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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. and I commend it to you. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. is open-source. This is extravagant on storage. However the book “Robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.

. . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . .6. . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . .

. . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . idisplabel . . icp . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . kgauss . . . . . . . . istereo . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . iscolor . . . . . ilabel . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. That’s what you your teachers. tutors. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. and you will be suitably acknowledged. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. You need to signup in order to post.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.com. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.google. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.

A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. The ﬁle robot. Author = {P. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).petercorke. 1.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Number = {4}. The details are @article{Corke05f.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the table of content to functions. 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Year = {2005}. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Volume = {12}.zip).5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.I. type of organization and application. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Corke}. 1.html on a server for class use. and the “See also” functions to each other. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Month = nov.gz) or zip format (. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.3.

MSER.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.S. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .7.R.7 Acknowledgements Last.vlfeat. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. November 2005. but not least. Corke. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.Functions such as SURF.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. VLFeat http://www.mathworks.6. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.1. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. 12(4). See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.. pp 16–25. Twente. Coimbra. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. and there are hundreds of modules available.I. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. P. 1994 University of British Columbia. 1. 1. Vincent Lepetit. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

Camera. T ‘color’. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘sensor’. IM ‘resolution’. Options ‘name’. used by all subclasses. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. N ‘image’. S ‘noise’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. S ‘centre’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. P ‘pixel’.CHAPTER 2.

SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera.char Convert to string s = C.centre Get camera position p = C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf Clear the image plane C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.display Display value C.delete Camera object destructor C. CatadioptricCamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Camera.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.char Camera. Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.u + b. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. otherwise false (0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. and off if H is false (or 0). See also Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).CHAPTER 2.v + c = 0. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.

move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera.plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. See also mesh. y. The matrices x. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.T. Camera.hold.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Camera. z. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. cylinder.plot Plot points on image plane C. y.clf Camera. uv = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. sphere. y. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. z to the image plane and plots them. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. mkcube. Options ‘Tobj’.plot(p.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.mesh(x.

point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.clf Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Options ‘Tcam’.T.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. T ‘scale’. Overrides the current camera pose C.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.mesh.hold. ‘fps’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. ‘Tcam’. Camera. ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T See also Camera. Camera.

a subclass of Camera. that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rpy Set camera attitude C.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. C. The image is not inverted.p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.y]. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. p. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.rpy(R.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C Camera matrix C = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

S.and y-axes respectively.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).177 See also CentralCamera. E = C. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera. T ‘color’. SIGMA ‘pose’. u.CHAPTER 2. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. p.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. CentralCamera. N ‘focal’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. F ‘distortion’.Ma.8]) See also Camera. Reference Y. S.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. optical axis is z-axis. f=8mm. J. “An invitation to 3D”.F. 10um pixels.and v-axes parallel to x. N ‘sensor’.Sastry.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S ‘noise’. P ‘pixel’. E = C. D ‘default’ ‘image’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. 2003. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S ‘centre’. camera at origin.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. IM ‘resolution’.Kosecka.E Essential matrix E = C. ﬁsheyecamera.Soatto. Springer.

H Homography matrix H = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Springer. S.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Reference Y.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H(T. “An invitation to 3D”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. F = C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.H CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Soatto.Kosecka.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).E CentralCamera. n.Ma. p.Sastry.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. 2003.177 See also CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. from two viewpoints. S. J.

estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.CHAPTER 2. and P. Moreno-Noguer.estpose(xyz. CentralCamera. 2009. pp. V. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. CentralCamera. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. a = C. Fua. Journal on Computer Vision. See also quiver CentralCamera.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 81. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Lepetit. 155-166. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Int. Feb.

In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. Springer. Springer.Sastry.Ma.E CentralCamera.Kosecka. p116. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry. p. “Multiview Geometry”. “An invitation to 3D”. J.Soatto. translation not to scale • n. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. See also CentralCamera. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.CHAPTER 2.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 259 Y. 2003. Chap 9. s. J. 2003.Ma.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. s. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Soatto. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. Reference Y. section 5.Kosecka. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).invE(E.

‘Tcam’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Hough CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.H CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). one per line.T. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot epiline(f. p. CentralCamera. H = C.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.project(p.CHAPTER 2.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. C.

The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. F. and P. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.visjac e(E. See also Camera.c.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Reference B. Chaumette. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. 313-326. “Multiview Geometry”.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. 8. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. vol. June 1992. Rives.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.plot CentralCamera. Espiau.CHAPTER 2. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.b. pp. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.

Rives. CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera.visjac l(L. Reference B. and P.visjac e CentralCamera. 1996. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Espiau.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac p(uv. Vol 12(5). June 1992. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. F.visjac p. IEEE Trans. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. CentralCamera.visjac p polar.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. 8. Oct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp 651-670.c. R&A. Chaumette. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.b.visjac p. Hager & Corke. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. 313-326.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. CentralCamera. Hutchinson.visjac p polar. pp. vol. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera.

Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Oct. I. F. pp.visjac p polar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac l. 5962-5967. CentralCamera. (St. See also CentralCamera. Corke. P. CentralCamera. Int. Chaumette.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. in Proc. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. and F. Spindler. Louis). CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac p. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac l. 2009.CHAPTER 2. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. radius and theta.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.

Lowe. vol. Journal on Computer Vision. See README. ScalePointFeature. See also isift.91-110. Nov. 2004. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. D.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.SIFT. pp. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. PointFeature.60. Int. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.

2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isift SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SIFT point features m = F. F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. v.plot scale Plot feature scale F.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 0=transparent (default 0. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. C ‘alpha’. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. SiftPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.match(f2.

support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but the support region is displayed. [out.support(im.T] = F.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. out = F. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. S ‘pose’. Options ‘Tobj’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’.project(p. Options ‘name’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.T. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Overrides the current camera pose C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. N ‘pixel’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

image plane size and desired feature locations. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.5) target center . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.CHAPTER 2. The camera view.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . scalar for If null take actual value all points.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .01) . camera pose. The external view.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .center of the target in world coords (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera view. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. defaults in parentheses: target size .0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.the side length of the target in world units (0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Jacobian condition number. error. error norm.depth of points to use for Jacobian. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.gain. of 4-vector. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.

CHAPTER 2. May 3-7 2010.center of the target in world coords (0.gain. CentralCamera. Robotics and Automation.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p(pt. CentralCamera.visjac l.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. in Proc. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . See also CentralCamera. error norm.the side length of the target in world units (0. Corke. IEEE Int.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. The external view. 5550-5555. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. camera pose.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . pp. P. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. for all points. I. Conf. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.01) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. of 4-vector. defaults in parentheses: target size . scalar for If null take actual value all points. (Anchorage). Jacobian condition number. image plane size and desired feature locations.visjac p polar. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). error.5) target center .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.

Luc Van Gool. Andreas Ess. Vol. pp. 346–359. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. No. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 110. Tinne Tuytelaars. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.

f = PointFeature(u. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. [m. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. v. Options ‘thresh’.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.C] = F.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.match(f2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match Match SURF point features m = F. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].

support Support region of feature out = F.support(images. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. F. F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. 1=opaque. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.plot scale(options.CHAPTER 2.2) SurfPointFeature.support(images. [out.T] = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. out = F.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.support(im. C ‘alpha’. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.

axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Video AxisWebCamera.com) web camera. S ‘resolution’. otherwise the result is not predictable. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis.CHAPTER 2.com).

grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string A. See also AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.display AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.

on Computer Vision. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.Zisserman. f can also be a cell array. Oct. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.org).1470-1477.Sivic and A. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. in Proc. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. pp. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Conf. Ninth IEEE Int. 2003. b = BagOfWords(f.

char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords. images. BagOfWords.display Display value B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars(w.contains Find images containing word k = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. isurf BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char Convert to string s = B.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

isword Features from words f = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.n] = B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. M ‘width’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. Options ‘ncolumns’. BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.remove stop Remove stop words B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

S ‘centre’. ‘equisolid’.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. f=8mm. ‘sine’. camera at origin.CHAPTER 2. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis.and v-axes parallel to x. See also Camera.and y-axes respectively. P ‘pixel’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. N ‘sensor’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. SIGMA ‘pose’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. 10um pixels. S ‘noise’. T ‘Tcam’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). K ‘maxangle’. M ‘k’. ﬁsheyecamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. N ‘focal’. A ‘resolution’. u. CatadioptricCamera.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.

Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.CHAPTER 2. such as ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. See also PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SurfPointFeature.

one per element. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value M. See also FeatureMatch. m = FeatureMatch(f1. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the match object. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. f2.

v2].inlier Inlier features m2 = M.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier.CHAPTER 2.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.u2. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.

p FeatureMatch.p2. for example by: idisp({im1.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot() M.FeatureMatch.p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.CHAPTER 2. These are the (u.p FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.p1.im2}) m.p2 FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M. FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

1e-4). m = f1. See also idisp FeatureMatch. homography.match(f2).CHAPTER 2. ransac FeatureMatch.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.ransac Apply RANSAC M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac(func. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. m. f2 = isurf(im2). inliers and outliers (and their percentages). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. See also fmatrix.ransac( @fmatrix.

v. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Y This camera model assumes central projection.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. that is. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.

f=8mm. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.CHAPTER 2. S ‘noise’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘equisolid’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. camera at origin.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. u. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. ‘sine’. Options ‘name’. 10um pixels. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘sensor’. M ‘k’.and v-axes are parallel to x. SIGMA ‘pose’.axes respectively. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. S ‘centre’. optical axis is z-axis. K ‘resolution’. P ‘pixel’.and y.

plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. CatadioptricCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also FishEyeCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera.T. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. The voting array is 2-dimensional. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.CHAPTER 2. See also LineFeature Hough. A horizontal line has theta = 0. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.0) and the line.H).Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.CHAPTER 2. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.edgeThresh.5) Set ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. W ‘nbins’. else N = [Ntheta. Set ht.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.houghThresh (default 0.1). T ‘suppress’. Hough. Default 400 × 401.edgeThresh (default 0.char Convert to string s = HT.display Display value HT.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nrho].char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. W ‘houghthresh’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. T ‘edgethresh’. See also Hough. Hough.

HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.lines Find lines L = HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .lines Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. L = HT. H = HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. The highest peak is found.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. then all elements in an HT. See also Hough. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks. LineFeature Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.CHAPTER 2. HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot(n.plot Plot line features HT.

rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. RegionFeature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.

theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. one per element. strength.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = LineFeature(rho. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.display Display value L.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. theta. LineFeature. See also LineFeature.char Convert to string s = L.CHAPTER 2. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

l2 = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot Plot line L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.seglength(edge. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. Small gaps. LineFeature.points Return points on line segments p = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. See also icanny LineFeature.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the line on current plot.CHAPTER 2. l2 = L. L.

Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com). S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie.close Close the image source M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘skip’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string M.close() closes the connection to the movie.axis. G ‘scale’.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. undirected graph create an n-d.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. F Skip frames. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. Options ‘skip’. planar. S ‘frame’. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.

plot() g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.neighbours(v) g.next(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.connectivity() g.clear() add vertex.distance(v1. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add edge(v1.CHAPTER 2.goal(v) g.cost(e) g.coord(v) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. v2) g.add node(coord.edges(e) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord) g. v) g.component(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CHAPTER 2. PGraph. and returns the edge id E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. and returns the node id v.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add node(x. v = G.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. where x is D × 1. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node(x.add edge(v1.add edge(v1. E = G. v. v = G. Options ‘distance’. PGraph. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.

and the distance d.char Convert graph to string s = G.CHAPTER 2. [v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. D × 1.coord(v) return coordinate vector.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G. of node id v.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.closest Find closest node v = G.clear Clear the graph G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. edges and components. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph.d] = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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f = PointFeature(u. one per element. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SurfPointFeature.display Display value F.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v.

ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. where 1 is perfect match.match(f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.char PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.match Match point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.C] = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot Plot feature F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). Polygon . If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.

and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. http://puddle.area() is the area of the polygon.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.mit.area Area of polygon a = P. one column per vertex. Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. union. so use with care.mit.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. difference. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. HEIGHT].char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.html and require a licence. kirill@plume. Polygon. Pankratov.char String representation s = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p = Polygon(C.edu. Polygon. intersection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Polygon. See also Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).char Polygon. Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. else 0. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. returns coordinates of P.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display Display polygon P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.CHAPTER 2.

• If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. returns empty polygon. Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. y1 y2]. each column is [x y]’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.moments(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.

Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union Union of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.CHAPTER 2.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon. P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.CHAPTER 2. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. [x. See also Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. one per element.display Display value R.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2.E] = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.char Ray3D. Ray3D. [x.E] = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.

maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. horizontal coordinate centroid. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.0) 1 for a circle. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c.b. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.

one per element.th] = R. RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. For example R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. ymax]. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. RegionFeature.xmax. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ymin.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.char Convert to string s = R.uc will be a list not a vector.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.box Return bounding box b = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. RegionFeature. See also iblobs. imoments RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

It is indicated with overlaid o. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. See also RegionFeature. R.and xmarkers. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Plot centroid R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary plot boundary R.char RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.display Display value R.

R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also PointFeature. C ‘alpha’. SurfPointFeature. 1=opaque. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = ScalePointFeature(u. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature. strength.plot scale(options. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F.

T ‘movie’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. Options ‘radius’. one per active track. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. options) is a new tracker object. R ‘nslots’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.CHAPTER 2. C.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. See also PointFeature Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. N ‘thresh’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.

tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Tracker.display Display value T. Tracker.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. See also Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Convert to string s = T.

Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. AxisWebCamera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Movie Video. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. G ‘scale’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.CHAPTER 2. and their characteristics is displayed. otherwise the result is not predictable. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close Close the image source V.close() closes the connection to the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.

the second for right. if negative it is reduced. If th1 is a column vector. the ﬁrst for left. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result is in the interval [-pi pi). Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. By default the left image is red. color. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. and the right image is cyan. a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors.CHAPTER 2. right. right.

[x.boundary. x2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2]. p2) as above but p1=[x1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.CHAPTER 2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.y1) to (x2.y2).s] = boundmatch(R1. Endpoints must be integer. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. 6500). % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. If lambda is a column vector. % emission of sun plot(l. See also RegionFeature. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y1] and p2=[x2. y1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. p = bresenham(p1.

Y.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. [C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.

k = closest(a. [k. that is. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B).CHAPTER 2. Options ‘n’. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x = circle(C. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.d1] = closest(a. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. and x is N × 3. R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. green and blue primaries respectively.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red.

they were measured directly.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.ac. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Data from http://cvrl. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. and 22500 (444.16). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).32).5. • From Table I(5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.ucl. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.CHAPTER 2. 335 of Table 1(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). (Table 1(5.ioo.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. 19000 (526.d2] = closest(a.5. while Table I(5.d1. As noted in footnote a on p. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. since.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.5.

ac.M). Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2.ucl. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].uk See also cmfrgb. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ioo. out = col2im(pix. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .

[0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. func. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. k.G. [L.CHAPTER 2. mask. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. and returns a per-pixel logical result. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. out = colorize(im. See also imono. icolor.C] = colorkmeans(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.B). @isnan. @isnan. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. im<100. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. eg. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.

the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. low is good. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. L = colorkmeans(im. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. eg. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. XYZ = colorname(name.C. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R] = colorkmeans(im. k) as above but also returns the residual R. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.CHAPTER 2. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities.

Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.o2.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. it can be omitted. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.o3] = colorspace(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. • Color space names are case insensitive. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.i2. s = ‘src->dest’. s = ‘dest<-src’. As MATLAB’s native datatype.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.txt. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. i1. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. colorspace(s. or alternatively. double data is the natural choice. [o1. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. Input and output images have 3 planes. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.

colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.CHAPTER 2.100). B = rand(400. However. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. for memory and computational performance.2*A. like a colormap.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d = distance(A.B). out will also have size M × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. • If im is an M × 3 array. Example A = rand(400.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.200). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. E = edgelist(im. in matrix coordinate frame. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.j).(+31)20-5257524. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. non zero is counter-clockwise. Tested: PC Matlab v5. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.uva. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.y). See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. non-zero is an object.3. The result E is a matrix. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. University of Amsterdam. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . seed. bunschot@wins. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.CHAPTER 2. not image frame.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. tel.

Coimbra. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. Author Based on fmatrix code by.CHAPTER 2.R. epiline(f. 1998. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. See also fmatrix. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p. See also epiline. Oct 27.S. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). one per line drawn. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. p1. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p. H = epiline(f. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.

epiline. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. See also ransac. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.au/. page 270. p2.edu. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. • Contains a RANSAC driver. • f is a rank 2 matrix. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. The University of Western Australia. c. no outlier rejection is performed. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. Notes • The points must be corresponding. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). it is singular.uwa. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. that is.CHAPTER 2. homography. that is. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. http://www. which means it can be passed to ransac().csse.

CHAPTER 2. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. ithin. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).y1) and (x2. See also imorph. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y1. itriplepoint.y2).

The University of Western Australia.au/. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.csse.edu. invhomog. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.uwa. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. See also ransac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.CHAPTER 2. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. no outlier rejection is performed. which means it can be passed to ransac(). • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be corresponding. http://www. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.

if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. [out. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. ie.offs] = homwarp(H. V ‘roi’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. D ‘size’. itrim. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. S output image contains all the warped pixels. that is tp=T*T1. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. im. S ‘dimension’. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im. See also homography. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. R ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. See also e2h.

Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants.CHAPTER 2. IT-8:pp. ’nfeat’. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. features. 1962. Hu. features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. 200). 179-187. ianimate(seq. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ’gs’). features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ianimate(im. on Information Theory. IRE Trans. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im.

YMIN YMAX]. iharris. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. M ‘npoints’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘only’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. isurf. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

horizontal coordinate centroid.0) 1 for a circle. vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. default 1. [S1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. ilabel.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.CHAPTER 2. [A1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0 ‘connect’. A set pixel aspect ratio. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.

S ‘th0’. See also isobel. This is an dilation followed by erosion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. se. See also iopen. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.CHAPTER 2. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. 1996-7. out = iclose(im. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. T ‘th1’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Tel Aviv University. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.

color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. See also imono.CHAPTER 2. C = icolor(im. [0 1 1]). Options ‘dir’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. [C.u] = iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. D ‘bgval’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. colorize. The images do not have to be of the same size.

If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. options) convolves im1 with im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. im2.

E ‘suppress’. K ‘patch’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. N ‘detector’. S ‘deriv’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CM ‘cminthresh’. CT ‘edgegap’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. R ‘nfeat’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. D ‘sigma’. D ‘k’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned.

Shi and C. p2. Image and Vision Computing. C. Manchester. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. pp. 1994. pp. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.Noble. pp 147-151.. Proc.6. Tomasi.121-128. T ‘distthresh’. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.J. where * denotes squared and smoothed.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. J. [T. May 1988. 1988. 593-593. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.G.5 [sec]. • “Good features to track”.d] = icp(p1. Stephens. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. • “Finding corners”. Harris and M. Options ‘dplot’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. N ‘mindelta’. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.CHAPTER 2. with a delay of 0. Proc. J. See also PointFeature. p2. IEEE Computer Society. with a delay of d [sec]. T ‘maxiter’. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.

m. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. 239-256. 2. pp. IEEETrans. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Feb.McKay.Besl and H. vol..CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. m. Mach. Pattern Anal. s = idecimate(im. 1992. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each plane is decimated. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. P. 14. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. See also iscale. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. no. Intell.or 3-dimensional. s = idecimate(im.

The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. positive is blue.CHAPTER 2. zero is white. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. linear proﬁle. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. negative is red. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. histogram and zooming. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. zero is white color map: random values. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. If the image is zoomed. positive is blue. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. C ‘xydata’. zero is black. XY ‘colormap’. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. Options ‘ncolors’. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im.and y-axes respectively. If im is a cell array of images. darker than ‘grey’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). negative is red.

colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . caxis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. colormap. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. labels. idisplabel(im.CHAPTER 2. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. icolorize. labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. See also image. See also iblobs. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image.

45.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.2. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. ithin. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. out = igamma(im. See also itriplepoint. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.

2004. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. [l. min. Journal on Computer Vision. [L. Sept. min. k is the scale parameter. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. k. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. 59. Felzenszwalb and D. k. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.5). Huttenlocher. See also ithresh. 1500. vol.m] = igraphseg(im. 100. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Example im = iread(’58060.CHAPTER 2. 2006. 167181. Int. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. P. pp.jpg’).m] = igraphseg(im. 0. L = igraphseg(im. k.5). imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.

Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [H. [h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2. bar(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im).h). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.h). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. H = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. plot(x. options) displays the image histogram.

Region labels are in the range 1 to M. y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. ii is a precomputed integral image. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.y1) and bottom-right (x2. x1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. same size as im. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. [L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.CHAPTER 2. y2.m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2). See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. [L. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.

ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. 8). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.Y]. [L. p2. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.maxlabel. p1. otherwise it does not. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.class.parents. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.parents. each a 2-vector [X. p1. iproﬁle. ilabel(im. out = iline(im. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. eg. • This is a “low level” function. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. The pixels on the line are set to 1. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.maxlabel. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also iblobs. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.

x. s] % relative to (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. x.y). s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. im2.DY.DY) are the x. ymax] relative to (x.CHAPTER 2.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. and columns the vertical position. ymin. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. [xm. im2. y. s.and y-offsets relative to (x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). xmax. y. H.y). a perfect match score is 1. The return value is xm=[DX. centred at (x.CC] where (DX. • Is a MEX ﬁle. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The template in im1 is centred at (x.score] = imatch(im1. w2.y) and its half-width is H. • ZNCC matching is used. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.y) and of size s. -s.

w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. [u. effectively a binary image. [u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. The element u(v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. f = imoments(u.u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(w. H) as above but the domain is w × H. All pixels are equally weighted.u) = v. effectively a greyscale image.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m10. m11. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. See also RegionFeature. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m02. • This function does not perform connectivity. icolor. Different conversion functions are supported. m01. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. or its area. the elements are m00. m20. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. ilabel.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.

Sept.m] = imser(im. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. 2004. and T.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. The labels [L. pp. J. Chum. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im.png’. [label. 22. se. ’double’).m] = imser(im. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. vol. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Pajdla.org). options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. O. m. ’grey’. ’light’). Urban. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matas. Image and Vision Computing. 761767.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.ˆ2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.

sides. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. se.CHAPTER 2. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. out = iopen(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. See also iclose. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. n. sides.

ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. ’t’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.V]. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.CHAPTER 2. im1. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ’tblr’. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. otherwise im2 is selected. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 20. 10. im2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. [p. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. See also bresenham. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.uv] = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2.v) for the corresponding row of p.

order. se. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. 1.3). edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. im > irank(im. out = ipyramid(im.5)). se(2. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. See also iscalespace. 12. is order=1. se. ones(5. idecimate.CHAPTER 2.2) = 0. op. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se). nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. out = imorph(image. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. op. the maximum. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. out = ipyramid(im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. out = imorph(image. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. nbins. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. sigma. The highest rank. Notes • Works for greyscale images only.

ivar. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. R ‘roi’. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. im = iread(ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. vmin vmax]. where R=[umin umax.

• The resulting images may have negative disparity. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. See also FeatureMatch. [out1. im1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m. igamma.out2] = irectify(f.out2. imwrite. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. Notes • Color images are not supported. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. imono. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. istereo.CHAPTER 2. m. im1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).h1. homwarp.h2] = irectify(f.

CHAPTER 2.H] return central part of image. vmin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. See also idisp.umax. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. S ‘extrapval’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.vmin vmax].vmax]. angle. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. [out. V ‘smooth’. Options ‘outsize’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. while bias>0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. Options ‘outsize’.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s<1 makes it smaller. bias<0. bias=0. out = isamesize(im1. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 is symmetric cropping. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s ‘extrapval’. V ‘smooth’.CHAPTER 2. s>1 makes the image larger. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.

g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. n. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.L.s] = iscalespace(im.s] = iscalespace(im. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.L.CHAPTER 2. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. See also iscalespace. in space and scale. corresponding to each step of the sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. n) as above but sigma=1. idecimate. [g. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .

ishomog(T. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. else false (0). it its third dimension is equal to three.CHAPTER 2. See also isrot. ismooth. ilaplace. ‘valid’) as above. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. that is. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image.

91-110. 2 (2004). “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Reference David G. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T.vlfeat. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. International Journal of Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. pp. 60.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘suppress’. Lowe. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Features are returned in descending strength order. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. See also SiftPointFeature. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. isurf.

@zssd. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @ssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. and these output pixels are set to NaN. im. [w. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. See also imatch.H. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. @zsad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. sad. ssd. zsad. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. zssd. s is same size as im. [w.CHAPTER 2. @ncc. s = isimilarity(T.

Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gx.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. then converted back to integer. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. convolved. See also iconv. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx.

isrot(R. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).u). See also ksobel. else false (0). • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.M] for an N × M window. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ‘valid’) as above. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. range. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.u) means that imr(v. icanny. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. See also ishomog. H.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. H is the half size of the matching window. imr. imr.sim] = istereo(iml.CHAPTER 2. range is the disparity search range. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. w. [d. range. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. the disparity d=d(v. That is. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml.

‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. range. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. 3) See also irectify. That is.p] = istereo(iml. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. range. imr. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.A and p. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.5 to +0.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. out = istretch(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w.5). options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. [d. • sim = max(dsi.sim. Options ‘metric’.dsi] = istereo(iml. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. w.sim. p. imr.CHAPTER 2. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). p. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. ‘ncc’. dx. [d. B. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.

Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). N ‘thresh’. T ‘octaves’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Notes • Color images. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Kroon (U. or sequences. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D.

Andreas Ess. isift. either a row. Luc Van Gool. pp. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Tinne Tuytelaars. else false (0). Vol.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines.CHAPTER 2. 3. isvec(v. 346–359.or columnvector. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. out = ithin(im. itriplepoint. See also hitormiss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Otherwise false (0). No. See also ishomog. 110. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.

The same cropping is applied to each input image.im2. See also homwarp. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.out2] = itrim(im1. [out1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. Notes • Greyscale image only.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. a lower value will include more. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.5. ithresh(im. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The default is 0. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.out2] = itrim(im1.

hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. se. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. op. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. See also iendpoint. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. @max). func. se. See also ivar. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. @std). edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. se. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.5).CHAPTER 2. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.3). func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. ones(3. ones(5. out = iwindow(image. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.

H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. is k’. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. k = kdgauss(sigma.CHAPTER 2. See also ones. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. kdog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . dG/dy. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. • The vertical derivative. klog. ktriangle. k = kcircle(R. dG/dx. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. See also kgauss.

iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kgauss. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kdog(sigma1. klog. See also kdgauss.6*sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). kdog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. k = kgauss(sigma. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2. klog.CHAPTER 2.

k = klog(sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv. kdog. See also kgauss. See also ilaplace.

c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Pattern Recognition Principles. and D is the dimension. k. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to.CHAPTER 2.C] = kmeans(x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. [L. L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. ‘edge’. s. [x. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated.y. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. See also cylinder.z] = mkcube(s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default the grid lies in the XY plane. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. [x. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. C ‘T’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). symmetric about the origin. Options ‘T’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.z] = mkcube(s.y. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. The points are the columns of p.CHAPTER 2. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.

MPLOT(t.xp . or y(:. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.CHAPTER 2. y. y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. or y(:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. npq. the sum of I(x. See also mpq poly. That is.y). y) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.2)).yq . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) MPLOT(t.2)). q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. p. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.

p. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. npq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. See also mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. upq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. so centroids will be still be correct.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. where W=2*w2+1.m. ssd. niblack. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. 20). k. Example t = niblack(im. [T. the height of a character. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. • A common choice of k=-0. T has the same dimensions as im. -0. idisp(im >= t). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = niblack(im.CHAPTER 2. sad. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.2. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. in text segmentation.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. W. 1986. for example. k. See also zncc. Prentice-Hall.

p.0). ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.CHAPTER 2. That is UPQ(im.q)/MPQ(im. See also npq poly.p.

they are considered as a single vertex. mpq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. so centroids will be still be correct. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m.CHAPTER 2. npq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). upq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also mpq poly. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m.

pp 62-66 See also niblack. N. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t).CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x. Jan 1979. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.xp] = peak(y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Systems. [yp.i] = peak(y. otsu IEEE Trans. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. [yp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y.

options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’.S points. use peak2(-V).ij] = peak2(z. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’. S ‘interp’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Typically choose N to be odd. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.S points. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. use peak(-V). Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.CHAPTER 2. [zp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.

If p has three dimensions. See also pnmﬁlt.CHAPTER 2. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. ie. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. plot2(p. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

‘size’. r. PLOT BOX(’topleft’.CHAPTER 2. r. ’g’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ’fillcolor’. value pairs that are passed to plot.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. R. 1=solid. or a set of name. ‘size’. ’LineWidth’. W.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. plot_circle(c. Examples plot_circle(c.y1) and (x2. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. x2. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ‘r’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’b’). P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’edgecolor’.y2. 5). PLOT BOX(x1. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. W. P. r. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ’r’).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles.CHAPTER 2.Y]. c Specify color of the axes. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. C. current plot. xc. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. Options ‘color’. centred at the origin.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. with Matlab line style ls. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Y. If C=[X.

data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’name’. fmt. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’r’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ‘printf’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’r’). Options ‘textcolor’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. trplot( T. n ‘text opts’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines.CHAPTER 2. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ‘framename’. ’color’. to ‘view’. ’color’.X = 0. options) adds point markers to a plot.

1=solid. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. The default is 1. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. See also plot. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. R. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. either a letter or 3-vector. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R. NOTES • The sphere is always added. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. patch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = PLOT SPHERE(C.

pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also pgmﬁlt. See also plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. plotp(p. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.CHAPTER 2. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. [gr. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.

options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. d) as above but elements increment by d. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.in. T. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.resid] = ransac(func. x. N ‘maxDataTrials’. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. [m. Options ‘maxTrials’. one column per point pair.in] = ransac(func. x. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. x typically contains corresponding point data. T. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. T.CHAPTER 2. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.

s out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. No 6.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Comm. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta = DECONDITION(R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. pp 101-113.x = CONDITION(R.C. they detect a structure argument. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.misc element..inlier.x. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. Mach.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Comp. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.resid] = EST(R.out. Cambridge University Press.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. [out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x and returns the best model out.theta to the points R. Assoc. References • m. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. that is they will produce a model.CHAPTER 2.R.x. Fishler and R.s sample size (1 × 1) out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. Boles.theta = []. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . that is.theta] = ERR(R.theta.misc private data (cell array) out.x data to work on. [out. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. If multiple models are found out.theta is a cell array.A.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.x) condition the point data out.theta and the subset of R. pp 381-395.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Vol 24.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.

uwa.csse.au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.edu. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. If lambda is a vector. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.CHAPTER 2.

angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. rotz. See also rotx. roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also roty.

If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. • many texts (Paul. See also tr2rpy. T = rpy2tr(roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Y. pitch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R.CHAPTER 2. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Z axes respectively. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. If roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.

See also zsad. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. r2t.CHAPTER 2.y. y. and rotation theta in the plane. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. theta) as above where xy=[x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ssd. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. ncc.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.

isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. sad.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Two cross-hairs are created. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ncc.

istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. tr2rt.bar = false. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’other’}. varargin) opt. b. then R is 2 × 2. opt. ’that’. then R is 3 × 3. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.blah = []. The software pattern is: function(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.CHAPTER 2. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. It supports options that have an assigned value.foo = true. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t.choose = {’this’. opt. – If T is 3 × 3. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. c. opt.

which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. x.foo <.N sets opt <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.‘this’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.3 ‘blah’. varargin).1.foo <. args) creates a test pattern image. opt = tb_optparse(opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.true sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.y sets opt.choose <.blah <.y ‘that’ sets opt. ’#yes’}. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.verbose <.CHAPTER 2.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.select = {’#no’. varargin). • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.blah <.select <.x. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.false ‘blah’. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .select <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.choose <. 3 sets opt. N ‘setopt’. If neither of ‘this’.debug <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. w.

sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction.CHAPTER 2. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. square side length. 256. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. [s. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). args is the number of cycles. a line. sf.sd. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args is the number of cycles. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are pitch (distance between centres). 25). The trajectory s. args is the number of cycles. binary square pattern. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sd. 50. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args is the number of cycles. intercept. sf. binary dot pattern. sd and sdd are n-vectors. 2). 256. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are theta (rad). dot diameter. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.

If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y. See also angvec2r. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Y and Z axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. rpy = tr2rpy(R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. The 3 angles rpy=[R.

z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y. If T has three dimensions. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. • The validity of R is not checked.y.z]. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. ie. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.CHAPTER 2. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.:. r2t. See also rt2tr. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. – If TR is 3 × 3. See also rpy2tr. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. or x and y. [c1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. each N × 1. An historical anomaly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors.CHAPTER 2. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). [o1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.

CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. troty. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

CHAPTER 2. trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. and displays in RPY format. trprint T is the command line form of above. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. f ‘label’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.y0) is the centroid.CHAPTER 2. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy. mpq. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. That is.y).(y-y0)q where (x0. the sum of I(x. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.(x-x0)p . npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. See also upq poly.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.CHAPTER 2. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. See also ncc. See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale).

See also sdd. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ncc. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

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