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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. and I commend it to you.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. is open-source. However the book “Robotics. This is extravagant on storage. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual.

. . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Use in teaching . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . 1. . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . camcald . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . ipaste . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . 7 . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . .

. .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . 8 . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . mkgrid . rluminos . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . mpq . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . radgrad . . . mkcube . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. You need to signup in order to post.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.com. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. tutors. and you will be suitably acknowledged. That’s what you your teachers.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. lecturers and professors are paid to do. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.google.

Month = nov.1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Number = {4}.3. 1. and the “See also” functions to each other. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.html on a server for class use. The ﬁle robot. Author = {P. Year = {2005}. Volume = {12}.petercorke. 1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.gz) or zip format (. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . type of organization and application.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. 1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. 1.zip).I.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. The details are @article{Corke05f. Corke}. the table of content to functions.

mathworks. Coimbra. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. November 2005. pp 16–25. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. 12(4).7 Acknowledgements Last. P.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. MSER. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.S. 1.R. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. VLFeat http://www.Functions such as SURF.. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.I. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. and there are hundreds of modules available.1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. Corke. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Vincent Lepetit. 1994 University of British Columbia. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. but not least. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.6. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.7.vlfeat. Twente. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

Camera. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘image’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. P ‘pixel’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. N ‘sensor’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. T ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. used by all subclasses. SIGMA ‘pose’. Options ‘name’. S ‘noise’.CHAPTER 2. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane.

CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.display Display value C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.char Convert to string s = C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.CHAPTER 2. Camera. SphericalCamera Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clf Clear the image plane C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera.centre Get camera position p = C.delete Camera object destructor C.

v + c = 0.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. and off if H is false (or 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.CHAPTER 2.u + b.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). otherwise false (0). See also Camera. Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.char Camera. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. Camera.

plot Plot points on image plane C.CHAPTER 2.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.plot(p.hold. uv = C. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.T. Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.plot. The matrices x. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. T ‘Tcam’. See also mesh. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. y. z to the image plane and plots them. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. sphere. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. cylinder. mkcube. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.clf Camera. z. y.mesh(x. y. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). Camera. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.

CHAPTER 2. T See also Camera. Options ‘Tcam’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. T ‘scale’.clf Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. ‘Tcam’. ‘fps’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.mesh. Camera. Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.T.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘Tobj’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.hold. Overrides the current camera pose C.

C. a subclass of Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p.rpy(R. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. The image is not inverted. that is. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy Set camera attitude C. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.y]. p.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

S. S ‘centre’. CatadioptricCamera. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’.CHAPTER 2. F ‘distortion’. ﬁsheyecamera. Reference Y. J.E Essential matrix E = C.Ma. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.Sastry. p.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. 10um pixels. 2003.F. T ‘color’.and v-axes parallel to x. S. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.and y-axes respectively.Kosecka. camera at origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. “An invitation to 3D”. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. P ‘pixel’. E = C. u. Springer.Soatto. optical axis is z-axis. D ‘default’ ‘image’. IM ‘resolution’.8]) See also Camera. f=8mm.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). E = C.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘focal’. N ‘sensor’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.

H(T.177 See also CentralCamera. Springer.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. 2003. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). n.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H CentralCamera. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. from two viewpoints. “An invitation to 3D”. F = C.CHAPTER 2.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.E CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. See also CentralCamera.Kosecka. S.Sastry. J.Ma. Reference Y.F Fundamental matrix F = C. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H Homography matrix H = C.Soatto.

Moreno-Noguer.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Int.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. and P. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.CHAPTER 2.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. F. CentralCamera. 2009. 155-166. a = C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.estpose(xyz. pp. Journal on Computer Vision.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Fua. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Feb.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Lepetit. 81. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.

“Multiview Geometry”. Reference Y.Ma. Springer. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Soatto.CHAPTER 2. section 5. See also CentralCamera.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. J. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). s. Chap 9.Kosecka.invE(E.Soatto. Springer. s. s. “An invitation to 3D”. “An invitation to 3D”. p116. s.Kosecka. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003.Ma.Sastry. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Sastry.E CentralCamera. J. p. 259 Y. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. translation not to scale • n. 2003.

If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.CHAPTER 2. C.project(p. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. one per line. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. H = C.plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).T.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. ‘Tcam’.plot epiline(f. See also Hough CentralCamera. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.

Chaumette.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . pp.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.visjac e(E. June 1992. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Reference B. vol.b.CHAPTER 2. and P.plot CentralCamera. 8. See also Camera. F. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Rives. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. “Multiview Geometry”. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Espiau. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.c.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. 313-326. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Hager & Corke. and P. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. F.visjac p polar. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. CentralCamera. R&A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Reference B. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). CentralCamera. Vol 12(5).visjac l(L. pp. IEEE Trans. 1996.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.c. See also CentralCamera. Oct. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Rives.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. 8.visjac p. Hutchinson. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. Chaumette.visjac p. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. 313-326. vol.visjac l CentralCamera. June 1992.visjac p polar. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2.visjac p(uv. pp 651-670. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. Espiau.b. CentralCamera.

P. CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Corke. Chaumette. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac e CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. radius and theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. F. pp.visjac l. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Spindler. CentralCamera. 5962-5967.visjac p polar(rt.visjac p polar. I. 2009.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Int.visjac l.visjac p. CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. and F. in Proc.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. CentralCamera. (St. Oct. Louis). z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.

pp.Lowe. Int. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. PointFeature. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D. vol. See README. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.91-110.CHAPTER 2.60. ScalePointFeature. 2004. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Nov.SIFT. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. See also isift. Journal on Computer Vision.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.

C ‘alpha’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. f = PointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted.match Match SIFT point features m = F. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. F. See also isift SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. SiftPointFeature.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale(options.match(f2.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 0=transparent (default 0. 1=opaque.

[out. F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.CHAPTER 2.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im.T] = F.support Support region of feature out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but the support region is displayed. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. out = F.support(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘name’.CHAPTER 2. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘pose’. Overrides the current camera pose C. See also SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. T ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.T.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Options ‘Tobj’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project(p.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

0.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.5) target center . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .the side length of the target in world units (0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . image plane size and desired feature locations. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . error norm. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The camera view. of 4-vector. The camera view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.depth of points to use for Jacobian.gain. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.center of the target in world coords (0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . camera pose. error. Jacobian condition number. scalar for If null take actual value all points.01) . The external view. defaults in parentheses: target size .CHAPTER 2. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.

CHAPTER 2.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Jacobian condition number. P.5) target center .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). scalar for If null take actual value all points.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . pp.0.visjac l. CentralCamera. error norm. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. IEEE Int.the side length of the target in world units (0.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. in Proc. Corke. of 4-vector. (Anchorage). can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. error.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. image plane size and desired feature locations. for all points. The external view.gain.visjac p polar. camera pose. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. defaults in parentheses: target size . Conf. 5550-5555. See also CentralCamera. I.center of the target in world coords (0. Robotics and Automation.01) . May 3-7 2010. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.visjac p(pt.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 3. 346–359. Vol. Tinne Tuytelaars.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Luc Van Gool. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. No. 110. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Andreas Ess. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. pp. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.

[m.CHAPTER 2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match(f2. ScalePointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. v. PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Options ‘thresh’.C] = F. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match Match SURF point features m = F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u.

Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. C ‘alpha’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. 0=transparent (default 0.support(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. 1=opaque. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. w) as above but the support region is displayed. [out.plot scale(options.2) SurfPointFeature. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.T] = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. out = F.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support(images. F.support(im.

AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com) web camera.axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Video AxisWebCamera.axis. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com). Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’.

close() closes the connection to the web camera. See also AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char Convert to string A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.display AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.

Conf. on Computer Vision. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. 2003.Zisserman.Sivic and A. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. f can also be a cell array. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. pp. b = BagOfWords(f. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Oct. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.1470-1477. in Proc.org).

isurf BagOfWords. BagOfWords. images. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.contains Find images containing word k = B. BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.exemplars(w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars display exemplars of words B. See also BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.char BagOfWords.display Display value B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char Convert to string s = B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. M ‘width’.n] = B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘ncolumns’.isword Features from words f = B. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B.

wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

camera at origin. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. 10um pixels.and v-axes parallel to x. S ‘centre’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.and y-axes respectively. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. N ‘sensor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.project(p. Options ‘Tobj’. S ‘noise’. f=8mm.T.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. ‘sine’. P ‘pixel’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. T ‘Tcam’. N ‘focal’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. CatadioptricCamera. M ‘k’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis. u. K ‘maxangle’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. ‘equisolid’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. A ‘resolution’.

SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. such as ScalePointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. one per element. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.char Convert to string s = M.display Display value M. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. SurfPointFeature.

outlier. FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.u2. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.v2]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.v1.

FeatureMatch.p2.plot() M.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p1.FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2.FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.plot Show corresponding points M.p2 FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.im2}) m. These are the (u. These are the (u. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1. See also FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.p1.

f2 = isurf(im2).CHAPTER 2. See also fmatrix. m. ransac FeatureMatch. m = f1.ransac( @fmatrix. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac Apply RANSAC M.match(f2).ransac(func.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). 1e-4). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. See also idisp FeatureMatch. homography.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.

subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. The image is not inverted. Y This camera model assumes central projection. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. that is. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

SIGMA ‘pose’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. P ‘pixel’.and v-axes are parallel to x. K ‘resolution’.axes respectively. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘sine’. u. M ‘k’. S ‘noise’. f=8mm. S ‘centre’. 10um pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. optical axis is z-axis. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Options ‘name’.and y. camera at origin. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].CHAPTER 2. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘sensor’. ‘equisolid’.

Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CatadioptricCamera. CentralCamera. See also FishEyeCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.T. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.

By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.0) and the line. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. The voting array is 2-dimensional.CHAPTER 2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.H). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. A horizontal line has theta = 0. See also LineFeature Hough. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.

else N = [Ntheta. W ‘nbins’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1).edgeThresh. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. T ‘edgethresh’.5) Set ht.houghThresh (default 0. Set ht. Hough. Nrho].display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Default 400 × 401.edgeThresh (default 0. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. See also Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. Hough.display Display value HT. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. W ‘houghthresh’.CHAPTER 2. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. T ‘suppress’.

The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. then all elements in an HT. H = HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot Plot line features HT. L = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines Hough.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. The highest peak is found. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. HT.plot. LineFeature Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. See also Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. See also Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot(n.lines Find lines L = HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.

Note • LineFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. See also LineFeature. strength. L = LineFeature(rho. one per element.char Convert to string s = L. LENGTH is undeﬁned. L = LineFeature(rho.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. LineFeature.display Display value L. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. theta. LineFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. theta.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. See also icanny LineFeature. Small gaps.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the line on current plot. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . l2 = L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.points Return points on line segments p = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L.seglength(edge.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). less than gap pixels are tolerated. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot Plot line L. L.

axis.close() closes the connection to the movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.com). S ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.close Close the image source M. G ‘scale’.char Convert to string M.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F Skip frames. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. planar. undirected graph create an n-d. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.CHAPTER 2.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Options ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. S ‘frame’.

add edge(v1.goal(v) g.edges(e) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.connectivity() g.plot() g. Object properties (read/write) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.next(v) g. v2) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.CHAPTER 2.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().coord(v) g.add node(coord) g.clear() add vertex.path(v) set goal vertex.neighbours(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.component(v) g. v) g.cost(e) g.add node(coord.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return vid add edge from v1 to v2.distance(v1.

and returns the node id v.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. PGraph. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v.add node(x.add node(x. PGraph. Options ‘distance’.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v2. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v = G. E = G.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and returns the edge id E.add edge(v1. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. where x is D × 1. v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add edge(v1. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.CHAPTER 2.

PGraph. [v. D × 1.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. of node id v. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.CHAPTER 2.char Convert graph to string s = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G.clear Clear the graph G. edges and components.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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v. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.display Display value F.char Convert to string s = F. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.CHAPTER 2. See also ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. PointFeature. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. one per element. PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

char PointFeature. where 1 is perfect match. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match(f2.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.C] = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. Options ‘thresh’.match Match point features m = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. [m. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.

plot Plot feature F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Polygon. p = Polygon(C. http://puddle.area() is the area of the polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.mit. difference.html and require a licence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. union. so use with care.mit. intersection.area Area of polygon a = P.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. HEIGHT]. Pankratov. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.CHAPTER 2. kirill@plume. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.edu. Polygon.char String representation s = P. one column per vertex. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Polygon. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.

display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.CHAPTER 2. returns coordinates of P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display Display polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. See also Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.char Polygon. else 0.

Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. See also mpq poly Polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. Polygon. returns empty polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. y1 y2].moments(p.CHAPTER 2.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. each column is [x y]’.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.

plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.plot() plot the polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union Union of polygons i = P. P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot polygon P. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.

display Display value R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Convert to string s = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. [x.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.E] = R. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.

intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.b. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.CHAPTER 2. horizontal coordinate centroid.0) 1 for a circle. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.

boundary Boundary in polar form [d.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. ymax]. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. imoments RegionFeature.xmax. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.th] = R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element.uc will be a list not a vector. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.box Return bounding box b = R. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. RegionFeature. For example R. See also iblobs.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. ymin.char Convert to string s = R.

plot Plot centroid R.char RegionFeature. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. R.plot boundary plot boundary R.and xmarkers.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. It is indicated with overlaid o. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.display Display value R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot box Plot bounding box R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.

ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature. v. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 1=opaque. v.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. C ‘alpha’. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

N ‘thresh’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.CHAPTER 2. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. See also PointFeature Tracker. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. T ‘movie’. Options ‘radius’. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. options) is a new tracker object. one per active track. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. R ‘nslots’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.

display Display value T. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot Show feature trajectories T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char Convert to string s = T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. See also Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. AxisWebCamera. otherwise the result is not predictable. and their characteristics is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. S ‘resolution’. Movie Video.

about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() acquires an image from the camera.char Convert to string V.close Close the image source V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2.

Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. right. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . if negative it is reduced. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. color. By default the left image is red. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. and the right image is cyan.CHAPTER 2. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. right. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. If th1 is a column vector. the ﬁrst for left.

p = bresenham(p1. x2.y1] and p2=[x2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. If lambda is a column vector. % emission of sun plot(l. 6500). r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y2]. y1. p2) as above but p1=[x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.boundary. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.CHAPTER 2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y1) to (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. Endpoints must be integer. See also RegionFeature. [x.s] = boundmatch(R1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y2).

If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. [C.Y.CHAPTER 2. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.

N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).d1] = closest(a. and x is N × 3. that is. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. R. k = closest(a.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. Options ‘n’. R. [k. green and blue primaries respectively. x = circle(C. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B).CHAPTER 2.

44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 19000 (526.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.5.5. they were measured directly. The data are referred to as pilot data. As noted in footnote a on p.ioo.32).5. while Table I(5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.d2] = closest(a. 335 of Table 1(5. and 22500 (444. since.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).ucl.CHAPTER 2. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).d1. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. (Table 1(5.16).) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ac. • From Table I(5.

imsize is a 2-vector (N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.uk See also cmfrgb. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl.M).ac. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. out = col2im(pix.ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.

k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. and returns a per-pixel logical result. out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @isnan. eg. [L.G. @isnan. mask. func. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.CHAPTER 2. im<100. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.C] = colorkmeans(im. icolor. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. See also imono. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.B). [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.

the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . XYZ = colorname(name. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. L = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.CHAPTER 2. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(XYZ. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.C. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. eg.R] = colorkmeans(im. low is good. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. k) as above but also returns the residual R. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space.

As MATLAB’s native datatype. [o1. s = ‘dest<-src’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. s = ‘src->dest’.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. colorspace(s. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o3] = colorspace(s. it can be omitted.CHAPTER 2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Color space names are case insensitive. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.o2.txt. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. or alternatively. double data is the natural choice.i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. i1.

for memory and computational performance.B). like a colormap. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. • If im is an M × 3 array. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. B = rand(400.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).CHAPTER 2.2*A. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.100). out will also have size M × 3. However.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . d = distance(A.200). Example A = rand(400. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I.

in matrix coordinate frame.CHAPTER 2. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.j). E = edgelist(im. not image frame.y). Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Tested: PC Matlab v5. University of Amsterdam.3.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. non zero is counter-clockwise. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. tel. non-zero is an object. The result E is a matrix. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. seed. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.(+31)20-5257524.uva. bunschot@wins. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

epiline(f. Coimbra.S. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. one per line drawn. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. Author Based on fmatrix code by.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.R. p. H = epiline(f. Oct 27. See also epiline. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). I. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. See also fmatrix. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. 1998.

no outlier rejection is performed. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. • f is a rank 2 matrix. The University of Western Australia. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im.csse. http://www. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1).au/. c. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. epiline. that is. p2. Notes • The points must be corresponding. homography. See also ransac. which means it can be passed to ransac().uwa. that is. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. page 270.CHAPTER 2. it is singular. • Contains a RANSAC driver. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.

se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph.y2). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y1.CHAPTER 2.y1) and (x2. itriplepoint. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. ithin.

Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. invhomog. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. which means it can be passed to ransac(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.uwa.edu. See also ransac.CHAPTER 2. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. no outlier rejection is performed. http://www.au/. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. The University of Western Australia.csse. Notes • The points must be corresponding. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.

D ‘size’. See also homography. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. R ‘scale’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP.CHAPTER 2.offs] = homwarp(H. S output image contains all the warped pixels. See also e2h. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. im. that is tp=T*T1. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. S ‘dimension’. itrim. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. [out. im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. V ‘roi’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ie.

IT-8:pp. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. on Information Theory. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ’gs’). features. 1962. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. 200). See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ’nfeat’. ianimate(im. Hu. 179-187. ianimate(seq. IRE Trans. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. features. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method.

The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. N ‘only’. M ‘npoints’. iharris. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. YMIN YMAX]. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). isurf. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’.CHAPTER 2. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature.

A set pixel aspect ratio. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. horizontal coordinate centroid. ilabel. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [S1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [A1.CHAPTER 2. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. default 1. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.0) 1 for a circle. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity.0 ‘connect’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.

5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. T ‘th1’. Tel Aviv University.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. 1996-7. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.CHAPTER 2. out = iclose(im. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. S ‘th0’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also iopen. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. se. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also isobel.

[C.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. colorize. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). C = icolor(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). Options ‘dir’. [0 1 1]).CHAPTER 2. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. The images do not have to be of the same size. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.u] = iconcat(im. See also imono. iconcat(im. D ‘bgval’. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.

If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. options) convolves im1 with im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.CHAPTER 2.

R ‘nfeat’. K ‘patch’. CM ‘cminthresh’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. CT ‘edgegap’. D ‘k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. E ‘suppress’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. N ‘detector’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). S ‘deriv’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned.CHAPTER 2. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘sigma’.

vol. p2. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. pp. with a delay of 0. pp 147-151. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. See also PointFeature.5 [sec]. May 1988. Proc. 1988. Image and Vision Computing. J. IEEE Computer Society. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. 1994. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. with a delay of d [sec]. Stephens. 593-593. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor..121-128. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Proc. pp. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. • “Good features to track”.J. Shi and C. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.Noble.CHAPTER 2. where * denotes squared and smoothed.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. J. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. • “Finding corners”. Tomasi. Manchester. Harris and M. [T. Options ‘dplot’.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.6. N ‘mindelta’.d] = icp(p1. p2.G. C. T ‘maxiter’. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. T ‘distthresh’.

2. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.CHAPTER 2. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. P. pp. Intell. no. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. IEEETrans. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 239-256. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Mach. s = idecimate(im. each plane is decimated. Feb. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.McKay. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. See also iscale. m. m. 14. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Pattern Anal. 1992.. s = idecimate(im.Besl and H.or 3-dimensional.

• The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is black.CHAPTER 2. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white color map: random values. negative is red. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. linear proﬁle. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. C ‘xydata’. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. positive is blue. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. negative is red. If im is a cell array of images. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. darker than ‘grey’. Options ‘ncolors’. If the image is zoomed. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.and y-axes respectively. XY ‘colormap’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. histogram and zooming. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . positive is blue. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). zero is white.

The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colormap. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iblobs. labels.CHAPTER 2. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. caxis. labelimage. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. icolorize. labelimage. See also image. idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map.

• For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. See also itriplepoint. ithin. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. out = igamma(im. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.45.2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.

min is the minimum region size (pixels). k.jpg’). 0. 1500. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. k. min. P. L = igraphseg(im. k is the scale parameter. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. 59. 167181.m] = igraphseg(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 2004. vol. Int. Example im = iread(’58060. Journal on Computer Vision. 100. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.5). Huttenlocher.CHAPTER 2. k. [l. min. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Felzenszwalb and D. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. pp. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Sept.m] = igraphseg(im.5). See also ithresh. 2006. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. [L.

Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. bar(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. [h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.h). [H.x] = ihist(im). options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. ’normcdf’).CHAPTER 2.h). plot(x.x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im.

y1. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. y2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.y2). x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m. [L.CHAPTER 2. ii is a precomputed integral image. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. same size as im. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. [L. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. x1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.y1) and bottom-right (x2.

class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. p2.maxlabel. iproﬁle. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.maxlabel. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. 8). ilabel(im. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. each a 2-vector [X.CHAPTER 2.parents. The pixels on the line are set to 1. See also iblobs. • This is a “low level” function. eg. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. p1. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.class. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise it does not. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. out = iline(im. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.Y]. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.parents. p1. [L.

ymax] relative to (x. xmax. a perfect match score is 1.y) and of size s.DY) are the x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. x. [xm. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y). The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. and columns the vertical position.CHAPTER 2. s. s] % relative to (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. The template in im1 is centred at (x. x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The return value is xm=[DX. -s. • ZNCC matching is used. • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). centred at (x. y. ymin.y) and its half-width is H. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.and y-offsets relative to (x.CC] where (DX. w2.y). H. im2.score] = imatch(im1. y. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .DY.

u) = u and v(v. [u. [u. v. effectively a greyscale image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = imoments(u.CHAPTER 2. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. All pixels are equally weighted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(w. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image.u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. H) as above but the domain is w × H.

horizontal coordinate centroid. m20. icolor. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. Different conversion functions are supported. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. m02. m10. See also RegionFeature. m01. m11. the elements are m00. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. • This function does not perform connectivity. or its area. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels.CHAPTER 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. ilabel. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im.

idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Matas. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = imser(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. 2004. 761767.CHAPTER 2. Urban.org).m] = imser(im. Sept. ’double’). Image and Vision Computing. Chum. ’light’). options) as above but m is the number of regions found. J. Pajdla. The labels [L. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. [label. ’grey’. m.png’. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. 22. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. O. se. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. and T. pp.

ˆ2). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.CHAPTER 2. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.

See also iclose. This is an erosion followed by dilation. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.CHAPTER 2. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. sides. out = iopen(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im.

10. 20. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. ’tblr’.V]. im1.CHAPTER 2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise im2 is selected. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. p. im2. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. ’t’. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.

p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).uv] = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. [p. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) for the corresponding row of p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.CHAPTER 2.

The highest rank. out = imorph(image. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. order. is order=1. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. op. se(2. sigma. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. se. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. See also iscalespace. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. the maximum. im > irank(im. nbins. ones(5. 1. op.3).2) = 0. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. idecimate. se. out = ipyramid(im.CHAPTER 2. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. 12. out = ipyramid(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5)). se). out = imorph(image. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.

Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. where R=[umin umax. vmin vmax]. G ‘reduce’. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. im = iread(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. ivar. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R ‘roi’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). See also imorph.

homwarp. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.h2] = irectify(f. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. istereo. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. See also FeatureMatch. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. imono.out2] = irectify(f.h1. [out1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. im1. m. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. igamma.out2. Notes • Color images are not supported. imwrite. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.CHAPTER 2. m.

angle. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. See also idisp.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.vmax]. vmin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H] return central part of image. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. V ‘smooth’. S ‘extrapval’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.CHAPTER 2. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. [out. Options ‘outsize’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.vmin vmax].umax.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.

CHAPTER 2. out = isamesize(im1. bias<0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. V ‘smooth’.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. Options ‘outsize’.5 is symmetric cropping. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s ‘extrapval’. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. while bias>0.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. bias=0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s>1 makes the image larger. s<1 makes it smaller.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. See also iscalespace. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.L.CHAPTER 2. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.L. n. [g.s] = iscalespace(im. idecimate. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . in space and scale. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).s] = iscalespace(im. corresponding to each step of the sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. n) as above but sigma=1.

isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. See also isrot. ‘valid’) as above. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. else false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. that is. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ishomog(T. ilaplace. it its third dimension is equal to three. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.CHAPTER 2. ismooth. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

2 (2004). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. isurf. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • Features are returned in descending strength order. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. 60. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. Lowe. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T.vlfeat. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. pp. See also SiftPointFeature. International Journal of Computer Vision. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. 91-110. Reference David G.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. N ‘suppress’. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

H. im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. s = isimilarity(T.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. s is same size as im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. @ncc. sad. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zsad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. See also imatch. @ssd. [w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ncc. ssd. [w. @zssd. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. @zsad. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. and these output pixels are set to NaN.CHAPTER 2.

The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. [gx. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gx. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. convolved.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. See also iconv. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. then converted back to integer.CHAPTER 2.gy] = isobel(im. sigma. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.

See also ksobel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.u) means that imr(v. H is the half size of the matching window. range. range is the disparity search range. [d. w. icanny. ‘valid’) as above. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). the disparity d=d(v. That is. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.CHAPTER 2. H.sim] = istereo(iml. imr. range. See also ishomog.M] for an N × M window. isrot(R. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.u).

dx. ‘ncc’. 3) See also irectify. out = istretch(im. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). w. Options ‘metric’. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. range. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. • sim = max(dsi. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.5). imr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.p] = istereo(iml.dsi] = istereo(iml.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.CHAPTER 2.sim. p. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. [d. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. w.sim.A and p.5 to +0. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. B. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. That is. [d. imr. range. p.

Notes • Color images. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or sequences. T ‘octaves’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. N ‘thresh’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Kroon (U. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D.

else false (0). isvec(v. Vol. Tinne Tuytelaars. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. See also ishomog. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Luc Van Gool. Andreas Ess. itriplepoint. Otherwise false (0). Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). pp. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. isift.or columnvector. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 346–359.CHAPTER 2. out = ithin(im. No. either a row. 110.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. 3. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. See also hitormiss.

5. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. The default is 0. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.out2] = itrim(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. ithresh(im.CHAPTER 2. See also homwarp.out2] = itrim(im1. a lower value will include more. [out1. The same cropping is applied to each input image. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .im2.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. Notes • Greyscale image only.

See also iendpoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. ithin. op.CHAPTER 2. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.

iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. See also ivar. ones(3.3). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. out = iwindow(image. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.5). @max). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. ones(5.CHAPTER 2. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. se. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. func. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. @std). func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.

iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. klog. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. is k’.CHAPTER 2.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. • The vertical derivative. k = kcircle(R. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. kdog. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. dG/dx. See also ones. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. ktriangle. See also kgauss. dG/dy. k = kdgauss(sigma.

k = kgauss(sigma. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. klog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma.CHAPTER 2. k = kdog(sigma1. kdgauss. See also kgauss. See also kdgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. By default SIGMA2 = 1. kdog. k = kdog(sigma1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .6*sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma2. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.

CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. iconv. and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss. k = klog(sigma. kdog. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ilaplace. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.

Pattern Recognition Principles. [L.C] = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. L = kmeans(x. k. it is assumed to have been completed previously. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).CHAPTER 2.C] = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. and D is the dimension. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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z] = mkcube(s. See also cylinder.y. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. Options ‘T’. [x. C ‘T’.CHAPTER 2. ‘edge’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. symmetric about the origin.z] = mkcube(s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. The points are the columns of p. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.y.

y). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y) MPLOT(t. See also mpq poly.2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n) MPLOT(y. That is. the sum of I(x. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n. or y(:.yq . MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.CHAPTER 2. p. MPLOT(t. n) MPLOT(t. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. or y(:.xp . npq. y.2)). labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.

Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). p. npq poly. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. so centroids will be still be correct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq poly. See also mpq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.CHAPTER 2. they are considered to be a single vertex.

k. -0. W. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T has the same dimensions as im. k. 1986. in text segmentation. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.s] = niblack(im.2. where W=2*w2+1. the height of a character. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. 20). w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. Example t = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. idisp(im >= t). • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. See also zncc. [T. sad. niblack.m. ssd. for example. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Prentice-Hall.

Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.0).CHAPTER 2.q)/MPQ(im.0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. See also npq poly.p. That is UPQ(im. mpq. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. upq.CHAPTER 2. they are considered as a single vertex. See also mpq poly. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. mpq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m.

pp 62-66 See also niblack. [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.xp] = peak(y. Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t). options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.CHAPTER 2. Systems. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. N. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). x. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Jan 1979. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. [yp.i] = peak(y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. otsu IEEE Trans.

use peak(-V). Typically choose N to be odd. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. S ‘interp’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ij] = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. use peak2(-V).S points.

p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak.CHAPTER 2. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also pnmﬁlt. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plot2(p. If p has three dimensions.

W. r. r. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.CHAPTER 2. ’fillcolor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Examples plot_circle(c.y1. x2. PLOT BOX(x1. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. plot_circle(c. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’g’. 5). Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.y2). W. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. or a set of name. ‘r’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. P.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’edgecolor’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. R. ’b’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ‘size’. 1=solid. ’r’).y1) and (x2. ’LineWidth’.y2. ‘size’. P. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. r. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. PLOT BOX(’centre’.

PLOT ELLIPSE(a. with Matlab line style ls. c Specify color of the axes. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. If C=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) ls is the standard line styles.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘color’.Y].Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. centred at the origin. xc.Y. C. current plot.

’color’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’name’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. Options ‘textcolor’.X = 0. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. to ‘view’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fmt.CHAPTER 2. ’r’). v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. n ‘text opts’. ’r’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ‘framename’. ‘printf’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. trplot( T. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ’color’. options) adds point markers to a plot. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’.

text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. See also plot. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. NOTES • The sphere is always added. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. 1=solid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. either a letter or 3-vector. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. The default is 1. patch. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior.

The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plotp(p. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. See also pgmﬁlt. See also plot.CHAPTER 2.

Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.CHAPTER 2. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.gt] = radgrad(im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.

T. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x. T. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. Options ‘maxTrials’. T.CHAPTER 2. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x.in.resid] = ransac(func. one column per point pair.in] = ransac(func. N ‘maxDataTrials’. d) as above but elements increment by d. x typically contains corresponding point data. [m. x. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. [m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.

Cambridge University Press.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Mach.A.theta = []. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. they detect a structure argument.R.theta = DECONDITION(R.misc private data (cell array) out.out. pp 381-395.x data to work on.C.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.CHAPTER 2. pp 101-113.theta and the subset of R.theta to the points R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. [out.inlier.t threshold (1 × 1) R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .theta.theta is a cell array. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.theta.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.x. Boles.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. Assoc.x) condition the point data out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.s out.out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Vol 24.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.. that is they will produce a model. [out.x = CONDITION(R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. If multiple models are found out. Fishler and R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. Comp.misc element. that is.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. No 6. Comm.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. References • m.resid] = EST(R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x.x and returns the best model out.theta] = ERR(R.

See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.edu.uwa. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector.csse. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.

See also rotx. rotz. roty. See also roty.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx. rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Z axes respectively. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. • many texts (Paul. T = rpy2tr(roll. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.CHAPTER 2. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch. yaw. See also tr2rpy. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Y. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. If roll.

ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y. ncc.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. r2t. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also zsad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. theta) as above where xy=[x. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.CHAPTER 2. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. and rotation theta in the plane. y.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsdd.CHAPTER 2. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Two cross-hairs are created. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. sad. ncc. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector.

It supports options that have an assigned value. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). tr2rt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt.choose = {’this’. opt. The software pattern is: function(a. – If T is 3 × 3. ’that’. b. then R is 3 × 3.blah = []. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.bar = false. opt.foo = true. ’other’}.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. c. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. then R is 2 × 2.

‘this’.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.blah <. If neither of ‘this’. 3 sets opt. varargin).foo <. N ‘setopt’. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’#yes’}. w.select <.x. varargin). • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. x.N sets opt <.3 ‘blah’.verbose <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.y ‘that’ sets opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt.debug <.choose <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).blah <. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.CHAPTER 2. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. args) creates a test pattern image.choose <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.true sets opt.foo <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.false ‘blah’. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.select <.y sets opt.select = {’#no’.1.

The trajectory s.CHAPTER 2. 256. 256. args is the number of cycles. sf.sdd] = tpoly(s0. a line. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args is the number of cycles. args are theta (rad). See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. 50. intercept.sd. sf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are pitch (distance between centres). args is the number of cycles. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. 2). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.sd. dot diameter. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. square side length. 25). [s. args is the number of cycles. binary square pattern. sd and sdd are n-vectors. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. binary dot pattern. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. The 3 angles rpy=[R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).P. Y and Z axes respectively. See also angvec2r. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.CHAPTER 2. Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.y. • The validity of R is not checked. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.:. r2t. ie. If T has three dimensions. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.CHAPTER 2. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. See also rt2tr. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. See also rpy2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. y. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.z]. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. – If TR is 3 × 3.

[o1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3).CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). or x and y. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. An historical anomaly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. each N × 1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [c1. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.

troty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

CHAPTER 2. f ‘label’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trprint T is the command line form of above. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. and displays in RPY format. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers.

Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.(y-y0)q where (x0. See also upq poly. p. That is.(x-x0)p . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.y). q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. the sum of I(x. mpq. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.CHAPTER 2. tr2rpy. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.y0) is the centroid. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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ssd. sad.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also ncc. ncc. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1.

See also sdd. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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