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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is extravagant on storage. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. is open-source. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. However the book “Robotics.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . 2 . . . Ray3D . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . 1. Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . iblobs . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . isvec . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . istretch . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . plot box . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . peak2 . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

You need to signup in order to post. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. tutors.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and you will be suitably acknowledged.google.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That’s what you your teachers. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.com.

1. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. the table of content to functions. 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). 1. The ﬁle robot.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.3.gz) or zip format (.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Month = nov. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Author = {P. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. type of organization and application. Volume = {12}. Number = {4}.I. The details are @article{Corke05f.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Corke}. Year = {2005}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .zip).3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.petercorke.html on a server for class use. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. and the “See also” functions to each other. 1.1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.

See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.6. 1994 University of British Columbia. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. and there are hundreds of modules available. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. pp 16–25. 1.S. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. 1. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Corke. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL..mathworks.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. Twente.R.I. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.7 Acknowledgements Last. P. November 2005.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. but not least. Vincent Lepetit.7. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.1. VLFeat http://www.vlfeat. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. 12(4). IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.Functions such as SURF. MSER. Coimbra.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. Camera.CHAPTER 2. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. S ‘centre’. N ‘sensor’. IM ‘resolution’. Options ‘name’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. SIGMA ‘pose’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. S ‘noise’. N ‘image’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. P ‘pixel’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. used by all subclasses. T ‘color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.

delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.clf Clear the image plane C.char Convert to string s = C. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).display Display value C. SphericalCamera Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.centre Get camera position p = C.CHAPTER 2.

line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera.u + b.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. See also Camera.v + c = 0.char Camera. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.CHAPTER 2. otherwise false (0). C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.

options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The matrices x. Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. See also mesh.CHAPTER 2. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera.T. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. sphere.clf Camera. uv = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. y.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’.plot(p.hold.plot Plot points on image plane C. z.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.mesh(x.plot. Camera. cylinder. Options ‘Tobj’.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). mkcube. Camera. z to the image plane and plots them.

CHAPTER 2. ‘fps’. Overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘scale’. Options ‘Tcam’. T See also Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera. ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.mesh. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Camera.T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.hold. ‘Tcam’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.clf Camera. Camera.

p. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted.p.rpy Set camera attitude C. that is. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy(R. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.y]. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a subclass of Camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CHAPTER 2. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C Camera matrix C = C.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. 10um pixels.Ma. CatadioptricCamera. N ‘focal’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. IM ‘resolution’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. Springer.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.E Essential matrix E = C.CHAPTER 2.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . J. ﬁsheyecamera. camera at origin. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. N ‘sensor’.and y-axes respectively.Kosecka.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.and v-axes parallel to x. F ‘distortion’. T ‘color’. E = C.Sastry.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). P ‘pixel’.8]) See also Camera. S. E = C. 2003. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.Soatto. D ‘default’ ‘image’. f=8mm. Reference Y. “An invitation to 3D”.177 See also CentralCamera.F. S ‘noise’. optical axis is z-axis. SIGMA ‘pose’. S. p. u. S ‘centre’.

Ma. S.H CentralCamera.H(T. Reference Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Kosecka.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. p. from two viewpoints. F = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F Fundamental matrix F = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. n.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.E CentralCamera. J. See also CentralCamera.Soatto.H Homography matrix H = C. Springer. S.177 See also CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).Sastry. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 2003. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. “An invitation to 3D”.

Lepetit.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. a = C.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Moreno-Noguer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2009.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Journal on Computer Vision. Feb. 155-166.CHAPTER 2. and P. Fua.estpose(xyz.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). CentralCamera. See also quiver CentralCamera. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. F. V.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. 81. Int. vol.

Soatto. 2003.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. J.Sastry. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). s. Reference Y. translation not to scale • n. p116.invE(E. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.E CentralCamera. section 5. See also CentralCamera. J. s. Springer. “An invitation to 3D”.CHAPTER 2.Soatto. s. p.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. s.Kosecka. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “An invitation to 3D”. Springer. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Ma. Chap 9. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. 259 Y.Kosecka.Ma.Sastry. “Multiview Geometry”. 2003. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.

plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. one per line.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.project(p. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough CentralCamera. CentralCamera. C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. p. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. H = C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.T.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Espiau. “Multiview Geometry”.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.c. and P. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Rives. 313-326. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. See also Camera.visjac e(E. F. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .plot CentralCamera. Reference B. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.b. Chaumette. pp. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. vol.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. June 1992. 8.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Reference B. Vol 12(5). CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac e CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. pp. Rives.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Hager & Corke.visjac p(uv. Chaumette.visjac p polar. Hutchinson. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. 313-326. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. Espiau. pp 651-670. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Oct.visjac p.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 8.visjac l CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.c. R&A. See also CentralCamera. June 1992. IEEE Trans. F.CHAPTER 2. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac p polar. 1996.b.visjac l(L. and P. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.

CentralCamera.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. and F. Corke. in Proc. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac l. Int. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Oct. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. radius and theta.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Chaumette. (St. 2009. 5962-5967. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Louis). pp.visjac e CentralCamera. I. CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac l. F. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac p. Spindler. P.CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera.

2004. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Int. PointFeature. Journal on Computer Vision. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isift. ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. vol. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.SIFT. See README.91-110.CHAPTER 2.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.Lowe. Nov. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.60. D.

CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. See also isift SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = PointFeature(u. v.match(f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F. 1=opaque. C ‘alpha’. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.plot scale(options. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 0=transparent (default 0.

extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support Support region of feature out = F. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = F.support(images. [out. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im.CHAPTER 2.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

S ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. CentralCamera. Options ‘name’. T ‘Tcam’. ﬁsheyecamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). See also SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project(p. Options ‘Tobj’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T. N ‘pixel’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C.

center of the target in world coords (0.the side length of the target in world units (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.01) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Jacobian condition number. error norm. The external view.5) target center .CHAPTER 2.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . image plane size and desired feature locations. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. scalar for If null take actual value all points. camera pose. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera view. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. error. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.depth of points to use for Jacobian. The camera view.gain. of 4-vector. defaults in parentheses: target size . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.

May 3-7 2010.center of the target in world coords (0. 5550-5555. CentralCamera.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. in Proc.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The external view. Conf. error.visjac l. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.5) target center .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.01) . P. Corke. error norm. (Anchorage). camera pose.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Robotics and Automation. scalar for If null take actual value all points. defaults in parentheses: target size .gain. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. CentralCamera. for all points.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. I.depth of points to use for Jacobian. pp. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. of 4-vector.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . or a vector (N × 1) for each point.the side length of the target in world units (0. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).visjac p(pt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Jacobian condition number.0. IEEE Int. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. image plane size and desired feature locations. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar.

110. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Tinne Tuytelaars. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. pp. 3. No. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Andreas Ess.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 346–359. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Vol. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Luc Van Gool.CHAPTER 2. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.

v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘thresh’. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. v. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = F.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. [m. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2. ScalePointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].CHAPTER 2.

support(images. [out. F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale Plot feature scale F. out = F.plot scale(options. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(im.support(im.support(images.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support Support region of feature out = F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but the support region is displayed. 0=transparent (default 0. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.T] = F. C ‘alpha’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.CHAPTER 2.2) SurfPointFeature. 1=opaque.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com) web camera.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com). options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Video AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis. G ‘scale’. otherwise the result is not predictable. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close Close the image source A.char Convert to string A. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. See also AxisWebCamera.

in Proc. Oct. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.Zisserman. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. f can also be a cell array. Conf. pp. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.org).BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sivic and A. on Computer Vision. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.1470-1477. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. 2003. b = BagOfWords(f.

BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . images. BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.display Display value B. isurf BagOfWords.char BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.exemplars(w.char Convert to string s = B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.contains Find images containing word k = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.

If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘maxperimage’.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. M ‘width’.remove stop Remove stop words B.n] = B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. Options ‘ncolumns’. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.isword Features from words f = B.CHAPTER 2.

subclass of Camera.CHAPTER 2. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

u. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. 10um pixels. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. SIGMA ‘pose’. ‘sine’. optical axis is z-axis. See also Camera. A ‘resolution’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. CatadioptricCamera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].and v-axes parallel to x. P ‘pixel’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘centre’. camera at origin.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. ‘equisolid’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). f=8mm. S ‘noise’. M ‘k’.project(p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.and y-axes respectively.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. N ‘focal’. See also Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. N ‘sensor’. K ‘maxangle’.T.

SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. f2. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.char Convert to string s = M.display Display value M. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.

Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier Outlier features m2 = M.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v2].u2.outlier.ransac FeatureMatch.v1. FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.

The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. for example by: idisp({im1.plot() M. FeatureMatch.p1.p FeatureMatch.p1.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.CHAPTER 2.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.im2}) m. These are the (u. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2 FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .FeatureMatch. These are the (u. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.

m = f1. homography. See also fmatrix.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. ransac FeatureMatch. 1e-4). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.ransac Apply RANSAC M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m.match(f2).ransac( @fmatrix. Example f1 = isurf(im1).CHAPTER 2. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). See also idisp FeatureMatch.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.ransac(func. f2 = isurf(im2). and an error is created if this UserData is not found. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. v. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.CHAPTER 2.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Y This camera model assumes central projection. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. S ‘noise’. ‘equisolid’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. 10um pixels. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].and y. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Options ‘name’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. optical axis is z-axis. ‘sine’. u. N ‘sensor’.axes respectively. P ‘pixel’.CHAPTER 2. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. SIGMA ‘pose’. M ‘k’. f=8mm. S ‘centre’. K ‘resolution’.and v-axes are parallel to x. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera at origin.

For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also FishEyeCamera. See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.CHAPTER 2.project(p. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T. T ‘Tcam’. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Options ‘Tobj’.

0) and the line. The voting array is 2-dimensional. A horizontal line has theta = 0.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.H). For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.CHAPTER 2. See also LineFeature Hough. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. T ‘edgethresh’. Set ht. Hough. T ‘suppress’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Nrho].1).char Convert to string s = HT. See also Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.edgeThresh. Default 400 × 401.houghThresh (default 0. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else N = [Ntheta.5) Set ht. W ‘houghthresh’.display Display value HT. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. W ‘nbins’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Hough.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh (default 0.

suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot Plot line features HT.lines Find lines L = HT. LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. See also Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision. HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. The highest peak is found.lines Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. then all elements in an HT. HT. L = HT. H = HT.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot(n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.

char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. See also LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = L. LENGTH is undeﬁned. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. one per element. LineFeature. theta. L = LineFeature(rho.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.display Display value L. theta. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. strength.CHAPTER 2.

points Return points on line segments p = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). See also icanny LineFeature. l2 = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. less than gap pixels are tolerated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. Small gaps. LineFeature.seglength(edge.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. L.plot Plot line L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. l2 = L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Movie. S ‘skip’. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. G ‘scale’.com).close() closes the connection to the movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.axis.char Convert to string M.close Close the image source M. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.

eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. undirected graph create an n-d. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.CHAPTER 2. planar. S ‘frame’. Options ‘skip’. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. F Skip frames. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.

component(v) g.add edge(v1.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.goal(v) g.add node(coord.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.path(v) set goal vertex.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). Object properties (read/write) g.clear() add vertex.next(v) g.cost(e) g.coord(v) g.edges(e) g. v) g.distance(v1.neighbours(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.add node(coord) g.plot() g.connectivity() g. v2) g.

v2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. v = G. v = G. and returns the edge id E.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. Options ‘distance’.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. and returns the node id v.add edge(v1.add edge(v1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.CHAPTER 2. v.add node(x. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add node(x. where x is D × 1. PGraph. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. E = G.

and the distance d. D × 1.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.clear Clear the graph G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G. [v.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.d] = G. PGraph. of node id v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph.CHAPTER 2. edges and components.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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SiftPointFeature PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = F. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. one per element. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. PointFeature. PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v.display Display value F.

C] = F. PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘thresh’.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match(f2. the norm of the Euclidean distance. [m.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. where 1 is perfect match.match Match point features m = F.match(f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.CHAPTER 2.char PointFeature.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F.plot Plot feature F. Polygon .plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.

and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. kirill@plume. so use with care. Polygon. Polygon.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.edu.mit. Polygon. difference. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.area() is the area of the polygon. http://puddle. Pankratov.char String representation s = P.html and require a licence.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. p = Polygon(C. HEIGHT]. intersection.area Area of polygon a = P. one column per vertex.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. union. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). See also Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns coordinates of P.char Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display Display polygon P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. else 0.difference Difference of polygons d = P.CHAPTER 2.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Polygon.

See also mpq poly Polygon.moments(p. returns empty polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. y1 y2]. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.moments Moments of polygon a = P.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. each column is [x y]’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union Union of polygons i = P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.plot Plot polygon P. Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.plot() plot the polygon.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.

Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.

If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. [x. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.char Ray3D. [x.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = R.E] = R.display Display value R.CHAPTER 2.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. See also Ray3D. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.

RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.c.CHAPTER 2.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid.

RegionFeature. ymin. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. imoments RegionFeature. See also iblobs.CHAPTER 2.xmax.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.th] = R.uc will be a list not a vector. For example R. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. RegionFeature.char Convert to string s = R.box Return bounding box b = R.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. ymax]. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers. R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.char RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. R.plot boundary plot boundary R. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot Plot centroid R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.display Display value R.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box Plot bounding box R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature. R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. R.

F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature. v. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. C ‘alpha’. 0=transparent (default 0. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. f = ScalePointFeature(u.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.plot scale(options. See also PointFeature. 1=opaque.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. v. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. C. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Options ‘radius’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. R ‘nslots’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. N ‘thresh’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. one per active track.CHAPTER 2. See also PointFeature Tracker. T ‘movie’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a new tracker object. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.

char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Tracker.display Display value T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char Convert to string s = T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. otherwise the result is not predictable. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. AxisWebCamera. Movie Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. G ‘scale’. and their characteristics is displayed.

Video.close() closes the connection to the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char Convert to string V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.

right. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). If th1 is a column vector. a = anaglyph(left. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left.CHAPTER 2. the ﬁrst for left. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default the left image is red. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. if negative it is reduced. and the right image is cyan. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. the second for right. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. color. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters.

y1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. p = bresenham(p1. % emission of sun plot(l.CHAPTER 2. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 6500).y2]. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. [x. p2) as above but p1=[x1. See also RegionFeature. Endpoints must be integer. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. x2. If lambda is a column vector.y2).boundary. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y1] and p2=[x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y1) to (x2.s] = boundmatch(R1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].

Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. [C. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Y. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.CHAPTER 2.

b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. green and blue primaries respectively. k = closest(a. [k. Options ‘n’. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. that is. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.CHAPTER 2. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). x = circle(C.d1] = closest(a. and x is N × 3.

d1. while Table I(5.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).CHAPTER 2. and 22500 (444. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. 335 of Table 1(5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.ac.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. they were measured directly.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . As noted in footnote a on p. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5.5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.16). • From Table I(5.ucl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. 19000 (526.d2] = closest(a. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).32). (Table 1(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.ioo. The data are referred to as pilot data. since.5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.

uk See also cmfrgb. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. out = col2im(pix.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ucl.M).ac.ioo.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.

CHAPTER 2. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. @isnan. [L.G. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. out = colorize(im. icolor. k. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. @isnan. mask. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes.C] = colorkmeans(im.B). func. See also imono. eg. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. im<100. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.

low is good. L = colorkmeans(im. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. XYZ = colorname(name.R] = colorkmeans(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.C. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ. eg. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. k) as above but also returns the residual R. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.

709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o2. [o1.txt. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • Color space names are case insensitive. s = ‘dest<-src’. or alternatively. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. s = ‘src->dest’. colorspace(s. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. double data is the natural choice.o3] = colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. it can be omitted. i1.CHAPTER 2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.i2. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.

B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If im is an M × 3 array.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. out will also have size M × 3.100). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B). like a colormap. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. for memory and computational performance. d = distance(A.CHAPTER 2. Example A = rand(400. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.200). B = rand(400.2*A. However. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I.

y).CHAPTER 2. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. The result E is a matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. non-zero is an object. in matrix coordinate frame. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.3.(+31)20-5257524. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. bunschot@wins. University of Amsterdam. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. tel. Tested: PC Matlab v5. seed. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. non zero is counter-clockwise.j). not image frame. E = edgelist(im.uva.

Author Based on fmatrix code by. epiline(f.S. Coimbra. H = epiline(f. See also fmatrix. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p1. Oct 27. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).R. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. one per line drawn. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). 1998. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also epiline.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p.

that is.CHAPTER 2. which means it can be passed to ransac().csse. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. The University of Western Australia. http://www.uwa. it is singular. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2. • Contains a RANSAC driver. homography. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. c. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. page 270. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. epiline. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. See also ransac.au/.edu. • f is a rank 2 matrix. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. no outlier rejection is performed. Notes • The points must be corresponding.

y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. ithin. See also imorph. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. itriplepoint. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2.y2). y1. x2.y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.

fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. which means it can be passed to ransac(). p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.edu. See also ransac. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.csse.CHAPTER 2. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. The University of Western Australia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. Notes • The points must be corresponding.uwa. no outlier rejection is performed. invhomog. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.au/.

R ‘scale’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. V ‘roi’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. See also e2h. ie. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP.offs] = homwarp(H. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. that is tp=T*T1. See also homography. [out.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . itrim. S output image contains all the warped pixels. im. im.CHAPTER 2. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. D ‘size’. S ‘dimension’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.

1962. ’nfeat’. ianimate(im. on Information Theory. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. IRE Trans. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features. Hu. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ’gs’). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IT-8:pp. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ianimate(seq. 200). features. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants.CHAPTER 2. 179-187. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects.

iblobs features f = iblobs(im. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. YMIN YMAX]. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.CHAPTER 2. M ‘npoints’. N ‘only’. isurf. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. iharris. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C set connectivity. horizontal coordinate centroid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate bounding box. [A1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. ilabel. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. default 1. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. A set pixel aspect ratio.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0 ‘connect’. [S1.CHAPTER 2.

See also isobel. 1996-7. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. This is an dilation followed by erosion. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. T ‘th1’. S ‘th0’. out = iclose(im. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. Tel Aviv University. See also iopen.

[0 1 1]). D ‘bgval’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. C = icolor(im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colorize. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Options ‘dir’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. See also imono. [C. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. The images do not have to be of the same size.u] = iconcat(im.

Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) convolves im1 with im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.CHAPTER 2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.

specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. N ‘detector’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CM ‘cminthresh’. R ‘nfeat’. D ‘k’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. E ‘suppress’. K ‘patch’.CHAPTER 2. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. CT ‘edgegap’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. D ‘sigma’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. S ‘deriv’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. vol. N ‘mindelta’. T ‘maxiter’. p2.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. 1994.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. p2. Manchester. T ‘distthresh’. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. C. J.6.121-128. Shi and C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.Noble. with a delay of 0.CHAPTER 2. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. May 1988. Stephens.d] = icp(p1. • “Good features to track”. Options ‘dplot’. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition..J.5 [sec]. [T. Proc. pp 147-151. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.G. J. Proc. with a delay of d [sec]. 1988. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Image and Vision Computing. pp. Harris and M. where * denotes squared and smoothed. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. 593-593. IEEE Computer Society. • “Finding corners”. pp. See also PointFeature. Tomasi.

Pattern Anal.Besl and H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. IEEETrans. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. See also iscale. Mach. 239-256. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. m. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. s = idecimate(im. no.CHAPTER 2. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. m.McKay. pp. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.or 3-dimensional. 1992. vol. 14. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. P. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. s = idecimate(im. 2. Feb. each plane is decimated.. Intell.

zero is white color map: random values. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. negative is red. darker than ‘grey’. positive is blue.and y-axes respectively. XY ‘colormap’.CHAPTER 2. zero is white. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. histogram and zooming. If the image is zoomed. C ‘xydata’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. linear proﬁle. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. positive is blue. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. Options ‘ncolors’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. zero is black. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. If im is a cell array of images. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . negative is red.

caxis. colormap. labels. See also iblobs. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. icolorize. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisplabel(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. labelimage. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also image.

• Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. out = igamma(im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).45. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. ithin. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. See also itriplepoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.2.

k is the scale parameter. Sept.5). min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. L = igraphseg(im.m] = igraphseg(im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). See also ithresh. k. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. pp. 59. Int. 167181. k.jpg’). Example im = iread(’58060. k. 1500. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 100. 2004.CHAPTER 2. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. [l. [L.5). P. Huttenlocher. 0. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. Felzenszwalb and D. min. Journal on Computer Vision.m] = igraphseg(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. min. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 2006. vol.

plot(x. [h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. options) displays the image histogram.CHAPTER 2. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. ’normcdf’). bar(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H.x] = ihist(im).x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im.h). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. ii is a precomputed integral image. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.y1) and bottom-right (x2. y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. [L. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.y2). y2. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. same size as im. [L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.m. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x1. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.CHAPTER 2.

IBLOBS is a higher level interface. iproﬁle. The pixels on the line are set to 1. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.maxlabel. • This is a “low level” function. p1. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. ilabel(im.maxlabel. p1. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. eg. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.parents.class. [L.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. each a 2-vector [X. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iline(im. See also iblobs. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p2.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.parents. otherwise it does not. 8).Y].

H. w2.y). x.CHAPTER 2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.and y-offsets relative to (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. [xm. y. • ZNCC matching is used. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.CC] where (DX. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. s.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xmax. centred at (x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. y. im2. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y) and of size s. a perfect match score is 1. ymax] relative to (x. -s. and columns the vertical position. ymin.y) and its half-width is H.y).DY) are the x. The return value is xm=[DX. • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). im2. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. x. The template in im1 is centred at (x.score] = imatch(im1. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. s] % relative to (x.DY.

CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. effectively a binary image. f = imoments(u.u) = v. v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All pixels are equally weighted. The element u(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H.u) = u and v(v.v] = imeshgrid(w. f = imoments(u. [u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. [u. effectively a greyscale image. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].

m02. • This function does not perform connectivity. horizontal coordinate centroid. m01.CHAPTER 2. ilabel. or its area. Different conversion functions are supported.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m10. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. See also RegionFeature. m11. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. icolor. m20. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. the elements are m00.

Urban. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.org). J. and T. ’grey’. 22. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Matas. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = imser(im. The labels [L. Sept. options) as above but m is the number of regions found.m] = imser(im. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.CHAPTER 2. Image and Vision Computing. ’light’). op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. ’double’). pp.png’. m. Chum. 761767. vol. O. se. 2004. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. [label. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Pajdla.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.ˆ2). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).CHAPTER 2. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.

Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.CHAPTER 2. See also iclose. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. n. sides. sides. out = iopen(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.

255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. p. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. ’t’. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.V]. 10. 20. ’tblr’. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im1. im2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. otherwise im2 is selected.CHAPTER 2.

v) for the corresponding row of p. p1. [p. p1. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.CHAPTER 2.uv] = iproﬁle(im. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. se). the maximum. Notes • Works for greyscale images only.2) = 0. op. op. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. 1. se(2. idecimate. nbins. is order=1. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. im > irank(im. out = imorph(image. ones(5. se. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im.3). sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. order. The highest rank. hence output image had reduced dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.5)). sigma. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. See also iscalespace. 12. out = ipyramid(im. out = ipyramid(im.CHAPTER 2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. out = imorph(image. se.

If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. R ‘roi’. G ‘reduce’. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. im = iread(ﬁle. where R=[umin umax.CHAPTER 2. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin vmax]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ivar. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. See also imorph.

k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. Notes • Color images are not supported. [out1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.out2] = irectify(f. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.h1. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. igamma. im1. homwarp. istereo. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. m.h2] = irectify(f. imono. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.out2. imwrite. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im1.

R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. V ‘smooth’.umax.vmax]. See also idisp. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.vmin vmax]. Options ‘outsize’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. vmin. S ‘extrapval’. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. angle.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.CHAPTER 2.H] return central part of image. [out.

bias=0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. Options ‘outsize’.5 moves the crop window up or to the left.CHAPTER 2. s<1 makes it smaller. s>1 makes the image larger. V ‘smooth’. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. while bias>0. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. im2.5 is symmetric cropping. s ‘extrapval’. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. out = isamesize(im1. bias<0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.

in space and scale. n. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. corresponding to each step of the sequence.CHAPTER 2. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.L. [g.s] = iscalespace(im. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. n) as above but sigma=1. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. idecimate.L.s] = iscalespace(im. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). See also iscalespace. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.

The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. it its third dimension is equal to three. else false (0). ismooth. ishomog(T.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ilaplace. that is. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. See also isrot. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ‘valid’) as above.

“Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Reference David G. pp. 91-110. See also SiftPointFeature. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. International Journal of Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. isurf. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.vlfeat. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. 60. N ‘suppress’.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. Lowe. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 2 (2004).

H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. zsad. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. s = isimilarity(T. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. ncc. sad. @zssd. s is same size as im. [w. @zsad. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. @ncc. and these output pixels are set to NaN.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. See also imatch. @ssd.H. im. ssd. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. zssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary.

options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. sigma.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. convolved. then converted back to integer. [gx. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gx. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. See also iconv.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.

range. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.u) means that imr(v. range. w. ‘valid’) as above. See also ishomog. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. imr. range is the disparity search range. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). [d. See also ksobel. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.M] for an N × M window. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. else false (0).u). icanny. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr. the disparity d=d(v. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. H.CHAPTER 2.sim] = istereo(iml. isrot(R. H is the half size of the matching window. That is.

M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).sim. • sim = max(dsi. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. out = istretch(im. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.sim. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. w.5). p. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. imr. [d. ‘ncc’. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.dsi] = istereo(iml. range.5 to +0.p] = istereo(iml. w.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. imr. 3) See also irectify. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .A and p. p. That is. range.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. Options ‘metric’. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). dx. [d. B.

• Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Notes • Color images. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). T ‘octaves’. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained.CHAPTER 2. Kroon (U. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. or sequences. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. N ‘thresh’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold.

Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 110. Luc Van Gool. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. isift. either a row. Andreas Ess. itriplepoint. Otherwise false (0). L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. else false (0). pp. 3. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. See also ishomog. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. 346–359. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector.or columnvector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Tinne Tuytelaars. Vol. out = ithin(im. No.CHAPTER 2. isvec(v. See also hitormiss.

It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.im2. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.out2] = itrim(im1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. The same cropping is applied to each input image. See also homwarp.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. Notes • Greyscale image only. The default is 0.5. [out1.CHAPTER 2. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. a lower value will include more.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.out2] = itrim(im1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithresh(im.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. See also iendpoint. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. ithin. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2.

3). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. @max). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. func. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. See also ivar. se. out = iwindow(image. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. ones(3.5).CHAPTER 2. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. se. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. @std). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. ones(5. hence output image had reduced dimensions.

s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. ktriangle. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kdgauss(sigma. dG/dx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. klog. is k’.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. • The vertical derivative. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. kdog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. dG/dy. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. k = kcircle(R. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. See also ones.

See also kdgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. sigma2. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . klog. By default SIGMA2 = 1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .6*sigma1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. kdog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. See also kgauss. k = kgauss(sigma. where sigma1 > SIGMA2.CHAPTER 2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1.

kdgauss. See also ilaplace. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also kgauss. iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.CHAPTER 2. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. and W=2 × H+1. kdog. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = klog(sigma.

C] = kmeans(x. k.CHAPTER 2. it is assumed to have been completed previously. L = kmeans(x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k.C] = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). and D is the dimension. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. [L. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Pattern Recognition Principles.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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z] = mkcube(s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. The points are the columns of p. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). [x. C ‘T’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. s.z] = mkcube(s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).y.CHAPTER 2.y. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. [x. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. symmetric about the origin. ‘edge’. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. Options ‘T’. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. See also cylinder. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.

Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. or y(:. n) MPLOT(t. y. n) MPLOT(y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(t. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. the sum of I(x. y. n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. That is.CHAPTER 2.2)). npq.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. See also mpq poly. or y(:. p. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. y) MPLOT(t. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .yq . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.2)). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.xp . n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.

upq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. so centroids will be still be correct. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). they are considered to be a single vertex. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. npq poly. See also mpq. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity.CHAPTER 2.

in text segmentation.2.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. See also zncc. Prentice-Hall. the height of a character. k. idisp(im >= t). Example t = niblack(im. ssd.CHAPTER 2.m. k. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. 20). isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1986. -0. sad. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. where W=2*w2+1. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. W. niblack. T has the same dimensions as im. • A common choice of k=-0. [T.s] = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. for example.

0). p. See also npq poly.CHAPTER 2.0. mpq.q)/MPQ(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is UPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.p. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. they are considered as a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also mpq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq. upq. mpq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. so centroids will be still be correct. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m.

ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Systems. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t). N. pp 62-66 See also niblack. otsu IEEE Trans. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. [yp.CHAPTER 2. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. [yp.xp] = peak(y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979.i] = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms.

use peak(-V). S ‘interp’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.ij] = peak2(z. [zp. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.S points.S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. use peak2(-V).CHAPTER 2. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Typically choose N to be odd. N ‘scale’. N ‘scale’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.

plot2(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. ie. See also pnmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. If p has three dimensions. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

r. r. ‘size’.y1. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’g’. 1=solid. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’edgecolor’.y2). P. ’fillcolor’. plot_circle(c. plot_circle(c. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. 5). ‘r’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’r’). r. W. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’LineWidth’. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.y1) and (x2. PLOT BOX(x1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. or a set of name.y2. P. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. value pairs that are passed to plot. PLOT BOX(’centre’. R. ’b’). Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. x2. Examples plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. W.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘size’.

ls) ls is the standard line styles. c Specify color of the axes. Options ‘color’. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. If C=[X. centred at the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y]. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. with Matlab line style ls. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. xc. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.Y. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. C.

’name’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ‘framename’. ’color’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fmt. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’r’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. n ‘text opts’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame.CHAPTER 2. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. options) adds point markers to a plot.X = 0. ’color’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. Options ‘textcolor’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. to ‘view’. ’r’). where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ‘printf’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. trplot( T.

color. 1=solid. either a letter or 3-vector. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R. R. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. The default is 1. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. See also plot. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. patch. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. R. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot.

The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also pgmﬁlt. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2. See also plot. plotp(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.gt] = radgrad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. [gr.CHAPTER 2. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.

x. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.in. T. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.resid] = ransac(func. [m. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. [m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.CHAPTER 2. x. Options ‘maxTrials’.in] = ransac(func. T. x typically contains corresponding point data. T. d) as above but elements increment by d. one column per point pair. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. N ‘maxDataTrials’.

No 6.x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.CHAPTER 2.R. that is.x and returns the best model out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta = DECONDITION(R.theta to the points R.theta = [].misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.resid] = EST(R.A.theta] = ERR(R.x data to work on. Comm.inlier.. pp 381-395.misc element.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. Assoc.out. If multiple models are found out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. Boles. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. Fishler and R. Vol 24.s out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.x. Mach. [out.theta.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. that is they will produce a model. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta and the subset of R.x) condition the point data out. References • m.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.misc private data (cell array) out.t threshold (1 × 1) R.C.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.x = CONDITION(R. they detect a structure argument.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.theta is a cell array. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Cambridge University Press. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. [out.theta. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. Comp.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. pp 101-113. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.s sample size (1 × 1) out.

edu. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector.CHAPTER 2.au/ pk See also fmatrix. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.

angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. roty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. See also roty.

t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R.CHAPTER 2. Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. • many texts (Paul. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. See also tr2rpy. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. T = rpy2tr(roll. Z axes respectively. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. If roll. yaw.

y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. theta) as above where xy=[x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. and rotation theta in the plane. r2t. See also zsad. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also zsdd.CHAPTER 2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. ncc. sad. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Two cross-hairs are created.

blah = []. then R is 2 × 2.foo = true.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt. opt. ’that’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt. c. The software pattern is: function(a. tr2rt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). ’other’}. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. It supports options that have an assigned value. – If T is 3 × 3.choose = {’this’.CHAPTER 2. varargin) opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. then R is 3 × 3. b.bar = false.

true ‘nobar’ sets opt.choose <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. varargin). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.y sets opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.1.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’. varargin). if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.foo <.false ‘blah’.‘this’. If neither of ‘this’.blah <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. args) creates a test pattern image.N sets opt <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.verbose <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. N ‘setopt’.y ‘that’ sets opt. ’#yes’}.CHAPTER 2. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt = tb_optparse(opt.choose <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.true sets opt.select <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).select <. 3 sets opt. w. x.x. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.foo <.select = {’#no’.debug <.blah <.

Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 256. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args are theta (rad). See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.sd. sf. dot diameter. binary square pattern. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). args is the number of cycles. binary dot pattern. [s. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args is the number of cycles.CHAPTER 2.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sf. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. 2). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. 256.sd. a line. args are pitch (distance between centres). sd and sdd are n-vectors. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 50.sdd] = tpoly(s0. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. The trajectory s. 25). square side length. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . intercept. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’.

[theta.P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. See also angvec2r. rpy = tr2rpy(R.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Y and Z axes respectively. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). The 3 angles rpy=[R.

If T has three dimensions.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. – If TR is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.:. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. r2t. y. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. See also rpy2tr. See also rt2tr.CHAPTER 2. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. • The validity of R is not checked. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.y.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.z]. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. ie.

CHAPTER 2. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). An historical anomaly. each N × 1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [c1. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). or x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. [o1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.

CHAPTER 2. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

trotx. trotx. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trprint T is the command line form of above. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. and displays in RPY format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. f ‘label’.CHAPTER 2.

That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. p. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.y). npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2rpy.y0) is the centroid. mpq. the sum of I(x.CHAPTER 2.(x-x0)p . See also upq poly.(y-y0)q where (x0. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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See also ncc. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). See also sad. ssd. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. ssd. sad.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. See also sdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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