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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. is open-source. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. However the book “Robotics. This is extravagant on storage. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

. . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie .1 Other toolboxes . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . 1. . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . .

. . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . ipad . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . numrows . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . troty . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . skew . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lecturers and professors are paid to do. tutors. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and you will be suitably acknowledged.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.google.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. That’s what you your teachers. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. You need to signup in order to post. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.com. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.

6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Number = {4}.html on a server for class use. and the “See also” functions to each other. 1. Volume = {12}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1. 1.1.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.zip). Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.petercorke. the table of content to functions.gz) or zip format (.I. The details are @article{Corke05f. Corke}. Year = {2005}. 1. Month = nov.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3. The ﬁle robot. type of organization and application. Author = {P.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.

color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.7 Acknowledgements Last. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. VLFeat http://www. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.vlfeat. Twente. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. 1. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. P. Coimbra. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.mathworks. pp 16–25.Functions such as SURF. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Vincent Lepetit.1.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. 1. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. and there are hundreds of modules available. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.R. but not least. Corke. 1994 University of British Columbia. MSER.I. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.. November 2005.6. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.7.S. 12(4).

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. Camera. Options ‘name’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘noise’. N ‘image’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘sensor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . used by all subclasses. T ‘color’.

SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. ﬁsheyecamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera.centre Get camera position p = C.char Convert to string s = C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delete Camera object destructor C. CatadioptricCamera.clf Clear the image plane C.CHAPTER 2.display Display value C.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.v + c = 0. Camera. See also Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. otherwise false (0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).u + b.char Camera. C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.CHAPTER 2.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.

If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.plot.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). uv = C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. See also mesh. z. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. cylinder.plot(p. mkcube. y. y. Options ‘Tobj’. The matrices x. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.clf Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y. Camera. sphere.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. z to the image plane and plots them. Camera.T. Camera.mesh(x. Camera.CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’.hold. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot Plot points on image plane C.

T See also Camera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. ‘Tobj’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. ‘Tcam’. Overrides the current camera pose C. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.clf Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.mesh.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. ‘fps’. Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. T ‘scale’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.hold.T.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.

CHAPTER 2.rpy(R. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.y]. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. a subclass of Camera.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. The image is not inverted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. that is.rpy Set camera attitude C. C.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C.

E = C. Springer.Soatto.Ma. N ‘focal’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).Kosecka.8]) See also Camera.and v-axes parallel to x. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis. F ‘distortion’.177 See also CentralCamera.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. “An invitation to 3D”. N ‘sensor’.CHAPTER 2. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. ﬁsheyecamera. SIGMA ‘pose’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.Sastry. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘color’. S. u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.F. Reference Y.and y-axes respectively. S ‘centre’. J. D ‘default’ ‘image’.E Essential matrix E = C. p. CatadioptricCamera. S. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. f=8mm. CentralCamera. 10um pixels. 2003. E = C. S ‘noise’. camera at origin. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. IM ‘resolution’.

S.E CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Kosecka. Springer.F Fundamental matrix F = C. F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. p. Reference Y.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. from two viewpoints. n.CHAPTER 2.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.H Homography matrix H = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. “An invitation to 3D”. 2003. S.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. See also CentralCamera.Ma.H CentralCamera.Soatto.H(T.Sastry.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.177 See also CentralCamera. J.

ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Int.estpose(xyz. Lepetit. V. Feb. 81. 2009. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. CentralCamera. Fua. and P. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. pp. vol. CentralCamera.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Moreno-Noguer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a = C.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. See also quiver CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision. F.CHAPTER 2.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 155-166.

invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. s. J. translation not to scale • n. section 5. s. s.Soatto. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Ma.Kosecka.invE(E.Soatto. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma. 259 Y. See also CentralCamera. Springer. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Multiview Geometry”. Springer.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). Chap 9.Kosecka. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. 2003. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p.CHAPTER 2.Sastry. s. Reference Y.E CentralCamera. p116. “An invitation to 3D”. J.Sastry. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.

CentralCamera.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tcam’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot epiline(f. C. one per line.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. H = C. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot epiline(f. See also Hough CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline(f. p.T.project(p.CHAPTER 2.H CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.

“A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. and P. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Espiau. 8. “Multiview Geometry”.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. June 1992. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.visjac e(E. Chaumette.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.plot CentralCamera. See also Camera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. vol.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. 313-326. pp.b.c. Rives. Reference B.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

See also CentralCamera. Hager & Corke.visjac p polar.visjac e CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. F. CentralCamera. Espiau.visjac p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Hutchinson. Vol 12(5). Chaumette. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. R&A. IEEE Trans.visjac p(uv. CentralCamera.visjac l(L. Rives. vol. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. 313-326. pp.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac p. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).c. 8. CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. June 1992. 1996. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. pp 651-670. and P.b. Reference B.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac p polar. Oct.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Chaumette. CentralCamera. 5962-5967. CentralCamera.visjac p. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Int. CentralCamera. pp. CentralCamera. Corke.visjac l.visjac p polar(rt. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Louis). F. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. P. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p polar. Spindler. Oct. (St. radius and theta. in Proc. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. and F.visjac e CentralCamera. I. 2009.visjac l.

2004. D. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Int.Lowe. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.SIFT. Nov.60. vol. pp. Journal on Computer Vision. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. ScalePointFeature. PointFeature. See also isift. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. See README.CHAPTER 2. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .91-110.

SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. F. 0=transparent (default 0. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. SiftPointFeature. v.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.match Match SIFT point features m = F. C ‘alpha’. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also isift SiftPointFeature. 1=opaque.

support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(images. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2. [out. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. out = F.support(im.support(im.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.T. ﬁsheyecamera. Options ‘Tobj’. Overrides the current camera pose C. S ‘pose’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). T ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. CentralCamera.project(p. Options ‘name’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also SphericalCamera.

a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. camera pose.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .0. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.gain.5) target center . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. error norm.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Jacobian condition number.01) .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. defaults in parentheses: target size . The camera view. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The external view. of 4-vector.CHAPTER 2. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. image plane size and desired feature locations. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The camera view. error.depth of points to use for Jacobian.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.center of the target in world coords (0.the side length of the target in world units (0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.

CentralCamera. Conf.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .01) .visjac p polar.CHAPTER 2. (Anchorage). error norm. pp. P. error. I. 5550-5555. in Proc. image plane size and desired feature locations. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. See also CentralCamera.visjac l.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .the side length of the target in world units (0.depth of points to use for Jacobian. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gain. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). defaults in parentheses: target size . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. May 3-7 2010. of 4-vector.0. Jacobian condition number. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.center of the target in world coords (0. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac p(pt. The external view. for all points.5) target center .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Corke. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Robotics and Automation. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. camera pose. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. IEEE Int.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Tinne Tuytelaars. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. No.CHAPTER 2. pp. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Vol. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 110. Luc Van Gool.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. 346–359. 3. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.

match Match SURF point features m = F.CHAPTER 2. v. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. ScalePointFeature.match(f2.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.C] = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.

w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F. out = F.support Support region of feature out = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F.T] = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(im.support(images.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F.support(images. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 0=transparent (default 0. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque. [out.2) SurfPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.CHAPTER 2.

• The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2.com). otherwise the result is not predictable. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’.axis. S ‘resolution’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com) web camera. Video AxisWebCamera.

close Close the image source A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.CHAPTER 2. See also AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char Convert to string A.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.

The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Oct.org).1470-1477. 2003.Sivic and A.Zisserman. f can also be a cell array. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. in Proc. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Ninth IEEE Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. on Computer Vision. Conf. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. pp. b = BagOfWords(f.CHAPTER 2.

exemplars(w. isurf BagOfWords.char BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.contains Find images containing word k = B. BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.char Convert to string s = B. images. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .exemplars display exemplars of words B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.CHAPTER 2.display Display value B. BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. BagOfWords.n] = B.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.CHAPTER 2.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. Options ‘ncolumns’. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. BagOfWords. M ‘width’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B.remove stop Remove stop words B.

The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. subclass of Camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Camera CatadioptricCamera.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Options ‘Tobj’. ‘equisolid’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. camera at origin. P ‘pixel’. See also Camera.project(p. f=8mm. ﬁsheyecamera. M ‘k’. A ‘resolution’. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘focal’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. N ‘sensor’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. CatadioptricCamera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].and y-axes respectively. T ‘Tcam’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also Camera.and v-axes parallel to x. K ‘maxangle’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).project Project world points to image plane uv = C. u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. S ‘noise’.T. ‘sine’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. 10um pixels. optical axis is z-axis. S ‘centre’.

CHAPTER 2. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. SurfPointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. See also PointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature.

char() is a compact string representation of the match object. one per element. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. See also PointFeature.char Convert to string s = M. f2. m = FeatureMatch(f1.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.display Display value M.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier.v2].v1. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.u2.CHAPTER 2.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.outlier. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.

p FeatureMatch.plot() M.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. See also FeatureMatch. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. These are the (u.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2 FeatureMatch.p2.p1.im2}) m.plot Show corresponding points M.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.

f2 = isurf(im2).ransac( @fmatrix. ransac FeatureMatch. See also idisp FeatureMatch.match(f2). 1e-4). See also fmatrix. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. homography. Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac(func. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.CHAPTER 2. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. m. m = f1.ransac Apply RANSAC M. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.

subset Subset of matches m2 = M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted. that is.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Y This camera model assumes central projection. v. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.

optical axis is z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. f=8mm.and y. N ‘sensor’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. Options ‘name’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. u. M ‘k’. SIGMA ‘pose’. ‘equisolid’. camera at origin. 10um pixels. S ‘centre’. K ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sine’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.and v-axes are parallel to x.CHAPTER 2. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].axes respectively.

SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. See also Camera. See also FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tobj’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. CatadioptricCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.project(p. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.CHAPTER 2.

Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. See also LineFeature Hough. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. The voting array is 2-dimensional.CHAPTER 2.H). For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. A horizontal line has theta = 0.0) and the line. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.

W ‘houghthresh’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. See also Hough.houghThresh (default 0.CHAPTER 2. T ‘suppress’.edgeThresh (default 0. Default 400 × 401. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. N All edge pixels have equal weight.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1).suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.5) Set ht. Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value HT. Nrho]. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. T ‘edgethresh’. W ‘nbins’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Hough. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. else N = [Ntheta.

plot.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. L = HT.plot(n. LineFeature Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. then all elements in an HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.lines Find lines L = HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. H = HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The highest peak is found.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. See also Hough.lines Hough. See also Hough. HT.plot Plot line features HT.

rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. RegionFeature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

See also LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. one per element. LENGTH is undeﬁned.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. theta.display Display value L.char Convert to string s = L.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(rho. strength. LineFeature. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.

less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.plot() overlay the line on current plot. LineFeature. l2 = L. Small gaps.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.points Return points on line segments p = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength(edge.plot Plot line L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). See also icanny LineFeature. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. l2 = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.

char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the movie. Movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.char Convert to string M.com). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S ‘skip’. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Movie.axis.close Close the image source M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. F Skip frames.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. planar.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. undirected graph create an n-d. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.

distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.component(v) g. v) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.add node(coord.CHAPTER 2. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.neighbours(v) g.cost(e) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. Object properties (read/write) g.distance(v1.path(v) set goal vertex.goal(v) g.next(v) g.add node(coord) g.plot() g.clear() add vertex. v2) g.add edge(v1. return vid add vertex and edge to v.coord(v) g.edges(e) g.connectivity() g.

v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. and returns the edge id E. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v2. Options ‘distance’. v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CHAPTER 2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. E = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. and returns the node id v.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add node(x.add node(x. v = G. PGraph.add edge(v1. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. PGraph.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. where x is D × 1.add edge(v1. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.

coord(v) return coordinate vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph. edges and components.clear Clear the graph G.d] = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G. of node id v.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. D × 1.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. [v. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.CHAPTER 2. and the distance d. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. PointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.display Display value F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. one per element. PointFeature.

If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Options ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2.match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.char PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. [m.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match Match point features m = F. PointFeature. where 1 is perfect match.C] = F.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.

plot Plot feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon . miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.

Polygon.mit. p = Polygon(C.html and require a licence. http://puddle.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. one column per vertex.char String representation s = P. union.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.edu. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so use with care. intersection. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. difference. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.CHAPTER 2.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Pankratov.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon.mit. kirill@plume. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. HEIGHT].area() is the area of the polygon.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.display Display polygon P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. else 0.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).char Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. See also Polygon. returns coordinates of P.CHAPTER 2.

intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. each column is [x y]’.moments(p.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. returns empty polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.CHAPTER 2.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. y1 y2].perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.

transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.plot Plot polygon P.CHAPTER 2.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. P. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union Union of polygons i = P. Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.

deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.CHAPTER 2.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2.E] = R. one per element.char Ray3D.E] = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char Convert to string s = R. [x.display Display value R. Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.

maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.CHAPTER 2.c. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid.

ymax]. See also iblobs.uc will be a list not a vector.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. ymin. For example R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. one per element. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.xmax. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. imoments RegionFeature.th] = R. RegionFeature.box Return bounding box b = R.

plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary plot boundary R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Plot centroid R. RegionFeature. R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.display Display value R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.and xmarkers. See also RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It is indicated with overlaid o. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. R.plot box Plot bounding box R.

Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.CHAPTER 2.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. See also PointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 0=transparent (default 0. ScalePointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. C ‘alpha’. strength. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 1=opaque. v.

Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. T ‘movie’. C. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. R ‘nslots’. one per active track. options) is a new tracker object. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. N ‘thresh’. Options ‘radius’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. See also PointFeature Tracker.

char Convert to string s = T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.display Display value T.CHAPTER 2. See also Tracker. Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Tracker. Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. otherwise the result is not predictable. S ‘resolution’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. and their characteristics is displayed. AxisWebCamera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Movie Video.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.char Convert to string V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video.CHAPTER 2. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close Close the image source V.

CHAPTER 2. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). the ﬁrst for left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. right. By default the left image is red. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if negative it is reduced. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). color. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. If th1 is a column vector. a = anaglyph(left. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. right. the second for right. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. and the right image is cyan. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view.

y2]. x2. 6500).boundary. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . % emission of sun plot(l. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. p2) as above but p1=[x1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. y1.y2).y1] and p2=[x2. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. Endpoints must be integer. See also RegionFeature. p = bresenham(p1.y1) to (x2.s] = boundmatch(R1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. If lambda is a column vector.CHAPTER 2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.

d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.CHAPTER 2.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.Y.

y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. k = closest(a. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.CHAPTER 2. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). green and blue primaries respectively. R. x = circle(C.d1] = closest(a. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. that is. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). [k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. Options ‘n’. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. and x is N × 3.

(Table 1(5. they were measured directly. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5.d2] = closest(a. 335 of Table 1(5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).CHAPTER 2. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. since. As noted in footnote a on p. 19000 (526. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d1.32).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. • From Table I(5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. while Table I(5.16). and 22500 (444.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). Notes • Data from http://cvrl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ac. The data are referred to as pilot data. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ioo.5. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ucl.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imsize is a 2-vector (N.ucl. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ioo.uk See also cmfrgb.ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .M). xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. out = col2im(pix. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.CHAPTER 2. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.

A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes.G. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. im<100. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. out = colorize(im. See also imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.B). func. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. @isnan. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [L. eg. @isnan. mask. icolor. k.CHAPTER 2. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im.

• The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.C. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. name = colorname(XYZ. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. eg. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space.R] = colorkmeans(im. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. XYZ = colorname(name. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. k) as above but also returns the residual R. L = colorkmeans(im. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. low is good.CHAPTER 2.

i2. As MATLAB’s native datatype. s = ‘dest<-src’. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. s = ‘src->dest’. double data is the natural choice. [o1. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. i1. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. • Color space names are case insensitive. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. colorspace(s. or alternatively.txt.o3] = colorspace(s.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. Input and output images have 3 planes. it can be omitted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.o2.CHAPTER 2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.

Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.B).100).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. out will also have size M × 3. Example A = rand(400. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. like a colormap. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.CHAPTER 2. d = distance(A. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. B = rand(400.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).2*A.200).b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. for memory and computational performance. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . • If im is an M × 3 array. However.

direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. bunschot@wins. in matrix coordinate frame. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. seed. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. The result E is a matrix. not image frame. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . non-zero is an object. Tested: PC Matlab v5. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. E = edgelist(im. tel. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.uva. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.(+31)20-5257524. University of Amsterdam. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.j).y).3.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. non zero is counter-clockwise.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.

epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. See also fmatrix. H = epiline(f. Coimbra. one per line drawn. p1. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.S.R. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. 1998. I. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Author Based on fmatrix code by. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. epiline(f. See also epiline. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.CHAPTER 2. Oct 27. p.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. p2. it is singular. epiline. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The University of Western Australia. See also ransac.au/. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. no outlier rejection is performed. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. page 270. homography. • Contains a RANSAC driver.edu. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse. • f is a rank 2 matrix. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. that is. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. c.uwa. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www.CHAPTER 2. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. that is. Notes • The points must be corresponding.

y2). Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. ithin. See also imorph. itriplepoint. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. y1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and (x2. x2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.CHAPTER 2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.

no outlier rejection is performed.uwa.csse. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. invhomog. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. See also ransac. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. The University of Western Australia. which means it can be passed to ransac().au/. Notes • The points must be corresponding. http://www. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.CHAPTER 2.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.

interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R ‘scale’. V ‘roi’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. ie. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. [out. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.offs] = homwarp(H.CHAPTER 2. that is tp=T*T1. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. im.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. See also e2h. See also homography. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. im. S ‘dimension’. D ‘size’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. itrim. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions.

Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants.CHAPTER 2. ianimate(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). ianimate(seq. IRE Trans. 1962. 200). features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. ’nfeat’. features. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . on Information Theory. 179-187. ’gs’). Hu. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. IT-8:pp. features.

F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. YMIN YMAX]. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. M ‘npoints’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. N ‘only’.CHAPTER 2. iharris. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. isurf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. default 1. [S1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. A set pixel aspect ratio. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0 ‘connect’. ilabel. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. [A1. C set connectivity.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.

imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1996-7. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.CHAPTER 2. out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’. See also isobel. See also iopen. Tel Aviv University. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. S ‘th0’.

iconcat(im. Options ‘dir’. D ‘bgval’.CHAPTER 2.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [C. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. [0 1 1]). Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. C = icolor(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). See also imono.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.u] = iconcat(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. colorize.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.

See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. options) convolves im1 with im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.CHAPTER 2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2.

If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. R ‘nfeat’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. S ‘deriv’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. CT ‘edgegap’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. K ‘patch’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). E ‘suppress’. D ‘sigma’. D ‘k’.CHAPTER 2. CM ‘cminthresh’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. N ‘detector’.

vol. pp 147-151. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. with a delay of d [sec]. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. 1994. Shi and C. Harris and M. p2. where * denotes squared and smoothed. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. • “Good features to track”. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. J. T ‘maxiter’. Proc. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Manchester. [T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘mindelta’. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. 593-593.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. May 1988.121-128. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. with a delay of 0. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. 1988.Noble. p2. Proc. C.5 [sec]. pp.d] = icp(p1.J. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Stephens..CHAPTER 2. IEEE Computer Society. Image and Vision Computing. Options ‘dplot’. J. • “Finding corners”.6.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. pp. See also PointFeature. Tomasi.G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. T ‘distthresh’.

[]) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. P. m. no. s = idecimate(im. Mach. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. each plane is decimated. 239-256. See also iscale. Feb. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Intell. 1992. vol.or 3-dimensional.Besl and H. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.McKay. 2. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. m.CHAPTER 2. 14. Pattern Anal. s = idecimate(im. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. IEEETrans. pp.. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.

good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . positive is blue.CHAPTER 2. zero is white. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. linear proﬁle. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. C ‘xydata’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top.and y-axes respectively. Options ‘ncolors’. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. zero is black. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. If im is a cell array of images. XY ‘colormap’. negative is red. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. positive is blue. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. negative is red. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. darker than ‘grey’. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. histogram and zooming. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. If the image is zoomed. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. zero is white color map: random values.

CHAPTER 2. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. idisplabel(im. labelimage. See also iblobs. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. icolorize. colormap. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. See also image. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. caxis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labels. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labelimage.

All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.45. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. out = igamma(im. See also itriplepoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.

Huttenlocher. 2004. 59. See also ithresh. 167181. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. min is the minimum region size (pixels). idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Journal on Computer Vision. 2006. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min. pp.m] = igraphseg(im. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.m] = igraphseg(im. [L. Sept. k. 0. min.jpg’). k. Int. 1500. Example im = iread(’58060. P. [l. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5).5). k. vol. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. Felzenszwalb and D. k is the scale parameter. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. L = igraphseg(im. 100.CHAPTER 2.

options) displays the image histogram. plot(x. ’normcdf’). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.x] = ihist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.x] = ihist(im).CHAPTER 2. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. [h.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. H = ihist(im. bar(x.h).x] = ihist(im. [H. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.

[L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.m. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. y2.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. [L. same size as im. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.CHAPTER 2.y1) and bottom-right (x2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. x1. ii is a precomputed integral image. y1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.

The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. The pixels on the line are set to 1.class. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.maxlabel. See also iblobs. iproﬁle. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.maxlabel. p1. otherwise it does not. • This is a “low level” function. 8).edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. eg.CHAPTER 2. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. [L. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.parents. ilabel(im. p1.parents. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. p2.Y]. each a 2-vector [X. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. out = iline(im. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.

y. s. -s. a perfect match score is 1.y) and its half-width is H. • ZNCC matching is used. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. The template in im1 is centred at (x.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).score] = imatch(im1.y).CC] where (DX. y. x. im2. The return value is xm=[DX.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w2. ymin. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.DY. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. [xm. s] % relative to (x. H. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.DY) are the x. • Is a MEX ﬁle. im2. centred at (x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.y) and of size s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.CHAPTER 2. x.and y-offsets relative to (x. ymax] relative to (x. xmax. and columns the vertical position.

The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. [u. The element u(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. f = imoments(u. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image. H) as above but the domain is w × H. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.CHAPTER 2. [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. All pixels are equally weighted.u) = v. effectively a greyscale image.u) = u and v(v. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.v] = imeshgrid(w.

Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m02. m11. m10. See also RegionFeature. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. ilabel. Different conversion functions are supported. or its area. icolor. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. • This function does not perform connectivity. m01. the elements are m00.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. horizontal coordinate centroid. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m20.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2.

vol. se. Matas. Urban. ’double’). options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.org). and T. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. [label. 2004. Chum. ’grey’. pp. Sept. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. ’light’). part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Pajdla. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. 761767. The labels [L.m] = imser(im. J. m. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.png’. Image and Vision Computing. O. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = imser(im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. 22.

Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.CHAPTER 2. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).ˆ2). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.

Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. See also iclose. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. sides. out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.CHAPTER 2. sides. se. n. This is an erosion followed by dilation. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.

255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. im2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im1.V]. 20. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise im2 is selected. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected.CHAPTER 2. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 10. ’t’. ’tblr’. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.

p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.CHAPTER 2. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.uv] = iproﬁle(im. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. [p. See also bresenham. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.

2) = 0. out = imorph(image. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. hence output image had reduced dimensions. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. out = imorph(image. the maximum. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma. se. se(2.3). nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. See also iscalespace. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. out = ipyramid(im. is order=1. idecimate. op. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma.5)). 1. out = ipyramid(im. order. The highest rank. im > irank(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. op. 12. se). 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. ones(5. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. nbins.

iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. ivar. G ‘reduce’. im = iread(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. where R=[umin umax. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. vmin vmax]. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. R ‘roi’.

See also FeatureMatch.out2. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im1. [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. m. imono. im1.CHAPTER 2. m. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. Notes • Color images are not supported. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.h2] = irectify(f. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. istereo.out2] = irectify(f. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. igamma. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. homwarp. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. imwrite.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. vmin. See also idisp. V ‘smooth’. S ‘extrapval’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.CHAPTER 2.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. Options ‘outsize’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.vmax].umax. angle. [out. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.H] return central part of image. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .vmin vmax].

See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s<1 makes it smaller.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. while bias>0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. Options ‘outsize’. bias=0.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. V ‘smooth’. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 is symmetric cropping.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. im2. s>1 makes the image larger. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. out = isamesize(im1. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. bias<0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.

Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.CHAPTER 2. [g. See also iscalespace. in space and scale. n. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.L. idecimate. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . corresponding to each step of the sequence.L. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.s] = iscalespace(im. n) as above but sigma=1. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.

isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ‘valid’) as above. that is. ismooth. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. See also isrot. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. it its third dimension is equal to three. ilaplace. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. else false (0).CHAPTER 2. ishomog(T.

N ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 91-110. Lowe. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Reference David G. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. pp. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. See also SiftPointFeature.vlfeat. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • ISURF is a functional equivalent. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. 60. 2 (2004). • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. isurf. • Features are returned in descending strength order. International Journal of Computer Vision.

zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @zssd. @ncc. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. s is same size as im.CHAPTER 2. ssd. See also imatch. [w. @ssd.H. [w. zssd. sad. @zsad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. and these output pixels are set to NaN.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. s = isimilarity(T. ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. zsad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary.

sigma. [gx. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. [gx. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. then converted back to integer.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iconv.gy] = isobel(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. convolved.CHAPTER 2. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.

[d. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. range is the disparity search range. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. icanny.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. imr. w. range.u) means that imr(v. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).u). isrot(R. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. else false (0). That is. H.CHAPTER 2. See also ksobel. See also ishomog.sim] = istereo(iml. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. imr. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.M] for an N × M window. ‘valid’) as above. the disparity d=d(v. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H is the half size of the matching window. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. range.

‘ncc’.sim. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). Options ‘metric’.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. dx. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. out = istretch(im.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.dsi] = istereo(iml. w.p] = istereo(iml. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. [d. imr. imr.5 to +0. range.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. B. [d. w. p.A and p. 3) See also irectify. p. range. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • sim = max(dsi. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.5). • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.sim. That is.

Notes • Color images. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time.CHAPTER 2. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. or sequences. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. T ‘octaves’. Kroon (U. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. N ‘thresh’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. isift. See also hitormiss. either a row. No. itriplepoint. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ishomog. isvec(v. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Andreas Ess. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. out = ithin(im.or columnvector. Otherwise false (0). Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Vol. else false (0). Luc Van Gool.CHAPTER 2. 110. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. pp. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Tinne Tuytelaars. 346–359. 3.

a lower value will include more.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.CHAPTER 2.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. The default is 0.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. ithresh(im. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.im2.5. The same cropping is applied to each input image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .out2] = itrim(im1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1. See also homwarp. Notes • Greyscale image only.

These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. ithin. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. op. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.CHAPTER 2. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. See also iendpoint.

The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. ones(5. @std). func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. se. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. func.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. @max). hence output image had reduced dimensions. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank.3). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. See also ivar.5). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. out = iwindow(image.

iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. • The vertical derivative. k = kcircle(R.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. kdog. See also ones. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. klog. dG/dx. dG/dy. is k’. See also kgauss. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. ktriangle. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.

6*sigma1. See also kgauss. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. kdgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). klog. k = kgauss(sigma. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2. k = kdog(sigma1. See also kdgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. klog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .CHAPTER 2. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. kdog. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation.

kdog. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = klog(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv. See also ilaplace. kdgauss. See also kgauss.

options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.C] = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. L = kmeans(x. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. it is assumed to have been completed previously. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [L. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Pattern Recognition Principles. k. and D is the dimension.CHAPTER 2.C] = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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z] = mkcube(s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.y. See also cylinder. s. [x.y. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). symmetric about the origin. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. [x. ‘edge’. Options ‘T’. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.z] = mkcube(s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. C ‘T’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. The points are the columns of p. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. y. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.y). npq. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. That is. n) MPLOT(t. or y(:. y) MPLOT(t. n. y.2)).xp .2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(t. See also mpq poly. or y(:. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n) MPLOT(y.yq . p. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. the sum of I(x.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. npq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered to be a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. upq poly. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. p. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).

w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. idisp(im >= t). [T.2. See also zncc. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.CHAPTER 2. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.s] = niblack(im. k. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. -0. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Prentice-Hall. ssd. W. where W=2*w2+1.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Example t = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. niblack. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1986. the height of a character.m. for example. 20). in text segmentation. k. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.

p. That is UPQ(im. p. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.q)/MPQ(im.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2.0). ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. See also npq poly. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.

• If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. See also mpq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. they are considered as a single vertex. upq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2. mpq.

options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). [yp. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. idisp(im >= t). ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y.i] = peak(y. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. N. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. [yp.xp] = peak(y. Jan 1979. Systems. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otsu IEEE Trans. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Example t = otsu(im).CHAPTER 2.

use peak(-V). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘scale’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp.ij] = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. S ‘interp’. use peak2(-V). Typically choose N to be odd.S points. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.

See also pnmﬁlt. plot2(p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. ie. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p has three dimensions. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p.

Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.y1.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’r’). ‘r’. r.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘size’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ’g’. ’b’). P. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.CHAPTER 2. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.y2. 5).y1) and (x2. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. value pairs that are passed to plot. r. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(’centre’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y2). or a set of name. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Examples plot_circle(c. R. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ’fillcolor’. x2. W. ’LineWidth’. 1=solid. P. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. PLOT BOX(x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r. ‘size’. ’edgecolor’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. W. plot_circle(c. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.

options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. with Matlab line style ls. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. C. If C=[X. ls) ls is the standard line styles. xc. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. centred at the origin.Y].CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. c Specify color of the axes. Options ‘color’.

’name’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. n ‘text opts’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. Options ‘textcolor’. options) adds point markers to a plot. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fmt. ‘printf’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’r’). trplot( T. ’r’.X = 0. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate.CHAPTER 2. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. to ‘view’. ’color’. ‘framename’. ’color’.

patch. The default is 1. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. color. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. 1=solid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state.CHAPTER 2. either a letter or 3-vector. NOTES • The sphere is always added.

plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plotp(p.

centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.gt] = radgrad(im.CHAPTER 2. [gr. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.

T.in] = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. one column per point pair. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. N ‘maxDataTrials’. x. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. [m. x. T. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. [m.CHAPTER 2. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.in. x typically contains corresponding point data.resid] = ransac(func. T.

inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.theta = DECONDITION(R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. Assoc.x.x) condition the point data out.s out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.theta.s sample size (1 × 1) out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.inlier. that is. Fishler and R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta to the points R.C.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate..theta and the subset of R.out.t threshold (1 × 1) R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.theta.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.R.theta is a cell array. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. Boles. Comp. pp 381-395. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .resid] = EST(R. Mach.CHAPTER 2. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they detect a structure argument.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.out. Comm.x data to work on. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. Vol 24. References • m. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. Cambridge University Press.theta = [].theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. that is they will produce a model.x = CONDITION(R.misc private data (cell array) out. No 6.A. If multiple models are found out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. pp 101-113.x.x and returns the best model out. [out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. [out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.misc element. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.theta] = ERR(R.

If lambda is a vector. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .csse. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.uwa. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.edu.au/ pk See also fmatrix. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.CHAPTER 2.

See also rotx. See also roty.CHAPTER 2. roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch. • many texts (Paul. yaw. pitch. If roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. Y. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. T = rpy2tr(roll. See also tr2rpy. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Z axes respectively. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2.

i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. r2t. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. theta) as above where xy=[x.y. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. and rotation theta in the plane. ncc.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. See also zsad.CHAPTER 2. ssd.

sad. ncc. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. See also zsdd.

b.choose = {’this’. It supports options that have an assigned value.CHAPTER 2. opt. then R is 2 × 2. then R is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. opt. opt. – If T is 3 × 3. ’other’}.foo = true.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. ’that’.blah = []. tr2rt. The software pattern is: function(a. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. varargin) opt. c.bar = false. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. varargin). If neither of ‘this’. varargin). If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.y sets opt. 3 sets opt. ’#yes’}.CHAPTER 2. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. w.choose <.true sets opt. x.foo <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.foo <. opt = tb_optparse(opt.debug <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.‘this’. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.select <.N sets opt <.blah <.y ‘that’ sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.verbose <. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.x.3 ‘blah’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.blah <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.false ‘blah’. args) creates a test pattern image.1. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.choose <.select = {’#no’.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.select <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. N ‘setopt’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.

25). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). sd and sdd are n-vectors. 256. args is the number of cycles. dot diameter. binary dot pattern. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. a line.CHAPTER 2. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. binary square pattern. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. The trajectory s. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args is the number of cycles. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. square side length. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. sf. args are theta (rad).sd. args is the number of cycles. intercept. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. [s. args are pitch (distance between centres). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 50. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. 2). sf. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 256.sd.

X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.CHAPTER 2. [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. rpy = tr2rpy(R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y and Z axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. The 3 angles rpy=[R. Y. See also angvec2r. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.P. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.

CHAPTER 2. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If T has three dimensions. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.z]. r2t.y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. – If TR is 3 × 3. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. y. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. See also rt2tr. • The validity of R is not checked. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.:. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. ie. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. See also rpy2tr.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. or x and y. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. [c1. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). each N × 1. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. [o1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.CHAPTER 2.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). An historical anomaly. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).

Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx. and displays in RPY format.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trprint T is the command line form of above. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. f ‘label’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. the sum of I(x.(y-y0)q where (x0. See also upq poly. That is. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. p. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2rpy.CHAPTER 2.(x-x0)p . q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. mpq. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.y).y0) is the centroid.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). See also sad. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also ncc. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. sad. ssd. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.

CHAPTER 2. ncc. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also sdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

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