample size (1 × 1) out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x data to work on. that is they will produce a model.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.csse. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. If lambda is a vector.uwa.CHAPTER 2. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.

angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. rotz.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty. roty. See also rotx. rotz.

T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. See also tr2rpy. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Y. If roll.CHAPTER 2. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Z axes respectively. yaw. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch. pitch. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. • many texts (Paul.

See also zsad. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. r2t. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. theta) as above where xy=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ssd. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.CHAPTER 2. ncc.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. and rotation theta in the plane. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. y.y.

R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. sad. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also zsdd. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Two cross-hairs are created. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1.

choose = {’this’. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. b.foo = true. – If T is 3 × 3. opt. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt. c. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. opt. ’that’.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.blah = []. It supports options that have an assigned value. then R is 2 × 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. tr2rt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. then R is 3 × 3. varargin) opt. ’other’}.CHAPTER 2. The software pattern is: function(a. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.bar = false.

foo <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.y sets opt.choose <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. varargin). If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.verbose <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.false ‘blah’.x. N ‘setopt’.1.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.y ‘that’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.blah <.choose <. ’#yes’}. opt = tb_optparse(opt.select <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).‘this’. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.N sets opt <.select <.true sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. args) creates a test pattern image.blah <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. w.3 ‘blah’.CHAPTER 2. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. If neither of ‘this’.select = {’#no’. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. 3 sets opt. varargin).foo <. x.debug <.

args is the number of cycles. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sf. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. [s. args is the number of cycles. sf. args are pitch (distance between centres). intercept. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. 25). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. binary square pattern. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 2). 256. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. a line. args are theta (rad).sd. args is the number of cycles. binary dot pattern. sd and sdd are n-vectors. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction.sd.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles. dot diameter.CHAPTER 2. The trajectory s. 256. 50. square side length. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.

Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Y and Z axes respectively. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.P.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. See also angvec2r.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. [theta. The 3 angles rpy=[R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Y. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.

z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.CHAPTER 2. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. • The validity of R is not checked. See also rpy2tr.:. r2t. See also rt2tr. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. – If TR is 3 × 3. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. ie. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. y.z]. If T has three dimensions.

CHAPTER 2. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [o1. or x and y. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. each N × 1. [c1.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. An historical anomaly. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

f ‘label’. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and displays in RPY format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotx. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trprint T is the command line form of above. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format.CHAPTER 2.

the sum of I(x. That is. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2rpy. See also upq poly. mpq. p. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.CHAPTER 2.(x-x0)p .y).y0) is the centroid. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.(y-y0)q where (x0.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). See also sad. ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. sad. ncc. See also ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. See also sdd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. sad.

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