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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This toolbox predates IPT by many years. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. is open-source. However the book “Robotics. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. and I commend it to you. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This is extravagant on storage. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . 1. SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . Movie . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . ithin . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . inormhist . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . loadspectrum . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . r2t . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . tr2rpy . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . t2r . . . . . . . .

I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You need to signup in order to post. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.google.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.com. tutors. That’s what you your teachers. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.

Month = nov. Author = {P. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. type of organization and application.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.1. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Number = {4}. 1. Year = {2005}. the table of content to functions. and the “See also” functions to each other. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). The ﬁle robot. 1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Volume = {12}. Corke}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. 1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.petercorke.I.zip). The details are @article{Corke05f.3.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.html on a server for class use. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.gz) or zip format (.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.

Functions such as SURF. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. P. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Vincent Lepetit.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. 1. Coimbra. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.I. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.7 Acknowledgements Last. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. pp 16–25.. November 2005. 12(4). and there are hundreds of modules available.R. 1.S. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.mathworks. 1994 University of British Columbia. but not least. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.7.6. Corke. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. MSER. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.1. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Twente.vlfeat. VLFeat http://www. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

T ‘color’.CHAPTER 2. Camera. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. used by all subclasses. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘centre’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Options ‘name’. S ‘noise’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IM ‘resolution’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. N ‘image’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. SIGMA ‘pose’.

clf Clear the image plane C. ﬁsheyecamera. CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.centre Get camera position p = C.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.delete Camera object destructor C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.display Display value C. SphericalCamera Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Camera. Camera. Camera.

u + b.v + c = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. and off if H is false (or 0).ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2.char Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera. C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. otherwise false (0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.

move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. sphere.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).plot Plot points on image plane C. The matrices x. Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. Camera.plot(p.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. mkcube.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. y. Camera. uv = C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. z to the image plane and plots them. See also mesh. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. Camera. y. y.T. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.hold. cylinder. z. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.mesh(x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.clf Camera. T ‘Tcam’.

‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tcam’.mesh.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.clf Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. T ‘scale’. Camera.hold. T See also Camera. Camera.T. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. ‘Tobj’. Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C. ‘fps’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

p. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.rpy(R. The image is not inverted. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.y]. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. a subclass of Camera. that is.CHAPTER 2.p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. C.rpy Set camera attitude C.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C Camera matrix C = C. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

N ‘sensor’. ﬁsheyecamera. p. S. 2003. F ‘distortion’. E = C.8]) See also Camera.CHAPTER 2. Reference Y.Soatto.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and y-axes respectively. CentralCamera. f=8mm.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .177 See also CentralCamera.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).Ma.Sastry. P ‘pixel’. Springer. E = C.Kosecka. CatadioptricCamera.E Essential matrix E = C. D ‘default’ ‘image’. “An invitation to 3D”. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. S ‘noise’.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. u.and v-axes parallel to x. 10um pixels. J. N ‘focal’.F. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. camera at origin. S ‘centre’. T ‘color’. IM ‘resolution’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. optical axis is z-axis. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. SIGMA ‘pose’. S.

d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. 2003. S.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S.Ma. p.H(T.177 See also CentralCamera.Soatto. from two viewpoints.CHAPTER 2.Sastry. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Kosecka.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. J. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.H CentralCamera.F Fundamental matrix F = C. See also CentralCamera. Springer.H Homography matrix H = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.E CentralCamera. F = C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). Reference Y. n.

vol. CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. 155-166. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Journal on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. 2009. Lepetit. Feb. a = C.estpose(xyz. 81. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. and P.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. Int. Fua. Moreno-Noguer. V. F. pp. See also quiver CentralCamera.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. CentralCamera.

2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. 259 Y.Ma.Sastry. See also CentralCamera. Springer. J. “An invitation to 3D”.invE(E. Reference Y. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). s. “An invitation to 3D”.Kosecka.Sastry. s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. J. section 5. p116.CHAPTER 2.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. translation not to scale • n.Soatto. s.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Multiview Geometry”. Chap 9. s. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Soatto. p. Springer. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. 2003.Ma.E CentralCamera. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Kosecka.

plot epiline(f.project(p.plot epiline(f. See also Hough CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. p. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. C. CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.CHAPTER 2.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ‘Tobj’.T. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. H = C. one per line.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.

June 1992. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. vol. Rives. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Chaumette. F.plot CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”. 8. 313-326.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.b.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.c.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Espiau. pp. Reference B. See also Camera. and P. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac e(E.

visjac p polar.visjac p polar. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. 8.visjac p. Reference B. Espiau. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. pp 651-670. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).c. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p(uv. and P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac e CentralCamera.visjac l(L.visjac l CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p. Vol 12(5). CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. vol. Hutchinson. pp. Rives. Oct. Chaumette.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. R&A. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. 1996.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). June 1992. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.CHAPTER 2. 313-326. F.b. Hager & Corke.

See also CentralCamera. Louis). CentralCamera. F. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. 2009. radius and theta. pp. P. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . (St.visjac e CentralCamera. Chaumette.visjac l. in Proc. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Corke. and F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Spindler. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.CHAPTER 2.visjac l.visjac p polar(rt. Int. I.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p polar. 5962-5967. CentralCamera. Oct.

ScalePointFeature. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. pp. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.91-110.SIFT. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Journal on Computer Vision. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. See README. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isift. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Int.Lowe.60.CHAPTER 2. 2004. Nov. vol. D.

Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. 0=transparent (default 0. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale(options.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also isift SiftPointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=opaque.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. C ‘alpha’. v.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.

support Support region of feature out = F.support(images. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. F.T] = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im. [out. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.support(im.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. ﬁsheyecamera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. CentralCamera. Options ‘name’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. S ‘pose’.CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’. Overrides the current camera pose C.project(p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. N ‘pixel’. See also SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

Two windows are shown and animated: 1. image plane size and desired feature locations. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.the side length of the target in world units (0.01) . error.gain. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Jacobian condition number. error norm. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The camera view. camera pose.depth of points to use for Jacobian. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.0.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. defaults in parentheses: target size .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . scalar for If null take actual value all points. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. of 4-vector. The external view. The camera view.5) target center . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.center of the target in world coords (0.

gain.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. camera pose.center of the target in world coords (0.visjac p polar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. defaults in parentheses: target size .visjac p(pt.0. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. 5550-5555.5) target center .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .the side length of the target in world units (0. IEEE Int.CHAPTER 2. Corke. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. of 4-vector. Conf.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . (Anchorage). The external view. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.01) . error norm. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. P.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. scalar for If null take actual value all points. for all points. error. image plane size and desired feature locations.visjac l. pp. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). in Proc. May 3-7 2010. Jacobian condition number.

346–359. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . No. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. Vol. Tinne Tuytelaars.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp. 110. Andreas Ess. Luc Van Gool. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 3.

v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. v. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SURF point features m = F. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. PointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2.match(f2.C] = F.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.2) SurfPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. 1=opaque. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘alpha’.support(images.T] = F. F. 0=transparent (default 0. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.plot scale(options. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. [out. w) as above but the support region is displayed. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. F.support(images.support Support region of feature out = F. out = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.support(im. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale Plot feature scale F.

axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com). Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com) web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis. Video AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the result is not predictable. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the web camera.display AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. See also AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.close Close the image source A.

Sivic and A.Zisserman. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. on Computer Vision. pp. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. in Proc.1470-1477. Ninth IEEE Int. b = BagOfWords(f. 2003. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Conf. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.org).CHAPTER 2. Oct. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. f can also be a cell array.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.

options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.contains Find images containing word k = B.CHAPTER 2.char BagOfWords. images.char Convert to string s = B.exemplars(w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. isurf BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .exemplars display exemplars of words B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.display Display value B. BagOfWords.

occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords. M ‘width’.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. N ‘maxperimage’.n] = B. BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.isword Features from words f = B.CHAPTER 2. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.

The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. subclass of Camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.

10um pixels. N ‘focal’.and y-axes respectively. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘sine’. S ‘centre’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].and v-axes parallel to x. M ‘k’. CatadioptricCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. S ‘noise’. ‘equisolid’. A ‘resolution’. P ‘pixel’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project(p. Options ‘Tobj’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. optical axis is z-axis. f=8mm. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. camera at origin. See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also Camera.CHAPTER 2. ﬁsheyecamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. K ‘maxangle’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. u. N ‘sensor’. T ‘Tcam’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. SIGMA ‘pose’.T.

Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SurfPointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f2. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also PointFeature.display Display value M. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.char Convert to string s = M.CHAPTER 2. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also FeatureMatch.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.u2. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.CHAPTER 2.v2].inlier.v1.

p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch.p2.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Show corresponding points M.im2}) m. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. for example by: idisp({im1.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p1. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.plot() M. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.

and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. ransac FeatureMatch.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. See also fmatrix. m = f1. See also idisp FeatureMatch. 1e-4). Example f1 = isurf(im1).CHAPTER 2. homography. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. f2 = isurf(im2).ransac( @fmatrix. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.ransac Apply RANSAC M. m. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac(func.match(f2).

subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. The image is not inverted. v.CHAPTER 2. Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.

optical axis is z-axis. K ‘resolution’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. ‘sine’.and y. Options ‘name’. u.and v-axes are parallel to x.CHAPTER 2. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. 10um pixels. f=8mm. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘noise’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. camera at origin.axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘equisolid’. M ‘k’.

project(p.T. CentralCamera. See also Camera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CatadioptricCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also FishEyeCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’.

Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). The voting array is 2-dimensional. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.H).Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.CHAPTER 2. A horizontal line has theta = 0. See also LineFeature Hough. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.houghThresh (default 0.display Display value HT. See also Hough.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. N All edge pixels have equal weight.edgeThresh. Hough.1).char Convert to string s = HT. Hough.5) Set ht. else N = [Ntheta.edgeThresh (default 0. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. T ‘edgethresh’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.CHAPTER 2. Nrho].char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. W ‘houghthresh’. W ‘nbins’. Default 400 × 401. Set ht. T ‘suppress’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.

lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. L = HT.plot.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines Hough. The highest peak is found.plot(n. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. HT.plot Plot line features HT. HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. H = HT.lines Find lines L = HT. The process is repeated for all peaks. reﬁned to subpixel precision. See also Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. then all elements in an HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. See also Hough. LineFeature Hough.CHAPTER 2.

hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

L = LineFeature(rho.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. L = LineFeature(rho. theta.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.char Convert to string s = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LENGTH is undeﬁned.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. strength.CHAPTER 2. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. one per element.display Display value L. theta. See also LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LineFeature.

L. See also icanny LineFeature.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.points Return points on line segments p = L. Small gaps. l2 = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the line on current plot. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength(edge. LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. less than gap pixels are tolerated.CHAPTER 2. l2 = L.

com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.axis.close Close the image source M.CHAPTER 2. Movie. Movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.close() closes the connection to the movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S ‘skip’.char Convert to string M.

grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. planar. F Skip frames. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. undirected graph create an n-d. S ‘frame’. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Options ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

add edge(v1.component(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. return vid add vertex and edge to v.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clear() add vertex.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.plot() g.connectivity() g.goal(v) g.CHAPTER 2.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.edges(e) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().coord(v) g.next(v) g. v2) g.add node(coord. v) g. Object properties (read/write) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.neighbours(v) g.cost(e) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.distance(v1.add node(coord) g.

PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add node(x. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. PGraph.add edge(v1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node(x. Options ‘distance’. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v2. v = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. and returns the node id v.add edge(v1. E = G. and returns the edge id E. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.CHAPTER 2. where x is D × 1. PGraph. v. v = G.

connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph. D × 1.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph. of node id v.clear Clear the graph G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.coord(v) return coordinate vector. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G. [v. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.d] = G. edges and components.CHAPTER 2.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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PointFeature.char Convert to string s = F.display Display value F.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. f = PointFeature(u.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. one per element. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SurfPointFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2. the norm of the Euclidean distance.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. [m.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.match Match point features m = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.char PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.match(f2.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. where 1 is perfect match.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.C] = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot Plot feature F.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. Polygon .

wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.mit. http://puddle. difference. so use with care. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.html and require a licence.char String representation s = P. p = Polygon(C. Pankratov. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Polygon. union.edu. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.area Area of polygon a = P.area() is the area of the polygon. kirill@plume. intersection.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Polygon. Polygon. HEIGHT]. one column per vertex.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.display Display polygon P.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.char Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. See also Polygon. returns coordinates of P. Polygon. else 0.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.difference Difference of polygons d = P.

See also mpq poly Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each column is [x y]’. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P.CHAPTER 2. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. returns empty polygon. y1 y2].intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.moments(p. Polygon.

plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot Plot polygon P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union Union of polygons i = P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.CHAPTER 2. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.CHAPTER 2. See also Ray3D. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. one per element. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.E] = R. [x.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.char Convert to string s = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Ray3D.E] = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.

0) 1 for a circle. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.c. horizontal coordinate centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.CHAPTER 2.

xmax.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. For example R. RegionFeature.th] = R.box Return bounding box b = R. See also iblobs. ymax]. RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.char Convert to string s = R. imoments RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. one per element.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector. ymin.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.

plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.and xmarkers. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. It is indicated with overlaid o. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. R.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R.display Display value R.plot Plot centroid R.

plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R. R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = ScalePointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. v. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. C ‘alpha’. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature. F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. strength. 1=opaque. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F.

Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. C. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. R ‘nslots’. T ‘movie’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. one per active track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. options) is a new tracker object. See also PointFeature Tracker. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. N ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker. See also Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Tracker.char Convert to string s = T.display Display value T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.

Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. and their characteristics is displayed. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Movie Video. AxisWebCamera. otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.CHAPTER 2.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. G ‘scale’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.

grab() acquires an image from the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close Close the image source V.char Convert to string V.close() closes the connection to the camera. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. a = anaglyph(left. right. By default the left image is red. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. the second for right. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). color. and the right image is cyan. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. If th1 is a column vector. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. right. the ﬁrst for left. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view.

Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. Endpoints must be integer. x2.s] = boundmatch(R1. See also RegionFeature. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.y2). 6500). p2) as above but p1=[x1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.y2].boundary. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . % emission of sun plot(l. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.y1] and p2=[x2. p = bresenham(p1. [x.CHAPTER 2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y1) to (x2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. y1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. If lambda is a column vector.

E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.CHAPTER 2. [C.Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.

opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. k = closest(a. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D.CHAPTER 2. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B).y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. x = circle(C. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space.d1] = closest(a. R. green and blue primaries respectively. and x is N × 3. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). [k. that is. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘n’.

5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].32). Notes • Data from http://cvrl.ac. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). • From Table I(5. The data are referred to as pilot data.5.5.d2] = closest(a. As noted in footnote a on p.CHAPTER 2.ioo. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.16).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).5. since.d1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.ucl. while Table I(5. 19000 (526. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 335 of Table 1(5. they were measured directly. and 22500 (444.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). (Table 1(5.

xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.uk See also cmfrgb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2.M). Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. out = col2im(pix.ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ioo.ucl. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.

See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.

and returns a per-pixel logical result. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.CHAPTER 2. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. @isnan. mask. func. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. eg. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. @isnan. See also imono. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.G. icolor.B). [L. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im<100. k.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.

k) as above but also returns the residual R. L = colorkmeans(im. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. XYZ = colorname(name. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. eg. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.C. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.CHAPTER 2. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(XYZ. low is good. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.R] = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre.

• Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.o2. [o1. s = ‘dest<-src’. As MATLAB’s native datatype.o3] = colorspace(s. colorspace(s. s = ‘src->dest’. double data is the natural choice. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.txt.i2. Input and output images have 3 planes.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. • Color space names are case insensitive. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. or alternatively. it can be omitted. i1.CHAPTER 2.

B = rand(400. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.100).2*A. out will also have size M × 3. for memory and computational performance. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.CHAPTER 2. However.B). • If im is an M × 3 array. like a colormap. Example A = rand(400.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).200).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. d = distance(A.

The result E is a matrix. non-zero is an object.uva. not image frame. in matrix coordinate frame. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. non zero is counter-clockwise. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. bunschot@wins.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.3. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. E = edgelist(im. tel. seed. University of Amsterdam. Tested: PC Matlab v5.j). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.(+31)20-5257524.y). Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.CHAPTER 2.

I. Coimbra.S.R. 1998. See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. one per line drawn.CHAPTER 2. H = epiline(f.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author Based on fmatrix code by. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p. See also epiline. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. Oct 27. epiline(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. p. p1.

epiline.uwa. p2.au/. • Contains a RANSAC driver. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. that is. • f is a rank 2 matrix. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views.csse. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. Notes • The points must be corresponding. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. See also ransac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma.edu. which means it can be passed to ransac(). The University of Western Australia. it is singular. homography. http://www. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. no outlier rejection is performed. c. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.CHAPTER 2. page 270.

See also imorph. itriplepoint. x2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.y1) and (x2.y2). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.CHAPTER 2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. y1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.

• The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. invhomog. Notes • The points must be corresponding. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse. which means it can be passed to ransac(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. See also ransac.CHAPTER 2.uwa. The University of Western Australia. no outlier rejection is performed. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . http://www.edu.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. R ‘scale’. V ‘roi’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1.offs] = homwarp(H. im. ie. See also homography. See also e2h. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. that is tp=T*T1. D ‘size’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. itrim. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. S ‘dimension’. im.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. [out.

Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. IT-8:pp. 1962. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. IRE Trans. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. features. Hu. ’nfeat’. features. ’gs’). on Information Theory. 179-187.CHAPTER 2. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ianimate(seq. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ianimate(im. 200).

The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX.CHAPTER 2. iharris. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. N ‘only’. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. YMIN YMAX]. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). M ‘npoints’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.

0 ‘connect’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. ilabel. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. A set pixel aspect ratio. [S1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0) 1 for a circle. [A1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity. default 1. vertical coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.

CHAPTER 2. S ‘th0’. See also isobel. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se. out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also iopen. T ‘th1’. 1996-7. Tel Aviv University.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.

[C. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.u] = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. See also imono. Options ‘dir’. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. D ‘bgval’.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.CHAPTER 2.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. The images do not have to be of the same size. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. C = icolor(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. [0 1 1]). colorize. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

im2. options) convolves im1 with im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.CHAPTER 2.

• If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. CT ‘edgegap’. S ‘deriv’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. R ‘nfeat’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. K ‘patch’.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. N ‘detector’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. D ‘sigma’. CM ‘cminthresh’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. E ‘suppress’. D ‘k’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

• The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. with a delay of 0. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Proc. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Harris and M. Tomasi. pp. N ‘mindelta’.6.5 [sec]. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. J. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. pp. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.G. C. pp 147-151.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. T ‘maxiter’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. J. IEEE Computer Society. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Options ‘dplot’. 593-593.J. vol. T ‘distthresh’. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Manchester. Stephens. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. p2. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.CHAPTER 2. • “Good features to track”. Image and Vision Computing. Proc.Noble. p2.d] = icp(p1. • “Finding corners”. where * denotes squared and smoothed.121-128. See also PointFeature. May 1988.. [T.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. with a delay of d [sec]. 1988. 1994. Shi and C.

2. Feb. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.McKay.. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Intell. 1992. s = idecimate(im. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.CHAPTER 2. each plane is decimated. IEEETrans. vol. 239-256.or 3-dimensional. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. no. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. See also iscale. m. m. s = idecimate(im.Besl and H. Pattern Anal. Mach. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. 14. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.

negative is red. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . positive is blue. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is white color map: random values. zero is white. negative is red. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. If the image is zoomed. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. Options ‘ncolors’. If im is a cell array of images. XY ‘colormap’.CHAPTER 2. darker than ‘grey’. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. C ‘xydata’. linear proﬁle. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. zero is black. positive is blue. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed.and y-axes respectively. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. histogram and zooming.

The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. caxis. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. colormap. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also image. labels. idisplabel(im. labelimage. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. See also iblobs. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. icolorize.CHAPTER 2.

All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.45. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.CHAPTER 2. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. See also itriplepoint.2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.

[L. Example im = iread(’58060.m] = igraphseg(im. [l. 100. vol. Huttenlocher. k. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. Journal on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. See also ithresh. 1500.m] = igraphseg(im. 59.jpg’). Felzenszwalb and D. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 2004. min. pp. Sept. 2006. Int. k is the scale parameter. k. L = igraphseg(im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . min. P. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 167181. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. k. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.5). 0.

plot(x. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. options) displays the image histogram. bar(x.x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2. H = ihist(im. [h.x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. ’normcdf’).h). [H.x] = ihist(im). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.

See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. x1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Region labels are in the range 1 to M. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. [L. [L. ii is a precomputed integral image.y1) and bottom-right (x2.CHAPTER 2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. same size as im.y2). y2. y1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.

The pixels on the line are set to 1.class. each a 2-vector [X. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.maxlabel.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. p2. [L. 8).maxlabel.Y]. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. p1. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. See also iblobs. • This is a “low level” function. out = iline(im. iproﬁle.parents. ilabel(im. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. otherwise it does not. eg. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .parents.CHAPTER 2.

score] = imatch(im1. H.y) and of size s. The return value is xm=[DX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). x.and y-offsets relative to (x.y) and its half-width is H. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. and columns the vertical position.y). centred at (x. ymin.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.DY. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. xmax. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. ymax] relative to (x. a perfect match score is 1. s] % relative to (x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y).CHAPTER 2. [xm. w2. y. • Is a MEX ﬁle.CC] where (DX. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. The template in im1 is centred at (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. • ZNCC matching is used. -s. s. y. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.DY) are the x. im2. x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.

[u.v] = imeshgrid(w. f = imoments(u. v. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. effectively a binary image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. H) as above but the domain is w × H. effectively a greyscale image.u) = v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. The element u(v. [u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

or its area. m11.CHAPTER 2. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m02. m20. horizontal coordinate centroid. m01. • This function does not perform connectivity. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. icolor.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Different conversion functions are supported. ilabel. the elements are m00. See also RegionFeature. m10. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.

m] = imser(im.png’. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. m. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Pajdla.CHAPTER 2.org). [label. O. J. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. 761767. and T. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. se. ’double’).m] = imser(im. Urban. Chum. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. vol. pp. Sept. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Image and Vision Computing. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. 22. ’light’). by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Matas. ’grey’. The labels [L. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. 2004.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.ˆ2). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.CHAPTER 2. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).

This is an erosion followed by dilation. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. sides. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. out = iopen(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides. See also iclose.

im1.CHAPTER 2. ’t’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10. 20. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. im2.V]. p. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. otherwise im2 is selected. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ’tblr’. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.

[p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).uv] = iproﬁle(im.v) for the corresponding row of p. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. See also bresenham.CHAPTER 2.

n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. order. 1. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscalespace. the maximum. se). op. ones(5. nbins.2) = 0. out = imorph(image.CHAPTER 2. se.3). edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. sigma. out = ipyramid(im. op. im > irank(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. idecimate. out = imorph(image. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. 12. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. is order=1. out = ipyramid(im. se(2. The highest rank.5)). sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.

R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. See also imorph. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. R ‘roi’. G ‘reduce’. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. vmin vmax]. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. ivar. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. where R=[umin umax. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. im = iread(ﬁle.

h1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.out2] = irectify(f. imono. im1. istereo. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. m. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Color images are not supported. igamma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.out2. homwarp. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). m. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out1. imwrite.h2] = irectify(f. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.

R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.CHAPTER 2. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. angle.vmax]. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H] return central part of image. [out.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. vmin. V ‘smooth’.umax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmin vmax]. S ‘extrapval’. Options ‘outsize’. See also idisp. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.

im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. bias=0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bias<0.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. Options ‘outsize’.5 is symmetric cropping. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s ‘extrapval’. s<1 makes it smaller.CHAPTER 2. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. out = isamesize(im1. im2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. while bias>0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s>1 makes the image larger. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. V ‘smooth’.

The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to each step of the sequence.s] = iscalespace(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. in space and scale. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. n) as above but sigma=1. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). idecimate.L. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). [g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. See also iscalespace.L.

options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ismooth. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. that is.CHAPTER 2. See also isrot. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. else false (0). The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ishomog(T. it its third dimension is equal to three. ‘valid’) as above. ilaplace.

• Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Lowe. International Journal of Computer Vision. Reference David G. pp.CHAPTER 2. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. 2 (2004). • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. 60. isurf.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • ISURF is a functional equivalent.vlfeat. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. See also SiftPointFeature. N ‘suppress’. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. 91-110. • Features are returned in descending strength order.

@ncc. s = isimilarity(T. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. sad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. im. zsad. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. [w. ncc. @zssd. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. zssd. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. [w. See also imatch. s is same size as im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @ssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. and these output pixels are set to NaN.H. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. @zsad. ssd.

kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. then converted back to integer. [gx. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. See also iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.CHAPTER 2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. convolved.gy] = isobel(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .dx) as above but returns the gradient images.

M] for an N × M window. H is the half size of the matching window. w. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. ‘valid’) as above. imr. That is.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. range. See also ishomog. [d. the disparity d=d(v. range. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.u). options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). range is the disparity search range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. See also ksobel. isrot(R. H.CHAPTER 2. else false (0). • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.sim] = istereo(iml. icanny.u) means that imr(v. imr.

imr. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. [d.p] = istereo(iml. That is.CHAPTER 2. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). imr. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.A and p. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.5). [d. w.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. w. range. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. ‘ncc’. p. 3) See also irectify. dx. out = istretch(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. p. Options ‘metric’. range. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. • sim = max(dsi.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.sim. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.5 to +0.dsi] = istereo(iml. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.sim.

Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. T ‘octaves’. N ‘thresh’. Kroon (U. or sequences.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Notes • Color images. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold.

isvec(v. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. See also hitormiss. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines.CHAPTER 2. pp. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Tinne Tuytelaars. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Luc Van Gool. Otherwise false (0). 346–359. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 110. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. out = ithin(im. See also ishomog.or columnvector. Vol. Andreas Ess. else false (0).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. isift. No. 3. either a row.

im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.out2] = itrim(im1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. The same cropping is applied to each input image. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.5. ithresh(im. Notes • Greyscale image only. a lower value will include more.im2.out2] = itrim(im1.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The default is 0. [out1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. See also homwarp. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.

se. op. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.CHAPTER 2. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also iendpoint. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. ithin.

5). @max).3). edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. ones(3. se.CHAPTER 2. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. func. hence output image had reduced dimensions. ones(5. See also ivar. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. out = iwindow(image. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @std).

• The vertical derivative. See also kgauss. k = kcircle(R. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. k = kdgauss(sigma. dG/dy. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.CHAPTER 2. ktriangle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. is k’. See also ones. dG/dx. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. kdog. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii.

H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. klog. k = kdog(sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. klog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. kdog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kgauss(sigma.6*sigma1. sigma2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. See also kgauss.

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also kgauss. k = klog(sigma. iconv. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.

[L. k. Pattern Recognition Principles. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it is assumed to have been completed previously.C] = kmeans(x.CHAPTER 2. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. and D is the dimension. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.C] = kmeans(x. L = kmeans(x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Reference Tou and Gonzalez.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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CHAPTER 2. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. [x. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.z] = mkcube(s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.y. symmetric about the origin. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. C ‘T’. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). Options ‘T’. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. The points are the columns of p. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. ‘edge’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. See also cylinder.z] = mkcube(s. [x. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated.

n) MPLOT(y.2)). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. y) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(t. p. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.CHAPTER 2. y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. See also mpq poly. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. npq. the sum of I(x. or y(:. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. or y(:. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. That is.xp .2)). MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. n.y). labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.yq . y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.

The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity.CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. npq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. p. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

where W=2*w2+1. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Prentice-Hall. the height of a character.CHAPTER 2. niblack. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. W. • A common choice of k=-0. ssd.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. 1986. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. -0. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. k. for example. idisp(im >= t). See also zncc. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.2. sad. k. [T. in text segmentation.m. Example t = niblack(im.s] = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. 20). • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. T has the same dimensions as im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.p. See also npq poly.q)/MPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. p. mpq.0).0.CHAPTER 2. That is UPQ(im. p.

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered as a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq. so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. mpq. See also mpq poly. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. npq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.xp] = peak(y.i] = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. x. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. otsu IEEE Trans. Systems. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. [yp. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. N. Jan 1979. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). [yp. pp 62-66 See also niblack.CHAPTER 2.

S points. Typically choose N to be odd. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘scale’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. use peak(-V). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.CHAPTER 2. use peak2(-V).

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. ie. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. If p has three dimensions. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. plot2(p. See also pnmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot_circle(c.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1.y2). x2. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. r. W. R. r. plot_circle(c. W. 5). ‘size’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.y1) and (x2. ’r’). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. value pairs that are passed to plot. P. ’g’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’LineWidth’. PLOT BOX(x1. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. r.CHAPTER 2. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ‘size’. ’b’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ’fillcolor’. or a set of name. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. P. ‘r’. 1=solid. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ’edgecolor’.y1. Examples plot_circle(c.y2.

c Specify color of the axes. C. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. with Matlab line style ls.Y]. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. xc. If C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.CHAPTER 2. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. centred at the origin. Options ‘color’. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) ls is the standard line styles. current plot.Y.

n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. options) adds point markers to a plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ‘framename’. ’color’.CHAPTER 2. ’color’. fmt. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. to ‘view’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’r’). v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’r’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’name’. n ‘text opts’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T.X = 0. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. trplot( T. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. Options ‘textcolor’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ‘printf’.

options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N.CHAPTER 2. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R. patch. NOTES • The sphere is always added. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. 1=solid. The default is 1. R. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. either a letter or 3-vector. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. See also plot. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also pgmﬁlt. See also plot. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plotp(p.CHAPTER 2. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

CHAPTER 2.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. [gr.gt] = radgrad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.

CHAPTER 2. x. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set.resid] = ransac(func. d) as above but elements increment by d. Options ‘maxTrials’. x. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. T. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. T. [m. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. T. one column per point pair. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. x typically contains corresponding point data.in] = ransac(func. x. N ‘maxDataTrials’. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .in. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.

and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Mach. Fishler and R. pp 381-395. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.x.misc private data (cell array) out.C.theta and the subset of R. Comm.theta] = ERR(R. that is.x) condition the point data out. Comp.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate..theta is a cell array.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. that is they will produce a model. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.CHAPTER 2.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta = []. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.R. Assoc. they detect a structure argument. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. References • m.s sample size (1 × 1) out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. [out. [out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. Vol 24.A.theta = DECONDITION(R.misc element.theta. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. pp 101-113.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. Boles.x data to work on.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.inlier.out.theta to the points R.t threshold (1 × 1) R. If multiple models are found out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.x. Cambridge University Press.x = CONDITION(R.resid] = EST(R.s out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x and returns the best model out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . No 6.theta.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.out.

csse. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.uwa. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.au/ pk See also fmatrix. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.CHAPTER 2.

angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. rotz. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. roty. See also roty.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Z axes respectively. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. pitch.CHAPTER 2. Y. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. yaw. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. • many texts (Paul. T = rpy2tr(roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. If roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. See also tr2rpy.

r2t.y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. theta) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ncc. See also zsad. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. and rotation theta in the plane. y. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.

i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. See also zsdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Two cross-hairs are created. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.

It supports options that have an assigned value. varargin) opt.foo = true. c.blah = []. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.CHAPTER 2. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).bar = false. tr2rt. ’that’.choose = {’this’. opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. – If T is 3 × 3. opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. ’other’}. The software pattern is: function(a. b. then R is 2 × 2. then R is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.

true ‘nobar’ sets opt.true sets opt. varargin).foo <.x.blah <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).3 ‘blah’.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.verbose <. N ‘setopt’.CHAPTER 2. args) creates a test pattern image.choose <. w. varargin). Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. ’#yes’}.debug <.N sets opt <. If neither of ‘this’.false ‘blah’. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.select = {’#no’.y sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.‘this’. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.foo <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. x. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.select <.y ‘that’ sets opt. 3 sets opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.1. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.choose <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. opt = tb_optparse(opt.select <.blah <.

a line. [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0. The trajectory s. binary square pattern. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.sd. args is the number of cycles. sf. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args are theta (rad). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sf. dot diameter. intercept. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. 25). 2). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. 256. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. args are pitch (distance between centres). sd and sdd are n-vectors. square side length. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles.sd. 50.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 256. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’.CHAPTER 2. binary dot pattern.

Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. [theta.CHAPTER 2.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).P. The 3 angles rpy=[R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Y and Z axes respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y. See also angvec2r.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. rpy = tr2rpy(R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.

See also rpy2tr. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. See also rt2tr.CHAPTER 2. ie. – If TR is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. If T has three dimensions. • The validity of R is not checked.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. y.y.z]. r2t.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.:.

trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.CHAPTER 2. An historical anomaly. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [c1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). or x and y. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. each N × 1. [o1.

trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and displays in RPY format. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. f ‘label’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trprint T is the command line form of above. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty.CHAPTER 2. trotx.

mpq.CHAPTER 2.y). tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. p.(x-x0)p . npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the sum of I(x. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. See also upq poly. tr2rpy. That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.(y-y0)q where (x0. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.y0) is the centroid.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also sad. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also ncc. ncc.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ssd.

sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sdd.

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