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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. and I commend it to you. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. is open-source. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This is extravagant on storage.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. However the book “Robotics. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . iline . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. You need to signup in order to post. lecturers and professors are paid to do.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 1 Introduction 1.com. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. tutors. That’s what you your teachers.google. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. and you will be suitably acknowledged. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.

3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Author = {P. 1. Month = nov. Volume = {12}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. The details are @article{Corke05f. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.3. type of organization and application. 1. The ﬁle robot.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.gz) or zip format (. Number = {4}. 1.zip). If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. 1.I. Corke}. the table of content to functions.petercorke.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.html on a server for class use. and the “See also” functions to each other. Year = {2005}. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

VLFeat http://www. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. Twente. 1. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. and there are hundreds of modules available. 12(4). Vincent Lepetit. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.6. but not least.S.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. Corke. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. P.vlfeat. 1994 University of British Columbia.I. pp 16–25. November 2005. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. MSER. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.Functions such as SURF.R. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.mathworks.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.7.7 Acknowledgements Last.. Coimbra. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. 1.1. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘centre’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. Camera. T ‘color’. S ‘noise’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. N ‘image’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. N ‘sensor’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. Options ‘name’. used by all subclasses. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. IM ‘resolution’.

clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera. Camera. CatadioptricCamera. SphericalCamera Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).centre Get camera position p = C.char Convert to string s = C.clf Clear the image plane C.display Display value C.

Camera. otherwise false (0). and off if H is false (or 0).v + c = 0.u + b.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. C.CHAPTER 2.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. See also Camera.char Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera. z to the image plane and plots them.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also mesh. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C.T.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.CHAPTER 2. mkcube.plot. uv = C. y. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.plot(p.mesh(x. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.hold. cylinder. y.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. T ‘Tcam’. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. y.clf Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. The matrices x. z. sphere. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

T See also Camera. T ‘scale’. Camera. Camera.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Options ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘fps’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.CHAPTER 2.hold. Overrides the current camera pose C.clf Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Tcam’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. ‘Tobj’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.mesh.T. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

CHAPTER 2. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.y]. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a subclass of Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(R. The image is not inverted. C. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. p.p.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

10um pixels. J. D ‘default’ ‘image’.E Essential matrix E = C.Kosecka. IM ‘resolution’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘centre’.177 See also CentralCamera. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). “An invitation to 3D”. E = C. SIGMA ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. T ‘color’. p. 2003. N ‘focal’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.8]) See also Camera. P ‘pixel’. Springer.F. optical axis is z-axis. CatadioptricCamera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. S.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.Soatto. Reference Y. N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’. CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Ma.and y-axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. u. S.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. E = C. camera at origin.Sastry.and v-axes parallel to x. f=8mm. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. F ‘distortion’.

F Fundamental matrix F = C.E CentralCamera.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. p. 2003.H CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “An invitation to 3D”. from two viewpoints. Springer. S. F = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.Sastry. See also CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. Reference Y. n. S.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. J.Ma.Soatto.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.CHAPTER 2.Kosecka.H Homography matrix H = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H(T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).

estpose(xyz.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Feb. vol. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. 155-166. a = C. CentralCamera.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. and P. Journal on Computer Vision.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). F.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. V. 2009. Fua. Moreno-Noguer. Lepetit.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 81. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. CentralCamera. See also quiver CentralCamera.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Int. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.

Sastry. section 5.Kosecka. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). Reference Y. p116. “An invitation to 3D”. p. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Springer.Ma. Springer. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”.invE(E. See also CentralCamera.Soatto. Chap 9. s.Soatto. “Multiview Geometry”. J.Sastry. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. s.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ma. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. 2003. s.E CentralCamera.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Kosecka. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.CHAPTER 2. translation not to scale • n. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. J. 259 Y.

options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot epiline(f. See also Hough CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f. ‘Tcam’.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.CHAPTER 2.plot epiline(f.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.H CentralCamera.T. one per line.project(p. p. C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. H = C.

vol. 313-326. June 1992. “Multiview Geometry”. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.b. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pp. Espiau.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.plot CentralCamera. 8. Chaumette. Reference B.c. and P. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Reference Hartley & Zisserman.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Rives. F. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.visjac e(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. See also Camera.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.

visjac p. Reference B. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Vol 12(5). 313-326. CentralCamera.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Chaumette. CentralCamera. R&A.visjac e CentralCamera.c. pp. CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Hager & Corke. June 1992. 1996. pp 651-670. Rives.visjac p.CHAPTER 2. Espiau. Oct. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. and P. Hutchinson.visjac l CentralCamera. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. F. See also CentralCamera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac p polar. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. IEEE Trans. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.visjac p(uv.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera.visjac l(L. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac p polar. 8. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. vol. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.b.

visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. See also CentralCamera. Int. CentralCamera. (St.visjac p polar(rt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Oct. CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac e CentralCamera. I.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Corke. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. pp. in Proc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. and F. 5962-5967. Louis). 2009.visjac l. radius and theta. Spindler. P.visjac p. CentralCamera. F. Chaumette.visjac p polar.visjac l. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

D. See README. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Journal on Computer Vision.60. pp. ScalePointFeature. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. PointFeature.SIFT. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2004.CHAPTER 2.91-110. vol. Nov. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. Int. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. See also isift.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.Lowe. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

plot scale Plot feature scale F.CHAPTER 2. 0=transparent (default 0.match(f2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.match Match SIFT point features m = F. 1=opaque. F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted. See also isift SiftPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.plot scale(options. v. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. C ‘alpha’. SiftPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.

[out. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.T] = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F.CHAPTER 2. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F.support(images.support(images.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

See also SphericalCamera. S ‘pose’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ﬁsheyecamera.CHAPTER 2.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Overrides the current camera pose C.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T.project(p. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. T ‘Tcam’. N ‘pixel’. Options ‘name’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.

of 4-vector. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.gain. error norm.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .CHAPTER 2. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.0.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. defaults in parentheses: target size . camera pose. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The external view. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera view.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.center of the target in world coords (0.5) target center . The camera view.the side length of the target in world units (0. image plane size and desired feature locations. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.depth of points to use for Jacobian.01) . error. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Jacobian condition number.

The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p(pt.the side length of the target in world units (0. defaults in parentheses: target size . See also CentralCamera. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.01) .3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .depth of points to use for Jacobian. error.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . CentralCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations. 5550-5555.center of the target in world coords (0.visjac p polar. (Anchorage). The external view. of 4-vector. pp. Jacobian condition number. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . error norm. for all points. Corke. May 3-7 2010.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . or a vector (N × 1) for each point. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .5) target center . z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).gain. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. camera pose. Robotics and Automation. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.CHAPTER 2. P. in Proc. CentralCamera.visjac l. IEEE Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Conf.0. I.

If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Andreas Ess. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Vol. Tinne Tuytelaars. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 110. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Luc Van Gool.CHAPTER 2. No. pp. 3. 346–359.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.

v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘thresh’. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature.C] = F. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match Match SURF point features m = F. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. [m. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. f = PointFeature(u. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.

plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale(options. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.support(images. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images.support(im. out = F. C ‘alpha’. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.T] = F.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. F.2) SurfPointFeature. [out. 0=transparent (default 0. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 1=opaque. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

Video AxisWebCamera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com). S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.axis. S ‘resolution’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis.CHAPTER 2.com) web camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. G ‘scale’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. See also AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close() closes the connection to the web camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.char Convert to string A.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.

b = BagOfWords(f. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.1470-1477. pp. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Ninth IEEE Int. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.Zisserman. Oct. 2003.org). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.CHAPTER 2. f can also be a cell array. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Conf. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. in Proc. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. on Computer Vision.Sivic and A.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. images. isurf BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.char Convert to string s = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.display Display value B. BagOfWords.exemplars(w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.

BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.n] = B. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.CHAPTER 2.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. N ‘maxperimage’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .remove stop Remove stop words B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.isword Features from words f = B.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. M ‘width’. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.

wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.CHAPTER 2. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ﬁsheyecamera. optical axis is z-axis. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. T ‘Tcam’. f=8mm. CatadioptricCamera. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’.T. P ‘pixel’. See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera. 10um pixels.and y-axes respectively. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. M ‘k’.project(p. N ‘sensor’. ‘sine’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. u. K ‘maxangle’. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. A ‘resolution’.and v-axes parallel to x. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. camera at origin.

Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. such as ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SurfPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.

char Convert to string s = M.CHAPTER 2. f2. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. SurfPointFeature. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. m = FeatureMatch(f1. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value M. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. See also PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.

CHAPTER 2.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.v2].inlier.outlier. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.u2. FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.ransac FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier Outlier features m2 = M.v1.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.

p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot Show corresponding points M.plot() M.im2}) m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for example by: idisp({im1.p2 FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p2.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p1. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p1. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p FeatureMatch.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homography. Example f1 = isurf(im1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.ransac( @fmatrix. See also fmatrix. f2 = isurf(im2). and an error is created if this UserData is not found.match(f2).ransac Apply RANSAC M. ransac FeatureMatch. m = f1. See also idisp FeatureMatch. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. m.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.CHAPTER 2. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac(func. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. 1e-4).

CHAPTER 2. v. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y This camera model assumes central projection. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. that is.

and v-axes are parallel to x.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.CHAPTER 2. S ‘noise’. Options ‘name’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. f=8mm. SIGMA ‘pose’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.axes respectively. M ‘k’. N ‘sensor’. u. P ‘pixel’. K ‘resolution’. ‘sine’. 10um pixels. camera at origin. ‘equisolid’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . optical axis is z-axis.and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. S ‘centre’.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also FishEyeCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.project(p.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’. CatadioptricCamera. T ‘Tcam’. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.T. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

CHAPTER 2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.H). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. See also LineFeature Hough.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). The voting array is 2-dimensional. A horizontal line has theta = 0. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.0) and the line. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

5) Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. See also Hough. W ‘nbins’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edgeThresh. Nrho].houghThresh (default 0. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.1). Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT. Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.display Display value HT. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. W ‘houghthresh’. Default 400 × 401.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. else N = [Ntheta. Hough. T ‘suppress’.edgeThresh (default 0. T ‘edgethresh’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.

H = HT. then all elements in an HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. See also Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot. The highest peak is found. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. reﬁned to subpixel precision.plot Plot line features HT. HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. L = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. HT. The process is repeated for all peaks.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. See also Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot(n.lines Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2. LineFeature Hough.lines Find lines L = HT.

Note • LineFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. RegionFeature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.

one per element. theta. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. strength. LENGTH is undeﬁned. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. theta. LineFeature. See also LineFeature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.display Display value L.CHAPTER 2.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. L = LineFeature(rho.char Convert to string s = L.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.

l2 = L.plot Plot line L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength(edge.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. l2 = L.points Return points on line segments p = L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. Small gaps. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.CHAPTER 2. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. less than gap pixels are tolerated. LineFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also icanny LineFeature.

close Close the image source M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.close() closes the connection to the movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.axis.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S ‘skip’.char Convert to string M. G ‘scale’.com). Movie. Movie.

Options ‘skip’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘frame’. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. undirected graph create an n-d. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F Skip frames.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. planar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.

return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add node(coord.coord(v) g.connectivity() g.distance(v1. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() g.next(v) g. v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().clear() add vertex.CHAPTER 2.add edge(v1. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.goal(v) g. Object properties (read/write) g.neighbours(v) g.add node(coord) g.cost(e) g.edges(e) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. v2) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.component(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.

v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. where x is D × 1.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add node(x.add edge(v1.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CHAPTER 2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add node(x. E = G. and returns the edge id E. PGraph. PGraph. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. Options ‘distance’. v. and returns the node id v. v = G. v2.add edge(v1.

PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.clear Clear the graph G. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.closest Find closest node v = G. D × 1. edges and components. PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G.d] = G. PGraph. of node id v. [v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord Coordinate of node x = G. and the distance d.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. See also ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. PointFeature.display Display value F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u.

T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Options ‘thresh’. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.C] = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match Match point features m = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. the norm of the Euclidean distance. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.match(f2.CHAPTER 2. where 1 is perfect match.char PointFeature.match(f2. [m.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon .plot Plot feature F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.html and require a licence. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. intersection.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Polygon. http://puddle.mit. difference.area Area of polygon a = P. so use with care.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. p = Polygon(C. Polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.mit.CHAPTER 2.edu. kirill@plume.char String representation s = P. union. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.area() is the area of the polygon. Pankratov. one column per vertex. Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. HEIGHT].

intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. returns coordinates of P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.difference Difference of polygons d = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. else 0. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).char Polygon.display Display polygon P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. See also Polygon. Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments(p.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. each column is [x y]’. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. y1 y2]. returns empty polygon.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot() plot the polygon. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. P.plot Plot polygon P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union Union of polygons i = P. Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.

[x.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.E] = R.E] = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value R.char Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. one per element. See also Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Ray3D. [x.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.c. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.b. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.0) 1 for a circle. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.

RegionFeature.box Return bounding box b = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. See also iblobs.char Convert to string s = R.th] = R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax]. imoments RegionFeature. For example R.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. ymin.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. one per element.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.xmax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector.

R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value R. See also RegionFeature. RegionFeature.char RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R. R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot Plot centroid R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. It is indicated with overlaid o.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.CHAPTER 2.plot box Plot bounding box R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.

plot scale(options. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. 1=opaque.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.plot scale Plot feature scale F.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. C ‘alpha’. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.

During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. one per active track. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. N ‘thresh’. options) is a new tracker object. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. R ‘nslots’. See also PointFeature Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.CHAPTER 2. C. T ‘movie’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.

CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker. See also Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value T.char Tracker. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.

Movie Video. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. and their characteristics is displayed. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’. otherwise the result is not predictable. AxisWebCamera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. S ‘resolution’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.close Close the image source V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string V.CHAPTER 2. Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If th1 is a column vector. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle.CHAPTER 2. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. the ﬁrst for left. right. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the right image is cyan. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. color. a = anaglyph(left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. By default the left image is red. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. right. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view.

Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. 6500). r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. Endpoints must be integer. [x. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y2).y1] and p2=[x2.s] = boundmatch(R1. y1.y2]. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. See also RegionFeature. x2. If lambda is a column vector. p2) as above but p1=[x1.boundary. p = bresenham(p1. % emission of sun plot(l. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.CHAPTER 2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y1) to (x2.

See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. [C. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.CHAPTER 2.Y.

[k. k = closest(a. R. R. x = circle(C. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). and x is N × 3. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . green and blue primaries respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.d1] = closest(a. that is.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.CHAPTER 2. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). Options ‘n’.

) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. (Table 1(5. • From Table I(5.32).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).ioo.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5. As noted in footnote a on p.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.ac. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. 19000 (526. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. and 22500 (444.5.d1. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.5. they were measured directly.CHAPTER 2. The data are referred to as pilot data. 335 of Table 1(5. while Table I(5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.d2] = closest(a.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ucl. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.16). since.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).

Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ioo. out = col2im(pix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ac. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.uk See also cmfrgb.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .M). imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . imsize is a 2-vector (N.

See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.

@isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [L.C] = colorkmeans(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. See also imono. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im.CHAPTER 2. icolor. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. eg. @isnan. im<100. mask.G.B). func. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. k. and returns a per-pixel logical result. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. out = colorize(im.

name = colorname(XYZ. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.R] = colorkmeans(im. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. eg. k) as above but also returns the residual R. XYZ = colorname(name. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. L = colorkmeans(im. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.CHAPTER 2. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. low is good.C.

it can be omitted.i2. • Color space names are case insensitive. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. double data is the natural choice. i1. s = ‘dest<-src’.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. colorspace(s. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.o2. s = ‘src->dest’. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. As MATLAB’s native datatype.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.txt.o3] = colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes.CHAPTER 2. or alternatively. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. [o1.

colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. like a colormap. However.B).CHAPTER 2.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.200).2*A. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . Example A = rand(400. for memory and computational performance.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. d = distance(A.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out will also have size M × 3. B = rand(400. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. • If im is an M × 3 array.100). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. E = edgelist(im. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.(+31)20-5257524. Tested: PC Matlab v5.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. not image frame.CHAPTER 2. bunschot@wins. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. The result E is a matrix. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. non zero is counter-clockwise. seed.j). seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. tel.3. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. in matrix coordinate frame.y). non-zero is an object. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.uva. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. University of Amsterdam. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.

S. p1. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Coimbra. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. 1998. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. one per line drawn. See also fmatrix. I. p.CHAPTER 2. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. epiline(f. Oct 27. p. See also epiline. H = epiline(f.R. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.

epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.au/. • f is a rank 2 matrix. Notes • The points must be corresponding. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. c. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.csse. homography. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The University of Western Australia. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.edu. See also ransac. it is singular. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. no outlier rejection is performed. • Contains a RANSAC driver. p2. epiline.uwa. that is. which means it can be passed to ransac(). page 270. that is. http://www. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.

CHAPTER 2. itriplepoint. y1.y2). Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. ithin. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also imorph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).y1) and (x2. x2.

p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. See also ransac. Notes • The points must be corresponding.CHAPTER 2.csse. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.edu. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. The University of Western Australia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. http://www. no outlier rejection is performed.uwa.au/. which means it can be passed to ransac(). invhomog.

S output image contains all the warped pixels.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. that is tp=T*T1.offs] = homwarp(H. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. im. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. R ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. V ‘roi’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. See also e2h. itrim. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. See also homography. D ‘size’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. im. S ‘dimension’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. ie.

features. 179-187. ’nfeat’. ianimate(seq. IT-8:pp. ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’gs’). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 1962. features. IRE Trans. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants.CHAPTER 2. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. on Information Theory. 200). See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Hu. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im.

M ‘npoints’. YMIN YMAX]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘only’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. iharris. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. isurf. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.CHAPTER 2.

options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.0 ‘connect’. ilabel. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. [S1. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.0) 1 for a circle. horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. C set connectivity. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2. [A1. A set pixel aspect ratio. default 1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.

out = iclose(im. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.CHAPTER 2. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. 1996-7. Tel Aviv University.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. S ‘th0’. T ‘th1’. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is an dilation followed by erosion. se. See also isobel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. See also iopen.

CHAPTER 2. The images do not have to be of the same size.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. [0 1 1]). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.u] = iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. Options ‘dir’. [C. See also imono. D ‘bgval’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colorize.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).

Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. options) convolves im1 with im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.CHAPTER 2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.

The vector has zero mean and unit norm. D ‘k’. S ‘deriv’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. D ‘sigma’. N ‘detector’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. CT ‘edgegap’. R ‘nfeat’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. CM ‘cminthresh’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. E ‘suppress’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. K ‘patch’.

T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘distthresh’.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. [T. Harris and M.6. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. p2. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. May 1988.5 [sec]. J. • “Finding corners”.d] = icp(p1. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. N ‘mindelta’.J. Shi and C. pp 147-151. where * denotes squared and smoothed. pp.121-128.CHAPTER 2. with a delay of d [sec]. Image and Vision Computing. IEEE Computer Society. • “Good features to track”. with a delay of 0. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Manchester. C. Proc. p2. vol. See also PointFeature. 1988. J.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Tomasi. Options ‘dplot’. T ‘maxiter’. 1994.Noble. Proc.G. pp. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Stephens. 593-593. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.

239-256. m. IEEETrans. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. pp. Feb.. 1992. 14. 2.McKay. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im.or 3-dimensional. m. each plane is decimated. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. s = idecimate(im. Intell. Notes • If the image has multiple planes.Besl and H. P. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. vol. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also iscale. Pattern Anal. no. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. s = idecimate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Mach.

maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. zero is white. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned.and y-axes respectively. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. darker than ‘grey’. If im is a cell array of images.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. negative is red. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. histogram and zooming. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. C ‘xydata’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. XY ‘colormap’. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black. If the image is zoomed. Options ‘ncolors’. linear proﬁle. zero is white color map: random values. positive is blue. negative is red. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. positive is blue.

The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also image. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. idisplabel(im. icolorize.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. See also iblobs. labels. labelimage. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colormap. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. caxis. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white.

out = igamma(im. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. See also itriplepoint. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.45. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ithin. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.

Int. Sept.m] = igraphseg(im. 2006. 59.CHAPTER 2. min. 0. Example im = iread(’58060. Journal on Computer Vision. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.jpg’). [L. pp. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. L = igraphseg(im. P.m] = igraphseg(im. 2004.5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. vol. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. k is the scale parameter. k. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Felzenszwalb and D. k. 1500. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. 167181.5). [l. 100. Huttenlocher. min. min is the minimum region size (pixels). See also ithresh. k.

H = ihist(im. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im. plot(x. [H.x] = ihist(im). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. [h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.CHAPTER 2.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. bar(x. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.h). options) displays the image histogram. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im.

The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. ii is a precomputed integral image. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. y2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. [L. y1.y1) and bottom-right (x2. same size as im.m. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. [L.y2). See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.

imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.maxlabel. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.parents. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. • This is a “low level” function. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. otherwise it does not. The pixels on the line are set to 1.maxlabel.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.parents. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. each a 2-vector [X.Y]. iproﬁle. See also iblobs. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p2. p1. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. [L. ilabel(im. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. 8). out = iline(im.class. eg.

a perfect match score is 1. im2.y) and of size s. ymin.score] = imatch(im1. • ZNCC matching is used. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. ymax] relative to (x.and y-offsets relative to (x.y).y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. H. x. centred at (x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. The template in im1 is centred at (x. The return value is xm=[DX. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.CHAPTER 2.DY. and columns the vertical position. xmax. x. y. [xm. s] % relative to (x. y. -s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). im2. w2. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.CC] where (DX.y) and its half-width is H. • Is a MEX ﬁle. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.y).DY) are the x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.

[u.u) = v.u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All pixels are equally weighted. H) as above but the domain is w × H. effectively a binary image. [u. effectively a greyscale image.CHAPTER 2. v.v] = imeshgrid(w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.

or its area.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. the elements are m00. m02. icolor. m01. m10. ilabel. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. m20.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. See also RegionFeature. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. • This function does not perform connectivity. horizontal coordinate centroid. Different conversion functions are supported. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m11.

options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. Sept. ’grey’. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.png’. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. 22. 761767. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. se.org). [label. Pajdla. The labels [L.m] = imser(im. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. pp. and T. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. ’light’). vol. O. m. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Matas. Urban. 2004. Chum. J.m] = imser(im. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. ’double’). Image and Vision Computing.

• Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.ˆ2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

This is an erosion followed by dilation. out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. sides. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. se. sides. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also iclose. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im.

im2. 20. ’t’. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero.V]. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise im2 is selected. p. 10. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ’tblr’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im1. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask.

out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. See also bresenham. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p. p1. p1. [p.uv] = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.

idecimate. ones(5. order. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. 1. 12. sigma. se(2. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. se. out = imorph(image.2) = 0. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. out = ipyramid(im.5)). se. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. the maximum. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. is order=1. nbins. out = ipyramid(im.3). im > irank(im. The highest rank.CHAPTER 2. out = imorph(image. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. op. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. See also iscalespace. se). op. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.

Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. G ‘reduce’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. vmin vmax]. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. ivar. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. See also imorph. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. where R=[umin umax. R ‘roi’. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. im = iread(ﬁle. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256).

igamma. imono. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. See also FeatureMatch. homwarp. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im1. m. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.h2] = irectify(f. istereo. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im1. Notes • Color images are not supported. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. [out1.out2] = irectify(f. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. m. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.out2.CHAPTER 2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.h1. imwrite.

umax.CHAPTER 2. [out. V ‘smooth’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.vmin vmax]. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. S ‘extrapval’. angle.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. Options ‘outsize’. See also idisp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.vmax].H] return central part of image. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. vmin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.

s<1 makes it smaller.5 is symmetric cropping.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. V ‘smooth’. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias<0. s ‘extrapval’.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. bias=0. s>1 makes the image larger. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. Options ‘outsize’.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. while bias>0. out = isamesize(im1. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = iscalespace(im.s] = iscalespace(im. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n) as above but sigma=1.L. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.CHAPTER 2.L. corresponding to each step of the sequence. n. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). idecimate. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . See also iscalespace. [g. in space and scale. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.

‘valid’) as above. See also isrot. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. it its third dimension is equal to three. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. else false (0). options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. that is. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog(T. ismooth. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ilaplace. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.

• The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. N ‘suppress’. See also SiftPointFeature. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T.vlfeat.CHAPTER 2. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Reference David G. • Features are returned in descending strength order. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 60. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. isurf. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 91-110. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. pp. International Journal of Computer Vision. 2 (2004). Lowe.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest.

d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @zsad. ncc. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. [w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. sad. @zssd.H. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. and these output pixels are set to NaN. im. @ssd. @ncc.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. s = isimilarity(T. s is same size as im. ssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imatch. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. [w. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. zsad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. zssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one.

CHAPTER 2. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. sigma. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. then converted back to integer. convolved. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gx. See also iconv.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. [gx.gy] = isobel(im.

imr. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. H is the half size of the matching window. the disparity d=d(v. That is.M] for an N × M window. imr. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. else false (0). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. isrot(R. range. w. [d.sim] = istereo(iml. range. H. range is the disparity search range.u) means that imr(v. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. See also ksobel.u). See also ishomog. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. icanny. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. ‘valid’) as above.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). [d. out = istretch(im. That is. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. • sim = max(dsi. dx. w. imr. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. range. B. imr.p] = istereo(iml. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.5). ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. Options ‘metric’. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.sim. w.CHAPTER 2. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. p. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. p. ‘ncc’. range. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.A and p. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. [d.sim. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .dsi] = istereo(iml.5 to +0.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. 3) See also irectify.

• Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. T ‘octaves’. or sequences. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). N ‘thresh’. Notes • Color images. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Kroon (U. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale.

isift. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 110. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 3. See also hitormiss. out = ithin(im. else false (0).CHAPTER 2. Andreas Ess. Otherwise false (0).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Vol. 346–359. No. isvec(v. either a row. pp. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). See also ishomog. Tinne Tuytelaars. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im.or columnvector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. itriplepoint. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Luc Van Gool. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines.

[out1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. See also homwarp. ithresh(im. The default is 0.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.5. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Greyscale image only. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.im2. a lower value will include more. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The same cropping is applied to each input image.out2] = itrim(im1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

op. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. See also iendpoint. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se.

@max).CHAPTER 2. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. ones(5. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. func. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.5). se.3). See also ivar. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. out = iwindow(image. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. @std). edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. ones(3. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.

ktriangle. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. k = kdgauss(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. kdog. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. See also kgauss. • The vertical derivative. dG/dx. See also ones. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. is k’. k = kcircle(R. klog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . dG/dy.CHAPTER 2.

klog. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . k = kdog(sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. See also kdgauss.6*sigma1.CHAPTER 2. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. kdog. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). k = kgauss(sigma. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly.

kdgauss. See also kgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. and W=2 × H+1. iconv. kdog.CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = klog(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also ilaplace.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.CHAPTER 2. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. Pattern Recognition Principles. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. L = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension.C] = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. [L. it is assumed to have been completed previously.C] = kmeans(x. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. symmetric about the origin. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. [x. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. [x. See also cylinder. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.z] = mkcube(s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Options ‘T’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). s.y. The points are the columns of p. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. ‘edge’. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2.y. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. C ‘T’.

or y(:. That is. y. n) MPLOT(y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. the sum of I(x.xp . Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. p. or y(:. n) MPLOT(t.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. See also mpq poly. n.CHAPTER 2. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(t.y). labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y) MPLOT(t.yq . y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. npq. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

p. upq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq poly.

T has the same dimensions as im. sad.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.s] = niblack(im. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. W. 20). the height of a character. ssd. where W=2*w2+1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp(im >= t).m. k. See also zncc. Prentice-Hall. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. -0. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. 1986. [T.CHAPTER 2. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.2. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. in text segmentation. niblack. for example. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Example t = niblack(im.

p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. That is UPQ(im. mpq. See also npq poly.0).p.q)/MPQ(im.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. p.

they are considered as a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq. so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq. mpq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly.

idisp(im >= t). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979.CHAPTER 2. N. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.xp] = peak(y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. otsu IEEE Trans. Example t = otsu(im).i] = peak(y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. [yp. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Systems. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.S points. [zp. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. S ‘interp’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. Typically choose N to be odd. N ‘scale’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. N ‘scale’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.CHAPTER 2. use peak2(-V).

CHAPTER 2. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ie. See also pnmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. plot2(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. If p has three dimensions.

Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.y2. Examples plot_circle(c. r. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y1) and (x2. ’LineWidth’. ‘r’. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. PLOT BOX(x1. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=solid. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. x2. r. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’edgecolor’.y1. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. or a set of name. r. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ‘size’. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. P. ’g’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. W. 5). R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. plot_circle(c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.y2). ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ’b’). and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. plot_circle(c. P. ’fillcolor’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. W. PLOT BOX(’centre’.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’r’).

plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. xc. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.CHAPTER 2.Y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with Matlab line style ls. centred at the origin.Y.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. c Specify color of the axes. Options ‘color’. If C=[X. ls) ls is the standard line styles. current plot. C.

data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’color’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. w ‘arrow’ ’length’.X = 0. ‘printf’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. Options ‘textcolor’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. trplot( T. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ’r’. ’r’). ’color’. fmt. n ‘text opts’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. to ‘view’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L.CHAPTER 2. ‘framename’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’name’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R. R. 1=solid. R. either a letter or 3-vector. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. The default is 1. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. NOTES • The sphere is always added. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p.CHAPTER 2. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. patch. See also plot. color. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.

See also plot. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also pgmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.

See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gr. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.CHAPTER 2. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.

x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.in. T. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. [m. x.resid] = ransac(func. Options ‘maxTrials’. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.in] = ransac(func. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.CHAPTER 2. x typically contains corresponding point data. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. one column per point pair. T. d) as above but elements increment by d. T. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. N ‘maxDataTrials’. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set.

Cambridge University Press. References • m.x.theta.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Comp. If multiple models are found out.A.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x data to work on.theta to the points R.x = CONDITION(R. Fishler and R.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.inlier. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.x) condition the point data out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. Boles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. Mach.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta = [].x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.R..s out.out.resid] = EST(R. that is they will produce a model.theta is a cell array.out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. [out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. they detect a structure argument.theta] = ERR(R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.x and returns the best model out. [out. that is.CHAPTER 2. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta.C.theta and the subset of R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. Assoc. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta = DECONDITION(R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. pp 381-395. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .debug display what’s going on (logical) R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. pp 101-113. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Comm. No 6.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. Vol 24. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.misc element.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x.misc private data (cell array) out.

edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uwa. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector.csse. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.CHAPTER 2.au/ pk See also fmatrix.

rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz.CHAPTER 2. See also roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx. See also rotx. roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

Y. pitch. pitch. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. If roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Z axes respectively. See also tr2rpy. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. yaw. pitch.CHAPTER 2. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. T = rpy2tr(roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. • many texts (Paul.

and rotation theta in the plane.y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. ncc. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ssd. r2t. y.CHAPTER 2. See also zsad. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. theta) as above where xy=[x.

sad. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. See also zsdd. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

c. varargin) opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. – If T is 3 × 3. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. ’that’.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).bar = false. then R is 2 × 2. b. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.blah = []. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. tr2rt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’other’}. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.foo = true. opt. The software pattern is: function(a. then R is 3 × 3. It supports options that have an assigned value.CHAPTER 2.choose = {’this’. opt. opt.

blah <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).y sets opt.false ‘blah’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.CHAPTER 2. args) creates a test pattern image. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.foo <. w. varargin).debug <.true sets opt.N sets opt <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .select <. If neither of ‘this’. varargin). Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.y ‘that’ sets opt.select <.choose <.choose <.3 ‘blah’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.x.1. opt = tb_optparse(opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. 3 sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.foo <. x.blah <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. N ‘setopt’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.‘this’.verbose <. ’#yes’}. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.select = {’#no’.

args is the number of cycles. intercept. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. binary square pattern. 2). [s. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. 256. 25).sdd] = tpoly(s0. dot diameter.sd.sdd] = tpoly(s0. a line. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. args are pitch (distance between centres). Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. sf. 50. binary dot pattern. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sf. args are theta (rad). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. square side length.sd. The trajectory s. args is the number of cycles. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 256. args is the number of cycles. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.CHAPTER 2. args is the number of cycles. sd and sdd are n-vectors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.

options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. [theta.CHAPTER 2. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. See also angvec2r. The 3 angles rpy=[R. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Y.P. Y and Z axes respectively.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. • The validity of R is not checked. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. – If TR is 3 × 3. ie. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. If T has three dimensions. See also rt2tr.:. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.y. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.z]. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. See also rpy2tr. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. r2t. y. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.

The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. each N × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). [c1.CHAPTER 2. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or x and y. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. [o1. An historical anomaly.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty.CHAPTER 2. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotx. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trprint T is the command line form of above. and displays in RPY format. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. f ‘label’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.

q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.(y-y0)q where (x0. See also upq poly.y). mpq. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is.CHAPTER 2.y0) is the centroid. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2rpy. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.(x-x0)p . the sum of I(x. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. p. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. See also ncc. sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.

Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

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