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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. is open-source. and I commend it to you. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. However the book “Robotics. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This is extravagant on storage. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . Video . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . Tracker . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . edgelist . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . ithin . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . ipaste . ilabel . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . isrot . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . roty . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . upq poly . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . .

You need to signup in order to post. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. lecturers and professors are paid to do.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.com. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. and you will be suitably acknowledged.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. That’s what you your teachers.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.google.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tutors.

The ﬁle robot.I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Month = nov. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.gz) or zip format (.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.zip). Year = {2005}.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Number = {4}. the table of content to functions. Author = {P. The details are @article{Corke05f.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Volume = {12}. 1.petercorke.1. and the “See also” functions to each other.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. 1. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.html on a server for class use.3. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Corke}. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. 1. type of organization and application.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. 1.

The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. MSER. 12(4). which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. 1.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.vlfeat.. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. Coimbra. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. and there are hundreds of modules available.S. Vincent Lepetit. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.1.mathworks. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. P. pp 16–25.6. Corke. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.Functions such as SURF. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. November 2005. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.7. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. but not least. 1.I. 1994 University of British Columbia. Twente.7 Acknowledgements Last.R. VLFeat http://www.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. Camera. N ‘image’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. N ‘sensor’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Options ‘name’. T ‘color’. IM ‘resolution’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. used by all subclasses. S ‘noise’. SIGMA ‘pose’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. P ‘pixel’.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.CHAPTER 2.clf Clear the image plane C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera.char Convert to string s = C. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SphericalCamera Camera.centre Get camera position p = C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.display Display value C. CatadioptricCamera. Camera. Camera.

CHAPTER 2.v + c = 0.char Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. See also Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).u + b.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. and off if H is false (or 0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise false (0). C. Camera.

T. y.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. The matrices x.plot Plot points on image plane C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot.mesh(x. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. y.plot(p. See also mesh.hold. T ‘Tcam’. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). cylinder. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sphere. uv = C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. z to the image plane and plots them.clf Camera. mkcube.CHAPTER 2. y. Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.

‘fps’. Options ‘Tcam’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.T. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’. Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. T See also Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.hold. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.mesh.CHAPTER 2. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Camera. ‘Tcam’. Overrides the current camera pose C.clf Camera. T ‘scale’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. a subclass of Camera. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. C. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(R.CHAPTER 2. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is.rpy Set camera attitude C.y]. The image is not inverted.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.C Camera matrix C = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.

and v-axes parallel to x.Kosecka.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. S ‘centre’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Springer. D ‘default’ ‘image’. E = C.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sastry.Ma.F. J.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). S. p. P ‘pixel’.177 See also CentralCamera.and y-axes respectively. S ‘noise’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. f=8mm. optical axis is z-axis.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.E Essential matrix E = C. E = C. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S.Soatto. camera at origin. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. 10um pixels. IM ‘resolution’. N ‘sensor’. T ‘color’. u. 2003.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.CHAPTER 2.8]) See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. CentralCamera. F ‘distortion’. N ‘focal’. “An invitation to 3D”. SIGMA ‘pose’. Reference Y.

CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera. from two viewpoints. Springer.Soatto. J. Reference Y. p.Ma.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Sastry. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n. F = C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.H CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.Kosecka. 2003.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).177 See also CentralCamera.H Homography matrix H = C.E CentralCamera.H(T.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. S. “An invitation to 3D”.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S.

pp. 2009. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. CentralCamera.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. vol. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. F. Lepetit.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Feb. See also quiver CentralCamera.estpose(xyz.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. 155-166.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). a = C. and P. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Int. Fua. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V. Journal on Computer Vision.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Moreno-Noguer. 81.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.

Reference Y. translation not to scale • n. s. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. Springer. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Soatto. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Sastry. s.E CentralCamera. Springer.Ma.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 259 Y.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Sastry. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Soatto. “An invitation to 3D”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. 2003. J. p116. See also CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”. p. J.Ma.Kosecka.CHAPTER 2.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. 2003.Kosecka. s.invE(E. Chap 9. s. “An invitation to 3D”. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. section 5.

one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. H = C. See also Hough CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p.T. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline(f.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.CHAPTER 2.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H CentralCamera.project(p. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f. ‘Tcam’.

ray 3D ray for image point R = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Rives. “Multiview Geometry”. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. F. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .CHAPTER 2. Chaumette.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.plot CentralCamera.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.c. Reference B.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. vol. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac e(E. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. and P. Espiau. June 1992.b. See also Camera. 313-326.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. 8.

pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). June 1992. Hager & Corke. See also CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. IEEE Trans. F. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. and P.c.b.visjac l(L.visjac p(uv. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p. R&A. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. pp 651-670.visjac e CentralCamera. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.CHAPTER 2. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Hutchinson.visjac l CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p polar. 313-326. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Chaumette. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Vol 12(5). 1996. Oct. 8.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. CentralCamera. Reference B. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. vol.visjac p. Espiau. Rives.

visjac l. CentralCamera. (St. pp. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. radius and theta. Spindler. Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). 2009. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac p. See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. and F. CentralCamera. 5962-5967. Oct. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac l. in Proc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Chaumette.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac p polar(rt. Int.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. P. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. I. Louis). F.

Lowe. Nov. See README.CHAPTER 2. Int. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. pp. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. ScalePointFeature.91-110. See also isift. Journal on Computer Vision. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2004.60.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. vol.SIFT. D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. PointFeature. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.

ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=opaque. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v.plot scale Plot feature scale F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F. See also isift SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. C ‘alpha’. SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.match(f2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images.T] = F. out = F.support(im. F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.support(im.support(images. [out. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support Support region of feature out = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

project Project world points to image plane pt = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.T. N ‘pixel’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project(p. Options ‘Tobj’. Options ‘name’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘pose’. T ‘Tcam’. See also SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ﬁsheyecamera. CentralCamera.

from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. scalar for If null take actual value all points. error. The external view.5) target center . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.gain.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .center of the target in world coords (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.01) . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.CHAPTER 2. image plane size and desired feature locations. Jacobian condition number. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.0. The camera view. error norm. The camera view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. camera pose. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. defaults in parentheses: target size .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . of 4-vector. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.

5) target center . scalar for If null take actual value all points. Corke. error. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.center of the target in world coords (0.CHAPTER 2. Conf.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Robotics and Automation. I. May 3-7 2010.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. Jacobian condition number.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . P. pp. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. error norm.the side length of the target in world units (0. camera pose. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.visjac p(pt. 5550-5555.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .gain.visjac l. (Anchorage). CentralCamera. in Proc.0.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. The external view. for all points. defaults in parentheses: target size . IEEE Int.01) .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . of 4-vector. See also CentralCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).

• SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 346–359. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 3.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Luc Van Gool. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. pp. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 110. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. No. Tinne Tuytelaars. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. Andreas Ess.

C] = F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. ScalePointFeature.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. v. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. Options ‘thresh’. f = PointFeature(u.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.match Match SURF point features m = F. [m. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.

w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options.support Support region of feature out = F. 1=opaque. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(im.CHAPTER 2.T] = F. F.2) SurfPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. C ‘alpha’. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im.support(images. out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. w) as above but the support region is displayed. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. F.support(images.

S ‘resolution’.axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com). Video AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.axis. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. otherwise the result is not predictable.com) web camera.

close Close the image source A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.char Convert to string A. See also AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.display AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.

Sivic and A. 2003. f can also be a cell array. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Oct. Conf.org). on Computer Vision. pp. b = BagOfWords(f. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.Zisserman.1470-1477. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. in Proc.

char Convert to string s = B. isurf BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.display Display value B.exemplars(w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B. See also BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. images. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords.

Options ‘ncolumns’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords.n] = B.CHAPTER 2. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. M ‘width’. N ‘maxperimage’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. subclass of Camera.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. T ‘Tcam’. M ‘k’.CHAPTER 2. SIGMA ‘pose’. K ‘maxangle’.and y-axes respectively. u. optical axis is z-axis. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. P ‘pixel’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). f=8mm. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. N ‘sensor’. ‘equisolid’. See also Camera. CatadioptricCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. S ‘noise’. camera at origin. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. A ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and v-axes parallel to x. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. N ‘focal’. 10um pixels. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. ﬁsheyecamera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.project(p. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. See also Camera. ‘sine’.

SurfPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.

char() is a compact string representation of the match object. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display Display value M. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. f2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m = FeatureMatch(f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also PointFeature. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element.char Convert to string s = M. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch.

outlier Outlier features m2 = M.inlier.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. FeatureMatch.u2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v1.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.v2]. FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch.outlier.ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.

FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. for example by: idisp({im1.im2}) m.p1. These are the (u.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.plot() M. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot Show corresponding points M. FeatureMatch.p1.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.

CHAPTER 2. m = f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. ransac FeatureMatch.match(f2).show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.ransac( @fmatrix. m. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac Apply RANSAC M. 1e-4). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f2 = isurf(im2). See also idisp FeatureMatch. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. Example f1 = isurf(im1). homography. See also fmatrix.ransac(func. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.

subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.CHAPTER 2. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. that is. The image is not inverted.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. v. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y This camera model assumes central projection.

N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’. M ‘k’. S ‘centre’.axes respectively.and y. u. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. f=8mm. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. K ‘resolution’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. P ‘pixel’.and v-axes are parallel to x. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Options ‘name’. SIGMA ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. 10um pixels. camera at origin. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘equisolid’. optical axis is z-axis.CHAPTER 2.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘sine’.

T. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’. See also Camera.project(p.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. CatadioptricCamera. CentralCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also FishEyeCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.

For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. See also LineFeature Hough.0) and the line.CHAPTER 2. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H). a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. A horizontal line has theta = 0. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). The voting array is 2-dimensional. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.

else N = [Ntheta.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. T ‘edgethresh’. W ‘houghthresh’.CHAPTER 2. Nrho]. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.edgeThresh. Default 400 × 401. T ‘suppress’.char Convert to string s = HT. Hough. W ‘nbins’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.display Display value HT. Set ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. See also Hough.5) Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Hough.houghThresh (default 0.1). Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.

houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. H = HT. LineFeature Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.CHAPTER 2.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. See also Hough.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. See also Hough.plot(n. The highest peak is found.plot. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot Plot line features HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. then all elements in an HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. HT.lines Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.lines Find lines L = HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = HT. HT.

PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. L = LineFeature(rho. theta. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho.display Display value L. strength. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = L. theta. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LENGTH is undeﬁned. See also LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. l2 = L.CHAPTER 2.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.points Return points on line segments p = L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. less than gap pixels are tolerated.plot() overlay the line on current plot.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.seglength(edge.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot Plot line L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. l2 = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Small gaps.

axis. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the movie.close Close the image source M. Movie. S ‘skip’. Movie.com).char Convert to string M. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.

planar. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. Options ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph create an n-d.CHAPTER 2. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. S ‘frame’.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. F Skip frames.

and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.CHAPTER 2. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.distance(v1. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.plot() g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().cost(e) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.path(v) set goal vertex.clear() add vertex.component(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.add node(coord) g. v) g. v2) g.add edge(v1.coord(v) g.next(v) g.neighbours(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity() g.goal(v) g. Object properties (read/write) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.edges(e) g.add node(coord.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.

v. where x is D × 1. and returns the edge id E. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. PGraph. v = G.add node(x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add node(x.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add edge(v1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v = G.add edge(v1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. and returns the node id v. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. PGraph. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. E = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Options ‘distance’.

char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.char Convert graph to string s = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.clear Clear the graph G. edges and components. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .coord Coordinate of node x = G. D × 1. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. [v.closest Find closest node v = G.CHAPTER 2. and the distance d.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.d] = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. of node id v.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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SurfPointFeature. PointFeature. one per element. PointFeature.display Display value F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. See also ScalePointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. v.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.char Convert to string s = F.

match Match point features m = F.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match(f2.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. the norm of the Euclidean distance.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. where 1 is perfect match. [m.char PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.C] = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Options ‘thresh’. PointFeature.

General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot Plot feature F. Polygon .

HEIGHT].centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.edu. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Polygon. Pankratov. http://puddle.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Polygon. p = Polygon(C.char String representation s = P. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one column per vertex. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P.area() is the area of the polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit.mit. union. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. difference. kirill@plume.CHAPTER 2.html and require a licence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. intersection. so use with care.

char Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. returns coordinates of P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.display Display polygon P.difference Difference of polygons d = P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). else 0.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. See also Polygon. Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.

Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments(p.moments Moments of polygon a = P. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. each column is [x y]’.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. y1 y2]. returns empty polygon. Polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.

• If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.union Union of polygons i = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.CHAPTER 2. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.CHAPTER 2.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.

closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. [x.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. See also Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.char Convert to string s = R.display Display value R.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.CHAPTER 2.char Ray3D.E] = R. Ray3D. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.E] = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

c.0) 1 for a circle.b. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.

RegionFeature. RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.char Convert to string s = R.uc will be a list not a vector. See also iblobs.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. imoments RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. ymax]. For example R.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.box Return bounding box b = R. ymin.CHAPTER 2.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. RegionFeature. one per element.th] = R.xmax. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.

plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. RegionFeature.and xmarkers. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R. R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot centroid R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot boundary plot boundary R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also RegionFeature.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. It is indicated with overlaid o. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.

plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. R.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. RegionFeature.

1=opaque. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. v. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale(options. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v.CHAPTER 2. See also PointFeature. C ‘alpha’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength. ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. f = ScalePointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. T ‘movie’. one per active track. Options ‘radius’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. R ‘nslots’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.CHAPTER 2. N ‘thresh’. See also PointFeature Tracker. options) is a new tracker object. C. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.

display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.display Display value T.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Convert to string s = T. Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Tracker. Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. and their characteristics is displayed. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. G ‘scale’. Movie Video.CHAPTER 2. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.

close Close the image source V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.close() closes the connection to the camera. Video.char Convert to string V.

right. a = anaglyph(left. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. If disp is positive the disparity is increased.CHAPTER 2. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . right. By default the left image is red. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. the ﬁrst for left. color. If th1 is a column vector. the second for right. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. and the right image is cyan. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. if negative it is reduced. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1.

r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. p2) as above but p1=[x1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y2).y1] and p2=[x2. Endpoints must be integer. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. % emission of sun plot(l. y1.s] = boundmatch(R1. x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. p = bresenham(p1.y2]. If lambda is a column vector. [x. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.CHAPTER 2. See also RegionFeature.y1) to (x2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.boundary. 6500).

If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Y.CHAPTER 2. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. [C.

opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. [k. x = circle(C. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.d1] = closest(a. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. and x is N × 3. R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = closest(a. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).CHAPTER 2. R. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. green and blue primaries respectively.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. Options ‘n’. that is. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.

and 22500 (444. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. (Table 1(5.16).5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. since. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).d1. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. they were measured directly.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.ioo.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). • From Table I(5. 335 of Table 1(5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. while Table I(5. 19000 (526.ucl.d2] = closest(a.5.32). As noted in footnote a on p.ac. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5.

If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ucl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .M). imsize is a 2-vector (N. out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ac. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.CHAPTER 2.

Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.CHAPTER 2. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.g] to every pixel in the color image im.

options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. @isnan. im<100. See also imono. eg.G. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = colorize(im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. k.C] = colorkmeans(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.B). The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. [L. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. @isnan. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. func. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. mask. icolor. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.CHAPTER 2. and returns a per-pixel logical result.

R] = colorkmeans(im. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.C. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. eg. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. XYZ = colorname(name. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. L = colorkmeans(im. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. k) as above but also returns the residual R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.CHAPTER 2. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. low is good. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ.

• MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. colorspace(s.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.CHAPTER 2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.o3] = colorspace(s. or alternatively. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. double data is the natural choice. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . As MATLAB’s native datatype.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o2. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. i1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. • Color space names are case insensitive.txt. s = ‘dest<-src’.i2. Input and output images have 3 planes. [o1. s = ‘src->dest’. it can be omitted.

some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.CHAPTER 2. B = rand(400. Example A = rand(400.2*A. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . d = distance(A. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. • If im is an M × 3 array. for memory and computational performance.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. like a colormap.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .200). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.100). However. out will also have size M × 3.B). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.

• seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tested: PC Matlab v5. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. non-zero is an object. non zero is counter-clockwise.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. bunschot@wins. tel.uva. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.(+31)20-5257524. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. not image frame. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.3.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. The result E is a matrix. in matrix coordinate frame. seed. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. E = edgelist(im. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.j). University of Amsterdam.CHAPTER 2. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.

Coimbra.R. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. I. See also fmatrix. H = epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per line drawn.S. 1998. p. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. See also epiline.CHAPTER 2. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. epiline(f. p1. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Oct 27. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.

• f is a rank 2 matrix. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ransac. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. no outlier rejection is performed. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www. that is. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.csse. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.CHAPTER 2. The University of Western Australia. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.uwa. it is singular. • Contains a RANSAC driver. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. that is.au/. p2.edu. page 270. epiline. c. Notes • The points must be corresponding. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. homography.

See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. ithin. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. itriplepoint.y1) and (x2. x2. See also imorph. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. y1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y2). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.

Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.CHAPTER 2. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. http://www. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. The University of Western Australia. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . invhomog. which means it can be passed to ransac(). p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.au/. no outlier rejection is performed. Notes • The points must be corresponding.uwa. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.edu.csse. See also ransac.

itrim. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. [out. V ‘roi’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. D ‘size’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. R ‘scale’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also homography. S ‘dimension’. ie. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. im. S output image contains all the warped pixels.CHAPTER 2. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. im.offs] = homwarp(H. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. See also e2h. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. that is tp=T*T1.

ianimate(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. Hu. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features. 1962. features.CHAPTER 2. 200). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. 179-187. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). ’gs’). ’nfeat’. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. on Information Theory. IRE Trans. IT-8:pp. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ianimate(seq. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid.

YMIN YMAX]. M ‘npoints’. N ‘only’. iharris. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.CHAPTER 2. isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature.

0 ‘connect’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. horizontal coordinate centroid. A set pixel aspect ratio. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.0) 1 for a circle. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [S1. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. C set connectivity.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. [A1. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. ilabel. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. default 1.CHAPTER 2.

T ‘th1’.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also iopen.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. S ‘th0’. se. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also isobel. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Tel Aviv University. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.CHAPTER 2. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. 1996-7.

[0 1 1]). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). Options ‘dir’. [C. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. See also imono.u] = iconcat(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. C = icolor(im.CHAPTER 2. D ‘bgval’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. iconcat(im. colorize.

im2. options) convolves im1 with im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.

This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘k’. K ‘patch’. CT ‘edgegap’. D ‘sigma’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm.CHAPTER 2. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. N ‘detector’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. S ‘deriv’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. R ‘nfeat’. E ‘suppress’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest.

Shi and C. with a delay of d [sec]. Proc.5 [sec]. 593-593.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. where * denotes squared and smoothed. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. 1994. pp. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.G. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.Noble. Stephens. T ‘distthresh’. Proc. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. T ‘maxiter’. Image and Vision Computing. J. 1988. Manchester.6. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. See also PointFeature. IEEE Computer Society. p2.J. Harris and M. • “Finding corners”. p2. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. pp.121-128. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Tomasi. N ‘mindelta’.. vol.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with a delay of 0. • “Good features to track”. C. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Options ‘dplot’. pp 147-151. [T. J. May 1988.d] = icp(p1.

Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Intell. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. vol. s = idecimate(im. m.or 3-dimensional. Feb. IEEETrans. Pattern Anal.Besl and H. 239-256. no. P. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Mach. each plane is decimated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. 14. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.McKay. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. See also iscale. 2. s = idecimate(im. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .. m. pp.CHAPTER 2. 1992. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.

F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. linear proﬁle. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. darker than ‘grey’. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. If im is a cell array of images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap.and y-axes respectively. Options ‘ncolors’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. XY ‘colormap’. negative is red. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. negative is red. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. C ‘xydata’. positive is blue.CHAPTER 2. histogram and zooming. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. positive is blue. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. If the image is zoomed. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. zero is white. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is black. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white color map: random values.

See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . caxis. See also iblobs. icolorize. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. See also image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. colormap. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labelimage. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. labelimage. labels. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image.CHAPTER 2. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1.

hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. out = igamma(im. ithin. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. See also itriplepoint.45. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.

Int. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im.jpg’).5). 59. k. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. [L.m] = igraphseg(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.5). [l. 100. min is the minimum region size (pixels). min. 0. k. 1500. k. 2006. vol. P. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 2004. pp.CHAPTER 2. Huttenlocher. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Felzenszwalb and D. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 167181. Sept. See also ithresh. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. min.m] = igraphseg(im. Journal on Computer Vision. L = igraphseg(im. Example im = iread(’58060. k is the scale parameter.

options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [h. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. ’normcdf’). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.h). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). plot(x. options) displays the image histogram.h). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. H = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.x] = ihist(im. bar(x. [H.

parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.y1) and bottom-right (x2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. x1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.m.CHAPTER 2. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. same size as im. y2. [L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. ii is a precomputed integral image. y1.y2).

Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.parents. ilabel(im. iproﬁle. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .class.maxlabel. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. p1. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.maxlabel. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. • This is a “low level” function. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.CHAPTER 2. 8). p1.Y]. The pixels on the line are set to 1. p2.parents. out = iline(im. [L. See also iblobs. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. eg.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. otherwise it does not. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. each a 2-vector [X.

See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. x.CC] where (DX. s. xmax.y) and of size s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). im2. centred at (x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. a perfect match score is 1.y).score] = imatch(im1. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. -s. w2.DY) are the x.and y-offsets relative to (x. The return value is xm=[DX. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.y). • ZNCC matching is used. s] % relative to (x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. im2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. The template in im1 is centred at (x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. H. [xm.CHAPTER 2.y) and its half-width is H. y. y. and columns the vertical position.DY. • Is a MEX ﬁle. ymin. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. ymax] relative to (x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].u) = v. [u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. H) as above but the domain is w × H. v. [u.u) = u and v(v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. f = imoments(u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = imoments(u. The element u(v. effectively a greyscale image. effectively a binary image.

Different conversion functions are supported. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. See also RegionFeature. m11. m01. horizontal coordinate centroid. or its area. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. icolor. • This function does not perform connectivity. m02. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. ilabel. m20. the elements are m00. m10. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize.CHAPTER 2.

options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Chum. 22. The labels [L. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. ’grey’. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. m. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.CHAPTER 2. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. ’light’).png’. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.m] = imser(im. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Image and Vision Computing. se. Sept. vol. O. 761767. ’double’).org). J. and T. Matas. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = imser(im. [label. Pajdla. 2004. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Urban.

Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2). Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. This is an erosion followed by dilation. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also iclose. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. sides. n.CHAPTER 2. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. out = iopen(im. se. sides. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.

im2. otherwise im2 is selected. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer.CHAPTER 2.V]. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 10. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’t’. p. ’tblr’. 20. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im1. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.

Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.v) for the corresponding row of p.uv] = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. [p. p1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p1.

The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. order.2) = 0. hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled.5)). is order=1. se). op. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. sigma. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im.CHAPTER 2. out = imorph(image. out = ipyramid(im. op. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. 1. the maximum. The highest rank. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. se(2. im > irank(im. idecimate. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. ones(5. se. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. out = imorph(image. se. See also iscalespace. 12. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. out = ipyramid(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3). nbins.

vmin vmax]. R ‘roi’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. where R=[umin umax. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. See also imorph. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. ivar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. im = iread(ﬁle. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2.

im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. homwarp. istereo. See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out1.h2] = irectify(f. igamma.out2] = irectify(f. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. Notes • Color images are not supported. im1. m. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.h1. imwrite. imono. m. im1.CHAPTER 2. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.out2. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.

See also idisp. Options ‘outsize’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. angle. S ‘extrapval’.umax. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.H] return central part of image. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. vmin. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.vmin vmax].vmax]. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.CHAPTER 2. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. [out. V ‘smooth’.

H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. V ‘smooth’. Options ‘outsize’. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s ‘extrapval’. bias<0. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s>1 makes the image larger. while bias>0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 is symmetric cropping.CHAPTER 2. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. bias=0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s<1 makes it smaller. out = isamesize(im1.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. im2. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.

[g. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). n. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. corresponding to each step of the sequence. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. n) as above but sigma=1. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.CHAPTER 2.s] = iscalespace(im. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in space and scale. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.s] = iscalespace(im.L. idecimate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. See also iscalespace. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.L. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .

else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ilaplace. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ismooth. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. that is.CHAPTER 2. ‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. it its third dimension is equal to three. See also isrot. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image.

• ISURF is a functional equivalent. 60. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.vlfeat. isurf. 91-110. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. • Features are returned in descending strength order. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. International Journal of Computer Vision. N ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. Lowe. See also SiftPointFeature.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 2 (2004). Reference David G.

s is same size as im. zsad. sad.H. zssd. See also imatch. and these output pixels are set to NaN.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. @ncc. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. @zssd. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. s = isimilarity(T.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @ssd.CHAPTER 2. [w. ssd. @zsad. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. [w. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.

This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. See also iconv. convolved.gy] = isobel(im. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. sigma. then converted back to integer.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.CHAPTER 2. [gx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. [gx. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.

M] for an N × M window.u) means that imr(v.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. icanny. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. imr. See also ksobel. else false (0).sim] = istereo(iml. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. H is the half size of the matching window. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. range. range is the disparity search range. [d. See also ishomog. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. range. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. w.u).CHAPTER 2. isrot(R. That is. imr. H. ‘valid’) as above. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. the disparity d=d(v.

M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. • sim = max(dsi. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. Options ‘metric’. [d. imr. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. B. out = istretch(im. p.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. imr.dsi] = istereo(iml.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. range. ‘ncc’.sim. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. w.p] = istereo(iml. range.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.5 to +0. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. p. [d.A and p. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.sim. w. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).5). dx. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. 3) See also irectify.

• Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Notes • Color images.CHAPTER 2. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. or sequences. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. T ‘octaves’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Kroon (U. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. N ‘thresh’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

isift. out = ithin(im. else false (0). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. isvec(v. See also ishomog. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 346–359.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Vol.or columnvector. 110. No. Luc Van Gool. pp. itriplepoint. See also hitormiss. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). either a row. 3. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Otherwise false (0). Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Andreas Ess. Tinne Tuytelaars.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. ithresh(im.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.5. The default is 0. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.out2] = itrim(im1. a lower value will include more. Notes • Greyscale image only. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The same cropping is applied to each input image.im2.out2] = itrim(im1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. [out1.CHAPTER 2. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. See also homwarp.

CHAPTER 2. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. ithin. op. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. See also iendpoint.

hence output image had reduced dimensions.3). The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. func.5). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. out = iwindow(image. ones(5. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ones(3. se. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. se. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.CHAPTER 2. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. See also ivar. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. @max). @std). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.

klog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kcircle(R. is k’.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dy. ktriangle. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. kdog.CHAPTER 2. dG/dx. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. See also kgauss. See also ones. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kdgauss(sigma. • The vertical derivative.

sigma2. k = kdog(sigma1. klog. k = kdog(sigma1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2).6*sigma1. kdog. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. klog. See also kdgauss. kdgauss. k = kgauss(sigma. By default SIGMA2 = 1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. See also kgauss.

iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. kdog. See also kgauss. See also ilaplace. iconv. kdgauss. k = klog(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. it is assumed to have been completed previously.C] = kmeans(x. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.C] = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. k. k.CHAPTER 2. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Pattern Recognition Principles. and D is the dimension. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. L = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. [L. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.y. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. [x. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. s. C ‘T’. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.z] = mkcube(s. Options ‘T’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). See also cylinder. [x. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. ‘edge’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. symmetric about the origin. The points are the columns of p.z] = mkcube(s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.y.

Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.xp . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. the sum of I(x. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.2)). y) MPLOT(t. n. npq. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.2)). See also mpq poly. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. or y(:. y. or y(:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. MPLOT(t. p. That is. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. n) MPLOT(y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.y).yq .CHAPTER 2. y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.

i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. upq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. so centroids will be still be correct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also mpq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. they are considered to be a single vertex. npq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1.CHAPTER 2. p. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).

s] = niblack(im. k.m. where W=2*w2+1. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. T has the same dimensions as im. W. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in text segmentation.CHAPTER 2. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. [T. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. 20). 1986. See also zncc. k. • A common choice of k=-0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.2. idisp(im >= t). ssd. Prentice-Hall. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. the height of a character. Example t = niblack(im. niblack. sad. for example. -0.

p.0. See also npq poly.0). ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. mpq. That is UPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.q)/MPQ(im.CHAPTER 2.

See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also mpq poly.CHAPTER 2. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. npq. they are considered as a single vertex.

i] = peak(y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. N. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979.CHAPTER 2. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. pp 62-66 See also niblack. [yp. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). [yp. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. idisp(im >= t). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.xp] = peak(y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x. Example t = otsu(im). Systems. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. otsu IEEE Trans. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.

use peak2(-V). See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. S ‘interp’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘scale’. [zp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.ij] = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.S points. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. Typically choose N to be odd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak(-V). N ‘scale’.S points.

If p has three dimensions. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2(p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. ie. See also pnmﬁlt.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

y2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. r. P. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. x2. ’edgecolor’. plot_circle(c. ’r’). ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. value pairs that are passed to plot. 5). PLOT BOX(x1. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. W. ‘size’. 1=solid. ‘size’. R.CHAPTER 2. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ’LineWidth’. W. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. r.y1) and (x2. ’b’). Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ’fillcolor’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’g’.y1. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ‘r’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. P. plot_circle(c. Examples plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. PLOT BOX(’centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. or a set of name.y2). Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.

Y. xc. centred at the origin. If C=[X. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.CHAPTER 2. ls) ls is the standard line styles. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y]. Options ‘color’. current plot. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. with Matlab line style ls. c Specify color of the axes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.

’r’). data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ‘printf’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ‘framename’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. trplot( T. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. fmt. ’name’. options) adds point markers to a plot. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font.CHAPTER 2. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. to ‘view’. ’r’. Options ‘textcolor’. ’color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n ‘text opts’.X = 0. ’color’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate.

color. either a letter or 3-vector. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. See also plot. 1=solid. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. patch. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. NOTES • The sphere is always added. The default is 1. R. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec.

See also pgmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. See also plot. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

[gr. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.CHAPTER 2.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.

one column per point pair.CHAPTER 2. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set.in] = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. T. N ‘maxDataTrials’.in. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. x. Options ‘maxTrials’. T. x. x typically contains corresponding point data. T. [m. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. [m. x. d) as above but elements increment by d. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.resid] = ransac(func.

misc element. [out.theta = DECONDITION(R.t threshold (1 × 1) R..s out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. Boles.theta and the subset of R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. Cambridge University Press.out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. pp 381-395.x = CONDITION(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. If multiple models are found out.out. [out.x.R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.misc private data (cell array) out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.theta = []. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.s sample size (1 × 1) out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.x) condition the point data out. that is.A. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta is a cell array. Mach.x and returns the best model out.resid] = EST(R. that is they will produce a model.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.theta to the points R.x data to work on.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Comp.theta] = ERR(R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. they detect a structure argument. Fishler and R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. Assoc.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. No 6. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. pp 101-113. References • m. Vol 24.inlier. Comm.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.CHAPTER 2.x.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.C. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .

See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.CHAPTER 2.au/ pk See also fmatrix. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. If lambda is a vector.edu.uwa.csse.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty. See also rotx. See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2. rotz. rotz. roty.

Z axes respectively. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Y. See also tr2rpy. If roll. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. • many texts (Paul. T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. pitch. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw.

y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.CHAPTER 2. ncc.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and rotation theta in the plane. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ssd.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. r2t. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. See also zsad. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. theta) as above where xy=[x.y. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. y.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. ncc. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. See also zsdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.

opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). The software pattern is: function(a. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. – If T is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.blah = [].choose = {’this’.bar = false. b. then R is 3 × 3. opt. c. opt. varargin) opt. ’that’. tr2rt.foo = true.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. It supports options that have an assigned value. ’other’}. then R is 2 × 2. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

verbose <. ’#yes’}.blah <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.foo <.3 ‘blah’. varargin). If neither of ‘this’.y ‘that’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.‘this’. 3 sets opt.choose <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.y sets opt.choose <. args) creates a test pattern image. N ‘setopt’. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.select <.debug <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.false ‘blah’. x.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.true sets opt.select <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. varargin). w.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.N sets opt <.select = {’#no’.CHAPTER 2. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .blah <.foo <. opt = tb_optparse(opt.x. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.

50.sd. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. a line. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. binary square pattern. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 2). args is the number of cycles. [s. args is the number of cycles. 25). Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args are theta (rad). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. The trajectory s. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.CHAPTER 2. sd and sdd are n-vectors.sd. intercept. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sf. args is the number of cycles. 256. sf. binary dot pattern. 256. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. dot diameter. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.sdd] = tpoly(s0. square side length. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args are pitch (distance between centres). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction.

rpy = tr2rpy(R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [theta. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Y and Z axes respectively.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.CHAPTER 2. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. The 3 angles rpy=[R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.P. See also angvec2r. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.

tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. See also rpy2tr. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.z]. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. See also rt2tr. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. r2t. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.:. ie. If T has three dimensions. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.y. y.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. • The validity of R is not checked. – If TR is 3 × 3. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. or x and y. [o1. An historical anomaly. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.CHAPTER 2. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). If tri is RGB then cc is rg.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). each N × 1.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. [c1.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. troty. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. and displays in RPY format.CHAPTER 2. trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. f ‘label’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers.

That is.CHAPTER 2. p.y0) is the centroid. See also upq poly. mpq. the sum of I(x. tr2rpy.(y-y0)q where (x0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.y). npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(x-x0)p . Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ssd. See also ncc. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. sad. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sdd.CHAPTER 2. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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