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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. However the book “Robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. and I commend it to you. is open-source. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics.

. .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . Tracker . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . Movie . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . epidist . idecimate . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . idisp . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . isobel . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ransac . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . lambda2xy . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . ramp . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . useﬁg . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . .

and you will be suitably acknowledged.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .google. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You need to signup in order to post.com. That’s what you your teachers.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. tutors.

5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1. 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).gz) or zip format (. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.I.petercorke. Corke}.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.3.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. and the “See also” functions to each other. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Number = {4}. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.html on a server for class use. 1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. The ﬁle robot.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Month = nov. the table of content to functions.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Author = {P.zip).1. Year = {2005}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. 1. type of organization and application. Volume = {12}. The details are @article{Corke05f. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.

IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. 1.7. but not least.Functions such as SURF.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. Coimbra.1. Twente. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. and there are hundreds of modules available. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Corke. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. November 2005. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.mathworks. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. 1994 University of British Columbia.I. MSER. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. 12(4). pp 16–25. VLFeat http://www. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer..7 Acknowledgements Last.S.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. Vincent Lepetit. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. P. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.6.R.vlfeat. 1. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Options ‘name’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. P ‘pixel’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. Camera. used by all subclasses. T ‘color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘image’. S ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. SIGMA ‘pose’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’.

centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). ﬁsheyecamera.clf Clear the image plane C. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera. CatadioptricCamera. Camera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delete Camera object destructor C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display Display value C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.centre Get camera position p = C. Camera.char Convert to string s = C.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.

char Camera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. otherwise false (0).v + c = 0. C. and off if H is false (or 0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. Camera.u + b. Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.

Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. y.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. The matrices x. Camera. z. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. sphere. mkcube.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). Camera. Options ‘Tobj’.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.T. cylinder.plot(p.plot. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.clf Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. y.hold.mesh(x. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. uv = C. See also mesh. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’. z to the image plane and plots them.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. y. Camera.

‘Tobj’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Camera. Camera. T See also Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C.hold.mesh. Options ‘Tcam’.T. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.CHAPTER 2.clf Camera. ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘fps’. Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. T ‘scale’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. a subclass of Camera.p. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. p. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.y].rpy(R. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. C.rpy Set camera attitude C. that is.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

CatadioptricCamera. N ‘focal’. E = C.and v-axes parallel to x.8]) See also Camera. camera at origin. F ‘distortion’. Springer. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.F.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. S.177 See also CentralCamera. IM ‘resolution’.Sastry. J. “An invitation to 3D”. S. 10um pixels. E = C.and y-axes respectively. f=8mm. D ‘default’ ‘image’. SIGMA ‘pose’. 2003.Soatto. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. CentralCamera. S ‘noise’. P ‘pixel’. u. optical axis is z-axis.Kosecka. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Ma.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. ﬁsheyecamera.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’. T ‘color’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.E Essential matrix E = C. p. Reference Y. S ‘centre’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). SphericalCamera CentralCamera.

K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H(T. Springer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”.H CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. 2003.177 See also CentralCamera. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. from two viewpoints.F Fundamental matrix F = C.H Homography matrix H = C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). n.Sastry. Reference Y. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.Ma. S.Kosecka.E CentralCamera.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. J. S.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.Soatto. F = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. p.

81. Journal on Computer Vision.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. vol. Moreno-Noguer. V.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. 2009.estpose(xyz. See also quiver CentralCamera. Fua. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.CHAPTER 2. and P. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. a = C. 155-166.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Lepetit.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Feb. pp. CentralCamera.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Int.

p. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. See also CentralCamera. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Soatto. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. translation not to scale • n.Sastry.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. Chap 9. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry. section 5. p116.CHAPTER 2.E CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.invE(E. 259 Y. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. Reference Y. Springer. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). Reference Hartley & Zisserman. “An invitation to 3D”.Soatto.Kosecka. s.Ma. s. “Multiview Geometry”. J. s. Springer. 2003.Kosecka. 2003.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . J.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Ma.

plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).H CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. one per line.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’. See also Hough CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.T.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. H = C. C.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.project(p. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.

plot CentralCamera. June 1992. vol.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. 313-326. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. and P.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.c. Espiau. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. “Multiview Geometry”. F. Reference B.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 8.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Chaumette.CHAPTER 2. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. See also Camera. Rives.visjac e(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.b.

313-326. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Chaumette. 8.visjac p polar. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.b. CentralCamera. Reference B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p. Espiau. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). IEEE Trans. See also CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac p polar. F. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. Hager & Corke.CHAPTER 2. Rives. CentralCamera.visjac p(uv.visjac l(L. R&A.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Vol 12(5).visjac e CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p. pp.c. 1996. CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. pp 651-670. Hutchinson. June 1992. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. vol. Oct. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. CentralCamera. and P.

or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. 5962-5967. CentralCamera. 2009. in Proc. Int. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p. F. and F.visjac l. Corke.visjac l. Spindler. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Chaumette. I. (St.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p polar(rt. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Oct. Louis).visjac p polar. radius and theta. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. P. pp.

ScalePointFeature.60. Journal on Computer Vision. vol. Nov. Int. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.SIFT. 2004. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See README.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.CHAPTER 2. D. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .91-110. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. See also isift. PointFeature. pp.Lowe. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.

v. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.CHAPTER 2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. See also isift SiftPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. C ‘alpha’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options.match Match SIFT point features m = F. SiftPointFeature. F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 1=opaque. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

CHAPTER 2. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support Support region of feature out = F.T] = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. [out. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(im.support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F.support(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

ﬁsheyecamera. Options ‘Tobj’.project(p. S ‘pose’.CHAPTER 2. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Options ‘name’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’. N ‘pixel’. CentralCamera.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. See also SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.

showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .5) target center . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. camera pose. The external view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .01) . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.the side length of the target in world units (0.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. of 4-vector. image plane size and desired feature locations. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.gain. Jacobian condition number. error. scalar for If null take actual value all points.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera view.center of the target in world coords (0. defaults in parentheses: target size . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The camera view. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . error norm.depth of points to use for Jacobian.0.

Robotics and Automation. The external view. P. See also CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . for all points. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. CentralCamera. scalar for If null take actual value all points. Jacobian condition number.depth of points to use for Jacobian. 5550-5555. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.01) . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.visjac l. IEEE Int.0. of 4-vector.the side length of the target in world units (0.5) target center . error norm.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Conf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . pp. camera pose. defaults in parentheses: target size . I. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. May 3-7 2010.gain.visjac p polar. error. CentralCamera. Corke. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).visjac p(pt. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. in Proc. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.center of the target in world coords (0. (Anchorage).a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . image plane size and desired feature locations. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.

Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Luc Van Gool. Tinne Tuytelaars. 110. pp. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 346–359. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.CHAPTER 2. 3. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. No. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Andreas Ess. Vol.

f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. ScalePointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match Match SURF point features m = F.C] = F. [m. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. v. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.

T] = F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.support(im.2) SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options.support(images. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque.support(im. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but the support region is displayed. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(images. F. F. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.

com) web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.axis. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis. otherwise the result is not predictable. Video AxisWebCamera.com).

grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. See also AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.display AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close Close the image source A.char Convert to string A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.

on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.Sivic and A. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b = BagOfWords(f. in Proc.1470-1477.org).Zisserman. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Conf. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Oct.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. f can also be a cell array. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Ninth IEEE Int. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.CHAPTER 2. 2003. pp.

contains Find images containing word k = B. images. isurf BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.exemplars(w.CHAPTER 2. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.display Display value B. BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. See also BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.exemplars display exemplars of words B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char BagOfWords. BagOfWords.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. BagOfWords. M ‘width’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.isword Features from words f = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. BagOfWords.n] = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. Options ‘ncolumns’. N ‘maxperimage’.CHAPTER 2.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. subclass of Camera.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera.

and v-axes parallel to x. ﬁsheyecamera. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T ‘Tcam’. camera at origin. 10um pixels. N ‘focal’. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘noise’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. f=8mm. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. A ‘resolution’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].project(p. ‘equisolid’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. optical axis is z-axis. M ‘k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. P ‘pixel’.CHAPTER 2. ‘sine’. See also Camera. See also Camera. K ‘maxangle’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.T. u.and y-axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. S ‘centre’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.

• FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. such as ScalePointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SurfPointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.

Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. one per element. See also FeatureMatch. m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Convert to string s = M. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.display Display value M. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. SurfPointFeature. f2. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. See also PointFeature.

p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.v1.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch.v2].inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.inlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.outlier.u2.

These are the (u.plot Show corresponding points M. These are the (u.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.im2}) m. See also FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.plot() M. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p1. FeatureMatch.p2.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. f2 = isurf(im2). See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac Apply RANSAC M.CHAPTER 2. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2). and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. m. ransac FeatureMatch.ransac(func.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. m = f1. homography.ransac( @fmatrix. 1e-4). Example f1 = isurf(im1). inliers and outliers (and their percentages). See also fmatrix.

subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. v.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. that is. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

10um pixels. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. optical axis is z-axis. ‘equisolid’. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’.and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. u. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. S ‘centre’.axes respectively. ‘sine’. K ‘resolution’.and v-axes are parallel to x. camera at origin. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Options ‘name’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. f=8mm. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. P ‘pixel’. M ‘k’.CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘Tobj’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. See also FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Camera.project(p. CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.T. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.H). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. The voting array is 2-dimensional.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. See also LineFeature Hough. A horizontal line has theta = 0.CHAPTER 2.

5) Set ht. Nrho].CHAPTER 2. Hough.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N All edge pixels have equal weight.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. T ‘edgethresh’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Set ht. T ‘suppress’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT. Default 400 × 401.houghThresh (default 0. See also Hough.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Hough. W ‘houghthresh’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. W ‘nbins’.1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. else N = [Ntheta.edgeThresh (default 0.edgeThresh.display Display value HT.

then all elements in an HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.plot(n. See also Hough. L = HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.lines Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks. The highest peak is found. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.lines Find lines L = HT. LineFeature Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. H = HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot Plot line features HT.plot.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.CHAPTER 2.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.

See also LineFeature.display Display value L. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. theta. strength. one per element. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. L = LineFeature(rho.char Convert to string s = L.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot line L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). LineFeature. l2 = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. less than gap pixels are tolerated.plot() overlay the line on current plot. Small gaps.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. l2 = L.CHAPTER 2. L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature.seglength(edge. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.points Return points on line segments p = L.

options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.char Convert to string M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com). S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie.close Close the image source M.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’.close() closes the connection to the movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.axis. Movie. S ‘skip’.

Options ‘skip’.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. undirected graph create an n-d. F Skip frames. S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vid • edges are represented by integer ids. planar.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.

Object properties (read/write) g.next(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.component(v) g.cost(e) g.edges(e) g.CHAPTER 2.neighbours(v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.connectivity() g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.goal(v) g.add node(coord.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). v) g.plot() g.coord(v) g.distance(v1.add node(coord) g.add edge(v1.clear() add vertex.path(v) set goal vertex. return vid add vertex and edge to v. v2) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.

add edge(v1. v = G. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.CHAPTER 2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. E = G. where x is D × 1. and returns the node id v. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node(x. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v2. and returns the edge id E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add edge(v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph. Options ‘distance’.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node(x. PGraph.

PGraph. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.d] = G.CHAPTER 2.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .coord Coordinate of node x = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.char Convert graph to string s = G. D × 1. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. and the distance d. PGraph. [v.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. of node id v. edges and components.clear Clear the graph G.coord(v) return coordinate vector.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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char Convert to string s = F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.display Display value F. PointFeature. PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. v.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. SurfPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.

match Match point features m = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature.match(f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. [m.CHAPTER 2.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.char PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.C] = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. where 1 is perfect match. the norm of the Euclidean distance. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’.

Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon . F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot Plot feature F.

html and require a licence.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.edu.area Area of polygon a = P. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. intersection. kirill@plume. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. http://puddle.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. one column per vertex. difference. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.mit. p = Polygon(C.char String representation s = P. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. union.CHAPTER 2.area() is the area of the polygon. so use with care.mit. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Polygon. Pankratov. HEIGHT].

resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.CHAPTER 2.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns coordinates of P. else 0. See also Polygon.char Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.display Display polygon P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.

Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. each column is [x y]’. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .moments(p. Polygon. returns empty polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.CHAPTER 2. y1 y2].

xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.plot Plot polygon P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. Polygon.plot() plot the polygon. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union Union of polygons i = P.

Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.

intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.display Display value R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. See also Ray3D. Ray3D.E] = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char Ray3D. [x. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. [x.E] = R. one per element. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.

RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .c.b. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.0) 1 for a circle.

ymax]. RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example R.th] = R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. ymin.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.box Return bounding box b = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. one per element.uc will be a list not a vector. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.xmax. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. See also iblobs.

display Display value R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot centroid R. See also RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. RegionFeature.char RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary plot boundary R.CHAPTER 2.

plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box Plot bounding box R. R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.

v. SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 1=opaque. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ScalePointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. F.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. See also PointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0. C ‘alpha’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. strength.

N ‘thresh’. R ‘nslots’. one per active track. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. options) is a new tracker object. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. A complete history of all tracks is maintained.CHAPTER 2. See also PointFeature Tracker. C. T ‘movie’. Options ‘radius’.

plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.plot Show feature trajectories T.CHAPTER 2.char Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char Convert to string s = T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Tracker.display Display value T.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. See also Tracker.

G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Movie Video. AxisWebCamera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.CHAPTER 2. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. otherwise the result is not predictable. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. and their characteristics is displayed.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close Close the image source V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.

and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. color. if negative it is reduced. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). If th1 is a column vector. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. a = anaglyph(left. and the right image is cyan. the second for right.CHAPTER 2. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. right. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. the ﬁrst for left. By default the left image is red. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. right.

See also RegionFeature. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.y2]. p = bresenham(p1.y1) to (x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2). For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.CHAPTER 2. 6500). y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. If lambda is a column vector.y1] and p2=[x2. y1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. [x. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. p2) as above but p1=[x1.s] = boundmatch(R1. Endpoints must be integer. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % emission of sun plot(l.boundary.

E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. [C.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Y.

R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. Options ‘n’. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). that is. k = closest(a. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). [k. x = circle(C. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. R. R. and x is N × 3.d1] = closest(a. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.CHAPTER 2. green and blue primaries respectively.

19000 (526. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ac.32). and 22500 (444. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.CHAPTER 2.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). they were measured directly.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). since. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5.16).ucl.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.d1. As noted in footnote a on p.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. The data are referred to as pilot data. while Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.5.ioo.d2] = closest(a.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.5. 335 of Table 1(5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. (Table 1(5. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. • From Table I(5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].

Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ioo.CHAPTER 2. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.ac. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ucl. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.uk See also cmfrgb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.M). xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. out = col2im(pix.

rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.CHAPTER 2. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im.

k. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. See also imono. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. [L. func. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. out = colorize(im.CHAPTER 2.G. and returns a per-pixel logical result. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to.B). ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. icolor. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. im<100. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. eg. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. mask. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @isnan.

“?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. low is good.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. k) as above but also returns the residual R. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. L = colorkmeans(im. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.R] = colorkmeans(im. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. XYZ = colorname(name.C. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. eg. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.

709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. or alternatively. [o1.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.txt. • Color space names are case insensitive. s = ‘src->dest’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. it can be omitted. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i2. s = ‘dest<-src’. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. i1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.o3] = colorspace(s. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.o2. colorspace(s. double data is the natural choice. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. As MATLAB’s native datatype.CHAPTER 2. Input and output images have 3 planes.

Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.200). like a colormap. However. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. B = rand(400. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.100). Example A = rand(400.CHAPTER 2.2*A. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. out will also have size M × 3.B). d = distance(A. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If im is an M × 3 array. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. for memory and computational performance.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).

non-zero is an object.CHAPTER 2. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. bunschot@wins. University of Amsterdam. The result E is a matrix. E = edgelist(im.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. not image frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. seed. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.y). Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.(+31)20-5257524. in matrix coordinate frame. Tested: PC Matlab v5.3. tel. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. non zero is counter-clockwise.uva. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.j). Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.S. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. one per line drawn. H = epiline(f.R. Coimbra. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.CHAPTER 2.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Author Based on fmatrix code by. I. Oct 27. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. epiline(f. p1. See also epiline. p. See also fmatrix. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1998.

sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. p2. homography. See also ransac. it is singular. • Contains a RANSAC driver. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views.edu. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. http://www. no outlier rejection is performed. The University of Western Australia. epiline. c. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.uwa. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be corresponding. • f is a rank 2 matrix. page 270.CHAPTER 2.csse. that is. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. which means it can be passed to ransac().au/. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.

y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y2). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. x2. See also imorph.CHAPTER 2. ithin. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. y1. itriplepoint.y1) and (x2.

Notes • The points must be corresponding. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.csse.CHAPTER 2. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.au/.edu.uwa. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. See also ransac. The University of Western Australia. http://www. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . no outlier rejection is performed. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac(). invhomog.

options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. im. R ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP.CHAPTER 2. S ‘dimension’. im. See also e2h. See also homography. S output image contains all the warped pixels. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im.offs] = homwarp(H. itrim. ie. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. V ‘roi’. D ‘size’. that is tp=T*T1. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out.

Hu. 200). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. features. ianimate(seq. ianimate(im. features. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . on Information Theory. IT-8:pp. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. 179-187. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq).CHAPTER 2. IRE Trans. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. ’nfeat’. ’gs’). 1962. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. M ‘npoints’. isurf. N ‘only’. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . YMIN YMAX]. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.

[S1. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. [A1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. A set pixel aspect ratio. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0 ‘connect’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. ilabel. vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.CHAPTER 2. default 1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.

Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. 1996-7. T ‘th1’. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is an dilation followed by erosion. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. Tel Aviv University. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also isobel. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. se. See also iopen. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.CHAPTER 2.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. S ‘th0’.

options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. [0 1 1]). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. [C. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). colorize.CHAPTER 2. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). C = icolor(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. See also imono. Options ‘dir’.u] = iconcat(im. D ‘bgval’.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.

The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. options) convolves im1 with im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.CHAPTER 2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. im2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.

options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. R ‘nfeat’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. E ‘suppress’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm.CHAPTER 2. D ‘k’. D ‘sigma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. K ‘patch’. CT ‘edgegap’. CM ‘cminthresh’. N ‘detector’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. S ‘deriv’.

where * denotes squared and smoothed.J. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Proc. [T. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. vol.G.6. Stephens. Proc. p2. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Shi and C. T ‘distthresh’. Options ‘dplot’.5 [sec].. J. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Tomasi.Noble. pp. with a delay of 0. J. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.d] = icp(p1. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. with a delay of d [sec]. p2.121-128. 1988. • “Finding corners”.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. T ‘maxiter’. 593-593. See also PointFeature. Harris and M.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Image and Vision Computing. May 1988. • “Good features to track”. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. 1994. C.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Manchester. IEEE Computer Society. N ‘mindelta’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. pp 147-151.

s = idecimate(im.CHAPTER 2. 239-256.McKay. m. s = idecimate(im. pp. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. P. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Feb. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. See also iscale. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Intell. no. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. 1992. 2. Pattern Anal..or 3-dimensional.Besl and H. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. m. IEEETrans. 14. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Mach. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. each plane is decimated.

maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.CHAPTER 2. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). negative is red. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. Options ‘ncolors’. positive is blue.and y-axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. C ‘xydata’. negative is red. zero is black. linear proﬁle. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is white color map: random values. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. If the image is zoomed. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. darker than ‘grey’. zero is white. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. positive is blue. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. histogram and zooming. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. If im is a cell array of images. XY ‘colormap’.

idisplabel(im. caxis. See also image. labelimage. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage.CHAPTER 2. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also iblobs. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. icolorize. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. colormap. labels. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1.

‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.2. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.45. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. out = igamma(im.CHAPTER 2. See also itriplepoint. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.

k. 167181. See also ithresh. min. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. Felzenszwalb and D. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. pp. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.5). imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [l. min. Int. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. vol.m] = igraphseg(im. Example im = iread(’58060.CHAPTER 2. k. 0. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Journal on Computer Vision.jpg’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. 2004. 100. [L. P. k is the scale parameter. 1500. Sept. L = igraphseg(im. Huttenlocher. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.m] = igraphseg(im.5). min is the minimum region size (pixels). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 59. k. 2006.

options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.x] = ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.x] = ihist(im. plot(x.x] = ihist(im). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h). bar(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H.CHAPTER 2. H = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. ’normcdf’). [h. options) displays the image histogram.h). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.

The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. ii is a precomputed integral image. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. same size as im. y1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. [L. y2.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.m.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and bottom-right (x2. [L. x1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.y2). for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.

Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. each a 2-vector [X. p2. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. eg. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. out = iline(im.CHAPTER 2. ilabel(im. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p1. See also iblobs.parents. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. • This is a “low level” function. otherwise it does not. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.maxlabel. The pixels on the line are set to 1. 8). v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.maxlabel.parents. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.class.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. iproﬁle.Y].

The return value is xm=[DX. s. -s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.y). See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. y. H. x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. ymin. • ZNCC matching is used.and y-offsets relative to (x. and columns the vertical position. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.y) and its half-width is H. The template in im1 is centred at (x.CC] where (DX.y).y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.CHAPTER 2.DY) are the x. [xm. ymax] relative to (x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .score] = imatch(im1. im2. w2. • Is a MEX ﬁle. xmax.DY. a perfect match score is 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. x. centred at (x. s] % relative to (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.y) and of size s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. im2. y.

[u. v. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.CHAPTER 2. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. All pixels are equally weighted. effectively a binary image. f = imoments(u. f = imoments(u. The element u(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. [u. effectively a greyscale image.u) = u and v(v.

m02. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. or its area. the elements are m00. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. • This function does not perform connectivity. horizontal coordinate centroid. m10. m11.CHAPTER 2. icolor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. ilabel.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m01. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. See also RegionFeature. m20. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Different conversion functions are supported. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

2004. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. 22. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. The labels [L. se. ’double’). by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = imser(im.org). Urban. and T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Matas.m] = imser(im. Pajdla. ’light’). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. ’grey’. [label. Image and Vision Computing. 761767. O. m. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. part of VLFeat (vlfeat.png’. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. J. Sept. pp. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. vol. Chum. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.

Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.ˆ2).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.

out = iopen(im. se. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. sides. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sides. n. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also iclose. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.CHAPTER 2.

im2. p. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 20. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. otherwise im2 is selected. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 10. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.V]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. im1. ’tblr’. ’t’.

p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. See also bresenham. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.CHAPTER 2. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) for the corresponding row of p. p1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. [p. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.uv] = iproﬁle(im. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).

Notes • Works for greyscale images only. The highest rank. op. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. sigma. nbins. se(2. out = ipyramid(im. im > irank(im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.5)). se). is order=1.CHAPTER 2. out = ipyramid(im. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. the maximum. idecimate. op. 12. se.2) = 0. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.3). out = imorph(image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. hence output image had reduced dimensions. order. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. ones(5. se. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. See also iscalespace. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. out = imorph(image. 1. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.

R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. See also imorph. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. ivar.CHAPTER 2. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. im = iread(ﬁle. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. R ‘roi’. G ‘reduce’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. vmin vmax]. where R=[umin umax.

out2] = irectify(f. m. im1. Notes • Color images are not supported. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.h2] = irectify(f. [out1. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. imono. im1. igamma. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. imwrite.h1. homwarp. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. m.out2. See also FeatureMatch. istereo. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.

Options ‘outsize’.CHAPTER 2.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.umax. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. angle. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.vmax].H] return central part of image. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘extrapval’. vmin.vmin vmax]. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. V ‘smooth’. [out. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. See also idisp.

5 moves the crop window up or to the left. Options ‘outsize’. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. V ‘smooth’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s>1 makes the image larger. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. while bias>0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. s<1 makes it smaller. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. out = isamesize(im1. bias=0. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. bias<0.5 is symmetric cropping.

n. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . [g.s] = iscalespace(im. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). See also iscalespace. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.L.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. idecimate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). corresponding to each step of the sequence. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in space and scale. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. n) as above but sigma=1. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.

ismooth. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ishomog(T. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ‘valid’) as above. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it its third dimension is equal to three.CHAPTER 2. See also isrot. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ilaplace.

• ISURF is a functional equivalent. 60. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. See also SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. 91-110. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Reference David G. International Journal of Computer Vision. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 2 (2004). N ‘suppress’. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest.vlfeat. pp. • Features are returned in descending strength order. Lowe. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. isurf.

and these output pixels are set to NaN.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @zssd.H.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. ncc. s is same size as im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. See also imatch. @ncc. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. s = isimilarity(T. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zssd. [w. @zsad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. ssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.CHAPTER 2. @ssd. zsad. [w.

• Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. convolved. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. See also iconv.CHAPTER 2. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. sigma. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. [gx. then converted back to integer.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx.gy] = isobel(im.

H is the half size of the matching window. See also ishomog. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. else false (0).CHAPTER 2. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr.u) means that imr(v.u). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. ‘valid’) as above. range.sim] = istereo(iml. imr. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.M] for an N × M window. That is. [d. See also ksobel. w. H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. icanny. range is the disparity search range. range. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). isrot(R. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the disparity d=d(v. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.

5). The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. w. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.p] = istereo(iml. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. That is.CHAPTER 2.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. imr. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [d. p. out = istretch(im. p. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. B.5 to +0. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). imr. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. [d. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.A and p. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.sim.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. dx. w. 3) See also irectify.dsi] = istereo(iml. range. • sim = max(dsi.sim. ‘ncc’. range.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. Options ‘metric’.

or sequences. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. T ‘octaves’. Kroon (U. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Color images. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. N ‘thresh’. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature.

isvec(v. Vol. 3. 110. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. See also hitormiss. 346–359.or columnvector. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. isift. itriplepoint. Andreas Ess. Luc Van Gool. Tinne Tuytelaars. else false (0). L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.CHAPTER 2. See also ishomog. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. pp. either a row. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Otherwise false (0). Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). No.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. out = ithin(im.

T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1. The default is 0. a lower value will include more.5. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. Notes • Greyscale image only.im2. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. ithresh(im. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. See also homwarp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. [out1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.CHAPTER 2. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. The same cropping is applied to each input image.

ithin. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. se. See also iendpoint. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. se. op. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hence output image had reduced dimensions. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point.

See also ivar. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.3). out = iwindow(image. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im.5). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. @std). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. @max). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. se. ones(5.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. func. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hence output image had reduced dimensions.

k = kcircle(R. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. ktriangle. • The vertical derivative.CHAPTER 2. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. kdog. dG/dx.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. is k’. k = kdgauss(sigma. dG/dy. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. See also kgauss. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ones.

where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kgauss(sigma. klog. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. k = kdog(sigma1. kdog. kdgauss. By default SIGMA2 = 1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. klog. sigma2. See also kdgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2.6*sigma1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .

iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.CHAPTER 2. kdog. See also ilaplace. k = klog(sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv. kdgauss. See also kgauss.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Reference Tou and Gonzalez. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k.C] = kmeans(x. Pattern Recognition Principles.C] = kmeans(x. k. and D is the dimension. L = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. [L. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. it is assumed to have been completed previously. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. s. C ‘T’. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. [x.y.z] = mkcube(s.y. ‘edge’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). Options ‘T’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. [x. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. See also cylinder. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. symmetric about the origin.z] = mkcube(s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. The points are the columns of p. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . allowing the plane to be translated or rotated.

Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. or y(:. See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n. the sum of I(x. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. That is. or y(:. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.2)). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.xp . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.y). q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. y. n) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. p. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. npq.yq .2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.CHAPTER 2. y) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n) MPLOT(t. y. MPLOT(t.

so centroids will be still be correct.CHAPTER 2. p. they are considered to be a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq poly. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. upq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1.

W. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. k. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. for example. 20).CHAPTER 2.m. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. in text segmentation. • A common choice of k=-0.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing.2. niblack. sad. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. See also zncc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = niblack(im. the height of a character. 1986. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. where W=2*w2+1. [T. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. idisp(im >= t). Prentice-Hall. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. -0. k. ssd.s] = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im.

p.0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq poly. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.CHAPTER 2.q)/MPQ(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.p.0. That is UPQ(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq.CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also mpq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. they are considered as a single vertex. npq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m.

otsu IEEE Trans.xp] = peak(y. [yp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im). options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. x. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. [yp. idisp(im >= t). Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.i] = peak(y. Systems. N. Jan 1979. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.CHAPTER 2. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y.

N ‘scale’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. S ‘interp’. use peak(-V).ij] = peak2(z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.CHAPTER 2. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.S points. N ‘scale’. [zp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V).

ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also pnmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. If p has three dimensions. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. plot2(p.

P. r. plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. Examples plot_circle(c. 5).Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’g’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. W.CHAPTER 2. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. R. 1=solid. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. PLOT BOX(x1. P. or a set of name. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. PLOT BOX(’centre’. plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ’b’). PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ‘size’. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.y1. ’LineWidth’. ’fillcolor’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X.y2. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. value pairs that are passed to plot. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z.y2). Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.y1) and (x2. ‘size’. r. x2. W. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ‘r’. ’edgecolor’. ’r’). r.

Y. centred at the origin.Y]. with Matlab line style ls. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. current plot.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. C. If C=[X. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) ls is the standard line styles. xc. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. c Specify color of the axes. Options ‘color’. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.

n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’.CHAPTER 2. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’color’. ‘framename’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. Options ‘textcolor’. ’name’. ’r’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. trplot( T. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. to ‘view’. ‘printf’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. fmt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line.X = 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’r’). options) adds point markers to a plot. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. n ‘text opts’. ’color’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker.

irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. The default is 1. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. See also plot. 1=solid. color. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. patch.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. R. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. either a letter or 3-vector. NOTES • The sphere is always added. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure.

By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also pgmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. plotp(p.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.CHAPTER 2. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.

T. T. d) as above but elements increment by d. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .in] = ransac(func. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. T. N ‘maxDataTrials’.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. x typically contains corresponding point data.in. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. [m. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. [m. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. Options ‘maxTrials’.resid] = ransac(func. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. x. one column per point pair.

theta to the points R.theta] = ERR(R.C.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.resid] = EST(R..CHAPTER 2. Fishler and R.theta.misc private data (cell array) out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Comm. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.out. Assoc. pp 381-395. that is. No 6.theta and the subset of R. If multiple models are found out. [out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta.theta = DECONDITION(R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. [out.misc element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x and returns the best model out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.x.theta is a cell array.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. that is they will produce a model. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.theta = []. they detect a structure argument.x data to work on. pp 101-113. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. Vol 24.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. Comp.s out. Mach.x) condition the point data out.x = CONDITION(R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. Boles.t threshold (1 × 1) R.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. Cambridge University Press.out.inlier.A. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .R. References • m.

au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.edu.CHAPTER 2.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. If lambda is a vector.csse. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. roty. See also rotx. rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx.

yaw. See also tr2rpy. T = rpy2tr(roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. If roll. pitch. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Z axes respectively. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. • many texts (Paul. Y.

tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ncc. and rotation theta in the plane. See also zsad. theta) as above where xy=[x. y. r2t.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. ssd.CHAPTER 2.

R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. sad. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. Two cross-hairs are created. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsdd.

boolean or enumeration types (string or int).choose = {’this’. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. b.bar = false. It supports options that have an assigned value. The software pattern is: function(a. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c. ’other’}. – If T is 3 × 3. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. ’that’. opt.blah = []. varargin) opt. then R is 2 × 2. then R is 3 × 3. opt.foo = true.CHAPTER 2.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. tr2rt. opt.

Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.false ‘blah’.choose <.x. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.select = {’#no’.CHAPTER 2.blah <.blah <.3 ‘blah’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. x. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. ’#yes’}. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.choose <. If neither of ‘this’.foo <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. 3 sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. varargin).‘this’. N ‘setopt’.foo <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.select <.y ‘that’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. varargin). Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.1. w.debug <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.y sets opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).N sets opt <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.select <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.verbose <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.true sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sd and sdd are n-vectors.sd. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). binary dot pattern. args are theta (rad). intercept. binary square pattern. args are pitch (distance between centres). 25). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. The trajectory s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sf.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 50.sdd] = tpoly(s0.CHAPTER 2. args is the number of cycles. dot diameter. 256. sf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args is the number of cycles.sd. a line. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. [s. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. 256. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. square side length. 2). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.

Y and Z axes respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.P. See also angvec2r. Y. The 3 angles rpy=[R. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. [theta.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.

If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. ie. See also rpy2tr. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.y.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. – If TR is 3 × 3. • The validity of R is not checked. r2t. y. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. See also rt2tr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. If T has three dimensions. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.z].:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.

Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors.CHAPTER 2. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). An historical anomaly. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [c1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). [o1. each N × 1. or x and y. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.

trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.

trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty.CHAPTER 2. trotx. f ‘label’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. and displays in RPY format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trprint T is the command line form of above. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers.

upq Central image moments m = upq(im. That is.(y-y0)q where (x0. See also upq poly. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. the sum of I(x.(x-x0)p . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.y).CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. tr2rpy. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y0) is the centroid. mpq. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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See also ncc. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. See also sdd. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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