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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. However the book “Robotics. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . itrim . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . isurf . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

That’s what you your teachers. lecturers and professors are paid to do.com. tutors. You need to signup in order to post.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.google. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and you will be suitably acknowledged. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.

Volume = {12}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.petercorke. the table of content to functions. Year = {2005}. Number = {4}. Corke}.1. The ﬁle robot. Month = nov.3. 1. Author = {P.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gz) or zip format (. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.zip).html on a server for class use.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. type of organization and application.I. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. The details are @article{Corke05f. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. 1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. and the “See also” functions to each other. 1.

1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.. November 2005. 1.I. but not least. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. 12(4). Twente.S. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. MSER. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. VLFeat http://www. Corke. and there are hundreds of modules available. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.7 Acknowledgements Last. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Coimbra.Functions such as SURF. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. P. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. Vincent Lepetit.R. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.7.vlfeat. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.mathworks. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.1. pp 16–25.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. 1994 University of British Columbia.6.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘centre’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. Camera.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘name’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P ‘pixel’. N ‘sensor’. T ‘color’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. SIGMA ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. IM ‘resolution’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S ‘noise’. used by all subclasses. N ‘image’.

display Display value C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. SphericalCamera Camera.centre Get camera position p = C. ﬁsheyecamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. Camera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. CatadioptricCamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.char Convert to string s = C.clf Clear the image plane C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.

ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.char Camera.CHAPTER 2. Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). otherwise false (0).line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.v + c = 0. and off if H is false (or 0).ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.u + b. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. See also Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.

plot Plot points on image plane C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.plot(p. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. sphere. y. cylinder. y.hold. Options ‘Tobj’. z to the image plane and plots them. T ‘Tcam’.clf Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. y. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera.T. Camera. mkcube.CHAPTER 2. uv = C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. The matrices x. z. Camera.mesh(x. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. See also mesh. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.

Options ‘Tcam’. ‘fps’. ‘Tobj’.T.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.clf Camera. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tcam’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.hold. Camera.CHAPTER 2. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.mesh. T ‘scale’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T See also Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.

The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. C. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. a subclass of Camera.p.rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y].CHAPTER 2. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is. The image is not inverted.rpy(R. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. p.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C Camera matrix C = C.

SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘focal’.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. IM ‘resolution’. S. D ‘default’ ‘image’. CentralCamera.and y-axes respectively. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. T ‘color’. optical axis is z-axis.8]) See also Camera.and v-axes parallel to x.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Sastry. Springer. N ‘sensor’.Kosecka. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera.177 See also CentralCamera.Soatto. S ‘centre’. S ‘noise’.CHAPTER 2. “An invitation to 3D”. P ‘pixel’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S. 2003. E = C.Ma. F ‘distortion’. 10um pixels. Reference Y. p. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. f=8mm. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. J. u. E = C.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera at origin.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.F.E Essential matrix E = C. ﬁsheyecamera.

F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). Reference Y.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Ma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Soatto. S.Sastry.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. J.H CentralCamera. from two viewpoints. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. F = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. “An invitation to 3D”. p.E CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. 2003. See also CentralCamera. n.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.177 See also CentralCamera.Kosecka.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.H(T.H Homography matrix H = C. Springer.

In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. 81. 2009.CHAPTER 2. 155-166. See also quiver CentralCamera. Moreno-Noguer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. pp.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Int. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. and P. Journal on Computer Vision. Feb. vol.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. a = C. V. Lepetit. CentralCamera. F. CentralCamera.estpose(xyz.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Fua.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.

Reference Y.Kosecka. J. “An invitation to 3D”. s. section 5.Soatto. Springer.CHAPTER 2. 259 Y. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Chap 9.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Sastry.Kosecka. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). See also CentralCamera.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer. p116. J. s. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. translation not to scale • n. 2003. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.invE(E. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Soatto.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. s.Sastry. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma.Ma.E CentralCamera. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “Multiview Geometry”.

project(p.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. one per line. ‘Tcam’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.plot epiline(f.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.H CentralCamera. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also Hough CentralCamera. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2. H = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. p. C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.T. CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.

and P. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Reference B. F. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Espiau.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.b. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. “Multiview Geometry”.CHAPTER 2. Chaumette.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 313-326.c. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Rives. 8. vol. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.plot CentralCamera. See also Camera. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.visjac e(E. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. June 1992.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.

8. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). 313-326. CentralCamera. June 1992.visjac l(L. CentralCamera. and P.visjac p(uv.visjac p. R&A. Reference B. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Rives. pp. Hutchinson.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Chaumette. Vol 12(5). vol. pp 651-670. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. F.b. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. CentralCamera.c. Hager & Corke.visjac p.CHAPTER 2.visjac e CentralCamera. Espiau. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. See also CentralCamera. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Oct. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar. IEEE Trans.visjac l CentralCamera. 1996.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar.

P. radius and theta.visjac p polar. I. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. 2009. in Proc. pp.visjac l. Chaumette. Int. 5962-5967. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Louis).visjac p polar(rt. Spindler. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Oct. CentralCamera.visjac p. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.CHAPTER 2.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Corke. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac e CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). See also CentralCamera. (St. and F. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l.

CHAPTER 2.60. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See also isift. Int. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.Lowe. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp. ScalePointFeature.SIFT. 2004. See README. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Journal on Computer Vision. PointFeature. Nov. vol.91-110.

match Match SIFT point features m = F. C ‘alpha’. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. See also isift SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options. 1=opaque.match(f2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. f = PointFeature(u.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. F. 0=transparent (default 0.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.CHAPTER 2.

out = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.support Support region of feature out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out.CHAPTER 2.support(images.support(im.T] = F.support(im.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F.

CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also SphericalCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Overrides the current camera pose C. ﬁsheyecamera.T. S ‘pose’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.project(p. Options ‘name’. Options ‘Tobj’. N ‘pixel’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2.

the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . error.center of the target in world coords (0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .0.the side length of the target in world units (0.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The external view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.depth of points to use for Jacobian.CHAPTER 2. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. of 4-vector.01) . The camera view. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. camera pose. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera view. defaults in parentheses: target size . scalar for If null take actual value all points. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Jacobian condition number. image plane size and desired feature locations.5) target center . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. error norm.gain. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.

01) . error. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. See also CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. for all points. Conf. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. Jacobian condition number.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .5) target center .center of the target in world coords (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . (Anchorage). P.visjac p polar. defaults in parentheses: target size .visjac p(pt. IEEE Int. scalar for If null take actual value all points.CHAPTER 2. image plane size and desired feature locations. pp. camera pose. CentralCamera. of 4-vector.the side length of the target in world units (0.gain. CentralCamera. Corke. Robotics and Automation. 5550-5555.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The external view. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.visjac l.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . error norm. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.depth of points to use for Jacobian. May 3-7 2010. I. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. in Proc.

• SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tinne Tuytelaars. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2. 110. 346–359. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 3. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. No. Luc Van Gool. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp. Andreas Ess. Vol. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.

options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.match Match SURF point features m = F. Options ‘thresh’. [m. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.C] = F. v. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

out = F. F.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.T] = F.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. C ‘alpha’. 0=transparent (default 0. [out. w) as above but the support region is displayed.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support Support region of feature out = F.2) SurfPointFeature. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(im.CHAPTER 2.support(im. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Video AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com) web camera.axis. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’.axis.com).CHAPTER 2. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

See also AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.close Close the image source A.display AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.CHAPTER 2.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.1470-1477.org). f can also be a cell array. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Oct. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. 2003. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Conf.Sivic and A. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Ninth IEEE Int. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. in Proc.Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . on Computer Vision. b = BagOfWords(f. pp.CHAPTER 2. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.

CHAPTER 2.display Display value B.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. images.char Convert to string s = B. isurf BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also BagOfWords. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.contains Find images containing word k = B. BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.exemplars(w. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

BagOfWords. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. M ‘width’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. Options ‘ncolumns’.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.remove stop Remove stop words B.n] = B. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.CHAPTER 2. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

SIGMA ‘pose’. A ‘resolution’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.and v-axes parallel to x. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘centre’. u. M ‘k’. S ‘noise’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. ‘sine’. K ‘maxangle’. Options ‘Tobj’. See also Camera. T ‘Tcam’. P ‘pixel’. f=8mm. 10um pixels. N ‘sensor’. N ‘focal’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.CHAPTER 2. ‘equisolid’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. optical axis is z-axis. See also Camera. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. camera at origin.T.project(p.and y-axes respectively. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.

char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = M. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FeatureMatch. f2. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. one per element.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also PointFeature. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. m = FeatureMatch(f1. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.display Display value M. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature.

u2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier.v1.v2].CHAPTER 2.inlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.

p2. See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2 FeatureMatch.p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch.im2}) m. These are the (u. for example by: idisp({im1.FeatureMatch.plot() M.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.p1.plot Show corresponding points M. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.

The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.ransac( @fmatrix. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.ransac Apply RANSAC M. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. 1e-4).show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. Example f1 = isurf(im1). f2 = isurf(im2).CHAPTER 2. m = f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.match(f2).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. See also fmatrix. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). See also idisp FeatureMatch. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. homography. ransac FeatureMatch.ransac(func.

Y This camera model assumes central projection. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. that is. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. v.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.

T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘sine’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. camera at origin.and v-axes are parallel to x.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Options ‘name’.axes respectively. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and y. N ‘sensor’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. K ‘resolution’. M ‘k’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. P ‘pixel’. S ‘centre’. 10um pixels.CHAPTER 2. u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. f=8mm. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. optical axis is z-axis. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’.

T ‘Tcam’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. CatadioptricCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Options ‘Tobj’. CentralCamera. See also FishEyeCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project(p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera.

options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. A horizontal line has theta = 0.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. The voting array is 2-dimensional.0) and the line. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).H). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. See also LineFeature Hough. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.

if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. N All edge pixels have equal weight. W ‘nbins’.CHAPTER 2. T ‘suppress’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Hough. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT. else N = [Ntheta. See also Hough.5) Set ht.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.edgeThresh.1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display Display value HT. Nrho]. Hough. T ‘edgethresh’.edgeThresh (default 0.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. W ‘houghthresh’.houghThresh (default 0. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Default 400 × 401.

HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. HT.CHAPTER 2. then all elements in an HT. H = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. L = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.lines Find lines L = HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. LineFeature Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. The highest peak is found.plot Plot line features HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot.lines Hough. See also Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. See also Hough.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .houghThresh times the maximum vote value. reﬁned to subpixel precision. The process is repeated for all peaks.

rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.

If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. L = LineFeature(rho. LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. one per element. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.char Convert to string s = L.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. theta. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. L = LineFeature(rho. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.display Display value L. See also LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.

gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot() overlay the line on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. See also icanny LineFeature. Small gaps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength(edge. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. less than gap pixels are tolerated. l2 = L. l2 = L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. LineFeature.plot Plot line L.

S ‘skip’. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.close() closes the connection to the movie.axis.char Convert to string M. G ‘scale’.com). Movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.

grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. Options ‘skip’. F Skip frames. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. planar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. S ‘frame’. undirected graph create an n-d.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.CHAPTER 2. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.path(v) set goal vertex.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().clear() add vertex.distance(v1.next(v) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.CHAPTER 2.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.coord(v) g.add node(coord. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. Object properties (read/write) g.neighbours(v) g.component(v) g.plot() g.edges(e) g. v2) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.goal(v) g.add edge(v1. v) g.cost(e) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.add node(coord) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.connectivity() g.

v2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. and returns the edge id E. Options ‘distance’.add edge(v1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. E = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add edge(v1. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. PGraph. where x is D × 1. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. and returns the node id v. v = G. v = G. v.add node(x.add node(x. PGraph.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.

of node id v.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.CHAPTER 2.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.coord(v) return coordinate vector.closest Find closest node v = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. edges and components.coord Coordinate of node x = G. and the distance d. PGraph. D × 1.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph. [v. PGraph.d] = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph.clear Clear the graph G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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SurfPointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. f = PointFeature(u.display Display value F. PointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. v.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.

the norm of the Euclidean distance.match Match point features m = F.match(f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. PointFeature.C] = F.CHAPTER 2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. where 1 is perfect match.char PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. [m.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon .CHAPTER 2.plot Plot feature F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F.

Pankratov.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. p = Polygon(C.CHAPTER 2. difference. union.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.html and require a licence. Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. HEIGHT].mit.char String representation s = P. Polygon. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu. http://puddle. so use with care.area() is the area of the polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.mit. kirill@plume. one column per vertex. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. intersection.

difference Difference of polygons d = P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.char Polygon. returns coordinates of P. Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.display Display polygon P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. else 0. See also Polygon.

intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. returns empty polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. each column is [x y]’. y1 y2].perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.moments(p. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.CHAPTER 2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.

CHAPTER 2.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot Plot polygon P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Polygon. Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.union Union of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.CHAPTER 2.

intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. See also Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. Ray3D. [x.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = R. Ray3D. [x. one per element.char Convert to string s = R.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.char Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid.b. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.c.

d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. ymin. one per element.xmax. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. See also iblobs. imoments RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.box Return bounding box b = R.uc will be a list not a vector.char Convert to string s = R. RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.CHAPTER 2.th] = R. For example R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax].box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. RegionFeature.

RegionFeature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. See also RegionFeature.char RegionFeature.display Display value R.plot Plot centroid R.plot boundary plot boundary R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. It is indicated with overlaid o.and xmarkers.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.

plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

CHAPTER 2. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque. See also PointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. strength. C ‘alpha’. v. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = ScalePointFeature(u. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.plot scale(options. f = ScalePointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. SurfPointFeature. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. v.

N ‘thresh’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. one per active track. options) is a new tracker object.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. C. R ‘nslots’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. See also PointFeature Tracker. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. Options ‘radius’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. T ‘movie’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.

See also Tracker.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value T.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.

AxisWebCamera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. otherwise the result is not predictable. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. and their characteristics is displayed. Movie Video. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. S ‘resolution’.

char Convert to string V.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.close Close the image source V.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. a = anaglyph(left. color. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. the ﬁrst for left. if negative it is reduced. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and the right image is cyan. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. By default the left image is red. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. If th1 is a column vector. right.

y1] and p2=[x2.y1) to (x2.boundary. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. y1. 6500). Endpoints must be integer. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. p2) as above but p1=[x1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. x2. See also RegionFeature. If lambda is a column vector.y2). Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. p = bresenham(p1. % emission of sun plot(l. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.s] = boundmatch(R1.y2].

Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. [C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.CHAPTER 2.

R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. [k. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.d1] = closest(a.CHAPTER 2. k = closest(a. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. x = circle(C. green and blue primaries respectively. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. that is. Options ‘n’. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. and x is N × 3. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. R.

19000 (526. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.5. since. The data are referred to as pilot data. 335 of Table 1(5.ioo. (Table 1(5.ucl. and 22500 (444.d2] = closest(a. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. As noted in footnote a on p. they were measured directly.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. • From Table I(5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.16).ac.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.32). If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.CHAPTER 2.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . while Table I(5.5.d1. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.

Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.M). xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .uk See also cmfrgb.CHAPTER 2. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl.ioo. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. out = col2im(pix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ac. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.

Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .

and returns a per-pixel logical result. @isnan. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. im<100. mask. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. icolor. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.C] = colorkmeans(im. eg.B). color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @isnan. func.G. See also imono. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.CHAPTER 2. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. k. [L. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.

‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. k) as above but also returns the residual R. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. low is good. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. XYZ = colorname(name. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.C. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. L = colorkmeans(im. eg. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space.R] = colorkmeans(im. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. name = colorname(XYZ.

CHAPTER 2.o2. colorspace(s. or alternatively. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. it can be omitted. i1. s = ‘src->dest’. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. double data is the natural choice. As MATLAB’s native datatype.o3] = colorspace(s. • Color space names are case insensitive.txt. Input and output images have 3 planes. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.i2. [o1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.

200).CHAPTER 2. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Example A = rand(400. out will also have size M × 3. However.2*A.B). d = distance(A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. like a colormap.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).100). for memory and computational performance.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. B = rand(400. • If im is an M × 3 array. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.

j). Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. University of Amsterdam.y).2 and Solaris Matlab v5.CHAPTER 2. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. seed. non-zero is an object.3. The result E is a matrix. not image frame. in matrix coordinate frame. bunschot@wins. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.(+31)20-5257524. Tested: PC Matlab v5. E = edgelist(im. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. non zero is counter-clockwise.uva. tel. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.

ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p. Coimbra.CHAPTER 2. H = epiline(f.R. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. 1998. I. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p. See also epiline. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p1.S. Oct 27. epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. See also fmatrix. one per line drawn. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).

options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. that is. epiline. no outlier rejection is performed. it is singular. • Contains a RANSAC driver. p2. The University of Western Australia. c.uwa. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma.csse. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.CHAPTER 2.edu. homography. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.au/. Notes • The points must be corresponding. page 270. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. See also ransac. that is. • f is a rank 2 matrix. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.

ithin. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. itriplepoint.y1) and (x2.y2). x2. y1. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. See also imorph.CHAPTER 2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

au/. no outlier rejection is performed. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. The University of Western Australia.edu. Notes • The points must be corresponding.csse. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which means it can be passed to ransac(). Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.uwa. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. http://www.CHAPTER 2. See also ransac. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. invhomog. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.

h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. im. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. that is tp=T*T1. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘dimension’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ie. [out. S output image contains all the warped pixels.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. V ‘roi’. See also e2h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. D ‘size’. itrim. See also homography. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. R ‘scale’.offs] = homwarp(H.

Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. on Information Theory. ianimate(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 1962.CHAPTER 2. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IT-8:pp. features. 200). Hu. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. 179-187. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ’nfeat’. ’gs’). features. ianimate(seq. IRE Trans. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K.

isurf. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iblobs features f = iblobs(im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. iharris. M ‘npoints’. YMIN YMAX]. N ‘only’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature.

options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. [A1. [S1. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. default 1. C set connectivity. horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. ilabel. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.0 ‘connect’. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. A set pixel aspect ratio.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.

See also iopen.CHAPTER 2. See also isobel.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. 1996-7. se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Tel Aviv University. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. S ‘th0’.

options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘dir’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘bgval’. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. colorize. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. [C. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). See also imono. [0 1 1]). and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.u] = iconcat(im. C = icolor(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). The images do not have to be of the same size. iconcat(im.

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. options) convolves im1 with im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.CHAPTER 2.

P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. D ‘k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘sigma’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. S ‘deriv’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. N ‘detector’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used.CHAPTER 2. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E ‘suppress’. R ‘nfeat’. K ‘patch’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CT ‘edgegap’. CM ‘cminthresh’.

• The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.d] = icp(p1. 593-593..Noble. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. 1988. with a delay of 0. C. Stephens. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 [sec]. Harris and M. IEEE Computer Society. pp. vol. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. May 1988.6. T ‘distthresh’. Proc. with a delay of d [sec].05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. T ‘maxiter’. Tomasi. 1994. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. • “Finding corners”.CHAPTER 2.121-128. J. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. J. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. p2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Proc. Options ‘dplot’. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Shi and C. [T. pp. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Image and Vision Computing. See also PointFeature. N ‘mindelta’.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. p2. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.J. pp 147-151. where * denotes squared and smoothed. • “Good features to track”.G. Manchester.

McKay. no. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. m. See also iscale.Besl and H. IEEETrans. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. 1992. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. s = idecimate(im. P. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Mach.or 3-dimensional. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.. 2. m. Feb. each plane is decimated. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. pp. vol. Pattern Anal. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. s = idecimate(im. 14. Intell. 239-256.CHAPTER 2.

• The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). zero is black. negative is red. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. Options ‘ncolors’. positive is blue. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. histogram and zooming. positive is blue. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is white color map: random values. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. negative is red.CHAPTER 2. C ‘xydata’. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. If the image is zoomed. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. linear proﬁle.and y-axes respectively. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. If im is a cell array of images. XY ‘colormap’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. darker than ‘grey’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view.

labelimage. See also image. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colormap. labels. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image.CHAPTER 2. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. idisplabel(im. caxis. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. See also iblobs. icolorize. labelimage. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white.

Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.2. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.45. See also itriplepoint.CHAPTER 2. out = igamma(im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.

5). [L. [l. Journal on Computer Vision. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 100. pp. P. k. 1500. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 2006. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 0. 167181. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Sept. Int.m] = igraphseg(im. 2004. Felzenszwalb and D. k. Example im = iread(’58060.5).CHAPTER 2. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol.m] = igraphseg(im. L = igraphseg(im. k is the scale parameter. Huttenlocher. See also ithresh. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. min. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. k. min. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 59.jpg’).

options) is the image histogram as a column vector.x] = ihist(im. ’normcdf’). H = ihist(im. [h. plot(x.x] = ihist(im). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h).x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H. bar(x.

See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . same size as im.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. ii is a precomputed integral image.y1) and bottom-right (x2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.m. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. [L.y2). x1.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. [L. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.CHAPTER 2. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. y2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. y1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.

The pixels on the line are set to 1. iproﬁle. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.class. See also iblobs. • This is a “low level” function.parents. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. out = iline(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. otherwise it does not. each a 2-vector [X. eg. p2.Y]. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. [L. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p1. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. 8). ilabel(im.maxlabel. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p1.parents.maxlabel.CHAPTER 2.

y) and of size s.CC] where (DX.and y-offsets relative to (x.y). s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y) and its half-width is H. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. centred at (x.DY. x. -s. ymin.y). a perfect match score is 1. x. im2. xmax. • Is a MEX ﬁle. The return value is xm=[DX. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. y. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).CHAPTER 2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. im2.score] = imatch(im1.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. H. • ZNCC matching is used. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. s] % relative to (x. [xm. The template in im1 is centred at (x.DY) are the x. s. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. ymax] relative to (x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. w2. and columns the vertical position.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.u) = u and v(v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].CHAPTER 2. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. All pixels are equally weighted. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(w. f = imoments(u. effectively a greyscale image.u) = v. [u. effectively a binary image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. f = imoments(u.

CHAPTER 2. m10. Different conversion functions are supported. or its area. m20. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m11. See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. • This function does not perform connectivity. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the elements are m00. ilabel. horizontal coordinate centroid. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. m01. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. m02. icolor.

part of VLFeat (vlfeat.m] = imser(im. Chum.org). Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = imser(im. 761767. 22. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. The labels [L. J.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Sept. Pajdla. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. vol. O. Urban. ’grey’. se. m. ’light’). [label. 2004. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. pp. Matas. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.png’. ’double’). and T. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.CHAPTER 2. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.ˆ2). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.

n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also iclose. out = iopen(im. n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. sides. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. sides. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.

otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. im1.V]. otherwise im2 is selected. 10. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. p. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’tblr’. im2.CHAPTER 2. 20. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. ’t’.

v) for the corresponding row of p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). [p. See also bresenham. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.uv] = iproﬁle(im. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2.

hence output image had reduced dimensions. se). idecimate. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. order. out = ipyramid(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im.CHAPTER 2. is order=1. ones(5.3). out = imorph(image. 12. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. nbins. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op. op. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the maximum. se. The highest rank. 1.5)). se(2. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. See also iscalespace. se. im > irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = imorph(image. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im.2) = 0. out = ipyramid(im.

im = iread(ﬁle. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. ivar. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix.CHAPTER 2. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. where R=[umin umax. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. vmin vmax]. R ‘roi’. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. See also imorph.

h2] = irectify(f. homwarp. imwrite. m.out2] = irectify(f.out2. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. istereo. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. Notes • Color images are not supported. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. [out1. igamma. imono.h1. See also FeatureMatch. im1.CHAPTER 2. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. m.

vmax]. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.umax. V ‘smooth’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. S ‘extrapval’.H] return central part of image. See also idisp. vmin.vmin vmax]. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. angle. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. Options ‘outsize’.

See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s>1 makes the image larger. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 is symmetric cropping. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias=0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. bias<0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. im2. V ‘smooth’. Options ‘outsize’. s<1 makes it smaller. out = isamesize(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. while bias>0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.

CHAPTER 2. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).L.s] = iscalespace(im. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. [g. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. corresponding to each step of the sequence. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. See also iscalespace. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. n. n) as above but sigma=1.L. in space and scale. idecimate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. that is. else false (0). ismooth. ilaplace. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T.CHAPTER 2. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. it its third dimension is equal to three. See also isrot. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN.

pp. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also SiftPointFeature. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 91-110. Lowe. isurf. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. • Features are returned in descending strength order. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 60. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.CHAPTER 2. N ‘suppress’.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. Reference David G. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. International Journal of Computer Vision. 2 (2004). • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. • ISURF is a functional equivalent.

Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. and these output pixels are set to NaN.CHAPTER 2. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.H.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. @zsad. @ncc. ssd. [w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. [w. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. See also imatch. sad. zssd. @ssd. ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @zssd.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. zsad. s is same size as im. s = isimilarity(T.

gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx.gy] = isobel(im. sigma. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. [gx. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. convolved. See also iconv. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. then converted back to integer.CHAPTER 2.

u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. range is the disparity search range. H. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. w. H is the half size of the matching window. imr.M] for an N × M window. [d. else false (0). isrot(R. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.CHAPTER 2. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. icanny.sim] = istereo(iml. range. See also ishomog. the disparity d=d(v. See also ksobel. range.u) means that imr(v. ‘valid’) as above. imr.u). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. That is.

‘ncc’. out = istretch(im. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).CHAPTER 2. 3) See also irectify. w.sim. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. w. B.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.A and p. imr. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. • sim = max(dsi.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. dx.dsi] = istereo(iml.5 to +0. p. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. [d. Options ‘metric’.5). That is.sim.p] = istereo(iml. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. range.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. [d. p. imr.

Kroon (U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘octaves’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. or sequences. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D.CHAPTER 2. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Notes • Color images. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. N ‘thresh’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.

isift. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. itriplepoint.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.or columnvector. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . either a row. No. Tinne Tuytelaars. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. out = ithin(im. 346–359. Luc Van Gool. Andreas Ess. isvec(v. See also hitormiss. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. else false (0). Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Otherwise false (0). L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. See also ishomog. 110. pp. 3. Vol.

• For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.im2. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1. Notes • Greyscale image only.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. See also homwarp.CHAPTER 2. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. [out1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. ithresh(im.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. The default is 0.5. The same cropping is applied to each input image. a lower value will include more.

edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. See also iendpoint. ithin. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.CHAPTER 2. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. op.

ones(3. ones(5. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. @max). @std). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. out = iwindow(image.3). The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. se. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. func. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im.5). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. See also ivar. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.

See also ones. dG/dy. k = kdgauss(sigma. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. dG/dx.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. kdog. See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2. • The vertical derivative. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. ktriangle. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. is k’. k = kcircle(R. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog.

sigma2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. klog. See also kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. kdgauss. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kgauss(sigma.CHAPTER 2.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . See also kgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. klog. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly.6*sigma1. k = kdog(sigma1. kdog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation.

kdog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. See also ilaplace. k = klog(sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.

C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.CHAPTER 2. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pattern Recognition Principles. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. [L.C] = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. k. it is assumed to have been completed previously.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.z] = mkcube(s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.y. The points are the columns of p. s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. symmetric about the origin. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. C ‘T’. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. [x. ‘edge’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.y. See also cylinder.z] = mkcube(s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).CHAPTER 2. Options ‘T’. [x.

mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. n) MPLOT(t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. MPLOT(t. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also mpq poly. That is.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.CHAPTER 2. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. the sum of I(x. y.xp . n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. npq.2)).y).yq . Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. n. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. p. y. or y(:. y) MPLOT(t. or y(:. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n) MPLOT(y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.

The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. See also mpq. p. so centroids will be still be correct. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). they are considered to be a single vertex. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. npq poly.

• w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. niblack.s] = niblack(im. for example. k. See also zncc. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Example t = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. the height of a character.2. idisp(im >= t). w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. Prentice-Hall. -0. [T. sad. 20). w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. T has the same dimensions as im. ssd. k. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. where W=2*w2+1. • A common choice of k=-0. in text segmentation.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1986.m. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.CHAPTER 2. W.

p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.q)/MPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.0.0).p. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. See also npq poly. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. mpq. p. That is UPQ(im.CHAPTER 2. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered as a single vertex. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. mpq. so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. upq. npq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. idisp(im >= t). Example t = otsu(im).xp] = peak(y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. otsu IEEE Trans. x. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Systems. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Jan 1979. [yp. N. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i] = peak(y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.CHAPTER 2. pp 62-66 See also niblack. [yp.

See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. use peak(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Typically choose N to be odd. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. N ‘scale’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. S ‘interp’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. use peak2(-V).ij] = peak2(z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.S points. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. [zp. N ‘scale’.

Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. If p has three dimensions. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. plot2(p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ie.CHAPTER 2. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. See also pnmﬁlt.

YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. ’b’). ’r’). r. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ‘size’. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. P. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ‘size’.y1. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. 1=solid.y2. ’fillcolor’. or a set of name. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. PLOT BOX(’centre’. r. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. 5). Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.CHAPTER 2. ‘r’. W. R. plot_circle(c. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. Examples plot_circle(c.y2). ’edgecolor’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. W. PLOT BOX(x1. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’g’. plot_circle(c. value pairs that are passed to plot. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. P. x2. ’LineWidth’.

Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘color’.Y. c Specify color of the axes. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. C.CHAPTER 2. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. If C=[X. current plot. xc. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. with Matlab line style ls.Y]. centred at the origin.

’name’. ’color’. ’r’). ‘framename’. ’r’. ‘printf’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. to ‘view’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. fmt. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’.CHAPTER 2. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. n ‘text opts’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. options) adds point markers to a plot. trplot( T. Options ‘textcolor’.X = 0. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’color’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T.

R. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. The default is 1. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R. color. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. See also plot. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. either a letter or 3-vector. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. NOTES • The sphere is always added. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. patch. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. 1=solid. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2.

which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plotp(p. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also plot. See also pgmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.

Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.

one column per point pair. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. x typically contains corresponding point data. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.in. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set.in] = ransac(func.CHAPTER 2. T. Options ‘maxTrials’. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. [m. d) as above but elements increment by d. x. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .resid] = ransac(func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. T. x. T. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. N ‘maxDataTrials’. [m.

Assoc.misc private data (cell array) out. Fishler and R.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. pp 381-395. that is. Boles. Vol 24.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. References • m.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Cambridge University Press. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. Comp. that is they will produce a model.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.theta] = ERR(R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta to the points R.CHAPTER 2. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. No 6.resid] = EST(R. [out.x.. If multiple models are found out.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x and returns the best model out.x = CONDITION(R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . [out.x) condition the point data out.out.theta = [].x data to work on. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.theta and the subset of R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. Comm. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.R. they detect a structure argument.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.misc element.theta is a cell array. pp 101-113.s out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.x.out.inlier.theta.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.theta. Mach. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.C.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta = DECONDITION(R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.A.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.

See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse.edu.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. If lambda is a vector.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.au/ pk See also fmatrix.

CHAPTER 2. rotz. rotz. See also rotx. roty. See also roty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

pitch. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. See also tr2rpy. Y. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. T = rpy2tr(roll. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. yaw. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. pitch. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. • many texts (Paul. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1.CHAPTER 2. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. If roll. Z axes respectively. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. ssd.y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. r2t.CHAPTER 2. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ncc. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. See also zsad. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. theta) as above where xy=[x. y. and rotation theta in the plane. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

ncc. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. See also zsdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows.CHAPTER 2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Two cross-hairs are created. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

c.foo = true. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.choose = {’this’. – If T is 3 × 3.blah = []. varargin) opt. b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt. The software pattern is: function(a. opt. ’that’. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. tr2rt. opt. ’other’}. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. then R is 2 × 2. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.CHAPTER 2. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).bar = false. then R is 3 × 3. It supports options that have an assigned value.

N ‘setopt’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. varargin). The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.y ‘that’ sets opt.false ‘blah’.verbose <.foo <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. 3 sets opt.blah <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. x. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.N sets opt <.3 ‘blah’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.select = {’#no’.CHAPTER 2.select <.true sets opt.blah <.1.foo <. args) creates a test pattern image.debug <.choose <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. w. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. If neither of ‘this’. varargin). opt = tb_optparse(opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.x. ’#yes’}. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.‘this’.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).choose <.select <.y sets opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.

sd. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles. 256. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.sd. sd and sdd are n-vectors. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 50. intercept. 2). Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. square side length. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args is the number of cycles. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. binary square pattern. sf. sf. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. [s. args are theta (rad). binary dot pattern. 25). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. a line. dot diameter. 256. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.CHAPTER 2.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. args are pitch (distance between centres).

If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Y and Z axes respectively. See also angvec2r. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. [theta.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Y. The 3 angles rpy=[R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).P. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.

Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T has three dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. y.:.y. r2t. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. ie. See also rt2tr. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.CHAPTER 2. See also rpy2tr. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. • The validity of R is not checked.z]. – If TR is 3 × 3.

See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). each N × 1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [c1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.CHAPTER 2. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. An historical anomaly. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. or x and y. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. [o1.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. troty. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.

trotx. f ‘label’.CHAPTER 2. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. and displays in RPY format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2rpy. the sum of I(x. See also upq poly. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.y0) is the centroid. mpq.CHAPTER 2.(x-x0)p . That is.y).(y-y0)q where (x0. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. p.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ssd. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1.CHAPTER 2. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also sad. sad. See also ncc.

ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. See also sdd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

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