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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

However the book “Robotics. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. and I commend it to you. This is extravagant on storage. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. is open-source. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . angdiff . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . Ray3D . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . SphericalCamera . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . .2 Support . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . igamma . colorspace . colorname . homline . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . ibbox . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . iint . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . ilabel . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . tr2angvec . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and you will be suitably acknowledged. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. That’s what you your teachers.com.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.google. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. tutors. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. lecturers and professors are paid to do.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. You need to signup in order to post.

Author = {P. the table of content to functions.zip). Corke}.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Number = {4}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.3.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1. Month = nov. The ﬁle robot.petercorke. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.I. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.gz) or zip format (. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. 1. type of organization and application.html on a server for class use. Volume = {12}. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. 1.1. The details are @article{Corke05f. and the “See also” functions to each other. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Year = {2005}.

1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. VLFeat http://www.S.Functions such as SURF. MSER. 12(4). IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.mathworks.1. Corke. P.. pp 16–25. Vincent Lepetit.I. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. Coimbra. Twente. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.vlfeat. 1994 University of British Columbia. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. and there are hundreds of modules available. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. 1. but not least. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.R. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. 1.7 Acknowledgements Last.6.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.7. November 2005. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Camera.CHAPTER 2. P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’. Options ‘name’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. S ‘centre’. used by all subclasses. S ‘noise’. N ‘image’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. N ‘sensor’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. IM ‘resolution’. T ‘color’.

centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .centre Get camera position p = C. Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.display Display value C.char Convert to string s = C.CHAPTER 2.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. CatadioptricCamera. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf Clear the image plane C.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. and off if H is false (or 0).v + c = 0. Camera.u + b.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. otherwise false (0).CHAPTER 2. Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.

If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. T ‘Tcam’. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. z.mesh(x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y.plot(p. The matrices x. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.plot Plot points on image plane C.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. cylinder.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. uv = C.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.CHAPTER 2. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.clf Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera. See also mesh.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). Camera.plot. y. sphere. mkcube.hold. Camera. y.T. z to the image plane and plots them. Options ‘Tobj’.

Overrides the current camera pose C.hold. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T ‘scale’. T See also Camera.mesh. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. ‘Tobj’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. ‘fps’.T. Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera.clf Camera. Options ‘Tcam’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘Tcam’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. that is.p. a subclass of Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rpy(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. C. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy Set camera attitude C. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.y]. p. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

f=8mm.177 See also CentralCamera.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.Soatto. S ‘centre’. CatadioptricCamera.8]) See also Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. E = C. N ‘sensor’. u.F. E = C. 10um pixels.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). p. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.E Essential matrix E = C.Kosecka. camera at origin. F ‘distortion’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Springer. S ‘noise’. P ‘pixel’. S. 2003. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.Sastry. IM ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2.and v-axes parallel to x. T ‘color’. “An invitation to 3D”. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. N ‘focal’. ﬁsheyecamera. optical axis is z-axis. S. Reference Y. J. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Ma. D ‘default’ ‘image’.and y-axes respectively.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. CentralCamera.

E CentralCamera. S. n.Sastry.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.CHAPTER 2. p. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”. See also CentralCamera.H(T. F = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer.Soatto.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Kosecka.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.H CentralCamera. from two viewpoints. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Ma.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. J.H Homography matrix H = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. 2003. S. Reference Y.

uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.CHAPTER 2. a = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. See also quiver CentralCamera. Feb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. CentralCamera. 155-166. Journal on Computer Vision. 2009. vol.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. F. Fua. Int.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Moreno-Noguer.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. pp. Lepetit. and P.estpose(xyz. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. 81. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). V. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). J.CHAPTER 2. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Soatto. See also CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.E CentralCamera. Springer.Sastry. “An invitation to 3D”. p. 259 Y. Chap 9. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Ma. translation not to scale • n.Kosecka. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Springer.Ma. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Kosecka. s. 2003. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”.invE(E.Soatto. s. section 5. Reference Y.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. “Multiview Geometry”.Sastry. s. J. p116.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.project(p. one per line.T. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ‘Tobj’. H = C. ‘Tcam’.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).H CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot epiline(f. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.CHAPTER 2. p.

June 1992. Reference B.b.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac e(E. Rives. 313-326. and P. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. See also Camera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 8. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Chaumette. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. pp. F. “Multiview Geometry”.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.plot CentralCamera. Espiau.CHAPTER 2.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. vol.

z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).c.visjac e CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.visjac l(L. 8. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. See also CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac p.visjac p. CentralCamera.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. pp. F. 1996. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Oct. June 1992. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. R&A. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Hutchinson. Chaumette. and P. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. Vol 12(5). Rives. Hager & Corke.CHAPTER 2.visjac p(uv. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. vol. pp 651-670. Espiau.visjac p polar. Reference B. CentralCamera. 313-326.b. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. IEEE Trans.visjac p polar.

Spindler.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. radius and theta. Corke.visjac p.visjac p polar(rt.visjac e CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2009.visjac l. CentralCamera. F. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pp. 5962-5967. in Proc. Louis). See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Int. Oct. P.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. and F. (St. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. I. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Chaumette.

See README.Lowe. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.91-110. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. D. Journal on Computer Vision. 2004. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.SIFT. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. vol.CHAPTER 2. See also isift. pp. Int. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nov. PointFeature. ScalePointFeature.60.

See also isift SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. C ‘alpha’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.match(f2.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 1=opaque. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v.match Match SIFT point features m = F.plot scale(options. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support(images.support(images. [out. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.CHAPTER 2. out = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.T] = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. ﬁsheyecamera.project(p. N ‘pixel’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.T. See also SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CentralCamera. S ‘pose’. Options ‘name’. T ‘Tcam’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

Two windows are shown and animated: 1.gain. defaults in parentheses: target size .center of the target in world coords (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The camera view.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .the side length of the target in world units (0.01) . Jacobian condition number. camera pose. The external view. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.5) target center . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. image plane size and desired feature locations.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .CHAPTER 2.depth of points to use for Jacobian. error.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera view.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . error norm. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. scalar for If null take actual value all points. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. of 4-vector. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Robotics and Automation.0.center of the target in world coords (0. CentralCamera.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . error norm. for all points.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. May 3-7 2010. I. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .the side length of the target in world units (0. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.visjac l.visjac p(pt. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.5) target center .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .CHAPTER 2. 5550-5555.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.depth of points to use for Jacobian. CentralCamera. in Proc.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gain. defaults in parentheses: target size . pp. Corke. (Anchorage). IEEE Int. camera pose. Conf.visjac p polar. Jacobian condition number. P.01) . error. See also CentralCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations. scalar for If null take actual value all points. of 4-vector. The external view.

Luc Van Gool. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 346–359.CHAPTER 2. pp. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. No. Tinne Tuytelaars. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Andreas Ess. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 3. Vol. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 110. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.

SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.C] = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. v. Options ‘thresh’. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SURF point features m = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match(f2. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2.

F. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(im.support(images.support(images. C ‘alpha’. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.T] = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.2) SurfPointFeature. w) as above but the support region is displayed.plot scale(options. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. out = F. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. 1=opaque. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.CHAPTER 2.support(im. [out. 0=transparent (default 0.

com) web camera. G ‘scale’.axis. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Video AxisWebCamera.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S ‘resolution’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com).

close Close the image source A.char Convert to string A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. See also AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.CHAPTER 2. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.display AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.

Zisserman. in Proc.CHAPTER 2. Conf. 2003. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.org). pp. Ninth IEEE Int. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sivic and A.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. f can also be a cell array. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b = BagOfWords(f. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Oct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. on Computer Vision. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.1470-1477.

BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.CHAPTER 2. BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value B. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords. images. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.exemplars(w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.

The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. Options ‘ncolumns’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.CHAPTER 2. M ‘width’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.n] = B.isword Features from words f = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.remove stop Remove stop words B.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.

CHAPTER 2. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. P ‘pixel’.project(p. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. K ‘maxangle’. S ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2.and v-axes parallel to x.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. N ‘sensor’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ﬁsheyecamera. CatadioptricCamera. A ‘resolution’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. optical axis is z-axis. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and y-axes respectively. u. 10um pixels. Options ‘Tobj’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ‘sine’. camera at origin. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. f=8mm.T. ‘equisolid’. T ‘Tcam’. M ‘k’. See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera.

If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. such as ScalePointFeature.

display Display value M. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. one per element. See also PointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.char Convert to string s = M. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. f2. SurfPointFeature. m = FeatureMatch(f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the match object.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.

inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.u2. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.CHAPTER 2.v1.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.v2].outlier. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.

v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2.FeatureMatch. These are the (u.plot() M. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot Show corresponding points M.im2}) m.p FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p1.p FeatureMatch.p1.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p2 FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. See also FeatureMatch.

m = f1. See also idisp FeatureMatch. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.CHAPTER 2. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. Example f1 = isurf(im1). f2 = isurf(im2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. homography. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and an error is created if this UserData is not found. See also fmatrix.ransac( @fmatrix. ransac FeatureMatch. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).match(f2). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. 1e-4).ransac Apply RANSAC M. m.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.ransac(func.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted. that is.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Y This camera model assumes central projection.CHAPTER 2. v. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.

‘equisolid’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. optical axis is z-axis. Options ‘name’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. P ‘pixel’. K ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. SIGMA ‘pose’. u. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. camera at origin. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.and v-axes are parallel to x. S ‘noise’. S ‘centre’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. M ‘k’. ‘sine’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).and y. f=8mm. 10um pixels.

T.CHAPTER 2.project(p. See also Camera. See also FishEyeCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. CatadioptricCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Options ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’.

See also LineFeature Hough. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. A horizontal line has theta = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.H).CHAPTER 2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).0) and the line. The voting array is 2-dimensional.

5) Set ht.1). See also Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Hough. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.edgeThresh (default 0. else N = [Ntheta. T ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. W ‘houghthresh’. N All edge pixels have equal weight.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Nrho]. Default 400 × 401. Set ht.houghThresh (default 0.display Display value HT.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.edgeThresh. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Hough. W ‘nbins’. T ‘edgethresh’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.CHAPTER 2. The process is repeated for all peaks. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. L = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. See also Hough. H = HT. The highest peak is found.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. HT.lines Find lines L = HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. reﬁned to subpixel precision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.lines Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot Plot line features HT.plot(n.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. HT.plot. then all elements in an HT. LineFeature Hough.

• LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature.

If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. LineFeature. See also LineFeature. LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = L.display Display value L. theta. theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. one per element.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength. L = LineFeature(rho.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(rho. LENGTH is undeﬁned.

Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.plot Plot line L.plot() overlay the line on current plot. l2 = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. L. See also icanny LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). less than gap pixels are tolerated. LineFeature.seglength(edge.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.points Return points on line segments p = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. Small gaps. l2 = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.

char Convert to string M. Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.close Close the image source M. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . G ‘scale’.com). Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S ‘skip’.

grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. Options ‘skip’. F Skip frames. undirected graph create an n-d. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.CHAPTER 2. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. S ‘frame’. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. planar.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.

return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.edges(e) g.plot() g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.goal(v) g. v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.neighbours(v) g.cost(e) g.add edge(v1.distance(v1. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord.connectivity() g.CHAPTER 2. v2) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.clear() add vertex.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .next(v) g.add node(coord) g.path(v) set goal vertex.coord(v) g.component(v) g.

v = G. v = G. v. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. and returns the edge id E.add node(x. PGraph.add node(x.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add edge(v1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add edge(v1. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.CHAPTER 2. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. PGraph. and returns the node id v. E = G. v2. where x is D × 1. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. Options ‘distance’.

of node id v. PGraph. and the distance d.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. edges and components. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. PGraph.d] = G.char Convert graph to string s = G. [v.closest Find closest node v = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. D × 1. PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CHAPTER 2.clear Clear the graph G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.char Convert to string s = F. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. See also ScalePointFeature. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. one per element.display Display value F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.

options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.C] = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2.match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.char PointFeature.match Match point features m = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. [m.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. where 1 is perfect match. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance.

one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.CHAPTER 2. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot Plot feature F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit.mit.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Polygon.edu. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Polygon. p = Polygon(C.area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P. so use with care. Pankratov.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. http://puddle.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. intersection. difference.char String representation s = P. union. kirill@plume.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. one column per vertex.html and require a licence. HEIGHT].

intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon. returns coordinates of P.display Display polygon P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. else 0.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.difference Difference of polygons d = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.char Polygon.CHAPTER 2. See also Polygon.

moments(p. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.CHAPTER 2. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. See also mpq poly Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .moments Moments of polygon a = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. y1 y2]. each column is [x y]’.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Polygon. returns empty polygon.

transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union Union of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot() plot the polygon. Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.

Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.CHAPTER 2. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.E] = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char Convert to string s = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. [x.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char Ray3D.display Display value R.CHAPTER 2. [x.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Ray3D.E] = R. See also Ray3D. one per element. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.

maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.b. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.0) 1 for a circle.c.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. one per element.xmax. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example R.char Convert to string s = R.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. RegionFeature. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. See also iblobs.th] = R. imoments RegionFeature. ymin. ymax].uc will be a list not a vector.box Return bounding box b = R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display Display value R.char RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary plot boundary R. See also RegionFeature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers. R. RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.

plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.CHAPTER 2.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. R. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

strength. v. SurfPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. 1=opaque. v. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. F. ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 0=transparent (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. C ‘alpha’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. See also PointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.

options) is a new tracker object. T ‘movie’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. See also PointFeature Tracker. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. N ‘thresh’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.CHAPTER 2. one per active track. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. C. R ‘nslots’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.

plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. See also Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Convert to string s = T.char Tracker. Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Tracker.display Display value T.

G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Movie Video. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. AxisWebCamera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. S ‘resolution’. and their characteristics is displayed.

grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.CHAPTER 2.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close Close the image source V. Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.char Convert to string V.

the ﬁrst for left. If disp is positive the disparity is increased.CHAPTER 2. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right. the second for right. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. and the right image is cyan. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If th1 is a column vector. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). By default the left image is red. right. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. if negative it is reduced. color. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view.

y1. See also RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. % emission of sun plot(l. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = boundmatch(R1.y2). For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y1] and p2=[x2. Endpoints must be integer. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. [x. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. x2.y2]. p = bresenham(p1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.boundary.y1) to (x2. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. p2) as above but p1=[x1. 6500). If lambda is a column vector.

E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].CHAPTER 2.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.Y. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. [C.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.

circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. [k. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. that is. x = circle(C. and x is N × 3. k = closest(a. Options ‘n’.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. green and blue primaries respectively. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.d1] = closest(a. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.CHAPTER 2. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.

ioo. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5. since. (Table 1(5. and 22500 (444.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.ac.5.d2] = closest(a. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.16).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.ucl.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. while Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. 19000 (526. • From Table I(5. they were measured directly. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. The data are referred to as pilot data.CHAPTER 2. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.32).d1. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. As noted in footnote a on p. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5. 335 of Table 1(5.

uk See also cmfrgb. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ac. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ucl.ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.CHAPTER 2. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize is a 2-vector (N. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.M).

d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .g] to every pixel in the color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .CHAPTER 2. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.

k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. func. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. k. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. @isnan. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. mask. See also imono. out = colorize(im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. icolor.G. eg. [L.B). A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im<100. @isnan.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. L = colorkmeans(im. eg. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.R] = colorkmeans(im. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(XYZ. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. low is good. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. XYZ = colorname(name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. k) as above but also returns the residual R. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre.C.CHAPTER 2.

it can be omitted. i1. s = ‘src->dest’. • Color space names are case insensitive. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. s = ‘dest<-src’. double data is the natural choice.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.i2. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. or alternatively.o2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. As MATLAB’s native datatype. [o1. colorspace(s.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.o3] = colorspace(s.CHAPTER 2.txt. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes.

some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.2*A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.B). However. • If im is an M × 3 array. for memory and computational performance. Example A = rand(400. like a colormap.200).CHAPTER 2. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. B = rand(400. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d = distance(A. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . out will also have size M × 3.100).J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.

nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Tested: PC Matlab v5. tel. seed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.j). bunschot@wins. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background.y). in matrix coordinate frame.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. The result E is a matrix. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. E = edgelist(im.(+31)20-5257524. University of Amsterdam. non-zero is an object.CHAPTER 2. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. non zero is counter-clockwise.3. not image frame.uva. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.

j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p. Coimbra. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. I. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. 1998. epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.CHAPTER 2. Author Based on fmatrix code by. p. See also fmatrix. one per line drawn. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. H = epiline(f. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Oct 27. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.R. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. See also epiline.S. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.

p2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.au/. that is.edu. homography. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. The University of Western Australia. page 270.uwa. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. • Contains a RANSAC driver. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.CHAPTER 2. no outlier rejection is performed. See also ransac. epiline. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www. • f is a rank 2 matrix. that is. it is singular.csse. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. c.

See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.y2). itriplepoint. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.CHAPTER 2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. ithin. x2.y1) and (x2.

p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. no outlier rejection is performed.edu. invhomog. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.CHAPTER 2. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Notes • The points must be corresponding. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. See also ransac.csse. The University of Western Australia. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . http://www. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. which means it can be passed to ransac().au/.uwa. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.

options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. S ‘dimension’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. that is tp=T*T1. [out. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. im. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. ie. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘roi’. D ‘size’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. R ‘scale’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im.CHAPTER 2.offs] = homwarp(H. itrim. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. See also e2h. See also homography.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. ’nfeat’. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. IT-8:pp. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). features. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. 179-187. ’gs’). Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1962. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. ianimate(seq. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features. 200). IRE Trans. on Information Theory. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid.CHAPTER 2. ianimate(im. Hu.

F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. YMIN YMAX]. isurf. iharris. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. N ‘only’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. M ‘npoints’.

0 ‘connect’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. horizontal coordinate centroid. [S1. C set connectivity.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. ilabel.0) 1 for a circle. default 1. A set pixel aspect ratio. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [A1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.CHAPTER 2. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

This is an dilation followed by erosion. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.CHAPTER 2. See also isobel. Tel Aviv University. T ‘th1’. 1996-7. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. S ‘th0’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se. See also iopen. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iclose(im. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay.

D ‘bgval’. Options ‘dir’. [0 1 1]). The images do not have to be of the same size. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. See also imono. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). colorize. C = icolor(im.CHAPTER 2. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. iconcat(im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.u] = iconcat(im. [C.

Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. options) convolves im1 with im2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2.

D ‘sigma’. K ‘patch’. R ‘nfeat’. CT ‘edgegap’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. E ‘suppress’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. S ‘deriv’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). N ‘detector’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. D ‘k’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. CM ‘cminthresh’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. • “Finding corners”. pp. [T. 1988. Options ‘dplot’. C. • “Good features to track”. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.Noble.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. J. J. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. pp. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. pp 147-151. N ‘mindelta’. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Proc. with a delay of 0.CHAPTER 2. Proc.d] = icp(p1. p2. May 1988.121-128. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Shi and C. Stephens.5 [sec]. T ‘distthresh’. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 1994. T ‘maxiter’. Harris and M.. vol.6.J. IEEE Computer Society. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tomasi. where * denotes squared and smoothed. with a delay of d [sec]. p2. See also PointFeature. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Image and Vision Computing. 593-593.G. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Manchester.

• Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. m. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Mach.or 3-dimensional. 14. Intell.Besl and H. Feb. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 2. no. s = idecimate(im. vol. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Pattern Anal. each plane is decimated.CHAPTER 2. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1992. 239-256.McKay. pp. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. s = idecimate(im. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. See also iscale. P. IEEETrans. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2..

– The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue.CHAPTER 2. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. negative is red. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. linear proﬁle. XY ‘colormap’. histogram and zooming. negative is red. Options ‘ncolors’. If the image is zoomed. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is white. C ‘xydata’. If im is a cell array of images. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. darker than ‘grey’. zero is white color map: random values. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). zero is black. positive is blue. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes.and y-axes respectively. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned.

CHAPTER 2. labels. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. icolorize. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. idisplabel(im. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. caxis. labelimage. colormap. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also iblobs. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.

• Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.2. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. See also itriplepoint. out = igamma(im. ithin. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.45. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).

min. k.m] = igraphseg(im. Example im = iread(’58060.m] = igraphseg(im. Felzenszwalb and D. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 2006. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. 0.5). Sept. Int. pp. min is the minimum region size (pixels).CHAPTER 2. 59.jpg’). 100. 2004. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.5). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. k. vol. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. See also ithresh. P. k. k is the scale parameter. 1500. Journal on Computer Vision. [l. L = igraphseg(im. Huttenlocher. [L. min. 167181.

Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. ’normcdf’). [H. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.CHAPTER 2. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im).x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. options) displays the image histogram. bar(x.h).h). plot(x.x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. [h.

Region labels are in the range 1 to M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. same size as im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. [L. ii is a precomputed integral image. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.y2). x1. [L.m. y1.CHAPTER 2.y1) and bottom-right (x2. y2.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.

Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.maxlabel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.parents. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. iproﬁle.class. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1.parents. p2.Y]. each a 2-vector [X. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. The pixels on the line are set to 1.CHAPTER 2. • This is a “low level” function. otherwise it does not. out = iline(im. 8). IBLOBS is a higher level interface. eg. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. ilabel(im. [L. See also iblobs. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. p1.maxlabel.

a perfect match score is 1. • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.CHAPTER 2. y. • ZNCC matching is used. x. xmax. centred at (x. im2. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.score] = imatch(im1.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. [xm. The return value is xm=[DX. ymin. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. s] % relative to (x. w2. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.DY) are the x. s.y) and its half-width is H. y. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.y). im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).y). • im1 and im2 must be the same size. ymax] relative to (x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.DY. x.and y-offsets relative to (x. -s. H.CC] where (DX. The template in im1 is centred at (x. and columns the vertical position.y) and of size s.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(w. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. effectively a greyscale image. f = imoments(u.u) = v. effectively a binary image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.CHAPTER 2. [u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. [u. The element u(v. f = imoments(u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.u) = u and v(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H.

Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Different conversion functions are supported. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. m10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. or its area. m01. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m02. m20. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. • This function does not perform connectivity. ilabel. horizontal coordinate centroid. icolor.CHAPTER 2. the elements are m00. m11.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. See also RegionFeature.

m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Matas. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. pp. vol. [label. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. 761767. ’double’). Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Pajdla. and T. J. Image and Vision Computing. Sept. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. Urban. 22. ’light’). The labels [L.m] = imser(im. O. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.org). Chum.CHAPTER 2. ’grey’. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im.png’. 2004.m] = imser(im. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.

igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.

sides. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. See also iclose. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. out = iopen(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sides. n.

im2. ’t’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected.CHAPTER 2. otherwise im2 is selected.V]. p. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 10. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. im1. ’tblr’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 20. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.

p1. p1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).uv] = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p. See also bresenham.

se). se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. sigma. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. se.2) = 0. order.3). the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. See also iscalespace. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. op. nbins. out = imorph(image. out = ipyramid(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. the maximum. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. 1. idecimate. im > irank(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ones(5. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. 12.5)). op. The highest rank.CHAPTER 2. is order=1. se. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. out = imorph(image. out = ipyramid(im. se(2. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.

Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. im = iread(ﬁle. where R=[umin umax. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. ivar. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. G ‘reduce’. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. R ‘roi’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. See also imorph. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. vmin vmax].

m. imwrite. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. m. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. igamma. imono. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. istereo. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.h2] = irectify(f.out2] = irectify(f. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.CHAPTER 2. [out1. Notes • Color images are not supported.out2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . homwarp.h1. im1. im1.

iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmin vmax]. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. See also idisp. V ‘smooth’.H] return central part of image.umax. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.vmax]. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. Options ‘outsize’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. angle. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. S ‘extrapval’. [out.CHAPTER 2. vmin.

Options ‘outsize’. bias=0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. while bias>0. s ‘extrapval’. out = isamesize(im1. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s<1 makes it smaller.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 is symmetric cropping.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. im2.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘smooth’. s>1 makes the image larger. bias<0.

Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. n) as above but sigma=1.L. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. corresponding to each step of the sequence. See also iscalespace. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .s] = iscalespace(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. n. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. [g.s] = iscalespace(im. in space and scale. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. idecimate.CHAPTER 2. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.

isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ishomog(T. that is. it its third dimension is equal to three. ‘valid’) as above. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ismooth. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. See also isrot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN.

Reference David G.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. Lowe. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .vlfeat. N ‘suppress’. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 2 (2004). each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. 60. isurf. 91-110. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. See also SiftPointFeature. International Journal of Computer Vision. pp. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia.

zssd.H. s is same size as im. zsad. @zssd. sad. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. @ssd. [w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. ncc. s = isimilarity(T. and these output pixels are set to NaN. ssd. @ncc. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.CHAPTER 2. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. @zsad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. [w.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. See also imatch.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. See also iconv. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. convolved. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.gy] = isobel(im. then converted back to integer.CHAPTER 2. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. [gx. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.

That is. ‘valid’) as above. range is the disparity search range.M] for an N × M window.CHAPTER 2. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. imr. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. See also ishomog. isrot(R. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.u) means that imr(v. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).sim] = istereo(iml.u). H. icanny. w. H is the half size of the matching window. See also ksobel.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. [d. range. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. range. the disparity d=d(v. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. else false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. imr.

p] = istereo(iml.CHAPTER 2. ‘ncc’.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.5). [d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. range.sim.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. w.sim. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. That is. • sim = max(dsi.A and p.5 to +0. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. [d. p. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. out = istretch(im.dsi] = istereo(iml. B. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. p. dx. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. imr. imr. range. Options ‘metric’. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. 3) See also irectify. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). w.

Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Kroon (U. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. N ‘thresh’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D.CHAPTER 2. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. or sequences. T ‘octaves’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Notes • Color images. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time.

2008 See also SurfPointFeature. isift. 346–359. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). itriplepoint. 110. isvec(v. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. out = ithin(im. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 3. Otherwise false (0).CHAPTER 2. Luc Van Gool. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. pp. Tinne Tuytelaars. See also hitormiss. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .or columnvector. Andreas Ess. either a row. See also ishomog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. else false (0). No. Vol.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. a lower value will include more.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.5. Notes • Greyscale image only.out2] = itrim(im1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.im2. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. ithresh(im. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. The same cropping is applied to each input image. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.CHAPTER 2. The default is 0. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also homwarp.

the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. op. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also iendpoint. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. se. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. ithin. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.

the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se.CHAPTER 2. func. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. out = iwindow(image. @max). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. @std). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. See also ivar. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. ones(5. se. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.5).3). The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.

dG/dx. kdog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. • The vertical derivative. is k’. k = kdgauss(sigma.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. k = kcircle(R.CHAPTER 2. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. See also ones. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. See also kgauss. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dy. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. ktriangle. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

6*sigma1. kdgauss. See also kdgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. k = kdog(sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog.CHAPTER 2. kdog. k = kgauss(sigma. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . By default SIGMA2 = 1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also kgauss. and W=2 × H+1. See also ilaplace. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = klog(sigma.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. kdog. iconv.

The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. and D is the dimension. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = kmeans(x. L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. k.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. it is assumed to have been completed previously. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. k. Pattern Recognition Principles. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. [L.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). [x. [x. ‘edge’. See also cylinder. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.z] = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.y. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). C ‘T’. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .z] = mkcube(s. The points are the columns of p. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.CHAPTER 2.y. symmetric about the origin. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. Options ‘T’.

labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n. n) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(t.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. See also mpq poly.2)). y) MPLOT(t. or y(:. npq.CHAPTER 2. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. That is. p. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(t.xp .yq . MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. y. or y(:. the sum of I(x.

p. npq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. they are considered to be a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also mpq.

• The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. 1986. 20). T has the same dimensions as im. See also zncc. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. the height of a character. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.CHAPTER 2. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. -0. where W=2*w2+1. Example t = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. k. ssd. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. • A common choice of k=-0. in text segmentation. k. sad. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . niblack. W. for example.s] = niblack(im. Prentice-Hall.m. idisp(im >= t). Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.2. [T.

ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.q)/MPQ(im. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p. See also npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.0).CHAPTER 2.0. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p.p. That is UPQ(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

they are considered as a single vertex. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. upq. so centroids will be still be correct. npq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq poly. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. mpq.

[yp.CHAPTER 2. [yp. N. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y.xp] = peak(y. idisp(im >= t). T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. x. otsu IEEE Trans. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.i] = peak(y. Systems. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Jan 1979. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = otsu(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.

N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.S points.S points. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.ij] = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Typically choose N to be odd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak(-V). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. [zp. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. S ‘interp’. use peak2(-V). See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ie. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also pnmﬁlt. plot2(p. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak.CHAPTER 2. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. If p has three dimensions. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

r. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. x2. Examples plot_circle(c. ’b’).y2.y2). W. plot_circle(c.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’LineWidth’. r.CHAPTER 2. ‘size’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’r’). ‘r’.y1.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. value pairs that are passed to plot. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. P. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’edgecolor’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. 5). and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. or a set of name. r. ’g’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PLOT BOX(’centre’. W. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ’fillcolor’. 1=solid. PLOT BOX(x1. P. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. plot_circle(c. R. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg.y1) and (x2.

with Matlab line style ls. If C=[X. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. c Specify color of the axes. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. C. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. current plot. xc.Y].CHAPTER 2. centred at the origin. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y. ls) ls is the standard line styles. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘color’. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.

The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p.X = 0. Options ‘textcolor’. ’r’). fmt. ’color’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ‘framename’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’r’.CHAPTER 2. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’color’. ‘printf’. n ‘text opts’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. trplot( T. to ‘view’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’name’.

The default is 1. 1=solid. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. either a letter or 3-vector. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. color. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot.CHAPTER 2. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. See also plot. patch. R.

See also pgmﬁlt.CHAPTER 2. plotp(p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. See also plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.CHAPTER 2.

N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. x typically contains corresponding point data. [m. d) as above but elements increment by d. T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. N ‘maxDataTrials’. x. T.CHAPTER 2.in. T. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. one column per point pair. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x.in] = ransac(func. x.resid] = ransac(func. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated.

theta.theta = DECONDITION(R.theta = [].CHAPTER 2. References • m. that is they will produce a model.A. If multiple models are found out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta to the points R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.x.theta. Cambridge University Press. Comm. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.misc element.out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. No 6.C.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. pp 381-395. that is.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.s out.theta is a cell array. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.x and returns the best model out.theta] = ERR(R. [out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s sample size (1 × 1) out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. pp 101-113.. Fishler and R.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. Boles.theta and the subset of R.x) condition the point data out.out.x data to work on.resid] = EST(R. Assoc.x. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Mach.x = CONDITION(R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. Comp.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.misc private data (cell array) out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.inlier. [out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.R. they detect a structure argument. Vol 24.

csse. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector.CHAPTER 2.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.au/ pk See also fmatrix. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty. roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. rotz. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

If roll. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. • many texts (Paul. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX.CHAPTER 2. pitch. Z axes respectively. pitch. T = rpy2tr(roll. Y. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. See also tr2rpy.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy.y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. See also zsad. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ssd. ncc. r2t. theta) as above where xy=[x. and rotation theta in the plane.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Two cross-hairs are created. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. sad. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. ncc. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. See also zsdd.

then R is 2 × 2. b.CHAPTER 2. ’other’}. ’that’. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. It supports options that have an assigned value. c. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The software pattern is: function(a.choose = {’this’.blah = []. then R is 3 × 3. – If T is 3 × 3. opt.foo = true. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. tr2rt. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). varargin) opt.bar = false. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. opt.

S ‘showopt’ sets opt.blah <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.debug <.foo <.choose <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.verbose <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.select <.‘this’. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. varargin).N sets opt <. opt = tb_optparse(opt. If neither of ‘this’.y ‘that’ sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. varargin).foo <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. x.false ‘blah’.select = {’#no’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. ’#yes’}. 3 sets opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.x.3 ‘blah’.true sets opt. N ‘setopt’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.blah <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. w.1.CHAPTER 2.y sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.select <.

intercept. args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. square side length. a line. sd and sdd are n-vectors. dot diameter. 25). 2). args are pitch (distance between centres).sdd] = tpoly(s0. The trajectory s. 256. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. binary square pattern. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. sf. args are theta (rad). 50. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. args are dot pitch (distance between centres).CHAPTER 2. sf.sd. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. binary dot pattern. 256.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sd. [s.

v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. The 3 angles rpy=[R. See also angvec2r. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Y. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Y and Z axes respectively. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).CHAPTER 2. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .P. [theta.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).

T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.z]. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. y. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.y. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. See also rpy2tr. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.CHAPTER 2.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. If T has three dimensions.:. ie. r2t.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. – If TR is 3 × 3. • The validity of R is not checked. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rt2tr. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.

An historical anomaly. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [o1. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. or x and y. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [c1. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. each N × 1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.

Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

and displays in RPY format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trprint T is the command line form of above. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. f ‘label’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotx.CHAPTER 2.

mpq. the sum of I(x. That is. p.(y-y0)q where (x0. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.y0) is the centroid. tr2rpy. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.y).(x-x0)p . q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also upq poly. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also ncc. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd.CHAPTER 2.

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