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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. is open-source. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This is extravagant on storage. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and I commend it to you. However the book “Robotics.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera .6 Use in research . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . iint . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . epidist . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . camcald . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . inormhist . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . norm2 . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . ncc . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

That’s what you your teachers. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. and you will be suitably acknowledged. You need to signup in order to post.com. tutors.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.google. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.

and the “See also” functions to each other. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.I.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Number = {4}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. The details are @article{Corke05f.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. 1. Corke}. Year = {2005}.html on a server for class use. the table of content to functions. Author = {P.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. 1. The ﬁle robot. Month = nov. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.zip).1. Volume = {12}. type of organization and application.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.3.gz) or zip format (. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .petercorke. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1.

Coimbra. November 2005. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. P. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. Vincent Lepetit.mathworks. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. and there are hundreds of modules available. 12(4).vlfeat.. pp 16–25.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.7. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. 1. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.S.1. but not least. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. VLFeat http://www. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.Functions such as SURF.R. Twente.6. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Corke.7 Acknowledgements Last.I. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. MSER. 1994 University of British Columbia. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. 1.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

N ‘image’. S ‘centre’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. IM ‘resolution’. Camera. Options ‘name’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. S ‘noise’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. T ‘color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’.CHAPTER 2. used by all subclasses. N ‘sensor’. P ‘pixel’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.clf Clear the image plane C. ﬁsheyecamera. CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display Display value C. Camera.char Convert to string s = C.centre Get camera position p = C. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.delete Camera object destructor C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. SphericalCamera Camera.

Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.CHAPTER 2.char Camera. otherwise false (0). and off if H is false (or 0). Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera.u + b. See also Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.v + c = 0.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.clf Camera. y. Camera. See also mesh. T ‘Tcam’.plot.hold. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. z to the image plane and plots them.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. mkcube.T.plot(p.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. uv = C. Camera. z.mesh(x. Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.plot Plot points on image plane C. y. Camera. sphere.CHAPTER 2. cylinder. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The matrices x. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘Tcam’. ‘Tobj’. T ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Overrides the current camera pose C. T See also Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.clf Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.CHAPTER 2. ‘fps’.T.mesh.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera. Options ‘Tcam’.hold. Camera.

CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. p. a subclass of Camera.rpy Set camera attitude C. C. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(R.p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.CHAPTER 2. The image is not inverted. that is.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C Camera matrix C = C.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

E Essential matrix E = C. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. f=8mm. p.CHAPTER 2.and y-axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. S ‘centre’. S. Reference Y. E = C. N ‘focal’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). 10um pixels. SIGMA ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. u.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . J.Ma.F. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. “An invitation to 3D”.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. 2003. optical axis is z-axis.8]) See also Camera. Springer. S ‘noise’. CatadioptricCamera.and v-axes parallel to x.177 See also CentralCamera. P ‘pixel’. E = C. IM ‘resolution’.Kosecka. S. T ‘color’.Soatto. CentralCamera.Sastry.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. camera at origin. F ‘distortion’. D ‘default’ ‘image’.

p. “An invitation to 3D”. n. from two viewpoints.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Ma.H(T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. Springer. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).F Fundamental matrix F = C.Sastry.Soatto. S.Kosecka.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E CentralCamera. F = C. See also CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. J.H Homography matrix H = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. S. 2003. Reference Y.

pp. vol. a = C. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. 2009. See also quiver CentralCamera. Feb. F. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.estpose(xyz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision. Fua.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. 81. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Int. Moreno-Noguer. 155-166.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Lepetit. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). V. CentralCamera.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.CHAPTER 2. and P. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.

p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. section 5. 2003. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. s. “An invitation to 3D”.Kosecka. J. p.Kosecka.Sastry. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. See also CentralCamera. 2003. Springer.Soatto. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. 259 Y.CHAPTER 2. J. translation not to scale • n. s. Reference Y.Ma. “Multiview Geometry”.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Sastry.E CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Chap 9. p116.invE(E.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Ma. s. Springer.Soatto. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. “An invitation to 3D”.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. one per line. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’. H = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.H CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘Tcam’.plot epiline(f.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. C.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.T.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.project(p. p. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. See also Hough CentralCamera.

The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. F.plot CentralCamera.c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.visjac e(E. and P. Espiau. “Multiview Geometry”. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Chaumette.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Reference B. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. vol. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . See also Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Rives. June 1992. pp. 8. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.b.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. 313-326.

F. 313-326.visjac p. pp. CentralCamera.c. R&A. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera. June 1992. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Vol 12(5). pp 651-670. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Oct. Chaumette. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. 1996. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar. and P. See also CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Trans.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac e CentralCamera. Hutchinson. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.b. CentralCamera. Reference B.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Hager & Corke. Rives.CHAPTER 2.visjac p(uv. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac l(L.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. 8. vol. Espiau.visjac l CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.

visjac l.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt.visjac p polar. 5962-5967. CentralCamera. P. See also CentralCamera. Spindler. F. 2009. I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac p. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. (St.visjac l. CentralCamera. pp. Int. Oct. in Proc. Chaumette. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. and F. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. radius and theta. Louis). CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Corke.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.

PointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. See also isift. Journal on Computer Vision. 2004.CHAPTER 2. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.Lowe. Int. ScalePointFeature.60. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. D. Nov.SIFT. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. vol.91-110. pp. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See README.

plot scale(options. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match Match SIFT point features m = F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.match(f2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 1=opaque. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. C ‘alpha’. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. f = PointFeature(u.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u. See also isift SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. v.plot scale Plot feature scale F. SiftPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.

out = F. [out.support(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support Support region of feature out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(images.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.CHAPTER 2. F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

T. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.project(p.CHAPTER 2. N ‘pixel’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘name’. CentralCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. See also SphericalCamera. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T ‘Tcam’. ﬁsheyecamera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). S ‘pose’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.

showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The camera view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. scalar for If null take actual value all points. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.5) target center .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error norm. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.CHAPTER 2.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. defaults in parentheses: target size .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.01) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. of 4-vector. The camera view.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The external view. image plane size and desired feature locations. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.the side length of the target in world units (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .gain. error.center of the target in world coords (0. Jacobian condition number. camera pose. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.0.

can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.visjac p polar. scalar for If null take actual value all points. in Proc.gain. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Conf. May 3-7 2010.depth of points to use for Jacobian. pp.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .01) .0. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.the side length of the target in world units (0. IEEE Int. defaults in parentheses: target size .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. (Anchorage).center of the target in world coords (0.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . of 4-vector. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.visjac p(pt. error.5) target center . Corke. The external view. See also CentralCamera. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.CHAPTER 2. I. image plane size and desired feature locations. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Robotics and Automation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. error norm. Jacobian condition number. camera pose. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. 5550-5555. for all points.visjac l.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 346–359. Luc Van Gool. pp. Vol. No. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.CHAPTER 2. 110. Andreas Ess.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Options ‘thresh’. PointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. ScalePointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match(f2. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. [m.C] = F.match Match SURF point features m = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.

plot scale(options. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.support(im. 1=opaque.plot scale Plot feature scale F.support Support region of feature out = F.T] = F.support(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.2) SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’. F. out = F. 0=transparent (default 0. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. [out.

axis.com). • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Video AxisWebCamera.axis. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. otherwise the result is not predictable.com) web camera. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. See also AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.display AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.close() closes the connection to the web camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.

k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Conf. in Proc.Zisserman. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . on Computer Vision. 2003. Ninth IEEE Int.org).Sivic and A. b = BagOfWords(f.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.1470-1477. f can also be a cell array. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Oct.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. isurf BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.char Convert to string s = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char BagOfWords.exemplars(w. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. images.exemplars display exemplars of words B.contains Find images containing word k = B. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords.display Display value B.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. Options ‘ncolumns’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.n] = B. M ‘width’.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. N ‘maxperimage’.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.isword Features from words f = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.

CHAPTER 2. subclass of Camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera.

ﬁsheyecamera. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. A ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. ‘equisolid’. CatadioptricCamera. optical axis is z-axis. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). f=8mm.project(p.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. SIGMA ‘pose’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].and v-axes parallel to x. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. camera at origin. K ‘maxangle’. M ‘k’.CHAPTER 2. 10um pixels. u. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. T ‘Tcam’. P ‘pixel’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera.T.and y-axes respectively. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’. ‘sine’. N ‘sensor’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.

If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. such as ScalePointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. See also PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = M. See also FeatureMatch.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. FeatureMatch. f2. SurfPointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. See also PointFeature.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display Display value M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. one per element.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. FeatureMatch.outlier.CHAPTER 2.inlier. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.v2]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1.u2.ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.

p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1.plot Show corresponding points M. These are the (u. See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.CHAPTER 2.p1. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. for example by: idisp({im1. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.im2}) m.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p2 FeatureMatch.p2. FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.plot() M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.match(f2). Example f1 = isurf(im1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. m = f1. m. ransac FeatureMatch. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. homography. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. See also fmatrix. 1e-4).show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.CHAPTER 2.ransac Apply RANSAC M.ransac(func. f2 = isurf(im2). See also idisp FeatureMatch. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac( @fmatrix.

FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. that is.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. Y This camera model assumes central projection.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. v. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The image is not inverted. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . M ‘k’. N ‘sensor’.and v-axes are parallel to x. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. camera at origin. ‘equisolid’.axes respectively. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. K ‘resolution’. u. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘sine’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. S ‘noise’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. optical axis is z-axis. SIGMA ‘pose’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). 10um pixels. f=8mm. Options ‘name’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘centre’.and y.

For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Options ‘Tobj’.project(p. See also Camera. See also FishEyeCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.CHAPTER 2. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. CentralCamera.

For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. See also LineFeature Hough.0) and the line.H).CHAPTER 2. A horizontal line has theta = 0. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. The voting array is 2-dimensional. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).

W ‘nbins’. Default 400 × 401.1). N All edge pixels have equal weight.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. T ‘suppress’. T ‘edgethresh’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.houghThresh (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Hough. Hough. W ‘houghthresh’.edgeThresh (default 0. Nrho].CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Hough.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.edgeThresh. Set ht. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else N = [Ntheta.5) Set ht.display Display value HT.char Convert to string s = HT. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.

plot Plot line features HT. See also Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. HT.lines Hough.CHAPTER 2.plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. then all elements in an HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot(n.lines Find lines L = HT. L = HT. LineFeature Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. HT. H = HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The process is repeated for all peaks. The highest peak is found. See also Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.

• LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

theta. LineFeature. theta. LENGTH is undeﬁned. one per element. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. L = LineFeature(rho. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value L. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. L = LineFeature(rho. strength. See also LineFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char Convert to string s = L. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.

seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge.plot Plot line L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. l2 = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Small gaps. See also icanny LineFeature.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. l2 = L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.

options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.close Close the image source M.close() closes the connection to the movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘skip’.axis.char Convert to string M.com). Movie.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.

grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. F Skip frames. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. planar.CHAPTER 2. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph create an n-d. Options ‘skip’.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.

distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().path(v) set goal vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.neighbours(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.connectivity() g. v) g.cost(e) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. v2) g.next(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.CHAPTER 2.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add node(coord) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.distance(v1. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add edge(v1.add node(coord.edges(e) g.component(v) g.clear() add vertex.goal(v) g. Object properties (read/write) g.plot() g.coord(v) g.

v. v = G. E = G. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. and returns the node id v. PGraph. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. and returns the edge id E.add edge(v1.add edge(v1.CHAPTER 2. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node(x.add node(x. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. where x is D × 1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. PGraph. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘distance’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.clear Clear the graph G.d] = G. D × 1. edges and components.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. of node id v. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.CHAPTER 2.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph. PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. [v.coord(v) return coordinate vector. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. SurfPointFeature. one per element. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.display Display value F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature PointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

CHAPTER 2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. [m. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. PointFeature.char PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.match(f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. the norm of the Euclidean distance. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. where 1 is perfect match. Options ‘thresh’.match Match point features m = F.C] = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.

Polygon . If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot feature F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.

mit.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. HEIGHT].area Area of polygon a = P.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. difference.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.mit.html and require a licence.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. so use with care. http://puddle. intersection. Pankratov. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.edu. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.char String representation s = P. union. Polygon. p = Polygon(C. kirill@plume. one column per vertex. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.

display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. else 0. Polygon. returns coordinates of P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).CHAPTER 2.difference Difference of polygons d = P. See also Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.char Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.display Display polygon P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. Polygon.

intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. See also mpq poly Polygon. each column is [x y]’.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.CHAPTER 2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns empty polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Polygon. y1 y2].perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.moments(p.

Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot Plot polygon P. Polygon. Polygon. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.CHAPTER 2.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot() plot the polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union Union of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.

d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. one per element.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. [x.E] = R.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = R. Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.E] = R.display Display value R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.char Ray3D.

0) 1 for a circle. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.c. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.b. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. one per element. RegionFeature. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. ymax]. imoments RegionFeature.th] = R.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. For example R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. RegionFeature. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.box Return bounding box b = R.xmax.char Convert to string s = R. See also iblobs.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.uc will be a list not a vector. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymin.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.

display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot Plot centroid R. See also RegionFeature. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.and xmarkers. RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.

R. RegionFeature.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box Plot bounding box R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.

F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.CHAPTER 2.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also PointFeature.plot scale(options. v. strength. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = ScalePointFeature(u.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v. 1=opaque. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.

A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. options) is a new tracker object.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. See also PointFeature Tracker.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. R ‘nslots’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. N ‘thresh’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. C. T ‘movie’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.CHAPTER 2. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. one per active track. Options ‘radius’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.

Tracker.CHAPTER 2.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.plot Show feature trajectories T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Tracker. Tracker.display Display value T.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Movie Video. otherwise the result is not predictable.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. and their characteristics is displayed. AxisWebCamera. G ‘scale’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close Close the image source V. Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera.CHAPTER 2. Video.char Convert to string V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.

and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. color. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. If disp is positive the disparity is increased.CHAPTER 2. right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). If th1 is a column vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if negative it is reduced. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. a = anaglyph(left. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. the ﬁrst for left. By default the left image is red. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. and the right image is cyan. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. The result is in the interval [-pi pi).

y1) to (x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. 6500). then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. p = bresenham(p1.s] = boundmatch(R1.boundary. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y2]. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y2). p2) as above but p1=[x1. Endpoints must be integer. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. [x. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. See also RegionFeature. % emission of sun plot(l. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. x2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.y1] and p2=[x2.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. If lambda is a column vector. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. y1.

d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].CHAPTER 2. [C. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.

green and blue primaries respectively. R. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. x = circle(C. [k.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. Options ‘n’. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = closest(a. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.d1] = closest(a. that is. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. and x is N × 3.

ioo. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. and 22500 (444. As noted in footnote a on p.d1.ucl. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.CHAPTER 2.5.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). while Table I(5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The data are referred to as pilot data. they were measured directly.32). since. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.16). 19000 (526. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).d2] = closest(a. 335 of Table 1(5. • From Table I(5.ac. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). (Table 1(5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.

im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ioo. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].M). out = col2im(pix.ac. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imsize is a 2-vector (N. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ucl. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.uk See also cmfrgb.

Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.CHAPTER 2.g] to every pixel in the color image im.

CHAPTER 2. [L. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. out = colorize(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.G. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. eg. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. icolor. k. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. im<100. See also imono. @isnan. and returns a per-pixel logical result. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. @isnan. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . func.B). The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to.

C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. k) as above but also returns the residual R. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.CHAPTER 2. L = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. XYZ = colorname(name. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.R] = colorkmeans(im. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre.C. eg. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. name = colorname(XYZ. low is good.

• MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.i2. s = ‘src->dest’. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.o2.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.txt. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • Color space names are case insensitive. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. or alternatively. i1. it can be omitted. Input and output images have 3 planes.o3] = colorspace(s. [o1. double data is the natural choice. colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. d = distance(A.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.B). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. • If im is an M × 3 array. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . like a colormap.100). However. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.CHAPTER 2. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for memory and computational performance.2*A.200).b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Example A = rand(400. B = rand(400. out will also have size M × 3.

• The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. non zero is counter-clockwise. E = edgelist(im.j). each row is one edge point coordinate (x.uva. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.3. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Tested: PC Matlab v5. non-zero is an object.(+31)20-5257524.CHAPTER 2.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. in matrix coordinate frame. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. seed. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. University of Amsterdam. bunschot@wins. The result E is a matrix. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. tel. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. not image frame. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.

ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also fmatrix. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. H = epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.S.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). one per line drawn. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. I. 1998. See also epiline. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p. p1. epiline(f. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Oct 27. p.R. Coimbra.CHAPTER 2.

it is singular. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). See also ransac. page 270. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. http://www. p2. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. • f is a rank 2 matrix.au/. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. which means it can be passed to ransac(). The University of Western Australia. no outlier rejection is performed.uwa. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be corresponding. c. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. that is. homography. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. epiline. • Contains a RANSAC driver.edu. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.CHAPTER 2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. that is. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.csse.

y1) and (x2. x2. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. y1. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also imorph. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.y2). Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. itriplepoint. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).

Notes • The points must be corresponding. http://www. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. See also ransac.edu.CHAPTER 2. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/. no outlier rejection is performed.uwa. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse. invhomog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. which means it can be passed to ransac().

S output image contains all the warped pixels. R ‘scale’. See also homography. that is tp=T*T1. See also e2h. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. ie. V ‘roi’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im.CHAPTER 2. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. [out. S ‘dimension’. D ‘size’.offs] = homwarp(H. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. itrim.

’nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. ianimate(im. features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ’gs’). ianimate(seq. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. 1962. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 179-187. features. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. IT-8:pp. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 200). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. on Information Theory. IRE Trans. Hu.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. isurf. N ‘only’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. M ‘npoints’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.CHAPTER 2. YMIN YMAX].

C set connectivity. ilabel.0) 1 for a circle. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.0 ‘connect’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. A set pixel aspect ratio. horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. default 1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. vertical coordinate bounding box. [A1.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. [S1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.

that is n dilations followed by n erosions. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. See also iopen. 1996-7. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also isobel. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Tel Aviv University. T ‘th1’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. se. S ‘th0’. out = iclose(im.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.

B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.u] = iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.CHAPTER 2. [C. iconcat(im. colorize. The images do not have to be of the same size. D ‘bgval’. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [0 1 1]). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Options ‘dir’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. See also imono.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. options) convolves im1 with im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image.CHAPTER 2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. E ‘suppress’. N ‘detector’. K ‘patch’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. D ‘k’.CHAPTER 2. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. CM ‘cminthresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. S ‘deriv’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. CT ‘edgegap’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. R ‘nfeat’. D ‘sigma’.

05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. J. 1994. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf.CHAPTER 2. 1988. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. N ‘mindelta’.6. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. • “Finding corners”. May 1988. Image and Vision Computing.121-128. Manchester. where * denotes squared and smoothed.G. T ‘maxiter’. Shi and C. J.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. pp. C. Options ‘dplot’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. pp 147-151. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. pp. Proc. • “Good features to track”. p2. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol.d] = icp(p1. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.Noble. T ‘distthresh’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Proc.. Tomasi. Harris and M. IEEE Computer Society.5 [sec]. See also PointFeature. with a delay of d [sec]. with a delay of 0. [T. 593-593. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. p2.J. Stephens.

Besl and H. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.. m. IEEETrans. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im.or 3-dimensional. vol. Intell. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. no. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = idecimate(im. s = idecimate(im. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.McKay. each plane is decimated. Pattern Anal. 1992. Feb.CHAPTER 2. 2. See also iscale. pp. 239-256. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Mach. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. P. m. 14.

If im is a cell array of images. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. linear proﬁle. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. negative is red. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. XY ‘colormap’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. histogram and zooming. zero is black. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). zero is white color map: random values. If the image is zoomed.and y-axes respectively. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. positive is blue. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. positive is blue. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. C ‘xydata’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. negative is red. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. darker than ‘grey’. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. Options ‘ncolors’. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white.

CHAPTER 2. icolorize. See also image. labelimage. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. caxis. See also iblobs. labelimage. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. idisplabel(im. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colormap. labels. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All pixels are raised to the power gamma. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). out = igamma(im.CHAPTER 2.45. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. See also itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. ithin. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.

m] = igraphseg(im. L = igraphseg(im. 2006. [L.CHAPTER 2. Huttenlocher. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. k. min. Example im = iread(’58060. k. Felzenszwalb and D. 59. 1500. min. 100. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.m] = igraphseg(im.5). 167181. P. k. vol. Sept. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. k is the scale parameter.jpg’). [l. 2004. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. See also ithresh. 0. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. Int. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Journal on Computer Vision. pp.5).

options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. H = ihist(im. bar(x. [h.x] = ihist(im). plot(x.CHAPTER 2.h). options) displays the image histogram.h).x] = ihist(im. [H. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. ’normcdf’). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.

[L. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. y1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2). same size as im.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.CHAPTER 2. x1. y2. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. ii is a precomputed integral image.m. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.y1) and bottom-right (x2.

parents.parents. The pixels on the line are set to 1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. See also iblobs. 8). out = iline(im.maxlabel. [L. p2. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.class. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. each a 2-vector [X.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. otherwise it does not. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.CHAPTER 2. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iproﬁle.maxlabel. • This is a “low level” function. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.Y]. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. p1. p1.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. eg. ilabel(im.

y) and its half-width is H.DY) are the x. s] % relative to (x.and y-offsets relative to (x. -s. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. y.y). ymax] relative to (x. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.y) and of size s. w2. y. The return value is xm=[DX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). and columns the vertical position. a perfect match score is 1. im2. x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. H. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. im2.y). • im1 and im2 must be the same size. x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. [xm.CC] where (DX. The template in im1 is centred at (x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.DY. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.CHAPTER 2. xmax. centred at (x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • ZNCC matching is used. • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. s. ymin.score] = imatch(im1.

u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].u) = u and v(v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. [u. effectively a greyscale image. f = imoments(u.CHAPTER 2. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. The element u(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. All pixels are equally weighted. effectively a binary image.v] = imeshgrid(w. [u.

Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. ilabel. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. See also RegionFeature. or its area. m02. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. m10. • This function does not perform connectivity.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. the elements are m00. icolor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m11. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2. m20. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Different conversion functions are supported. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m01.

2004. Urban. O. Image and Vision Computing. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. m. ’grey’. [label. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. se. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. J. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = imser(im. pp. Pajdla. Matas. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. 761767. vol. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Sept. ’light’). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im.org).png’. ’double’). Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. 22. and T. Chum. The labels [L. part of VLFeat (vlfeat.m] = imser(im.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.ˆ2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.

out = iopen(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iclose. sides. sides. n. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v.CHAPTER 2. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.

V]. p.CHAPTER 2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise im2 is selected. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ’tblr’. im1. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 20. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im2. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ’t’. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 10.

p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.uv] = iproﬁle(im. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. See also bresenham. [p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.

The highest rank. 1. out = ipyramid(im. se. 12. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im.CHAPTER 2. idecimate. sigma. op. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. out = imorph(image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. nbins. See also iscalespace. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. out = imorph(image. se). se(2. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. ones(5. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. im > irank(im. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled.5)).3). The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2) = 0. order. is order=1. the maximum. out = ipyramid(im. op. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.

See also imorph. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. im = iread(ﬁle. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. R ‘roi’. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names.CHAPTER 2. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. vmin vmax]. G ‘reduce’. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where R=[umin umax. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. ivar.

im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im1. m.h1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. • The resulting images may have negative disparity.out2] = irectify(f. Notes • Color images are not supported. m.h2] = irectify(f. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. [out1. istereo. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. imwrite. igamma. See also FeatureMatch. imono.out2. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homwarp.CHAPTER 2.

umax.CHAPTER 2. [out. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. vmin.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. Options ‘outsize’.vmin vmax]. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. angle. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmax].H] return central part of image. V ‘smooth’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. S ‘extrapval’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idisp. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.

V ‘smooth’. out = isamesize(im1. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s>1 makes the image larger. s ‘extrapval’. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias=0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.CHAPTER 2. s<1 makes it smaller.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. Options ‘outsize’. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.5 is symmetric cropping. bias<0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. im2. while bias>0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.

irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .s] = iscalespace(im. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. idecimate. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). n) as above but sigma=1.s] = iscalespace(im. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. corresponding to each step of the sequence. See also iscalespace. in space and scale. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.L.L. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. [g. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). n. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

‘valid’) as above. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ishomog(T. ilaplace. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. that is. it its third dimension is equal to three. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. else false (0). See also isrot.CHAPTER 2. ismooth. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN.

• The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. International Journal of Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2.vlfeat. isurf. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. Lowe. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • Features are returned in descending strength order. See also SiftPointFeature. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. 91-110. 60. 2 (2004). Reference David G. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. N ‘suppress’. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.

d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. [w. See also imatch. im. ncc. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. @ncc. zssd. sad. s = isimilarity(T.H.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. @zsad. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. s is same size as im. @ssd. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. ssd. zsad. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [w. and these output pixels are set to NaN. @zssd.

This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.CHAPTER 2. [gx.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.gy] = isobel(im. See also iconv.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. convolved. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. then converted back to integer. sigma. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.

See also ishomog. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. ‘valid’) as above. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. isrot(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. See also ksobel. imr.u) means that imr(v. range is the disparity search range. H.CHAPTER 2. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. imr. the disparity d=d(v. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. H is the half size of the matching window. else false (0). icanny.M] for an N × M window. range. That is. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). w. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. range.sim] = istereo(iml.u). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. [d.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.

max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. range. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). That is.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. w. p.sim. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.p] = istereo(iml. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p.dsi] = istereo(iml. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).sim. w.5). B. imr. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. • sim = max(dsi. 3) See also irectify. ‘ncc’.5 to +0. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.CHAPTER 2. dx. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. [d. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.A and p. [d. imr. range. out = istretch(im. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. Options ‘metric’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Kroon (U. or sequences. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. T ‘octaves’. Notes • Color images. N ‘thresh’. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).

See also ishomog. Andreas Ess. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).CHAPTER 2. else false (0).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Luc Van Gool. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Vol. Tinne Tuytelaars. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. isvec(v. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . itriplepoint. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 3. No. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. See also hitormiss. Otherwise false (0). 346–359. 110. pp. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. out = ithin(im. either a row. isift. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.or columnvector. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature.

• For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.im2.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. a lower value will include more. ithresh(im. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.out2] = itrim(im1. The default is 0. Notes • Greyscale image only.out2] = itrim(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.CHAPTER 2.5. The same cropping is applied to each input image. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out1. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. See also homwarp.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.

op. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iendpoint. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. ithin.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. se. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im.

@max).3). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. func. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. ones(3. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. ones(5. @std). out = iwindow(image. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.CHAPTER 2. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. See also ivar.5). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.

dG/dy. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. k = kdgauss(sigma. k = kcircle(R.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. kdog. • The vertical derivative. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. dG/dx. See also ones. ktriangle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.CHAPTER 2. klog. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. See also kgauss. is k’.

See also kdgauss. sigma2. kdog. k = kdog(sigma1.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. kdgauss. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kgauss(sigma. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2).6*sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. klog. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kdog(sigma1.

k = klog(sigma. See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. kdog. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdgauss. See also kgauss. iconv. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.

C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. L = kmeans(x. k. and D is the dimension. Reference Tou and Gonzalez.C] = kmeans(x. Pattern Recognition Principles. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.C] = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). it is assumed to have been completed previously. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.CHAPTER 2. [L. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. Options ‘T’. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. C ‘T’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.CHAPTER 2. [x.y. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.y. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The points are the columns of p. symmetric about the origin. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. ‘edge’. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.z] = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. See also cylinder. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).

Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. p.xp .CHAPTER 2. the sum of I(x. MPLOT(t. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). or y(:.y). y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. or y(:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.yq . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(t. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. n. y) MPLOT(t. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. That is. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.2)). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq. See also mpq poly. y.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. they are considered to be a single vertex. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. npq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. upq poly. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. p. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. See also mpq.

• w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. W.CHAPTER 2.2. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Prentice-Hall. the height of a character.m. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. Example t = niblack(im. where W=2*w2+1. niblack. for example. k. T has the same dimensions as im.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. 1986. -0. [T. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. • A common choice of k=-0. in text segmentation. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. 20). w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. ssd.s] = niblack(im. See also zncc. idisp(im >= t).

That is UPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. See also npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.q)/MPQ(im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2.0).0. p.

• The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. upq. npq. so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. mpq.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered as a single vertex.

ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.i] = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Systems. [yp. Jan 1979. x. Example t = otsu(im). pp 62-66 See also niblack.xp] = peak(y. [yp. otsu IEEE Trans. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. N. idisp(im >= t). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.

Typically choose N to be odd. use peak(-V).ij] = peak2(z. S ‘interp’. N ‘scale’.S points. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. use peak2(-V). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. N ‘scale’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.S points. [zp. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.

p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also pnmﬁlt. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2(p. ie. If p has three dimensions. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.CHAPTER 2. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. W. 5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. x2. r. value pairs that are passed to plot.y1. PLOT BOX(x1. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.CHAPTER 2. W. ’b’). ’r’). R. ‘size’.y1) and (x2. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. plot_circle(c. ’LineWidth’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. P. ’g’. ’edgecolor’. r. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Examples plot_circle(c.y2. ‘r’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ‘size’. r. P. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. or a set of name.y2). plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(’centre’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ’fillcolor’. 1=solid. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.

plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.Y]. ls) ls is the standard line styles. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. current plot. xc.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. c Specify color of the axes. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. Options ‘color’. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. with Matlab line style ls. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. centred at the origin. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.CHAPTER 2. If C=[X.Y.

’r’. ’color’. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’name’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. n ‘text opts’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set.CHAPTER 2. ‘framename’. trplot( T. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’color’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. fmt. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’.X = 0. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ‘printf’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘textcolor’. ’r’). size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. to ‘view’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker.

color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. either a letter or 3-vector. R. patch. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. NOTES • The sphere is always added. The default is 1. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. 1=solid. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state.CHAPTER 2. See also plot. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color.

plotp(p. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format.CHAPTER 2. See also pgmﬁlt. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used.

At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.gt] = radgrad(im.CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.

T. [m. T.in. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. x typically contains corresponding point data. Options ‘maxTrials’. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T.resid] = ransac(func. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. x. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. N ‘maxDataTrials’. d) as above but elements increment by d. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.in] = ransac(func. x. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. x. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. one column per point pair. [m.

”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. Comp.s sample size (1 × 1) out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. they detect a structure argument.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. pp 381-395.t threshold (1 × 1) R.R. pp 101-113. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. Vol 24.resid] = EST(R. [out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.theta = [].x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If multiple models are found out.theta] = ERR(R.x data to work on. that is they will produce a model.A. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. that is.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.out. No 6.C.theta. Boles.theta = DECONDITION(R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Cambridge University Press.theta and the subset of R. Mach.misc element. [out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.inlier.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg..s out. Assoc. Fishler and R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.x. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x and returns the best model out.x = CONDITION(R.theta.misc private data (cell array) out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. Comm.theta is a cell array. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. References • m.x) condition the point data out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.theta to the points R.CHAPTER 2. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.

CHAPTER 2. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.csse.uwa. If lambda is a vector. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.edu.

angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also roty. rotz. rotz. roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. • many texts (Paul. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. See also tr2rpy. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. pitch. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Z axes respectively. pitch. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw. T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Y.CHAPTER 2. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. If roll.

See also zsad. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. theta) as above where xy=[x. ssd.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. r2t. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. and rotation theta in the plane. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Two cross-hairs are created. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. See also zsdd. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels].CHAPTER 2.

’other’}. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. varargin) opt. tr2rt. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. ’that’.bar = false. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).foo = true. The software pattern is: function(a. c. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. then R is 3 × 3. It supports options that have an assigned value.CHAPTER 2. then R is 2 × 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt.choose = {’this’.blah = []. – If T is 3 × 3. opt. b. opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.

If neither of ‘this’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.CHAPTER 2. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .select = {’#no’. opt = tb_optparse(opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.debug <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.1. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).false ‘blah’.x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.foo <. 3 sets opt.true sets opt. N ‘setopt’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.choose <.N sets opt <. varargin). args) creates a test pattern image. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.choose <.blah <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.‘this’. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.select <. x. varargin). Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.foo <.verbose <. w. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.select <. ’#yes’}.y sets opt.blah <.

See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. binary dot pattern. The trajectory s. 25). n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles.sd. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. binary square pattern. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’.sd. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 256. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sf. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. sd and sdd are n-vectors. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. 256.CHAPTER 2. a line. args is the number of cycles. args are theta (rad). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 2). [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. 50. args is the number of cycles. args are pitch (distance between centres). square side length. dot diameter. intercept. sf.

Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. The 3 angles rpy=[R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. See also angvec2r. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.P. Y. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. rpy = tr2rpy(R. [theta. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Y and Z axes respectively.

If T has three dimensions.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.y. y.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. ie. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.z]. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.:. • The validity of R is not checked. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. See also rpy2tr. – If TR is 3 × 3. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. r2t. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. See also rt2tr. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. or x and y. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [c1. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). [o1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. An historical anomaly. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ).CHAPTER 2. each N × 1. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).

troty. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.

l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format.CHAPTER 2. and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotx. f ‘label’. trprint T is the command line form of above. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx.

y0) is the centroid. mpq. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.CHAPTER 2.(y-y0)q where (x0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.y). the sum of I(x. See also upq poly. tr2rpy. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. p.(x-x0)p .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). sad.CHAPTER 2. ssd. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also sad. ncc. ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.

See also sdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad.

- Bibliografıa_de La Tesis
- Mat Lab Notes Chap 01
- Image Processing Using MATLAB
- acado_matlab_manual.pdf
- Machine Vision Toolbox for Matlab
- Robotics Toolbox for Matlab (Peter Corke)
- Basics of Matlab
- MATLAB
- 1.Matlab Fundamentals Final
- CE343L-Lab1
- Fundamentals of Matlab Final
- Matllab Tut
- Matlab Intro (1)
- L01_MATLAB1
- Project - Color Based Moving Object Detection with Matlab
- power system analysis
- MATLab Tutorial #3 (1).pdf
- Matlab Essentials
- ELCE402 Lab Exp00
- Scilab Tutorial
- Seminar
- Sixth-Sense-Report with 1.5
- 06494399
- [11].2D Object Detection and Recognition - Models, Algorithms and Networks
- Lecture 01 Artificial Vision Lecture1
- matlab_intro.pdf
- Brazo_UNI.m
- 13586 for Gui-guidance 2003
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