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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. and I commend it to you. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. However the book “Robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. is open-source. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is extravagant on storage.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . about . . 1. . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . Video . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . humoments . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . diff2 . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . imser . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . mplot . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . otsu . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . luminos . plot ellipse . rluminos . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. and you will be suitably acknowledged. tutors.google. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.com. That’s what you your teachers.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. You need to signup in order to post. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.

pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Author = {P. The ﬁle robot. the table of content to functions.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. 1. Volume = {12}. 1. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Corke}.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1.html on a server for class use. The details are @article{Corke05f.3. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).petercorke.gz) or zip format (. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.zip). This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.1. Year = {2005}. Month = nov. type of organization and application. Number = {4}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. 1.I.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. and the “See also” functions to each other. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.

MSER. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. Vincent Lepetit. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. but not least. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. 1. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. 12(4).6.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. November 2005. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. 1994 University of British Columbia. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.I. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. and there are hundreds of modules available. 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. VLFeat http://www.R.Functions such as SURF. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Twente.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed..mathworks. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.vlfeat.1.7 Acknowledgements Last.S. pp 16–25. Corke. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Coimbra. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.7. P.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

IM ‘resolution’. Options ‘name’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘image’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. P ‘pixel’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. used by all subclasses. S ‘noise’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’. T ‘color’. Camera.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .centre Get camera position p = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.delete Camera object destructor C.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera. SphericalCamera Camera.clf Clear the image plane C.char Convert to string s = C. Camera. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Camera.display Display value C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera.

otherwise false (0).ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. and off if H is false (or 0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. See also Camera.v + c = 0.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. Camera.u + b.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. Camera. C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.CHAPTER 2.char Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.

Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). The matrices x.plot Plot points on image plane C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.CHAPTER 2. y. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.clf Camera. cylinder.plot(p. z.mesh(x. sphere. z to the image plane and plots them. T ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Camera.plot. y. uv = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. y. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Options ‘Tobj’. mkcube. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.hold. Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. See also mesh.

T. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera.CHAPTER 2. ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tcam’. Camera. ‘fps’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.hold.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.clf Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.mesh. ‘Tobj’. Overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘scale’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T See also Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.

p. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.y]. C. The image is not inverted. that is.rpy Set camera attitude C. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy(R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. a subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.C Camera matrix C = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

N ‘sensor’. J. ﬁsheyecamera. p.F.and v-axes parallel to x. P ‘pixel’. F ‘distortion’.Ma.Kosecka.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.8]) See also Camera. S. S ‘centre’. optical axis is z-axis. CentralCamera. IM ‘resolution’. E = C. u.Soatto.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).E Essential matrix E = C.and y-axes respectively.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. D ‘default’ ‘image’. camera at origin.Sastry. 2003.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. 10um pixels. T ‘color’. Reference Y. Springer. “An invitation to 3D”. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘focal’. f=8mm. S.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. S ‘noise’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.177 See also CentralCamera. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. E = C.

S. 2003.H Homography matrix H = C. J.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Kosecka.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. F = C. Springer.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).F Fundamental matrix F = C. p.E CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. from two viewpoints. n. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Sastry. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma.177 See also CentralCamera.Soatto.H(T.CHAPTER 2. Reference Y. See also CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H CentralCamera. S. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

vol. 2009. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). See also quiver CentralCamera. Int. CentralCamera. and P. Feb. Lepetit. a = C.CHAPTER 2. 81.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. 155-166. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. pp.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.estpose(xyz. Moreno-Noguer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. V.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. F. Fua. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision.

259 Y. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. J. “Multiview Geometry”.Ma.E CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. s.CHAPTER 2. Chap 9.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p116.Kosecka. s. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. See also CentralCamera. 2003. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Sastry. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. Reference Y. s. section 5.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.invE(E. Springer. translation not to scale • n.Kosecka. J.Sastry. “An invitation to 3D”. “An invitation to 3D”. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Ma. Springer.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Soatto. p.Soatto. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). 2003.

project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. C.plot epiline(f.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.CHAPTER 2.T. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. See also Hough CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. H = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. one per line. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. p.H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. ‘Tcam’.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.project(p.

313-326. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Chaumette. June 1992. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pp. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. 8.visjac e(E. Espiau. See also Camera. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.CHAPTER 2. and P. “Multiview Geometry”. Rives. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.plot CentralCamera.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. vol. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .c. Reference B.b.

b.visjac p. CentralCamera. Rives. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac p. 8. vol. 313-326.visjac p polar. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Vol 12(5). Hager & Corke. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. pp. Espiau. R&A. Oct.visjac l(L. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.c. F. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. and P. June 1992.CHAPTER 2. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pp 651-670. CentralCamera. IEEE Trans.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Hutchinson. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac p(uv. Chaumette.visjac l CentralCamera. 1996. Reference B.

visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. and F. See also CentralCamera. Spindler. Oct.visjac p. in Proc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Louis).visjac l. CentralCamera. 5962-5967. radius and theta. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Chaumette. Int. P.visjac p polar.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. 2009. I.visjac e CentralCamera. (St. F. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p polar(rt.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Corke.CHAPTER 2.

• SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.Lowe. vol. See also isift. ScalePointFeature.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.SIFT. D. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. pp.91-110. Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. See README. 2004. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. Journal on Computer Vision. PointFeature. Nov.60.CHAPTER 2.

match(f2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque. v. f = PointFeature(u. See also isift SiftPointFeature. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘alpha’.match Match SIFT point features m = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 0=transparent (default 0. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. out = F. F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.T] = F.support(images.support Support region of feature out = F. [out.support(im. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). See also SphericalCamera.T. T ‘Tcam’. Overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. N ‘pixel’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Options ‘name’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘pose’. CentralCamera. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ﬁsheyecamera.

2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . defaults in parentheses: target size . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.gain. error.0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera view.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . image plane size and desired feature locations.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Jacobian condition number. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The camera view. scalar for If null take actual value all points.the side length of the target in world units (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. error norm.01) .center of the target in world coords (0.CHAPTER 2. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.depth of points to use for Jacobian. The external view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. of 4-vector. camera pose.5) target center .

in Proc. scalar for If null take actual value all points. defaults in parentheses: target size .5) target center . of 4-vector. Conf. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.center of the target in world coords (0.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .visjac p(pt. camera pose.visjac l. Jacobian condition number.01) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. image plane size and desired feature locations.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). May 3-7 2010.the side length of the target in world units (0. Corke.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . pp. CentralCamera. IEEE Int. error norm. for all points.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. (Anchorage). error. P. I.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 5550-5555.0. CentralCamera.gain. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. The external view.visjac p polar. Robotics and Automation. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.

346–359. No. Andreas Ess. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 110. Luc Van Gool. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. pp. 3. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Vol. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.CHAPTER 2. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Tinne Tuytelaars.

f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SURF point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. v. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. PointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.C] = F. [m. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature.

1=opaque. 0=transparent (default 0.2) SurfPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options. C ‘alpha’.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im.support(images. [out.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images.support Support region of feature out = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F.support(im. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F.

G ‘scale’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com) web camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. S ‘resolution’. otherwise the result is not predictable.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.CHAPTER 2.axis. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com). S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis. Video AxisWebCamera.

Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string A.CHAPTER 2.display AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.close Close the image source A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.

f can also be a cell array. Conf.1470-1477.org). See also PointFeature BagOfWords. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Oct. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Ninth IEEE Int. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b = BagOfWords(f. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.Sivic and A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.Zisserman. pp. in Proc.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. on Computer Vision. 2003.

BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. BagOfWords.exemplars(w.char Convert to string s = B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars display exemplars of words B.CHAPTER 2.char BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B. isurf BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. See also BagOfWords.display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. images. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

remove stop Remove stop words B.isword Features from words f = B. N ‘maxperimage’. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. Options ‘ncolumns’.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. M ‘width’.CHAPTER 2.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. BagOfWords. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.n] = B. BagOfWords.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. subclass of Camera.

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Camera CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

project(p.and y-axes respectively. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘equisolid’. camera at origin. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ﬁsheyecamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. optical axis is z-axis. S ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘focal’. SIGMA ‘pose’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera. See also Camera. M ‘k’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. P ‘pixel’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘noise’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). A ‘resolution’.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and v-axes parallel to x. f=8mm. CatadioptricCamera. K ‘maxangle’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘sine’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. 10um pixels. u. T ‘Tcam’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.

• FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. See also PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.

SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also PointFeature. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.display Display value M. See also FeatureMatch. f2. SurfPointFeature. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.CHAPTER 2.

inlier Inlier features m2 = M.u2. FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v1.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier. FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.v2]. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.ransac FeatureMatch.

FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.plot() M. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch.p1.im2}) m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . These are the (u. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot Show corresponding points M.FeatureMatch.p1. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.CHAPTER 2. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). homography.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. See also idisp FeatureMatch. Example f1 = isurf(im1).match(f2).ransac(func. m = f1. ransac FeatureMatch. See also fmatrix.ransac Apply RANSAC M. f2 = isurf(im2). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. m.ransac( @fmatrix. 1e-4). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.

Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. that is. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.CHAPTER 2. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).CHAPTER 2. S ‘centre’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.and y. f=8mm. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. camera at origin. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. S ‘noise’. N ‘sensor’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘equisolid’.axes respectively. ‘sine’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object.and v-axes are parallel to x. SIGMA ‘pose’. u. 10um pixels. Options ‘name’. optical axis is z-axis. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. M ‘k’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. P ‘pixel’. K ‘resolution’.

SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. CentralCamera. See also FishEyeCamera. See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. CatadioptricCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.project(p.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’.T. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.CHAPTER 2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. The voting array is 2-dimensional. A horizontal line has theta = 0. See also LineFeature Hough. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.H).

if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Default 400 × 401.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = HT. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. W ‘nbins’. Set ht. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Hough. W ‘houghthresh’.5) Set ht. T ‘edgethresh’. Hough. else N = [Ntheta. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Nrho]. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.houghThresh (default 0. T ‘suppress’.edgeThresh.1).display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. N All edge pixels have equal weight.display Display value HT.CHAPTER 2.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. See also Hough.edgeThresh (default 0.

plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. then all elements in an HT. See also Hough. HT.lines Find lines L = HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. reﬁned to subpixel precision. L = HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. HT.lines Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. H = HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks. The highest peak is found.plot Plot line features HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.CHAPTER 2. LineFeature Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.

RegionFeature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.CHAPTER 2.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta.char Convert to string s = L. theta. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. LineFeature. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho.display Display value L. strength. one per element.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LENGTH is undeﬁned.

seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. LineFeature.plot Plot line L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L. Small gaps. less than gap pixels are tolerated. l2 = L. L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength(edge. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature.points Return points on line segments p = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the line on current plot.

G ‘scale’. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.char Convert to string M. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie.close Close the image source M. S ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.com). options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

vid • edges are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. F Skip frames. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. planar. undirected graph create an n-d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’.

cost(e) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. v) g.edges(e) g.path(v) set goal vertex.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. Object properties (read/write) g.next(v) g.coord(v) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.distance(v1. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.clear() add vertex.plot() g.connectivity() g. v2) g.component(v) g.add node(coord) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add node(coord.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .neighbours(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.add edge(v1. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.CHAPTER 2.goal(v) g.

v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. E = G.add edge(v1. and returns the edge id E.CHAPTER 2. v = G.add node(x. v = G. where x is D × 1.add node(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add edge(v1. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. PGraph. PGraph. v. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Options ‘distance’. and returns the node id v.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v2.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.

PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.coord Coordinate of node x = G. edges and components.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph. and the distance d. D × 1.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph. of node id v.clear Clear the graph G.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.d] = G.char Convert graph to string s = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. [v.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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char Convert to string s = F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. one per element. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.display Display value F. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. See also ScalePointFeature.

PointFeature. [m.match(f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. where 1 is perfect match.CHAPTER 2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match(f2.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.C] = F.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.char PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match Match point features m = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. the norm of the Euclidean distance. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).CHAPTER 2.plot Plot feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon . F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.

HEIGHT]. p = Polygon(C.mit. so use with care.CHAPTER 2. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Pankratov. kirill@plume.char String representation s = P. intersection. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.mit. http://puddle. union.html and require a licence.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. difference. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. one column per vertex. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.edu.

Polygon.CHAPTER 2.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.char Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.difference Difference of polygons d = P. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. returns coordinates of P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else 0.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. See also Polygon.display Display polygon P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.

y1 y2]. See also mpq poly Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Polygon.moments(p. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.CHAPTER 2.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. returns empty polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. each column is [x y]’.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.CHAPTER 2.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union Union of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon.plot Plot polygon P. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. P.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.CHAPTER 2. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.

closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. [x.CHAPTER 2.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.char Convert to string s = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = R. See also Ray3D. [x. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. one per element.display Display value R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.E] = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. horizontal coordinate centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0) 1 for a circle. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.c.b.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.

For example R. ymax].box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.box Return bounding box b = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.th] = R. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.CHAPTER 2.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.xmax. See also iblobs. RegionFeature. ymin.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. one per element. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. imoments RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.char Convert to string s = R.

See also RegionFeature. RegionFeature.display Display value R.plot Plot centroid R. It is indicated with overlaid o.char RegionFeature. R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot boundary plot boundary R.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. R.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.and xmarkers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R. R.CHAPTER 2.plot box Plot bounding box R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. RegionFeature.

f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. ScalePointFeature. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. 0=transparent (default 0. strength.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. 1=opaque. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale Plot feature scale F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v.plot scale(options.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. T ‘movie’. N ‘thresh’. C. R ‘nslots’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a new tracker object. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. one per active track.CHAPTER 2. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. See also PointFeature Tracker.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.

tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. See also Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.char Tracker.display Display value T.char Convert to string s = T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.

Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S ‘resolution’. Movie Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. and their characteristics is displayed. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. G ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. AxisWebCamera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. otherwise the result is not predictable.

grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Video.close Close the image source V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.

These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. If disp is positive the disparity is increased.CHAPTER 2. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). right. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. the ﬁrst for left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. By default the left image is red. right. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. If th1 is a column vector. and the right image is cyan. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. if negative it is reduced. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. color.

e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. x2. If lambda is a column vector.y1] and p2=[x2.y2]. See also RegionFeature. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. 6500). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = boundmatch(R1. p = bresenham(p1. [x. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. p2) as above but p1=[x1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].CHAPTER 2. y1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.boundary. Endpoints must be integer. % emission of sun plot(l. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y2).y1) to (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. [C. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.

y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. [k. green and blue primaries respectively. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. x = circle(C. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. and x is N × 3. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.CHAPTER 2. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. R.d1] = closest(a. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. R. k = closest(a. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. that is. Options ‘n’.

5. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].32).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.ac.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). Notes • Data from http://cvrl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.d1. since.5. (Table 1(5.16).5. they were measured directly. The data are referred to as pilot data. 335 of Table 1(5.d2] = closest(a. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ucl. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.ioo. • From Table I(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). and 22500 (444. As noted in footnote a on p. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. while Table I(5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). 19000 (526.

Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ucl.CHAPTER 2.M).ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. out = col2im(pix. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .CHAPTER 2. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im.

eg. out = colorize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.B). k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. @isnan. [L. im<100. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. func. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.G. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mask.C] = colorkmeans(im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. See also imono. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.CHAPTER 2. icolor. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. k.

“?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. XYZ = colorname(name. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.R] = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. L = colorkmeans(im. low is good. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. k) as above but also returns the residual R.C. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. eg. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.CHAPTER 2. name = colorname(XYZ. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming.

• Color space names are case insensitive. As MATLAB’s native datatype.o2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. it can be omitted. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Input and output images have 3 planes. [o1. or alternatively. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.i2. s = ‘src->dest’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. colorspace(s.CHAPTER 2.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. i1. s = ‘dest<-src’.o3] = colorspace(s. double data is the natural choice. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.txt. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.

B). d = distance(A. out will also have size M × 3. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . However.200). The distance d is M × N and element d(I. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.CHAPTER 2.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . like a colormap. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Example A = rand(400. B = rand(400. for memory and computational performance.100). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. • If im is an M × 3 array.2*A.

not image frame. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. seed. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.CHAPTER 2. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. tel. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. non zero is counter-clockwise. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.j). in matrix coordinate frame.uva.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. bunschot@wins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. The result E is a matrix.(+31)20-5257524.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. non-zero is an object.y). Tested: PC Matlab v5. E = edgelist(im. University of Amsterdam. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.3.

d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Coimbra. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). H = epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by.R. 1998. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. See also epiline. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p1. I.S. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). See also fmatrix. one per line drawn. Oct 27. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. epiline(f. p.CHAPTER 2.

csse. that is. • f is a rank 2 matrix.uwa. epiline. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac(). School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.CHAPTER 2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. p2. • Contains a RANSAC driver. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. The University of Western Australia. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. that is. it is singular. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homography.au/. See also ransac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.edu. page 270. no outlier rejection is performed. c. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. http://www.

See also imorph. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). itriplepoint. y1. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.y1) and (x2. ithin.CHAPTER 2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.

csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. no outlier rejection is performed. invhomog. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. which means it can be passed to ransac(). p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.uwa. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Notes • The points must be corresponding. http://www. The University of Western Australia. See also ransac.au/. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.CHAPTER 2.edu.

CHAPTER 2. that is tp=T*T1. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.offs] = homwarp(H. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. D ‘size’. V ‘roi’. R ‘scale’. [out. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. im. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. S output image contains all the warped pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. ie. See also e2h. S ‘dimension’. See also homography. itrim.

CHAPTER 2. on Information Theory. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. IT-8:pp. 1962. Hu. ianimate(seq. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. IRE Trans. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 200). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. features. ’nfeat’. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. features. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. ’gs’). 179-187. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. ianimate(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.CHAPTER 2. M ‘npoints’. N ‘only’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. isurf. YMIN YMAX]. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). iharris. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.

imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. default 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. C set connectivity.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.0 ‘connect’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. horizontal coordinate centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. [A1. ilabel. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. [S1.0) 1 for a circle. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.

kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also isobel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. S ‘th0’. 1996-7. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im. See also iopen. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2. Tel Aviv University. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se.

options) concatenates images from the cell array im. The images do not have to be of the same size. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colorize. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. See also imono.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. C = icolor(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). [C. Options ‘dir’.CHAPTER 2.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. iconcat(im. D ‘bgval’.u] = iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. [0 1 1]). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.CHAPTER 2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. options) convolves im1 with im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.

‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘sigma’. N ‘detector’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. K ‘patch’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features.CHAPTER 2. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). S ‘deriv’. D ‘k’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. R ‘nfeat’. CM ‘cminthresh’. E ‘suppress’. CT ‘edgegap’.

6. p2. Stephens. Proc. Proc. J. • “Finding corners”. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. vol. pp 147-151. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. J. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Harris and M. Shi and C. Tomasi. 1988. See also PointFeature.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. pp. pp. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. 593-593.J. [T. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. • “Good features to track”.. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf.Noble. 1994. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. where * denotes squared and smoothed.G. Manchester.121-128. p2.5 [sec]. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. T ‘distthresh’. N ‘mindelta’. T ‘maxiter’. Image and Vision Computing. Options ‘dplot’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. with a delay of d [sec]. IEEE Computer Society. May 1988.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.d] = icp(p1. C. with a delay of 0.

IEEETrans. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. no. 14.Besl and H. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. P..CHAPTER 2. See also iscale. m.or 3-dimensional. 239-256. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Mach. pp.McKay. m. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = idecimate(im. s = idecimate(im. 1992. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. each plane is decimated. 2. vol. Feb. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Pattern Anal. Intell.

positive is blue.and y-axes respectively. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. negative is red. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. Options ‘ncolors’. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. If im is a cell array of images. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. negative is red. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. positive is blue. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. darker than ‘grey’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. C ‘xydata’. zero is black. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. If the image is zoomed. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. linear proﬁle. histogram and zooming. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white color map: random values. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide.CHAPTER 2. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. XY ‘colormap’. zero is white.

The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. colormap. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . caxis. icolorize. labels. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also iblobs. See also image. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labelimage. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. idisplabel(im.

• For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.45. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.CHAPTER 2.2. out = igamma(im. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). See also itriplepoint. ithin.

1500. Journal on Computer Vision. [L. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. k. Example im = iread(’58060. Huttenlocher. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. P. k is the scale parameter. Felzenszwalb and D. min is the minimum region size (pixels). vol. pp. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.5). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Int.m] = igraphseg(im. 2004.CHAPTER 2. 2006. k. 100. 0.jpg’). min. min. 167181. Sept.m] = igraphseg(im.5). and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. L = igraphseg(im. k. See also ithresh. 59. [l. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.

Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h). options) is the image histogram as a column vector.CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. H = ihist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.h). [H. bar(x.x] = ihist(im. plot(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.x] = ihist(im). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [h. ’normcdf’). options) displays the image histogram.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ii is a precomputed integral image.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.y2). same size as im. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. y2. [L. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. [L. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.CHAPTER 2. y1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. x1.y1) and bottom-right (x2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.

p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.CHAPTER 2. each a 2-vector [X. See also iblobs. p1. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The pixels on the line are set to 1.parents. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p2. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. eg. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. ilabel(im.parents.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. [L. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. • This is a “low level” function. 8). out = iline(im. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p1.Y]. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.maxlabel. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. iproﬁle. otherwise it does not.maxlabel.class.

and columns the vertical position. w2.CHAPTER 2. x.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). [xm. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. a perfect match score is 1. s. H. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. The template in im1 is centred at (x. xmax.y) and of size s.y). • ZNCC matching is used.DY. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.score] = imatch(im1. im2.and y-offsets relative to (x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. ymin. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. -s. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CC] where (DX. The return value is xm=[DX. x.DY) are the x. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. s] % relative to (x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. ymax] relative to (x. im2. y. centred at (x.y) and its half-width is H. • Is a MEX ﬁle. y. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.

[u. [u.v] = imeshgrid(w. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image.u) = u and v(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. The element u(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. All pixels are equally weighted. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) = v. f = imoments(u. v.CHAPTER 2. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. effectively a greyscale image.

m10. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. • This function does not perform connectivity. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m01. ilabel. icolor. or its area. Different conversion functions are supported. m20. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m11. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. See also RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. the elements are m00. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m02. horizontal coordinate centroid.

’double’). ’grey’. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Pajdla.CHAPTER 2.m] = imser(im. [label. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. 2004. m. ’light’). op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. se. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. 22.org). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Chum. and T. Sept. The labels [L. O. pp.m] = imser(im. vol. Matas. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.png’. J. 761767. Urban.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.

sides.CHAPTER 2. This is an erosion followed by dilation. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides. n. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. See also iclose. out = iopen(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations.

V]. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 10. ’t’. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. ’tblr’. im2. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected.CHAPTER 2. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. im1. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 20. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise im2 is selected. p.

out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. [p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).CHAPTER 2. p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. See also bresenham. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.uv] = iproﬁle(im.v) for the corresponding row of p.

se(2. op. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed.5)). se. se).2) = 0. se. See also iscalespace. out = imorph(image. nbins. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. out = imorph(image. 12. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. is order=1. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op. idecimate. ones(5. im > irank(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = ipyramid(im.3). Notes • Works for greyscale images only. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im.CHAPTER 2. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. out = ipyramid(im. The highest rank. sigma. order. the maximum. 1.

On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. vmin vmax]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also imorph. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. R ‘roi’. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. G ‘reduce’. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. im = iread(ﬁle. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. where R=[umin umax. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. ivar. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path.

If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).CHAPTER 2. m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h2] = irectify(f. [out1. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. See also FeatureMatch. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.h1.out2] = irectify(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. m. im1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. imwrite. im1. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. imono. Notes • Color images are not supported. igamma. istereo. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. homwarp.out2. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.

angle. V ‘smooth’.H] return central part of image. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. vmin. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmin vmax]. See also idisp. [out.umax. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.vmax].CHAPTER 2.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. Options ‘outsize’. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘extrapval’.

H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. bias=0. out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias<0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. while bias>0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. V ‘smooth’. s>1 makes the image larger. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.CHAPTER 2. s<1 makes it smaller. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 is symmetric cropping. s ‘extrapval’. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘outsize’. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. im2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. n. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).L. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.s] = iscalespace(im. idecimate. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).CHAPTER 2. n) as above but sigma=1. [g. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. corresponding to each step of the sequence. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. See also iscalespace. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. in space and scale.

The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ilaplace. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ismooth. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.CHAPTER 2. ‘valid’) as above. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. it its third dimension is equal to three. ishomog(T. else false (0). See also isrot. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.

CHAPTER 2. pp. Reference David G. Lowe. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • Features are returned in descending strength order. N ‘suppress’. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. International Journal of Computer Vision. See also SiftPointFeature. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. isurf. 60. 2 (2004). • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. 91-110. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. @ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.H. ncc. zssd. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. See also imatch. ssd. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. s is same size as im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. @zsad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. and these output pixels are set to NaN. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zsad. @ssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. [w. @zssd. s = isimilarity(T.

This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. sigma. See also iconv. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.gy] = isobel(im.CHAPTER 2.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx. [gx. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. then converted back to integer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. convolved.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.

H. See also ksobel. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. isrot(R. imr. H is the half size of the matching window. else false (0). icanny. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. See also ishomog. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u) means that imr(v. w. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘valid’) as above.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. range. range. [d.M] for an N × M window. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. the disparity d=d(v.sim] = istereo(iml. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).u). range is the disparity search range. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. That is.

p] = istereo(iml. p. Options ‘metric’.A and p. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).sim.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.sim. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. • sim = max(dsi.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. range. p. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. range. [d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. w. imr. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. dx. B. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.5). out = istretch(im. That is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imr. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. w. 3) See also irectify.CHAPTER 2.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).5 to +0. ‘ncc’. [d. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.dsi] = istereo(iml.

The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Notes • Color images. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. N ‘thresh’. or sequences. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. T ‘octaves’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Kroon (U. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.CHAPTER 2. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).

See also hitormiss.CHAPTER 2. out = ithin(im.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Otherwise false (0). L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. Luc Van Gool. else false (0). 110. See also ishomog. either a row.or columnvector. 3. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. No. Vol. itriplepoint. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Tinne Tuytelaars. isvec(v. 346–359. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. pp. isift.

• For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. ithresh(im. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1. Notes • Greyscale image only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.im2. The default is 0.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.CHAPTER 2.5. a lower value will include more.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. The same cropping is applied to each input image. See also homwarp.

edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. ithin. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.CHAPTER 2. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. See also iendpoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point.

@max).CHAPTER 2. se.5). The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ones(3. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ones(5. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled.3). out = iwindow(image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @std). See also ivar. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. func. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.

• This kernel is an effective edge detector. kdog.CHAPTER 2. is k’. • The vertical derivative. dG/dy.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. See also kgauss. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. dG/dx. k = kcircle(R. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kdgauss(sigma. ktriangle. See also ones. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones.

See also kgauss. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .6*sigma1. k = kdog(sigma1. klog. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. See also kdgauss. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. sigma2. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kgauss(sigma. klog.CHAPTER 2.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). kdgauss.

iconv.CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also ilaplace. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = klog(sigma. kdog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also kgauss. kdgauss.

Reference Tou and Gonzalez. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. it is assumed to have been completed previously. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.C] = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. L = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. Pattern Recognition Principles. and D is the dimension. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). k. [L. k.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). By default the grid lies in the XY plane. See also cylinder. Options ‘T’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. [x. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.z] = mkcube(s. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. ‘edge’.z] = mkcube(s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.y. symmetric about the origin.y. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). The points are the columns of p.CHAPTER 2. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. s. C ‘T’. [x.

the sum of I(x. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. y) MPLOT(t. y. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n) MPLOT(t. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.2)). n) MPLOT(y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. p. See also mpq poly. y. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .yq . or y(:. n.2)). npq. MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.y). MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. That is.xp . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.CHAPTER 2. or y(:. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. npq poly. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v.CHAPTER 2. so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. they are considered to be a single vertex. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. upq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also mpq. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. -0. Example t = niblack(im. See also zncc. 1986. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. for example. 20). in text segmentation. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.CHAPTER 2. [T. niblack. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. the height of a character.m. ssd. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. W. idisp(im >= t).s] = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im. sad. k.2.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. • A common choice of k=-0. where W=2*w2+1. Prentice-Hall.

Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0). p. That is UPQ(im. p.q)/MPQ(im.p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. mpq.CHAPTER 2. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.0. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.

npq.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). they are considered as a single vertex. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.

T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.CHAPTER 2. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Example t = otsu(im). otsu IEEE Trans.i] = peak(y. [yp. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. idisp(im >= t). pp 62-66 See also niblack. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Jan 1979. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. [yp. N. x. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.xp] = peak(y. Systems.

S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.S points. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.S points. use peak(-V). S ‘interp’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. [zp. Typically choose N to be odd. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.ij] = peak2(z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak2(-V).

See also pnmﬁlt. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plot2(p. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. If p has three dimensions. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. ie.

r.y2). PLOT BOX(’centre’. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. P. ’g’. ’LineWidth’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ‘r’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. W. x2. ’b’). If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.CHAPTER 2. ‘size’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. r. or a set of name. plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X.y1.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. r. value pairs that are passed to plot. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’r’). 5). YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. PLOT BOX(x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘size’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’fillcolor’.y1) and (x2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.y2. 1=solid. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. plot_circle(c. ’edgecolor’. R. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Examples plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. W. P.

Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.CHAPTER 2. xc. C. ls) ls is the standard line styles.Y]. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. c Specify color of the axes. Options ‘color’. with Matlab line style ls.Y. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . centred at the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. If C=[X. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. current plot.

size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. fmt. to ‘view’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’.CHAPTER 2. ’name’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker.X = 0. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ‘printf’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’r’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. trplot( T. ‘framename’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. Options ‘textcolor’. options) adds point markers to a plot. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. n ‘text opts’. ’r’). ’color’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L.

color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. color. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. either a letter or 3-vector. See also plot. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. The default is 1. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. patch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. R. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres.CHAPTER 2. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. 1=solid. R. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R. NOTES • The sphere is always added. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.

ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column.CHAPTER 2. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. See also plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. [gr.CHAPTER 2. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.

T.resid] = ransac(func. x. one column per point pair. N ‘maxDataTrials’.CHAPTER 2. T. Options ‘maxTrials’. [m. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. x. x. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T.in] = ransac(func. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated.in. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. x typically contains corresponding point data.

.x) condition the point data out.theta to the points R.x.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .theta and the subset of R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.resid] = EST(R. Fishler and R.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x. Cambridge University Press. pp 101-113. Comp.misc element.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .inlier. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.s out. Vol 24. References • m.CHAPTER 2. they detect a structure argument. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta = DECONDITION(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.theta is a cell array. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.x = CONDITION(R. Assoc. Mach. [out.misc private data (cell array) out.theta] = ERR(R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.C.R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x and returns the best model out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta. pp 381-395. Boles.theta. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. If multiple models are found out. No 6. that is.A.theta = [].x data to work on. [out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. that is they will produce a model.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Comm.out.

csse. If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.uwa.CHAPTER 2.au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also roty. rotz. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. roty.

pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. See also tr2rpy. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. Y. yaw. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. T = rpy2tr(roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy.CHAPTER 2. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. Z axes respectively. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. • many texts (Paul. If roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and rotation theta in the plane. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ncc. theta) as above where xy=[x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. y. ssd. See also zsad. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.CHAPTER 2. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. r2t. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Two cross-hairs are created.CHAPTER 2. ncc. See also zsdd. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

– If T is 3 × 3.blah = []. c. then R is 2 × 2. opt. It supports options that have an assigned value.CHAPTER 2. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. then R is 3 × 3.foo = true. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. opt.choose = {’this’.bar = false. The software pattern is: function(a. ’that’. opt. b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. tr2rt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). ’other’}.

verbose <. x. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.choose <. N ‘setopt’. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.‘this’.true sets opt. If neither of ‘this’. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. varargin). The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. args) creates a test pattern image.select <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .blah <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).1.debug <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. ’#yes’}.CHAPTER 2.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.false ‘blah’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.foo <.y sets opt. varargin). opt = tb_optparse(opt.N sets opt <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.x. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.select <.choose <.y ‘that’ sets opt.blah <. w.select = {’#no’.3 ‘blah’.foo <. 3 sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.

Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args are theta (rad).sdd] = tpoly(s0. sd and sdd are n-vectors. args is the number of cycles. 256. square side length.sd. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. [s. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. 256. args is the number of cycles. dot diameter. binary dot pattern. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. intercept. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args is the number of cycles. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). sf. args is the number of cycles. sf. 50. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 25). A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args are pitch (distance between centres). a line. The trajectory s. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. binary square pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 2).CHAPTER 2.sd. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction.

Y. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. The 3 angles rpy=[R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). See also angvec2r. rpy = tr2rpy(R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.P.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y and Z axes respectively. [theta.

t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.y.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.:.z]. • The validity of R is not checked. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. y. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. If T has three dimensions. See also rt2tr.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. ie. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. – If TR is 3 × 3. See also rpy2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. r2t. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.

out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.CHAPTER 2. [o1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or x and y. each N × 1. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. [c1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). An historical anomaly.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty.

If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotx. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f ‘label’. trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trprint T is the command line form of above. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty.CHAPTER 2. and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.

Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. That is.y0) is the centroid.CHAPTER 2. tr2rpy.(x-x0)p .y). tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. p. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. mpq. See also upq poly.(y-y0)q where (x0. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. the sum of I(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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ssd. ncc. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). ssd. sad. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sad. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

ncc. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

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