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Licence Toolbox home page Discussion group

LGPL http://www.petercorke.com/vision http://groups.google.com.au/group/robotics-tool-box

Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. is open-source. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. However the book “Robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. and I commend it to you. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . 1. . . .2 Support . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . ivar . . iproﬁle . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . rluminos . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . plot homline . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . npq . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . vex . trotz . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. That’s what you your teachers.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. You need to signup in order to post.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. lecturers and professors are paid to do.com. tutors. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.google. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.

pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. The details are @article{Corke05f. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Volume = {12}. Author = {P.zip). HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. and the “See also” functions to each other.gz) or zip format (. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.petercorke. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1.html on a server for class use. 1. Number = {4}. Year = {2005}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Corke}.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Month = nov. 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1.3. The ﬁle robot.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. type of organization and application.1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. the table of content to functions.I.

7. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.7 Acknowledgements Last. pp 16–25. 1. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Vincent Lepetit. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. Coimbra. Corke. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1. 1. and there are hundreds of modules available.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. November 2005. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.6.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.I..vlfeat.S. but not least. Twente. MSER. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.R.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.Functions such as SURF.mathworks. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. 1994 University of British Columbia. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. 12(4). Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. P. VLFeat http://www.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

S ‘centre’. T ‘color’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane.CHAPTER 2. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. Options ‘name’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. N ‘sensor’. IM ‘resolution’. N ‘image’. used by all subclasses. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. Camera. S ‘noise’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.

CHAPTER 2. ﬁsheyecamera. SphericalCamera Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value C.clf Clear the image plane C.char Convert to string s = C. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera.centre Get camera position p = C. Camera. CatadioptricCamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.

line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.CHAPTER 2. and off if H is false (or 0).u + b. Camera.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.v + c = 0.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).char Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. otherwise false (0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Camera. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.

plot(p.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. y. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.clf Camera. The matrices x.T. Camera. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Camera. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. sphere.plot. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’. z to the image plane and plots them. T ‘Tcam’. mkcube. See also mesh. y.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. cylinder. z. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. uv = C.mesh(x. y. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold.

‘Tcam’.T.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. ‘fps’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘scale’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.hold. T See also Camera.mesh. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.CHAPTER 2. Overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. ‘Tobj’. Camera.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Options ‘Tcam’.clf Camera.

a subclass of Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy Set camera attitude C.y]. p.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.CHAPTER 2. C. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. The image is not inverted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is.rpy(R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

optical axis is z-axis.E Essential matrix E = C. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. D ‘default’ ‘image’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘centre’. P ‘pixel’.Sastry. N ‘sensor’. E = C. N ‘focal’.and v-axes parallel to x. S ‘noise’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Ma. 2003.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S. p. CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Springer. Reference Y.Soatto. CatadioptricCamera. f=8mm. camera at origin. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.CHAPTER 2. IM ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.8]) See also Camera.F. 10um pixels. S.Kosecka. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. E = C. J. “An invitation to 3D”. T ‘color’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.177 See also CentralCamera. u. SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘distortion’.and y-axes respectively.

Springer.H Homography matrix H = C.H(T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. S. Reference Y.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.E CentralCamera. 2003. from two viewpoints.H CentralCamera. S.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. F = C.Ma.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Sastry.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Soatto. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. J. See also CentralCamera.Kosecka. “An invitation to 3D”. p. n.

2009.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Lepetit. Journal on Computer Vision. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.estpose(xyz. Int. V.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). and P. a = C. F. Moreno-Noguer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also quiver CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. 81. vol.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Fua. pp. Feb.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. CentralCamera.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.CHAPTER 2. 155-166.

Soatto.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. s. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.CHAPTER 2.E CentralCamera. section 5. “Multiview Geometry”.Ma. 259 Y. J. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. 2003. Springer. See also CentralCamera. p116.Kosecka. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Kosecka. translation not to scale • n. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).invE(E. s. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Soatto. Springer.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Ma.Sastry. p. 2003. J. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry. s. Reference Y. Chap 9. “An invitation to 3D”.

If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. H = C.H CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). CentralCamera. p.CHAPTER 2.plot epiline(f. one per line. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.T. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Hough CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.project(p.

vol. See also Camera.CHAPTER 2. Reference B. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 8. Rives.c.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. and P. Espiau. 313-326.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.visjac e(E. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.plot CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference Hartley & Zisserman.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.b. F. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. “Multiview Geometry”. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Chaumette. June 1992. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.

visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Rives. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p polar.c. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac l(L.visjac p. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Vol 12(5). Chaumette. pp.visjac l CentralCamera. Reference B.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Oct. 1996.visjac e CentralCamera. Hager & Corke.b. F.visjac p polar.visjac p.CHAPTER 2. IEEE Trans. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. R&A. 313-326.visjac p(uv. vol. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. and P. See also CentralCamera. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. pp 651-670. 8. Espiau. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Hutchinson. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . June 1992. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.

2009.visjac l. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac p. P. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Chaumette. (St. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Louis).visjac p polar(rt. Oct. See also CentralCamera. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac e CentralCamera. in Proc. Spindler. pp. 5962-5967.visjac l. F. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Corke. and F.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.CHAPTER 2. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Int. radius and theta.

Int. ScalePointFeature. PointFeature. pp. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. D. Journal on Computer Vision. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.SIFT. See also isift. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .60.91-110. 2004. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.Lowe. See README. vol. Nov. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.

f = PointFeature(u. See also isift SiftPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. C ‘alpha’. SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque. 0=transparent (default 0.match Match SIFT point features m = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2.plot scale Plot feature scale F. f = PointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options.CHAPTER 2.

w) as above but the support region is displayed. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2.T] = F.support(images. F.support(im. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tobj’.T. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Options ‘name’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. N ‘pixel’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. See also SphericalCamera. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. S ‘pose’.

scalar for If null take actual value all points.0.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The camera view. defaults in parentheses: target size .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.depth of points to use for Jacobian. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gain.CHAPTER 2. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. image plane size and desired feature locations.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The camera view.01) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . Jacobian condition number.the side length of the target in world units (0. error norm. of 4-vector. error. The external view. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.5) target center . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. camera pose. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.center of the target in world coords (0.

Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . of 4-vector.depth of points to use for Jacobian. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.01) . CentralCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The external view. pp. defaults in parentheses: target size .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . CentralCamera.the side length of the target in world units (0. in Proc. Corke.visjac l. error norm.5) target center . I. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p(pt. image plane size and desired feature locations.CHAPTER 2. for all points. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. Robotics and Automation.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 5550-5555.0.center of the target in world coords (0. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.gain. P. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. camera pose.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . error. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Jacobian condition number. Conf. May 3-7 2010. IEEE Int. (Anchorage). or a vector (N × 1) for each point.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3. Andreas Ess. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Luc Van Gool. 110. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. No. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 346–359. pp. Vol. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.

f = PointFeature(u.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. [m. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. Options ‘thresh’.match Match SURF point features m = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match(f2.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. ScalePointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. v.

plot scale Plot feature scale F.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. C ‘alpha’. F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im.T] = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 1=opaque.2) SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.support(images.plot scale(options. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but the support region is displayed.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 0=transparent (default 0.support(images. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. [out.support(im. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

com).axis. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S ‘resolution’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com) web camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.axis. G ‘scale’. Video AxisWebCamera.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. See also AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close Close the image source A. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char Convert to string A.

“Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. pp. in Proc. b = BagOfWords(f. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.CHAPTER 2. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Ninth IEEE Int. 2003. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.Sivic and A. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. f can also be a cell array.org). See also PointFeature BagOfWords.1470-1477. on Computer Vision.Zisserman. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Oct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Conf.

exemplars(w. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . images.exemplars display exemplars of words B. isurf BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.contains Find images containing word k = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char Convert to string s = B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also BagOfWords.char BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.display Display value B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.

occurrence Word occurrence n = B.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.remove stop Remove stop words B.n] = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. M ‘width’.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. Options ‘ncolumns’. N ‘maxperimage’. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.

wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2.

N ‘sensor’.project(p. ﬁsheyecamera. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. ‘sine’. ‘equisolid’. T ‘Tcam’.and y-axes respectively. K ‘maxangle’. P ‘pixel’. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. optical axis is z-axis. CatadioptricCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. camera at origin. A ‘resolution’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). u. See also Camera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. 10um pixels. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘focal’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. S ‘noise’. See also Camera. f=8mm. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].CHAPTER 2.and v-axes parallel to x. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Options ‘Tobj’. M ‘k’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].T.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. See also PointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SurfPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . such as ScalePointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.

one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the match object. See also PointFeature. FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f2. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. See also FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. SurfPointFeature.char Convert to string s = M. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value M. m = FeatureMatch(f1.

v2].outlier Outlier features m2 = M.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.v1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.outlier. See also FeatureMatch.u2.inlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. FeatureMatch.

p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. for example by: idisp({im1.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p2 FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot() M.p1. These are the (u.CHAPTER 2.p FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.FeatureMatch.im2}) m.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.p1. FeatureMatch. These are the (u. See also FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.

m = f1. 1e-4). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.ransac(func. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. f2 = isurf(im2). See also fmatrix. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. homography.CHAPTER 2. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also idisp FeatureMatch. Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac( @fmatrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2). m. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). ransac FeatureMatch.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.ransac Apply RANSAC M.

CHAPTER 2. The image is not inverted. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Y This camera model assumes central projection. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

optical axis is z-axis.axes respectively. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. P ‘pixel’. Options ‘name’. K ‘resolution’. u. ‘sine’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. SIGMA ‘pose’.and y. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10um pixels. M ‘k’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. f=8mm. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. S ‘noise’.CHAPTER 2. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘equisolid’. N ‘sensor’.and v-axes are parallel to x. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. camera at origin.

Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p.CHAPTER 2. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. See also FishEyeCamera. T ‘Tcam’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. CentralCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CatadioptricCamera.

For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. A horizontal line has theta = 0. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. See also LineFeature Hough. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. The voting array is 2-dimensional. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.H). a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.0) and the line. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.edgeThresh. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. W ‘nbins’. T ‘suppress’. else N = [Ntheta. Default 400 × 401. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. W ‘houghthresh’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. T ‘edgethresh’. Hough.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Nrho]. Set ht.houghThresh (default 0. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Convert to string s = HT. See also Hough.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.5) Set ht. Hough.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.display Display value HT.1). N All edge pixels have equal weight.edgeThresh (default 0.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. L = HT.plot Plot line features HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. LineFeature Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot(n. The highest peak is found.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.lines Find lines L = HT. HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. then all elements in an HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision. H = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .lines Hough.CHAPTER 2.

• LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char Convert to string s = L.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. LineFeature. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. L = LineFeature(rho. See also LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(rho.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2.display Display value L. strength.

less than gap pixels are tolerated. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). l2 = L.points Return points on line segments p = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Small gaps.CHAPTER 2.seglength(edge.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also icanny LineFeature.plot() overlay the line on current plot.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. l2 = L. LineFeature.plot Plot line L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.

G ‘scale’.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘skip’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.char Convert to string M.CHAPTER 2. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.close Close the image source M. Movie. Movie.com).close() closes the connection to the movie.axis.

grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. undirected graph create an n-d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. S ‘frame’. planar.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. F Skip frames. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.

CHAPTER 2.cost(e) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.plot() g.connectivity() g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. Object properties (read/write) g.path(v) set goal vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. v2) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.neighbours(v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.coord(v) g.add node(coord) g.add edge(v1.goal(v) g.next(v) g.clear() add vertex.component(v) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.edges(e) g. v) g.distance(v1.add node(coord.

where x is D × 1. and returns the edge id E. PGraph.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node(x.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge(v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(x. v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge(v1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. and returns the node id v. Options ‘distance’. v = G. E = G.

char Convert graph to string s = G.clear Clear the graph G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. and the distance d.CHAPTER 2.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. [v. edges and components.d] = G. PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. D × 1.coord(v) return coordinate vector. of node id v. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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SiftPointFeature PointFeature. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. v. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.char Convert to string s = F.display Display value F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u. See also ScalePointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.

If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. [m. Options ‘thresh’.char PointFeature.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. where 1 is perfect match.CHAPTER 2.C] = F.match(f2. PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the norm of the Euclidean distance.match Match point features m = F.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.

Polygon .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot Plot feature F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.

one column per vertex. intersection.html and require a licence. Pankratov. so use with care. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.char String representation s = P.mit. kirill@plume. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. difference. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. p = Polygon(C.edu. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. HEIGHT]. http://puddle.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. union. Polygon. Polygon.

inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. returns coordinates of P.CHAPTER 2.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).display Display polygon P. See also Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. else 0.char Polygon.

intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.CHAPTER 2.moments Moments of polygon a = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon.moments(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns empty polygon. each column is [x y]’. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. y1 y2]. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot Plot polygon P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.union Union of polygons i = P. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.CHAPTER 2. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.

[x.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. Ray3D.char Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.display Display value R. See also Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.E] = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. [x. one per element.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.E] = R.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.b. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. vertical coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.c.0) 1 for a circle.CHAPTER 2. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. RegionFeature. For example R.box Return bounding box b = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. one per element. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. imoments RegionFeature.char Convert to string s = R. ymax]. ymin.uc will be a list not a vector.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. See also iblobs.xmax.th] = R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary plot boundary R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot centroid R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.char RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display Display value R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. See also RegionFeature.and xmarkers. R.

R. RegionFeature.plot box Plot bounding box R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.CHAPTER 2.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength. v.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0=transparent (default 0. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.CHAPTER 2. C ‘alpha’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. ScalePointFeature. F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. SurfPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. See also PointFeature. 1=opaque.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. See also PointFeature Tracker. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. R ‘nslots’. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. N ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per active track. C. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. T ‘movie’.CHAPTER 2. options) is a new tracker object.

char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Tracker. Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Show feature trajectories T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. See also Tracker.display Display value T.char Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .tracklengths Length of all tracks T.CHAPTER 2.

• The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. otherwise the result is not predictable.CHAPTER 2. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Movie Video. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. AxisWebCamera. and their characteristics is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.

Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab() acquires an image from the camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char Convert to string V.close Close the image source V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.

color. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. right. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. If th1 is a column vector. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. a = anaglyph(left. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. By default the left image is red. the second for right. if negative it is reduced. right. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. and the right image is cyan. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters.CHAPTER 2. the ﬁrst for left. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y2].y1] and p2=[x2. If lambda is a column vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. 6500). xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].y1) to (x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. x2.y2). p = bresenham(p1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.boundary. See also RegionFeature. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. y1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. [x.s] = boundmatch(R1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. Endpoints must be integer. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. % emission of sun plot(l.CHAPTER 2.

d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. [C. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.CHAPTER 2. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. [k. and x is N × 3. that is.d1] = closest(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). green and blue primaries respectively. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. R. x = circle(C. Options ‘n’. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = closest(a. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.CHAPTER 2.

ioo. while Table I(5.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. • From Table I(5. they were measured directly.d1. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. since.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).ac. (Table 1(5. As noted in footnote a on p.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.5. 19000 (526. and 22500 (444.CHAPTER 2. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5.5.32).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. 335 of Table 1(5.d2] = closest(a. The data are referred to as pilot data.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.16). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.ucl.

ioo.ac. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. out = col2im(pix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.CHAPTER 2. imsize is a 2-vector (N. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .M). If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ucl. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.uk See also cmfrgb.

g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.

B). and returns a per-pixel logical result. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. @isnan.C] = colorkmeans(im. im<100. eg. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. mask. k. func.CHAPTER 2. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.G. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. [L. See also imono. @isnan. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. icolor.

low is good. name = colorname(XYZ.CHAPTER 2. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. eg. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. XYZ = colorname(name. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.C. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.R] = colorkmeans(im. k) as above but also returns the residual R. L = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.

txt.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.o2. colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. it can be omitted. or alternatively.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. As MATLAB’s native datatype. double data is the natural choice.CHAPTER 2. Input and output images have 3 planes. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • Color space names are case insensitive. s = ‘src->dest’. i1. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. [o1.i2.o3] = colorspace(s.

100). like a colormap. for memory and computational performance. However. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). out will also have size M × 3.200). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. d = distance(A. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.CHAPTER 2.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.2*A.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . Example A = rand(400. • If im is an M × 3 array. B = rand(400.

non zero is counter-clockwise.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.CHAPTER 2. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.uva. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.3. E = edgelist(im. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. non-zero is an object.y). Tested: PC Matlab v5. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.(+31)20-5257524. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.j). tel. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. in matrix coordinate frame. seed. bunschot@wins. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. University of Amsterdam. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. not image frame. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result E is a matrix.

fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p. Author Based on fmatrix code by. H = epiline(f. Coimbra.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Oct 27. one per line drawn. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. 1998. epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p. See also epiline. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).R.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. See also fmatrix. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p1. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f.S. I.

k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. that is. which means it can be passed to ransac(). page 270.edu. that is. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. homography. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Notes • The points must be corresponding. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. p2. See also ransac. it is singular.au/. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.uwa. • Contains a RANSAC driver. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse. epiline.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia. no outlier rejection is performed. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. c. http://www. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. • f is a rank 2 matrix.

y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. y1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.y2).y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. ithin. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph. x2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. itriplepoint.CHAPTER 2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).

p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.csse. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.CHAPTER 2. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. no outlier rejection is performed.uwa. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. http://www. See also ransac.au/. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which means it can be passed to ransac(). fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.edu. The University of Western Australia. Notes • The points must be corresponding. invhomog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.

CHAPTER 2. S output image contains all the warped pixels. D ‘size’. See also e2h. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. S ‘dimension’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W.offs] = homwarp(H. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. itrim.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. V ‘roi’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. that is tp=T*T1. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. See also homography. im. R ‘scale’. ie. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1.

’nfeat’. IT-8:pp. Hu. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 1962. features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. ’gs’).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. features. 179-187. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 200). IRE Trans. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ianimate(im. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. on Information Theory. ianimate(seq. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants.

iblobs features f = iblobs(im. M ‘npoints’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. YMIN YMAX]. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. N ‘only’. isurf. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.

S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. [A1. [S1. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. ilabel. default 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2. horizontal coordinate centroid.0 ‘connect’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. A set pixel aspect ratio.0) 1 for a circle. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. C set connectivity. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.

1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also iopen. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. T ‘th1’. se.CHAPTER 2. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also isobel. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. 1996-7. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Tel Aviv University. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. S ‘th0’.

iconcat(im. D ‘bgval’. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). colorize. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. [C. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. [0 1 1]). Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. C = icolor(im. See also imono.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. Options ‘dir’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u] = iconcat(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. The images do not have to be of the same size.

CHAPTER 2. options) convolves im1 with im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

D ‘sigma’. CT ‘edgegap’. S ‘deriv’. E ‘suppress’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘k’. K ‘patch’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. N ‘detector’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. R ‘nfeat’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features.CHAPTER 2. CM ‘cminthresh’.

• The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Shi and C. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Stephens. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .6. with a delay of 0.Noble. Tomasi. Image and Vision Computing. p2. Manchester. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. pp 147-151. • “Finding corners”. 593-593.G. C.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. vol. T ‘maxiter’. Proc. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Options ‘dplot’. May 1988. with a delay of d [sec]. where * denotes squared and smoothed. pp. • “Good features to track”. Proc. N ‘mindelta’.d] = icp(p1. Harris and M. 1988. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.CHAPTER 2.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. pp. [T. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.J. IEEE Computer Society. J.121-128. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. J.5 [sec]. T ‘distthresh’. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. p2. 1994.

Pattern Anal. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.. vol. m. Intell. 2. s = idecimate(im. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. See also iscale. IEEETrans.or 3-dimensional. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. 14. P. Feb. Notes • If the image has multiple planes.McKay. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 239-256. each plane is decimated. m. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. no. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Mach. s = idecimate(im.Besl and H. pp. 1992.CHAPTER 2.

zero is black. linear proﬁle. If the image is zoomed. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. zero is white color map: random values. positive is blue. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. darker than ‘grey’. histogram and zooming. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. zero is white. If im is a cell array of images. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. C ‘xydata’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. negative is red. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. positive is blue. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. Options ‘ncolors’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im.CHAPTER 2. negative is red. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). XY ‘colormap’. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top.and y-axes respectively. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.

caxis. icolorize. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colormap. labelimage. See also iblobs. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. idisplabel(im. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. See also image. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labels.CHAPTER 2.

gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.45. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. out = igamma(im. ithin. See also itriplepoint.

idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5). min. 2006. 167181. P. min is the minimum region size (pixels).5). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. k. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 2004. 59. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.CHAPTER 2. k.m] = igraphseg(im. Sept. k is the scale parameter. See also ithresh. [l. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. [L. Example im = iread(’58060. pp. min. L = igraphseg(im. 100. Int. Huttenlocher.jpg’). vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Felzenszwalb and D. k.m] = igraphseg(im. 1500. Journal on Computer Vision. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 0.

• For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.x] = ihist(im). [H. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. plot(x.x] = ihist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.x] = ihist(im.h). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. bar(x. ’normcdf’). H = ihist(im.h). options) displays the image histogram.CHAPTER 2. [h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.

m. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. [L. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.y1) and bottom-right (x2. ii is a precomputed integral image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. x1. same size as im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.y2). y2. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. [L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. y1.

If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.maxlabel. iproﬁle.Y]. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p1. p2. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p1. out = iline(im.parents. See also iblobs.parents. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.class. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. [L.CHAPTER 2. each a 2-vector [X. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. • This is a “low level” function.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.maxlabel. otherwise it does not. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. ilabel(im.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. The pixels on the line are set to 1. 8). eg.

See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. y. and columns the vertical position. xmax. s] % relative to (x. im2.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. w2. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.DY) are the x. ymin. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.CC] where (DX. -s.and y-offsets relative to (x.DY. centred at (x.score] = imatch(im1. ymax] relative to (x. The return value is xm=[DX. a perfect match score is 1. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. im2.y) and its half-width is H. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). [xm. • Is a MEX ﬁle. x.y). s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.CHAPTER 2. H. • ZNCC matching is used.y). x.y) and of size s. The template in im1 is centred at (x. y.

The element u(v. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. [u. All pixels are equally weighted. effectively a greyscale image.u) = v. v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = imoments(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.v] = imeshgrid(w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. H) as above but the domain is w × H. effectively a binary image. f = imoments(u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.CHAPTER 2.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].u) = u and v(v.

ilabel. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m20. the elements are m00. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m01. m11. or its area. Different conversion functions are supported.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. icolor. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im.CHAPTER 2. m10. horizontal coordinate centroid. See also RegionFeature. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. • This function does not perform connectivity. m02.

The labels [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Chum. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matas. J. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Image and Vision Computing. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.org). idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. 761767. and T. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Pajdla. Urban. 2004. [label. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. O. vol.png’. se. m. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Sept. ’light’). 22.m] = imser(im. ’grey’. options) as above but m is the number of regions found.CHAPTER 2. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. pp.m] = imser(im. ’double’).

Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.ˆ2). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.CHAPTER 2. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

sides. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. sides. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. See also iclose. n. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. out = iopen(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. This is an erosion followed by dilation. se.

p. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. ’t’. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ’tblr’. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 20.V]. 10. otherwise im2 is selected. im1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im2. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.

v) for the corresponding row of p.uv] = iproﬁle(im. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1. p1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. See also bresenham.CHAPTER 2. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.

sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. The highest rank. 1.3). nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. out = imorph(image. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. se). im > irank(im. idecimate. sigma. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. hence output image had reduced dimensions.2) = 0. order. out = imorph(image. ones(5.5)). nbins. out = ipyramid(im. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. is order=1. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. 12. the maximum. se. op. se. out = ipyramid(im. op. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. se(2. See also iscalespace.

See also imorph. ivar. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. im = iread(ﬁle. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. where R=[umin umax. vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2. G ‘reduce’. R ‘roi’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call.

im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. [out1.h2] = irectify(f. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. homwarp. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. Notes • Color images are not supported. imono. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im1. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.h1. im1. imwrite. m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. igamma. istereo. m.out2] = irectify(f.out2.

S ‘extrapval’. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. V ‘smooth’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.vmin vmax].H] return central part of image. vmin. angle.umax. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .vmax].R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. [out. See also idisp. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘outsize’.

while bias>0. s>1 makes the image larger.CHAPTER 2. bias=0. out = isamesize(im1. Options ‘outsize’.5 is symmetric cropping. bias<0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s<1 makes it smaller. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s ‘extrapval’. V ‘smooth’. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. im2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

idecimate. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. [g. corresponding to each step of the sequence.CHAPTER 2.L. in space and scale. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. n. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). n) as above but sigma=1. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.L.s] = iscalespace(im. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.s] = iscalespace(im. See also iscalespace. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.

that is. else false (0). ismooth. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ilaplace. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. it its third dimension is equal to three. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog(T. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ‘valid’) as above.CHAPTER 2. See also isrot.

each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. See also SiftPointFeature. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. 2 (2004). pp. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 60. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. International Journal of Computer Vision.vlfeat. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Features are returned in descending strength order. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. isurf. Reference David G.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. N ‘suppress’. Lowe. 91-110.

@zsad.H. @ssd. [w. s is same size as im. zsad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. s = isimilarity(T. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @ncc. zssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im.CHAPTER 2. @zssd. See also imatch. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. sad. [w.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. and these output pixels are set to NaN.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. ncc. ssd. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.

convolved. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. then converted back to integer. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. See also iconv. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. [gx. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.CHAPTER 2.gy] = isobel(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. [gx. sigma.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.

options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).u) means that imr(v.CHAPTER 2.M] for an N × M window. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. the disparity d=d(v.u). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml.sim] = istereo(iml. imr. H is the half size of the matching window. See also ishomog.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. ‘valid’) as above. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. isrot(R. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. See also ksobel. else false (0). That is. w. [d. range. range. H. range is the disparity search range. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. icanny. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. imr. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.

range. ‘ncc’. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. imr.CHAPTER 2. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). out = istretch(im. w.dsi] = istereo(iml. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. [d. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. p. dx. imr.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.5). That is. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. [d. Options ‘metric’. p. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.A and p. range. 3) See also irectify.sim. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.sim.p] = istereo(iml. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.5 to +0. w. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. • sim = max(dsi. B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. or sequences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Notes • Color images. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Kroon (U. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. N ‘thresh’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. T ‘octaves’.

Otherwise false (0). else false (0). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. isvec(v. out = ithin(im. pp. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also hitormiss. itriplepoint.CHAPTER 2.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. See also ishomog. 346–359. Luc Van Gool. 3. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. either a row. Vol. Andreas Ess. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. isift. 110. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).or columnvector. Tinne Tuytelaars. No. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay.

Notes • Greyscale image only. The same cropping is applied to each input image.out2] = itrim(im1.5.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The default is 0. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. a lower value will include more. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. See also homwarp.im2.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.out2] = itrim(im1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. ithresh(im.

The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. op. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. ithin. se. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iendpoint. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.CHAPTER 2. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.

@std). hence output image had reduced dimensions. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. func. out = iwindow(image. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. See also ivar. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. ones(5. se. se. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ones(3. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. @max).5). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.CHAPTER 2.

and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. is k’. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdgauss(sigma. See also kgauss. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. See also ones. kdog. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . dG/dy. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. dG/dx. ktriangle. k = kcircle(R. • The vertical derivative.

k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. By default SIGMA2 = 1. klog. k = kgauss(sigma. sigma2. klog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .6*sigma1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . k = kdog(sigma1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. kdog. See also kdgauss. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. and W=2 × H+1. iconv. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kgauss. See also ilaplace. kdog. kdgauss. k = klog(sigma.

and D is the dimension.CHAPTER 2. k. k. Pattern Recognition Principles. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. [L. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.C] = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. L = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. The points are the columns of p. s. symmetric about the origin. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. Options ‘T’. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. [x.z] = mkcube(s.y. C ‘T’.y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. ‘edge’. See also cylinder. [x.CHAPTER 2.

n.xp . y. or y(:.CHAPTER 2. npq. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. or y(:. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n) MPLOT(t.y). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.2)). labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. the sum of I(x. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. y) MPLOT(t. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(y.2)). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. See also mpq poly. p.yq . MPLOT(t.

p. they are considered to be a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. upq poly. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. See also mpq. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. npq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

for example. -0.2. sad. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. niblack. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. in text segmentation. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.s] = niblack(im. W. T has the same dimensions as im. where W=2*w2+1.m. k. 1986. See also zncc. Example t = niblack(im. Prentice-Hall. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. • A common choice of k=-0.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. 20). ssd. idisp(im >= t). k.CHAPTER 2. [T. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. the height of a character.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is UPQ(im.p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. See also npq poly.0).0. p.q)/MPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.CHAPTER 2.

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m.CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. so centroids will be still be correct. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. upq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. they are considered as a single vertex. See also mpq poly. npq. mpq.

Example t = otsu(im).xp] = peak(y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. idisp(im >= t). Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.CHAPTER 2. Systems. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. N. otsu IEEE Trans. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Jan 1979. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i] = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. [yp. x.

Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. use peak(-V). Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. use peak2(-V). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.CHAPTER 2. N ‘scale’.S points. N ‘scale’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Typically choose N to be odd.ij] = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.

Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot.CHAPTER 2. See also pnmﬁlt. If p has three dimensions. plot2(p. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ie. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak.

ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’LineWidth’.y1) and (x2. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ‘size’.y2).Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘r’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. r. P. 1=solid. ’b’). If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. value pairs that are passed to plot. PLOT BOX(’centre’.y2. 5). ’r’). ’fillcolor’. PLOT BOX(x1. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. W. ’g’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. r. R. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ’edgecolor’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. W. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. plot_circle(c. r. plot_circle(c.CHAPTER 2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘size’. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. x2. Examples plot_circle(c. or a set of name. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P.y1.

xc. with Matlab line style ls.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y]. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.CHAPTER 2. centred at the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. If C=[X. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.Y. ls) ls is the standard line styles. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. C. current plot. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. Options ‘color’. c Specify color of the axes.

ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. n ‘text opts’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. to ‘view’. ’name’. ’color’. ‘printf’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. trplot( T. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. Options ‘textcolor’. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’r’). ’color’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker.X = 0.CHAPTER 2. ’r’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. fmt. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ‘framename’.

H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired.CHAPTER 2. R. patch. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. NOTES • The sphere is always added. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. color. either a letter or 3-vector. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. 1=solid. R. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. The default is 1. See also plot. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres.

See also pgmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.CHAPTER 2. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. plotp(p. See also plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im. [gr. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.

ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.resid] = ransac(func. x typically contains corresponding point data. N ‘maxDataTrials’. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x. one column per point pair. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. x. [m. T. T. Options ‘maxTrials’. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x.CHAPTER 2.in. T. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. [m. d) as above but elements increment by d. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .in] = ransac(func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.

R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. If multiple models are found out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta is a cell array.x = CONDITION(R. Cambridge University Press.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Fishler and R.theta to the points R. Assoc. Boles.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.s out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.CHAPTER 2.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.x and returns the best model out. pp 101-113. No 6. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.t threshold (1 × 1) R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. [out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.x. Comp.theta.x.resid] = EST(R.theta and the subset of R.inlier. Comm.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. References • m.s sample size (1 × 1) out.theta = []. that is they will produce a model.x) condition the point data out.x data to work on. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. they detect a structure argument.theta = DECONDITION(R.out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta] = ERR(R.misc private data (cell array) out.C. Mach.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. [out. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. Vol 24. that is.theta.misc element.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.A. pp 381-395.

See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.edu.csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.CHAPTER 2. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. If lambda is a vector. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.uwa.au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also roty. rotz.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx.

Z axes respectively. Y. T = rpy2tr(roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. yaw. pitch. See also tr2rpy. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. If roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. • many texts (Paul. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX.CHAPTER 2. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments.

and rotation theta in the plane. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. y. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. theta) as above where xy=[x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ncc. r2t. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. See also zsad. ssd.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.CHAPTER 2.

See also zsdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. sad. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Two cross-hairs are created. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector.

• the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt. b.blah = []. varargin) opt.CHAPTER 2. – If T is 3 × 3. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. c.foo = true.bar = false. tr2rt. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. then R is 3 × 3. opt.choose = {’this’. It supports options that have an assigned value. ’that’. then R is 2 × 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. ’other’}. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. The software pattern is: function(a.

If neither of ‘this’.blah <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.select <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. varargin). If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.false ‘blah’. 3 sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.N sets opt <. N ‘setopt’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose <.blah <. varargin).y ‘that’ sets opt.debug <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.true sets opt.select <. w.foo <.select = {’#no’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.choose <. args) creates a test pattern image.3 ‘blah’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. x.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. ’#yes’}.‘this’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.y sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.1.CHAPTER 2. opt = tb_optparse(opt.foo <.verbose <.x.

args is the number of cycles. square side length. The trajectory s. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles.sd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . intercept.sdd] = tpoly(s0.CHAPTER 2.sd. 256. args is the number of cycles. 256. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. [s. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sd and sdd are n-vectors. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. 2). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). dot diameter. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args is the number of cycles. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. binary square pattern. binary dot pattern. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args are theta (rad). a line. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. sf. 50. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args are pitch (distance between centres). intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 25). sf.

angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. [theta.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. The 3 angles rpy=[R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Y and Z axes respectively. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. See also angvec2r. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).

:. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. r2t. ie.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. – If TR is 3 × 3. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.CHAPTER 2. See also rt2tr. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. If T has three dimensions. • The validity of R is not checked. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.y. y.z]. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rpy2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.

If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. An historical anomaly.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). [o1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3).CHAPTER 2. or x and y. [c1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). each N × 1. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trprint T is the command line form of above. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. f ‘label’. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2. trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx.

tr2rpy. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.y0) is the centroid. mpq. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. That is. p. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.(x-x0)p .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.(y-y0)q where (x0.y). npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also upq poly. the sum of I(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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sad. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ncc.CHAPTER 2. ssd. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sad. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). ssd.

sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ncc.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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