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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This is extravagant on storage. and I commend it to you. However the book “Robotics. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. is open-source. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.

. . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . .5 Use in teaching .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . closest . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . iconv . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald .

. . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . ipad . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

mpq . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . mlabel . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . .

. zssd . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . trotx . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. and you will be suitably acknowledged.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You need to signup in order to post.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. lecturers and professors are paid to do. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. tutors.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.google. That’s what you your teachers. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com.

petercorke.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Month = nov. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.zip). 1. Volume = {12}.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. The details are @article{Corke05f. Corke}. and the “See also” functions to each other. Year = {2005}.html on a server for class use.1. type of organization and application.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).gz) or zip format (.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1. The ﬁle robot. Number = {4}. Author = {P. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. 1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.3. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. 1.I. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. the table of content to functions. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.

IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 1. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. VLFeat http://www. but not least. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.Functions such as SURF. Vincent Lepetit. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. MSER. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. Coimbra. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.6. P.mathworks.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.1. Corke.. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Twente. 1. pp 16–25.7 Acknowledgements Last.I. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. and there are hundreds of modules available. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. November 2005.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL.R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .7. 1994 University of British Columbia.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. 12(4).vlfeat.S.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. S ‘noise’. Options ‘name’. S ‘centre’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. IM ‘resolution’. SIGMA ‘pose’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. Camera. used by all subclasses. T ‘color’. N ‘sensor’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. P ‘pixel’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘image’.CHAPTER 2.

clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).CHAPTER 2.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Camera.centre Get camera position p = C. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delete Camera object destructor C.display Display value C. CatadioptricCamera.clf Clear the image plane C. SphericalCamera Camera.char Convert to string s = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.

hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).char Camera. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. otherwise false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Camera. C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.u + b. and off if H is false (or 0).ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.CHAPTER 2.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.v + c = 0. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.

Camera. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. uv = C.hold. The matrices x. cylinder.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot. T ‘Tcam’. See also mesh. sphere.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. y.clf Camera. z.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.T. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot(p. Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. z to the image plane and plots them.CHAPTER 2. y. y. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.mesh(x.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). mkcube. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.

‘fps’. Overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. T See also Camera.T.CHAPTER 2. T ‘scale’.hold. ‘Tobj’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Options ‘Tcam’.clf Camera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.mesh.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. ‘Tcam’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted.rpy Set camera attitude C.p. a subclass of Camera. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.CHAPTER 2.y].rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. C. p. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is.rpy(R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C Camera matrix C = C.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. P ‘pixel’. S ‘noise’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. E = C. N ‘focal’.CHAPTER 2. camera at origin. Reference Y. CatadioptricCamera. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. E = C. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). J.8]) See also Camera. Springer. S. S ‘centre’. “An invitation to 3D”.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. optical axis is z-axis.Kosecka.177 See also CentralCamera.E Essential matrix E = C.Sastry. ﬁsheyecamera. p. N ‘sensor’. f=8mm.and y-axes respectively. F ‘distortion’. S. SIGMA ‘pose’. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. T ‘color’.Ma.F. 2003.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. 10um pixels. u. IM ‘resolution’.Soatto.and v-axes parallel to x. D ‘default’ ‘image’.

F = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Kosecka.Ma.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. J.Sastry.Soatto. Reference Y.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.E CentralCamera. n.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H(T. Springer.F Fundamental matrix F = C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. p.H CentralCamera. 2003.CHAPTER 2.H Homography matrix H = C. from two viewpoints. “An invitation to 3D”.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). See also CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S.

Moreno-Noguer. vol. 155-166.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.CHAPTER 2. V.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .estpose(xyz. Journal on Computer Vision. Fua.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Lepetit. F. pp. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 2009. a = C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Int. Feb. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. See also quiver CentralCamera.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. CentralCamera. and P. 81.

In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.Ma. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). J. s. translation not to scale • n. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Soatto. p116. “An invitation to 3D”. See also CentralCamera.Kosecka.E CentralCamera. p.Ma. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Soatto. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Sastry. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “An invitation to 3D”. “Multiview Geometry”. s. section 5. 259 Y. Springer. 2003.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Sastry. s.Kosecka. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. 2003. Springer.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Chap 9.CHAPTER 2.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.invE(E. J. Reference Y.

Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T. one per line. C. H = C. CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p.plot epiline(f.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot epiline(f.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline(f.CHAPTER 2. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Tobj’.H CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Hough CentralCamera.

pp. Rives.CHAPTER 2.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also Camera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. and P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.plot CentralCamera.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Reference B. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.visjac e(E. 8. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.c. June 1992. 313-326.b. F. Espiau.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Chaumette. “Multiview Geometry”. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p polar.visjac p polar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Reference B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Rives. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.b. Vol 12(5). pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac l CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Chaumette. 313-326. vol. R&A. and P.visjac p(uv.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. 8.visjac l(L. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac e CentralCamera. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Espiau.c. CentralCamera. Hutchinson. CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. IEEE Trans. Hager & Corke. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. pp. June 1992. 1996.visjac p. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Oct. pp 651-670. F.visjac p.

Oct.visjac p polar. Int. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. See also CentralCamera. pp. Spindler. 2009. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac e CentralCamera. Louis).CHAPTER 2.visjac p. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. I. Corke. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in Proc.visjac p polar(rt. and F. CentralCamera. P. F.visjac l. (St. Chaumette.visjac l. radius and theta. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. 5962-5967.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Journal on Computer Vision. See also isift.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. vol. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. pp. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.60.Lowe. See README. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.SIFT. 2004. Nov. ScalePointFeature. Int. PointFeature. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.91-110. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. D.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 0=transparent (default 0.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 1=opaque. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = PointFeature(u. v. See also isift SiftPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options. SiftPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. C ‘alpha’. F.match Match SIFT point features m = F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2. [out. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(im. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im.support(images. out = F.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

T ‘Tcam’.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. N ‘pixel’. CentralCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project(p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘name’. Overrides the current camera pose C. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. S ‘pose’. See also SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Options ‘Tobj’.

camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .center of the target in world coords (0.5) target center .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The camera view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.CHAPTER 2. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The external view. camera pose. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.gain. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. Jacobian condition number. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera view. error norm. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. of 4-vector. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . defaults in parentheses: target size .the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.01) . image plane size and desired feature locations.0.

or a vector (N × 1) for each point. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Corke. image plane size and desired feature locations. error norm. I. May 3-7 2010.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . See also CentralCamera. Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera. error. Conf. Jacobian condition number. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.the side length of the target in world units (0.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . 5550-5555. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.CHAPTER 2.visjac l. P.visjac p polar.gain.0.depth of points to use for Jacobian.center of the target in world coords (0. of 4-vector. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. pp. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). scalar for If null take actual value all points. (Anchorage).01) . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. defaults in parentheses: target size . camera pose. CentralCamera. IEEE Int.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The external view. in Proc. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.visjac p(pt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.5) target center .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . for all points.

2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Andreas Ess. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. No.CHAPTER 2. Vol. pp. 346–359. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 110. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Tinne Tuytelaars. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 3. Luc Van Gool.

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.match Match SURF point features m = F. Options ‘thresh’.C] = F. ScalePointFeature. [m.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2.match(f2.match(f2. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v.

plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. [out. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im.CHAPTER 2. 1=opaque.support(im. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. out = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F.support(images.plot scale(options.support(images. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.2) SurfPointFeature. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘alpha’. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. 0=transparent (default 0.T] = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.

Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Video AxisWebCamera.com).com) web camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S ‘resolution’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. G ‘scale’.axis. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.display AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. See also AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close() closes the connection to the web camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.

2003. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Oct. f can also be a cell array. on Computer Vision. Conf.1470-1477.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.org). as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Ninth IEEE Int. pp. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. b = BagOfWords(f. in Proc.CHAPTER 2.Sivic and A. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.Zisserman. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.

exemplars display exemplars of words B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. images. BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B.char BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.exemplars(w. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.contains Find images containing word k = B.CHAPTER 2.

wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. Options ‘ncolumns’.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. M ‘width’. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. BagOfWords.n] = B.remove stop Remove stop words B. N ‘maxperimage’.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.CHAPTER 2.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

Camera CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. camera at origin.and y-axes respectively. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. N ‘focal’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. ‘equisolid’. ‘sine’. CatadioptricCamera. f=8mm. S ‘noise’. ﬁsheyecamera.and v-axes parallel to x. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. optical axis is z-axis. See also Camera. N ‘sensor’. M ‘k’. 10um pixels. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T ‘Tcam’. P ‘pixel’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’.T. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p.CHAPTER 2. u.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Options ‘Tobj’. See also Camera. K ‘maxangle’. A ‘resolution’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.

SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. See also PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SurfPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. such as ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object.

See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.display Display value M. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch. f2. FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M. one per element.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.

See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v1.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.v2].CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.inlier.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.outlier.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.u2. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.

FeatureMatch.p1. See also FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. These are the (u.CHAPTER 2.im2}) m.p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2. for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.plot() M.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch. These are the (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M. See also FeatureMatch.

See also fmatrix. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. Example f1 = isurf(im1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac(func. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.CHAPTER 2. homography. f2 = isurf(im2).ransac( @fmatrix.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. 1e-4). See also idisp FeatureMatch. m = f1.ransac Apply RANSAC M. m. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.match(f2). ransac FeatureMatch.

subset Subset of matches m2 = M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is. Y This camera model assumes central projection. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. The image is not inverted. v. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.

N ‘sensor’. K ‘resolution’.axes respectively.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. S ‘centre’. P ‘pixel’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. camera at origin.and y. ‘equisolid’. ‘sine’. f=8mm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘default’ ‘projection’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. M ‘k’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘name’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. optical axis is z-axis.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.and v-axes are parallel to x. 10um pixels. S ‘noise’. u.

For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’.T. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also FishEyeCamera. CentralCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. CatadioptricCamera.

0) and the line. The voting array is 2-dimensional. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A horizontal line has theta = 0. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.CHAPTER 2. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. See also LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.H).

Nrho]. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. W ‘houghthresh’.5) Set ht.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh (default 0.houghThresh (default 0. Default 400 × 401.char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘nbins’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Hough. T ‘edgethresh’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else N = [Ntheta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. T ‘suppress’.display Display value HT.CHAPTER 2. Set ht. See also Hough. Hough.1). N All edge pixels have equal weight. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.edgeThresh.

lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. LineFeature Hough.plot Plot line features HT.CHAPTER 2.lines Find lines L = HT. L = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot(n.plot. HT. See also Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. The highest peak is found.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. The process is repeated for all peaks. then all elements in an HT.lines Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. H = HT. See also Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. RegionFeature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.CHAPTER 2. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

char Convert to string s = L. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LineFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = LineFeature(rho.CHAPTER 2. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. strength. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta. theta. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. LENGTH is undeﬁned.display Display value L.

Small gaps.points Return points on line segments p = L. See also icanny LineFeature. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay the line on current plot.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).CHAPTER 2. LineFeature.plot Plot line L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. L. less than gap pixels are tolerated. l2 = L.seglength(edge. l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.

S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie. S ‘skip’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.close Close the image source M.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . G ‘scale’.char Convert to string M.close() closes the connection to the movie.com). Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Options ‘skip’.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.CHAPTER 2.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘frame’. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph create an n-d. planar. F Skip frames. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.

goal(v) g.cost(e) g.add edge(v1.path(v) set goal vertex. v2) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().neighbours(v) g.next(v) g.CHAPTER 2. Object properties (read/write) g.component(v) g. v) g.add node(coord. return vid add vertex and edge to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.clear() add vertex. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.coord(v) g.edges(e) g.add node(coord) g.connectivity() g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return vid add edge from v1 to v2. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.distance(v1.plot() g.

M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v = G.add node(x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.CHAPTER 2. and returns the node id v. v.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. Options ‘distance’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(x. where x is D × 1. and returns the edge id E. v2.add edge(v1. E = G. PGraph.add edge(v1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.

closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph.CHAPTER 2.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.d] = G. PGraph. [v.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. edges and components. of node id v. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G.clear Clear the graph G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D × 1.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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f = PointFeature(u. See also ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f = PointFeature(u. one per element. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. v.display Display value F.char Convert to string s = F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature.

If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match Match point features m = F. [m.CHAPTER 2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance.char PointFeature. PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. where 1 is perfect match.match(f2. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Options ‘thresh’.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.C] = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot Plot feature F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). Polygon . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.

http://puddle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one column per vertex. p = Polygon(C.mit.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.char String representation s = P. intersection. Pankratov. difference. HEIGHT].area Area of polygon a = P.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. kirill@plume. Polygon.mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.html and require a licence. so use with care. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon. Polygon. union.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Polygon.edu.CHAPTER 2.

display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. Polygon. See also Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. else 0.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.char Polygon.CHAPTER 2. returns coordinates of P. Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.difference Difference of polygons d = P.display Display polygon P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.moments(p. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. each column is [x y]’. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.moments Moments of polygon a = P.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. y1 y2]. returns empty polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Polygon. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.CHAPTER 2. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.

Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union Union of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot Plot polygon P. P. Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.plot() plot the polygon.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.E] = R.E] = R. [x. See also Ray3D. [x. Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. one per element. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.char Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.

Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.b.c. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2.0) 1 for a circle. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.uc will be a list not a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. one per element. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. RegionFeature.box Return bounding box b = R. RegionFeature. For example R.xmax.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. ymax]. ymin. imoments RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. See also iblobs. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.th] = R.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.

char RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot boundary plot boundary R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. RegionFeature. R.display Display value R. R. It is indicated with overlaid o. See also RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot Plot centroid R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box Plot bounding box R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. R. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.

plot scale(options. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also PointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = ScalePointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. 1=opaque. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ScalePointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘alpha’. F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. v. SurfPointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u.

im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Options ‘radius’.CHAPTER 2. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. options) is a new tracker object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. R ‘nslots’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. one per active track. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. N ‘thresh’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. See also PointFeature Tracker. C. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. T ‘movie’.

See also Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.plot Show feature trajectories T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Tracker. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Movie Video. G ‘scale’. and their characteristics is displayed. S ‘resolution’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. otherwise the result is not predictable. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera.

Video.close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char Convert to string V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.CHAPTER 2. Video.

and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. The result is in the interval [-pi pi).CHAPTER 2. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). color. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. the second for right. right. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. If th1 is a column vector. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. By default the left image is red. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. and the right image is cyan. right. the ﬁrst for left. if negative it is reduced. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. a = anaglyph(left.

y1) to (x2. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.CHAPTER 2. % emission of sun plot(l.y2). p2) as above but p1=[x1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. p = bresenham(p1. Endpoints must be integer. If lambda is a column vector. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. y1. [x. x2. See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. 6500).y1] and p2=[x2.y2]. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.s] = boundmatch(R1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.boundary. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.

Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. [C.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.

k = closest(a.CHAPTER 2. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. x = circle(C. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). and x is N × 3. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). Options ‘n’. green and blue primaries respectively. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. [k. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. that is. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d1] = closest(a.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.

19000 (526.d2] = closest(a. • From Table I(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). while Table I(5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 335 of Table 1(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. and 22500 (444.d1. they were measured directly.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5.32). (Table 1(5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.5.ioo.ac.5. since. The data are referred to as pilot data. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.CHAPTER 2. As noted in footnote a on p. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.ucl.16). b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.

im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. out = col2im(pix.M).ioo. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize is a 2-vector (N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ac.CHAPTER 2. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .

colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.CHAPTER 2.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.

R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. im<100. icolor. [L. k.CHAPTER 2. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. @isnan. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.G. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. mask. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. See also imono. @isnan. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.C] = colorkmeans(im. func. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. eg. out = colorize(im.B).

Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. XYZ = colorname(name. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . name = colorname(XYZ. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.CHAPTER 2. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. k) as above but also returns the residual R. eg. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. low is good.R] = colorkmeans(im. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space.C.

txt.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. Input and output images have 3 planes.o3] = colorspace(s. or alternatively. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. it can be omitted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. s = ‘src->dest’. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. [o1. • Color space names are case insensitive.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. double data is the natural choice.o2. colorspace(s.i2. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.CHAPTER 2. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. s = ‘dest<-src’. i1.

like a colormap. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. d = distance(A. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). for memory and computational performance. out will also have size M × 3.B). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.2*A. Example A = rand(400.100). However.200). B = rand(400. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. • If im is an M × 3 array.

Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. tel. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.j).(+31)20-5257524. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. non-zero is an object. The result E is a matrix.uva. Tested: PC Matlab v5. not image frame.y). non zero is counter-clockwise. E = edgelist(im.3. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.CHAPTER 2. in matrix coordinate frame. seed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . University of Amsterdam. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. bunschot@wins.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.

epiline(f. H = epiline(f.CHAPTER 2. Oct 27. one per line drawn. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). I.R. 1998. See also fmatrix. See also epiline. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. Coimbra. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.S.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. p1. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2.

au/. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Notes • The points must be corresponding. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. no outlier rejection is performed. homography. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. • f is a rank 2 matrix. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. The University of Western Australia. it is singular. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. that is. • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac().CHAPTER 2. c.csse. that is. p2. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.uwa. page 270.edu. See also ransac. epiline. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference Hartley and Zisserman. http://www. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.

iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.CHAPTER 2. y1. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. itriplepoint.y1) and (x2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).y2). x2. ithin. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also imorph. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.

uwa.CHAPTER 2. The University of Western Australia. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . no outlier rejection is performed. See also ransac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. which means it can be passed to ransac().au/. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. Notes • The points must be corresponding. invhomog. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.edu. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. http://www.csse.

See also e2h. R ‘scale’. im. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. S output image contains all the warped pixels. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. itrim. im. S ‘dimension’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. that is tp=T*T1. ie. V ‘roi’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. [out. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W.offs] = homwarp(H. D ‘size’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. See also homography.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines.

IRE Trans. ianimate(im. ’nfeat’. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IT-8:pp. ’gs’). Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 200). features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. 179-187. Hu. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 1962. ianimate(seq. on Information Theory.

YMIN YMAX]. isurf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘only’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. M ‘npoints’.CHAPTER 2. iharris. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ).

[A1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. default 1.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. horizontal coordinate centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. ilabel. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0 ‘connect’. vertical coordinate bounding box.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. [S1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio. C set connectivity. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. See also iopen. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1996-7.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. Tel Aviv University. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also isobel. This is an dilation followed by erosion. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. S ‘th0’.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’.

Options ‘dir’.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.CHAPTER 2. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) concatenates images from the cell array im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.u] = iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). The images do not have to be of the same size. [0 1 1]). D ‘bgval’. colorize. See also imono. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). [C.

im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) convolves im1 with im2.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.

N ‘detector’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). CT ‘edgegap’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. CM ‘cminthresh’. K ‘patch’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. S ‘deriv’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘sigma’.CHAPTER 2. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. D ‘k’. E ‘suppress’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. R ‘nfeat’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. 1988. Options ‘dplot’. J. 1994. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. IEEE Computer Society. C. with a delay of 0. • “Good features to track”. N ‘mindelta’. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Image and Vision Computing. p2. See also PointFeature. Shi and C. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. where * denotes squared and smoothed. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.121-128. pp. pp 147-151. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.d] = icp(p1.J.CHAPTER 2. T ‘distthresh’. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. • “Finding corners”. May 1988.5 [sec]. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.G.Noble. p2. 593-593. T ‘maxiter’. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.6. with a delay of d [sec]. Harris and M. Proc. Tomasi. Proc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Manchester. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.. J. [T. Stephens.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.

Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Feb.CHAPTER 2. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. each plane is decimated.or 3-dimensional. Pattern Anal. no. See also iscale. 2. 1992. s = idecimate(im. vol. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.Besl and H. Intell. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.McKay. IEEETrans. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 239-256.. 14. Mach. P. s = idecimate(im. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. m. pp. m.

If im is a cell array of images.CHAPTER 2. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure.and y-axes respectively. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. If the image is zoomed. zero is white. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. histogram and zooming. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. linear proﬁle. darker than ‘grey’. zero is black. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. zero is white color map: random values. XY ‘colormap’. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). negative is red. positive is blue. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. C ‘xydata’. Options ‘ncolors’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. positive is blue. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. negative is red. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.

See also iblobs. labelimage. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. colormap. labels. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. See also image. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. icolorize. idisplabel(im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. caxis. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.CHAPTER 2. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels.

hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. See also itriplepoint. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.CHAPTER 2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.45. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.2.

5). sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min. 2004. pp. 0. Journal on Computer Vision. Felzenszwalb and D. See also ithresh. [l. min. 2006.m] = igraphseg(im.5). and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 100. k. L = igraphseg(im. Huttenlocher. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example im = iread(’58060. 167181. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im.CHAPTER 2. k is the scale parameter.m] = igraphseg(im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. P. vol. Sept. 59. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. [L. k. k. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.jpg’). Int. 1500.

options) displays the image histogram. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [H.x] = ihist(im). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. [h. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.h). plot(x. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im. bar(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. H = ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.h). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.

m. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. ii is a precomputed integral image. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. y2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. y1.y2).y1) and bottom-right (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. same size as im. x1. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. [L.CHAPTER 2. [L.

ilabel(im.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. p1.maxlabel. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. 8).class. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. p2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. out = iline(im. otherwise it does not. [L.parents. eg. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. each a 2-vector [X.maxlabel. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.Y].parents. See also iblobs. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. • This is a “low level” function. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.CHAPTER 2. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. p1. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The pixels on the line are set to 1. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. iproﬁle.

ymax] relative to (x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.score] = imatch(im1.y) and its half-width is H. ymin. w2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. H. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. im2. • Is a MEX ﬁle. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.y). -s. The template in im1 is centred at (x. im2. s. x.y). xmax. s] % relative to (x. y. and columns the vertical position.DY.y) and of size s. x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. The return value is xm=[DX.CC] where (DX.and y-offsets relative to (x.DY) are the x. y. • ZNCC matching is used. [xm. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. a perfect match score is 1. centred at (x. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.

[u. effectively a binary image. H) as above but the domain is w × H. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.v] = imeshgrid(w.CHAPTER 2. f = imoments(u.u) = v. effectively a greyscale image. The element u(v. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. All pixels are equally weighted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.u) = u and v(v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. [u. v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

m20. icolor. m01. horizontal coordinate centroid. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m11.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. Different conversion functions are supported. m10. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the elements are m00. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. or its area. See also RegionFeature. m02. ilabel. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. • This function does not perform connectivity.

and T. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org). vol. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Chum.CHAPTER 2. [label. J. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Sept. se. Pajdla. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. The labels [L.m] = imser(im. ’double’). m. Matas. 22. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. pp. Urban. 761767. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.png’. O. 2004. ’light’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. ’grey’. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Image and Vision Computing.m] = imser(im.

ˆ2). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.CHAPTER 2. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.

se. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. n. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides. out = iopen(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. See also iclose. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.

by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.V]. ’tblr’. 10. p. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’t’. im1. otherwise im2 is selected. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 20. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.

p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uv] = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. [p. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. See also bresenham.v) for the corresponding row of p. p1.

out = ipyramid(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. sigma. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. se). is order=1. See also iscalespace. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. out = imorph(image. out = imorph(image. se(2. ones(5.5)). the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op. 1. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. The highest rank. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. the maximum. op. im > irank(im. order.3). se. out = ipyramid(im. nbins. idecimate. 12. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.2) = 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se.

where R=[umin umax. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. See also imorph. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im = iread(ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. R ‘roi’. ivar. vmin vmax]. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. G ‘reduce’.CHAPTER 2. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image.

imono. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h1. istereo. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. [out1. im1. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. imwrite. m.CHAPTER 2. im1. m. • The resulting images may have negative disparity.h2] = irectify(f. igamma. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. homwarp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.out2. Notes • Color images are not supported.out2] = irectify(f.

R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. Options ‘outsize’.vmin vmax]. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin.CHAPTER 2. S ‘extrapval’.H] return central part of image.umax. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. angle. See also idisp. V ‘smooth’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.vmax].R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. [out. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.

Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s>1 makes the image larger. s ‘extrapval’. s<1 makes it smaller. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias=0.5 is symmetric cropping. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. bias<0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. out = isamesize(im1.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. im2.CHAPTER 2.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. while bias>0.

[g. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. in space and scale. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). idecimate. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .CHAPTER 2. corresponding to each step of the sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .L. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. See also iscalespace.L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. n) as above but sigma=1. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.s] = iscalespace(im. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.

that is. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. else false (0). ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN.CHAPTER 2. ishomog(T. ‘valid’) as above. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ismooth. See also isrot. it its third dimension is equal to three.

pp. N ‘suppress’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .vlfeat. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. See also SiftPointFeature. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. Lowe. 60. • Features are returned in descending strength order. 91-110. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. Reference David G. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. 2 (2004). isurf. International Journal of Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

ncc. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.CHAPTER 2. sad. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. zsad. @ssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. zssd. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @ncc.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. s is same size as im. im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. and these output pixels are set to NaN. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @zssd. [w. See also imatch.H. @zsad. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. s = isimilarity(T.

dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. then converted back to integer. sigma.CHAPTER 2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. See also iconv. convolved. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. [gx.gy] = isobel(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.

u) means that imr(v. H is the half size of the matching window. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. the disparity d=d(v. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.M] for an N × M window. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. [d. See also ishomog. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). ‘valid’) as above. else false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.CHAPTER 2. w. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. range. icanny. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. range. H. imr.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. range is the disparity search range. See also ksobel. isrot(R.sim] = istereo(iml. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. That is. imr.u). which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

That is. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.5 to +0. w. imr. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. 3) See also irectify. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.CHAPTER 2.sim. ‘ncc’. range. B. [d. dx. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). • sim = max(dsi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). imr. range. Options ‘metric’. p. out = istretch(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.sim. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. [d.dsi] = istereo(iml. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.p] = istereo(iml. w.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.5).B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. p. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.A and p.

CHAPTER 2. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. N ‘thresh’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Kroon (U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘octaves’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Notes • Color images. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. or sequences. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.

itriplepoint.or columnvector. See also hitormiss. No. Luc Van Gool. 110. isvec(v. Andreas Ess. Tinne Tuytelaars. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. pp. Otherwise false (0). out = ithin(im. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 3. See also ishomog. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. 346–359. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Vol. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. isift. else false (0). iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . either a row.

a lower value will include more. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.CHAPTER 2. The default is 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.5. Notes • Greyscale image only. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The same cropping is applied to each input image. See also homwarp.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. ithresh(im.out2] = itrim(im1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.im2. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.

These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. op. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se.CHAPTER 2. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ithin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iendpoint. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled.

out = iwindow(image. @max). func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. @std).3).CHAPTER 2.5). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. se. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ones(5. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. See also ivar. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hence output image had reduced dimensions. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.

See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dy. klog.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. k = kdgauss(sigma. ktriangle. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. is k’. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. See also ones. kdog. dG/dx. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. • The vertical derivative.CHAPTER 2. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. k = kcircle(R. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.

kdog. See also kgauss. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). k = kdog(sigma1. k = kgauss(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . By default SIGMA2 = 1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2.CHAPTER 2. sigma2. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. klog. k = kdog(sigma1. kdgauss. klog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. See also kdgauss.6*sigma1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed.

k = klog(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdgauss. See also kgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. iconv. See also ilaplace. kdog.CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. and W=2 × H+1.

c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. it is assumed to have been completed previously. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.C] = kmeans(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. k.CHAPTER 2. k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. Pattern Recognition Principles. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [L. L = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension.C] = kmeans(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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C ‘T’. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.z] = mkcube(s. See also cylinder. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). ‘edge’. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. [x. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. [x. The points are the columns of p. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. symmetric about the origin.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.y. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.z] = mkcube(s. Options ‘T’.y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.

MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.yq . That is. y.2)). the sum of I(x.xp . q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. npq. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(t.2)). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. or y(:.CHAPTER 2. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y). n. n) MPLOT(t. p. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. or y(:. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. See also mpq poly. n) MPLOT(y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. y) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.

Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. they are considered to be a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. p. See also mpq. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. upq poly. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity.

for example. T has the same dimensions as im. the height of a character. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented.s] = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Example t = niblack(im. Prentice-Hall. k. sad. k.m. niblack. where W=2*w2+1. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. 1986.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. in text segmentation. idisp(im >= t). [T. 20). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also zncc. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. W. • A common choice of k=-0. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.2. -0. ssd. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.CHAPTER 2.

p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.0. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. That is UPQ(im.q)/MPQ(im. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also npq poly. mpq. p.0).

Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m.CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. mpq. they are considered as a single vertex. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq poly. npq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. so centroids will be still be correct. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. upq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

i] = peak(y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms.xp] = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. otsu IEEE Trans. Systems. idisp(im >= t). Example t = otsu(im). options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. [yp. pp 62-66 See also niblack. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. x. [yp.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. N. Jan 1979. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.

S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.CHAPTER 2. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. S ‘interp’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S points. N ‘scale’. use peak(-V).ij] = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. Typically choose N to be odd. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. use peak2(-V). options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.S points. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.

The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. plot2(p. See also pnmﬁlt. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ie. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. If p has three dimensions.

or a set of name. ’r’). ’edgecolor’. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Examples plot_circle(c.y2). Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. x2. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. r. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. 1=solid. ’g’. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ‘size’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. R.y1. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.y1) and (x2. r. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’LineWidth’. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. W. PLOT BOX(’centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. plot_circle(c. 5). P. ‘size’. ‘r’. r.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y2. W. ’fillcolor’. ’b’). PLOT BOX(x1. plot_circle(c.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].

c Specify color of the axes.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. xc. current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. C. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Options ‘color’. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.Y]. ls) ls is the standard line styles. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.Y. centred at the origin. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. with Matlab line style ls.CHAPTER 2. If C=[X. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.

size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’r’). n ‘text opts’.X = 0. Options ‘textcolor’. trplot( T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. to ‘view’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. fmt. ’r’. ’color’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. options) adds point markers to a plot. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ‘printf’. ’name’. ‘framename’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’.

Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. color. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. See also plot. The default is 1.CHAPTER 2. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. patch. either a letter or 3-vector. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. 1=solid. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R. R.

plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. See also plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pgmﬁlt.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plotp(p.

centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.CHAPTER 2. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im. [gr. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. N ‘maxDataTrials’. T. x typically contains corresponding point data. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.in] = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x.CHAPTER 2. one column per point pair. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. d) as above but elements increment by d. T. x. [m. Options ‘maxTrials’.in. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. T. x.resid] = ransac(func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. [m. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set.

x data to work on.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. [out.R. that is. Comp.x.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Assoc. that is they will produce a model.misc private data (cell array) out.inlier.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.out. Boles. Mach.theta.A.CHAPTER 2.theta] = ERR(R. Vol 24. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .debug display what’s going on (logical) R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.t threshold (1 × 1) R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.. References • m.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.theta to the points R. they detect a structure argument.resid] = EST(R.x = CONDITION(R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.theta = DECONDITION(R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.theta is a cell array.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.s sample size (1 × 1) out. [out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta = []. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta and the subset of R. Cambridge University Press. If multiple models are found out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.s out.theta.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.x) condition the point data out. No 6. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.x and returns the best model out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.C.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. Fishler and R.out. Comm.misc element. pp 381-395.x. pp 101-113.

au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.edu.CHAPTER 2. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uwa. If lambda is a vector.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. See also rotx. See also roty. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz.

Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy.CHAPTER 2. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. T = rpy2tr(roll. Y. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. • many texts (Paul. pitch. Z axes respectively. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. See also tr2rpy. pitch. pitch. If roll.

y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. y.y. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.CHAPTER 2. r2t. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. and rotation theta in the plane. theta) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. ncc. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ssd. See also zsad.

See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. ncc. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Two cross-hairs are created.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

tr2rt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). opt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. – If T is 3 × 3. b. then R is 3 × 3. ’that’.bar = false. opt. then R is 2 × 2. varargin) opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.blah = []. The software pattern is: function(a. It supports options that have an assigned value.CHAPTER 2. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt.choose = {’this’.foo = true. ’other’}. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. c.

varargin).select <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.blah <. If neither of ‘this’. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y ‘that’ sets opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.CHAPTER 2. N ‘setopt’.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image.‘this’.false ‘blah’. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.foo <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.x.true sets opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.choose <.verbose <. varargin).select <.y sets opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. 3 sets opt. w.3 ‘blah’.choose <.debug <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.blah <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.select = {’#no’.N sets opt <. opt = tb_optparse(opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. ’#yes’}. x.1.foo <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.

sd. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. 50. 2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. 256.sd. [s. binary square pattern. sd and sdd are n-vectors. The trajectory s. sf. args is the number of cycles. binary dot pattern. square side length. args is the number of cycles. sf. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. 256. args are theta (rad). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. 25). dot diameter.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . intercept. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args are pitch (distance between centres). a line. args is the number of cycles. args are dot pitch (distance between centres).

Y and Z axes respectively. The 3 angles rpy=[R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. [theta. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Y.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. See also angvec2r.

See also rt2tr.:.y. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. ie. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. If T has three dimensions. • The validity of R is not checked. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. r2t.z]. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. – If TR is 3 × 3. See also rpy2tr.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.CHAPTER 2. y.

trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).CHAPTER 2. [c1. each N × 1. or x and y. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). [o1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). An historical anomaly.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. troty.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty.CHAPTER 2. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx. and displays in RPY format. f ‘label’. trotx.

p. mpq.CHAPTER 2.y).(x-x0)p . See also upq poly. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.(y-y0)q where (x0. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.y0) is the centroid. the sum of I(x. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. That is. tr2rpy.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also ncc. sad. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ssd. ssd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale).

See also sdd. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

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