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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface
This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,
Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the field this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and figures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and finally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,
Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1
Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reflecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image file reading and writing, acquisition, display, filtering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufficiently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a firewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, filtering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-files that implement functions and classes, and mex-files for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-files to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for firewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efficiency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

However the book “Robotics. though this is much less significant today than it was in the past. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-files and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. and I commend it to you. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This is extravagant on storage. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and figures in the manual. nearly 400 figures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions.

. . . . . . . . LineFeature . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 2 . . . SiftPointFeature . . 1. 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . .

colordistance colorize . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . bresenham . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iprofile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . maxfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medfilt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . luminos . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . pgmfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . .

. . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . usefig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

tutors.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. You need to signup in order to post.1 • x New features: • x Bugfixes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deficiencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.google.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. lecturers and professors are paid to do. That’s what you your teachers. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.com. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you find it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.

Month = nov.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Corke}. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. The details are @article{Corke05f. Number = {4}.I. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.petercorke. The file robot. Volume = {12}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. type of organization and application. 1.5 Use in teaching This is definitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Year = {2005}.3. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the first two pages (cover and licence). INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.zip).3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. the table of content to functions.html on a server for class use.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1.com The files are available in either gzipped tar format (. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the “See also” functions to each other.1. Author = {P. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. 1.gz) or zip format (. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.

this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Coimbra.vlfeat.7 Acknowledgements Last.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. P.mathworks. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodified.7. pp 16–25. 1994 University of British Columbia.Functions such as SURF. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.S.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. 1. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. November 2005. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION file. Twente.R.6. VLFeat http://www. and there are hundreds of modules available. Vincent Lepetit. 12(4). graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX file use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. See the file CONTRIB for details. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. 1. but not least.1. Corke. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. MSER.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.

Methods plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control figure hold for image plane window test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. S ‘centre’. S ‘noise’. T ‘color’. IM ‘resolution’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method defined. N ‘image’. used by all subclasses. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. N ‘sensor’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. Camera. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. The ‘image’ option paints the specified image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.CHAPTER 2. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. Options ‘name’.

Camera.centre Get camera position p = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.display Display value C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).char Convert to string s = C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.CHAPTER 2.clf Clear the image plane C.delete Camera object destructor C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. CatadioptricCamera.delete() destroys all figures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. SphericalCamera Camera. fisheyecamera. Camera.

line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are defined by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. and off if H is false (or 0).char Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. Camera.CHAPTER 2.figure Return figure handle H = C.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.v + c = 0. See also Camera.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.u + b. Camera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. otherwise false (0).figure() is the handle of the figure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).

options) projects a 3D shape defined by the matrices x.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.hold. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.clf Camera. mkcube. Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. cylinder.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). z. y. y. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mesh(x. uv = C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices define 3D points.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Camera.plot(p. Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C.CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. z to the image plane and plots them. y. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The matrices x. See also mesh.plot.T. sphere. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.

point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are defined by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current figure.CHAPTER 2.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.clf Camera. Camera.mesh.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. T See also Camera. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Overrides the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tcam’. T ‘scale’. Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. ‘fps’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera. ‘Tcam’.T. ‘Tobj’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. p.rpy Set camera attitude C. C.y]. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. a subclass of Camera. The image is not inverted. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.p. y) sets the camera attitude to the specified roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline flowfield visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix field of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical flow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

Ma. S ‘centre’. S ‘noise’.Kosecka. N ‘focal’. E = C. optical axis is z-axis. E = C. N ‘sensor’. S. P ‘pixel’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.E Essential matrix E = C.Sastry. S. fisheyecamera.8]) See also Camera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. camera at origin. CatadioptricCamera. CentralCamera. f=8mm.F. IM ‘resolution’. D ‘default’ ‘image’. F ‘distortion’.Soatto. p.CHAPTER 2. J. “An invitation to 3D”.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. SIGMA ‘pose’.and y-axes respectively. T ‘color’.and v-axes parallel to x. 10um pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. The first view is from the current camera pose C. Reference Y. 2003. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. u.177 See also CentralCamera.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (first view) and C2 (second view).

2003. F = C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. See also CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. Reference Y.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. from two viewpoints. The first view is from the current camera pose C.F Fundamental matrix F = C.H CentralCamera.Ma. S. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.H(T.Soatto.E CentralCamera.H Homography matrix H = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. “An invitation to 3D”.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (first view) and C2 (second view).177 See also CentralCamera. S. n.CHAPTER 2.Sastry. Springer. J.Kosecka. The first view is from the current camera pose C.

vol.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. F.fov Camera field-of-view angles. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object defined by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.fov() are the field of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.estpose(xyz. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. V. Journal on Computer Vision. Fua. 2009. pp. CentralCamera. a = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Feb. CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 155-166.CHAPTER 2.flowfield Optical flow C. Lepetit. Moreno-Noguer. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. See also quiver CentralCamera. Int.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.flowfield(v) displays the optical flow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). 81. and P.

Soatto. 2003.Kosecka. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). “An invitation to 3D”. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. s. s. J.invE(E.Ma. “Multiview Geometry”.Soatto.Kosecka. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Sastry.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “An invitation to 3D”. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. Reference Y.Sastry. translation not to scale • n. section 5. 2003. Springer. s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. 259 Y.Ma.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. p116.E CentralCamera. Springer. Chap 9. p. See also CentralCamera. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.CHAPTER 2. J.

See also Hough CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. one per line. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. ‘Tcam’. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. H = C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C.plot epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline(f. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.project(p.T.

Reference Hartley & Zisserman.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 8. F. 313-326.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. June 1992.CHAPTER 2.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Chaumette. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Espiau. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference B. See also Camera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. one for each point defined by the columns of p.visjac e(E. vol. pp.b.plot CentralCamera. and P. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.c.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Rives. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.

Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p(uv. Chaumette. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. pp. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac p. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Rives. F. pp 651-670. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Vol 12(5). 1996. June 1992. CentralCamera. Hutchinson. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. IEEE Trans. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac l(L. 313-326.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Espiau. Oct. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac p polar.visjac e CentralCamera.c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. 8.CHAPTER 2. R&A. Hager & Corke. and P.visjac p. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Reference B.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b.

visjac l. in Proc.visjac l.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p polar(rt. F.visjac p polar. Chaumette.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Corke. 2009. Spindler.CHAPTER 2. I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. (St. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. P. 5962-5967. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac e CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p. Louis). Int. radius and theta. pp. Oct. and F. CentralCamera.

See README. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. D.60. Nov. Int. See also isift. pp.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.SIFT. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.91-110. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Journal on Computer Vision. PointFeature. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.Lowe. 2004.

SiftPointFeature. See also isift SiftPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. strength) as above but with specified strength. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.match(f2. 0=transparent (default 0. f = PointFeature(u.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. 1=opaque.plot scale(options.match Match SIFT point features m = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. C ‘alpha’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

support(images.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = F.support(images. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im. [out.T] = F. F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.CHAPTER 2.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. T ‘Tcam’. See also SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).T. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. Overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. N ‘pixel’. S ‘pose’. CentralCamera. Options ‘name’. fisheyecamera. Options ‘Tobj’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .gain. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .01) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The camera view. error. The external view.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera view.the side length of the target in world units (0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.depth of points to use for Jacobian.center of the target in world coords (0. defaults in parentheses: target size . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. image plane size and desired feature locations. error norm.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . scalar for If null take actual value all points. of 4-vector. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.CHAPTER 2. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.5) target center . camera pose.0.

defaults in parentheses: target size . pp. camera pose.depth of points to use for Jacobian. CentralCamera. 5550-5555.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. of 4-vector.01) . See also CentralCamera.visjac p(pt. P. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.gain.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . image plane size and desired feature locations. error norm. The external view.CHAPTER 2. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.visjac p polar.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.5) target center . scalar for If null take actual value all points. I.center of the target in world coords (0. Corke. error.visjac l. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Robotics and Automation.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . for all points.0. Conf. in Proc. May 3-7 2010. (Anchorage). Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. Jacobian condition number.the side length of the target in world units (0. IEEE Int. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).

3. Luc Van Gool. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Andreas Ess. No.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Vol. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 110. pp.

options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. strength) as above but with specified strength. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match Match SURF point features m = F. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. Options ‘thresh’. [m. ScalePointFeature.C] = F.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.

See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.plot scale Plot feature scale F.support(images.plot scale(options. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. 1=opaque. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. w) as above but the support region is displayed. [out. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 0=transparent (default 0. C ‘alpha’.support Support region of feature out = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im.T] = F.2) SurfPointFeature.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. out = F.CHAPTER 2.

com) web camera.axis. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.com). S ‘resolution’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the result is not predictable. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Video AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. • The specified ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. G ‘scale’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis.

and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a fixed picture taking interval. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.char Convert to string A. See also AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.close Close the image source A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.CHAPTER 2.

in Proc. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.Sivic and A. Oct. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters specified The number of stop words specified The number of images in the bag Reference J.Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ninth IEEE Int. Conf. f can also be a cell array. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. b = BagOfWords(f.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. pp. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.1470-1477. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. 2003.CHAPTER 2.org). The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. on Computer Vision. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.

BagOfWords. images.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars display exemplars of words B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words specified by the vector w.display Display value B.char BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. isurf BagOfWords.exemplars(w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.contains Find images containing word k = B.

BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop Remove stop words B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords.n] = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B. N ‘maxperimage’. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. M ‘width’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.

subclass of Camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the first call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.CHAPTER 2. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.

CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters.CHAPTER 2. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.T. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project Project world points to image plane uv = C. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘equisolid’.and v-axes parallel to x. SIGMA ‘pose’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. S ‘noise’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. camera at origin. ‘sine’. K ‘maxangle’. See also Camera. f=8mm. optical axis is z-axis. A ‘resolution’.and y-axes respectively. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S ‘centre’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. fisheyecamera. M ‘k’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera. T ‘Tcam’. u. N ‘sensor’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. 10um pixels. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’.project(p. N ‘focal’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). P ‘pixel’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.

Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. See also PointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.CHAPTER 2.

See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = M. SurfPointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. f2. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. m = FeatureMatch(f1. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.display Display value M.

Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v2].v1. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.outlier. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.CHAPTER 2.u2.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.

These are the (u.im2}) m. FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current figure.CHAPTER 2.plot Show corresponding points M.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2 FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p2. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . These are the (u. The figure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot() M. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p FeatureMatch.p1.p1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch.

and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Example f1 = isurf(im1). See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the figure.ransac Apply RANSAC M. m. ransac FeatureMatch. 1e-4).ransac( @fmatrix. homography. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. m = f1. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. See also idisp FeatureMatch. f2 = isurf(im2).ransac(func.match(f2).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.CHAPTER 2. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to fit the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Y This camera model assumes central projection. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. that is.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.CHAPTER 2. The image is not inverted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a fisheye lense projection camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v.

M ‘k’. P ‘pixel’. u. optical axis is z-axis. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].CHAPTER 2. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object.FishEyeCamera Create fisheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a fisheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. K ‘resolution’.axes respectively. f=8mm. Options ‘name’. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters.and v-axes are parallel to x. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. camera at origin. ‘sine’. S ‘centre’. ‘equisolid’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and y. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. 10um pixels. N ‘sensor’.

CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not specified it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally fills the square image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. CatadioptricCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project(p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also FishEyeCamera.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. See also Camera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for finding lines in an image using a voting scheme.T. T ‘Tcam’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

0) and the line. A horizontal line has theta = 0.H). The voting array is 2-dimensional. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. See also LineFeature Hough. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.

T ‘edgethresh’. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Nrho].edgeThresh (default 0.5) Set ht.1). N All edge pixels have equal weight.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Set ht. T ‘suppress’. Default 400 × 401.char Convert to string s = HT.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.CHAPTER 2. See also Hough. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Hough. W ‘nbins’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. W ‘houghthresh’. else N = [Ntheta.edgeThresh. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display Display value HT.houghThresh (default 0. Hough. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.

plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. LineFeature Hough. L = HT. The highest peak is found.plot(n.plot. The process is repeated for all peaks. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. See also Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. then all elements in an HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current figure.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line features HT. refined to subpixel precision. See also Hough.CHAPTER 2. HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current figure. H = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.lines Find lines L = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.lines Hough. HT.

RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.char Convert to string s = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. length) is a line feature object with the specified properties.display Display value L.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. theta. strength.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. one per element. L = LineFeature(rho. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(rho. strength) is a line feature object with the specified properties. LENGTH is undefined. See also LineFeature. LineFeature. theta.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

L. See also icanny LineFeature. LineFeature. l2 = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. Small gaps.seglength(edge. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. less than gap pixels are tolerated. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot() overlay the line on current plot. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). l2 = L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identifies lines but cannot determine their length.CHAPTER 2.points Return points on line segments p = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot line L.

close Close the image source M.axis. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.char Convert to string M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(file. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie file A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Movie. S ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie file file.close() closes the connection to the movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Movie.CHAPTER 2.com). S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.

F Skip frames. undirected graph create an n-d.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Options ‘skip’. planar. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be specified. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’.

neighbours(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow flies g.clear() add vertex. Object properties (read/write) g.CHAPTER 2.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().plot() g.coord(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.connectivity() g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.component(v) g.distance(v1.cost(e) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.add node(coord. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.add node(coord) g. v2) g. v) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.edges(e) g.path(v) set goal vertex.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add edge(v1.next(v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.goal(v) g.

PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v2.add node(x.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v = G. and returns the edge id E. and returns the node id v. PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v. where x is D × 1. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge(v1. Options ‘distance’. v = G. PGraph.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add node(x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. E = G.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add edge(v1.

and the distance d.CHAPTER 2.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph. D × 1. PGraph. PGraph. [v.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. edges and components. of node id v.d] = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest Find closest node v = G.clear Clear the graph G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.coord Coordinate of node x = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost
Cost of edge
C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display
Display state of the graph
G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also
PGraph.char

PGraph.distance
Distance between nodes
d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances
distance to all nodes
d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges
Find edges given vertex
E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal
Set goal node
G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also
PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours
Neighbours of a node
n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next
Find next node toward goal
v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also
PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path
Find path to goal node
p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously specified goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also
PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick
Graphically select a node
v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also
PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot
Plot the graph
G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current figure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options
‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent
t
G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex
Highlight a vertex
G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices
Find vertices given edge
v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that define edge E.

PointFeature
PointCorner feature object
A superclass for image corner features.

Methods
plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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strength) as above but with specified strength. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. See also ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. one per element.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. v. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f = PointFeature(u. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Convert to string s = F. PointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. PointFeature.

CHAPTER 2. the norm of the Euclidean distance. Options ‘thresh’. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match(f2. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.char PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.C] = F.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. where 1 is perfect match.match Match point features m = F.match(f2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.

Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot Plot feature F. F. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Polygon. Polygon. Polygon. union. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P. p = Polygon(C.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.char String representation s = P. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.html and require a licence. so use with care.mit. one column per vertex. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. HEIGHT].CHAPTER 2. Pankratov.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. intersection.mit.edu. http://puddle. difference.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. kirill@plume.area() is the area of the polygon.

resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.char Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P.display Display polygon P. else 0.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. returns coordinates of P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. See also Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.

perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y1 y2].intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. each column is [x y]’.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. returns empty polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Polygon.moments(p. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot Plot polygon P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. P.CHAPTER 2.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.

d) is a new Ray3D object defined by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . defined by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.

char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R. [x.E] = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.display Display value R. See also Ray3D. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.E] = R. [x.

horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.b. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .c. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. vertical coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.CHAPTER 2.

See also iblobs.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.box Return bounding box b = R.th] = R.char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imoments RegionFeature. For example R. RegionFeature. ymin.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. ymax].xmax.uc will be a list not a vector. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. one per element. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

See also RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. R.CHAPTER 2.char RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.display Display value R.plot boundary plot boundary R. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot Plot centroid R.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.and xmarkers.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2. R.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = ScalePointFeature(u. See also PointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 0=transparent (default 0.CHAPTER 2. scale) as above but with specified feature scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. strength. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v.plot scale Plot feature scale F. strength) as above but with specified strength. C ‘alpha’. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SurfPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature. 1=opaque. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identifier and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. one per active track. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential filenames.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. C. See also PointFeature Tracker. T ‘movie’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. options) is a new tracker object.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identifier of the track. R ‘nslots’. N ‘thresh’. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.

plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.char Convert to string s = T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .tracklengths Length of all tracks T. See also Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2.display Display value T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker.

S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The specified ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. AxisWebCamera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera specified by the string camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. and their characteristics is displayed. otherwise the result is not predictable. Movie Video. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’.

about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.close Close the image source V.grab() acquires an image from the camera.close() closes the connection to the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char Convert to string V.CHAPTER 2.

right. If th1 is a column vector. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and the right image is cyan. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the second for right. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. By default the left image is red. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). a = anaglyph(left. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or field of view. right. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. the first for left.CHAPTER 2. color.

y2]. x2. [x. p2) as above but p1=[x1.boundary. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.CHAPTER 2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. % emission of sun plot(l. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary profiles R1 and r2. y1. e) boundmatch Match boundary profiles x = boundmatch(R1.y2).y1) to (x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Endpoints must be integer. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. See also RegionFeature. 6500). p = bresenham(p1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. If lambda is a column vector. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one profile with respect to the other.s] = boundmatch(R1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.y1] and p2=[x2.

Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.CHAPTER 2.Y. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR filter fitted. [C. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.

and x is N × 3. [k. k = closest(a. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Define CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.CHAPTER 2.d1] = closest(a. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. x = circle(C. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows define the coordinates [x. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. green and blue primaries respectively. Options ‘n’. that is.

3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ioo. they were measured directly.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.16). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum defined by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). since. 19000 (526.5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.d1. 335 of Table 1(5. Notes • Is a MEX file.ac.d2] = closest(a. As noted in footnote a on p. (Table 1(5. while Table I(5. • From Table I(5.32). and 22500 (444. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.5.CHAPTER 2.ucl. The data are referred to as pilot data.

uk See also cmfrgb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.M). im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ioo.CHAPTER 2. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum defined by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. out = col2im(pix. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imsize is a 2-vector (N.ucl. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .ac.

d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.

@isnan. icolor. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. im<100. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.G. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a specified color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes.C] = colorkmeans(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imono. out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. eg. The color is specified as a 3-vector (R. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. func. [L. @isnan.CHAPTER 2.B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. mask. k.

the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the first three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming.R] = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color specified by the string name.CHAPTER 2. low is good. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.C. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. XYZ = colorname(name. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. name = colorname(XYZ. • The residual is an indication of quality of fit. k) as above but also returns the residual R. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are defined by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. L = colorkmeans(im. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. eg. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color specified by the string name.

[o1. double data is the natural choice. it can be omitted. As MATLAB’s native datatype. s = ‘dest<-src’.i3) as above but specifies separate input channels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. i1. im) as above but specifies separate output channels or planes.txt. or alternatively.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.o2. • Color space names are case insensitive.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. Input and output images have 3 planes.i2. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which specifies the source and destination color spaces. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o3] = colorspace(s. s = ‘src->dest’.

200). The distance d is M × N and element d(I. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. • If im is an M × 3 array. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .2*A. d = distance(A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. However. colorspace will first cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. like a colormap. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. Example A = rand(400.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).100). out will also have size M × 3. for memory and computational performance.CHAPTER 2. B = rand(400.B).

3. The result E is a matrix.(+31)20-5257524. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. but the direction of edge following is specified. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.j). bunschot@wins. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. tel. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. in matrix coordinate frame. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.y). E = edgelist(im. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Tested: PC Matlab v5.uva. • The seed point is always the first element of the returned edgelist. not image frame. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. non-zero is an object.CHAPTER 2. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. non zero is counter-clockwise. University of Amsterdam. seed.

p. epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. See also fmatrix. I.R. H = epiline(f. p. 1998. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p1. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Oct 27. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. one per line drawn. p) draws epipolar lines in current figure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). See also epiline. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Points are specified by the columns of p.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i).S. Coimbra. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.

c. See also ransac. If w is not specified it defaults to 2*sigma. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. it is singular. http://www. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. homography. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. The University of Western Australia.csse. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.au/. page 270. Notes • The points must be corresponding. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. that is. no outlier rejection is performed. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. • Contains a RANSAC driver. epiline.uwa.edu. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which means it can be passed to ransac(). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. that is. p2. • f is a rank 2 matrix.

Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. x2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. itriplepoint. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also imorph.y2). y1. ithin. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y1) and (x2.

Notes • The points must be corresponding. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.csse. See also ransac. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . invhomog. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www. The University of Western Australia. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.CHAPTER 2.au/.edu. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. no outlier rejection is performed.uwa.

CHAPTER 2. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the specified ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. S ‘dimension’.offs] = homwarp(H. that is tp=T*T1. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. ie. itrim. V ‘roi’. [out. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. im.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as defined by the first two dimensions. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. See also homography. R ‘scale’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. See also e2h. D ‘size’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S output image contains all the warped pixels.

Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. ’nfeat’. on Information Theory. ianimate(im. features. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 1962.CHAPTER 2. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. IT-8:pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 200). ianimate(seq. IRE Trans. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features. ’gs’). Hu. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. 179-187.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. N ‘only’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. isurf. iharris. YMIN YMAX]. M ‘npoints’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im.

default 1. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. horizontal coordinate centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. [S1. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. [A1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. A set pixel aspect ratio.0 ‘connect’. vertical coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.CHAPTER 2. C set connectivity. ilabel. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also iopen. out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. se. See also isobel. 1996-7. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. Tel Aviv University.CHAPTER 2. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. S ‘th0’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.

and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be specified. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). [C.CHAPTER 2. The images do not have to be of the same size.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.u] = iconcat(im. See also imono.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. D ‘bgval’. Options ‘dir’. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. [0 1 1]). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). iconcat(im. colorize. C = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.

options) convolves im1 with im2. im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to first character.CHAPTER 2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justified • In horizontal mode all images are top justified See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.

CHAPTER 2. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. K ‘patch’. CT ‘edgegap’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). E ‘suppress’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘sigma’. S ‘deriv’. R ‘nfeat’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. N ‘detector’. CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘k’.

isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. where * denotes squared and smoothed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.Noble. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Stephens. with a delay of d [sec]. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. IEEE Computer Society. Shi and C. with a delay of 0. T ‘maxiter’.6..001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.CHAPTER 2. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Options ‘dplot’. May 1988. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.5 [sec]. C. pp. [T.d] = icp(p1. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 593-593. Proc. 1994. • The descriptor is a vector of float types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. J. N ‘mindelta’. pp 147-151. p2. See also PointFeature. T ‘distthresh’. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Image and Vision Computing. pp. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.J. J. Harris and M. 1988.121-128. Proc. Manchester. p2. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. vol. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. • “Finding corners”. Tomasi. • “Good features to track”.

McKay. each plane is decimated. Pattern Anal. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Mach. See also iscale. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. 239-256. 2. m. Intell. vol.or 3-dimensional. s = idecimate(im. 14.Besl and H. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. no. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. Feb. pp. s = idecimate(im. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions..CHAPTER 2. IEEETrans. m. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 1992.

maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed.and y-axes respectively. darker than ‘grey’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. The image is displayed in a figure with a toolbar across the top. negative is red. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to file F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make figure very wide. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. linear profile. Options ‘ncolors’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which defines the zoomed view. negative is red. zero is black. highlights fine structure color map: greyscale unsigned. they are first concatenated (horizontally). • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new figure. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that specifies the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is white color map: random values. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes.CHAPTER 2. If the image is zoomed. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘flatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. positive is blue. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. histogram and zooming. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. C ‘xydata’. • The “line” button allows two points to be specified and a new figure displays intensity along a line between those points. positive is blue. If im is a cell array of images. XY ‘colormap’. zero is white. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned.

labels. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. caxis. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. See also image. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labelimage. icolorize. See also iblobs. idisplabel(im. labelimage. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the first and last element of the color map. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a specific class. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is specified by bg in the range 0 to 1. colormap. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image.CHAPTER 2.

• For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.CHAPTER 2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. ithin. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.45. See also itriplepoint. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.

P.5). min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. Felzenszwalb and D. vol. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. min. Journal on Computer Vision. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 2004. Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. [L. Example im = iread(’58060. k.5). See also ithresh. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 167181. k.m] = igraphseg(im. 1500. Notes • Is a MEX file Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Huttenlocher. k.CHAPTER 2. 0. L = igraphseg(im. 100. 59. Sept.jpg’).m] = igraphseg(im. k is the scale parameter. pp. 2006. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. min. [l. idisp(im) Reference “Efficient graph-based image segmentation”.

bar(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. plot(x. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.x] = ihist(im). [H. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.x] = ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. ’normcdf’). H = ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a floating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For floating point images all NaN and Inf values are first removed.x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2.h). [h.

ii is a precomputed integral image. y1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region defined by its top-left (x1.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.y1) and bottom-right (x2. [L.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.CHAPTER 2. [L.y2). A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. The floating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. y2. x1. same size as im. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

p2.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.parents.maxlabel.Y]. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.CHAPTER 2.parents. The pixels on the line are set to 1. otherwise it does not. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p1.maxlabel. ilabel(im. Notes • Is a MEX file. [L.class. • This is a “low level” function. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iline(im. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. p1. See also iblobs. 8). iprofile.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. eg. each a 2-vector [X. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.

• im1 and im2 must be the same size.score] = imatch(im1. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. centred at (x. y.y) and its half-width is H.y). • ZNCC matching is used. and columns the vertical position. s] % relative to (x. s.y) and of size s. xmax. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.CC] where (DX. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. • Is a MEX file. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.DY) are the x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y). im2. w2. y.CHAPTER 2. The template in im1 is centred at (x. [xm. The return value is xm=[DX. x.DY. a perfect match score is 1. x. H. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. ymin. -s. ymax] relative to (x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.and y-offsets relative to (x. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.

effectively a greyscale image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All pixels are equally weighted. v.CHAPTER 2.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. [u. H) as above but the domain is w × H. effectively a binary image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.u) = u and v(v.v] = imeshgrid(w.u) = v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. f = imoments(u. [u. f = imoments(u. The element u(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.

Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. icolor.CHAPTER 2. m01. or its area. m20. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. ilabel. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. Different conversion functions are supported. the elements are m00. m10. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. • This function does not perform connectivity. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. See also RegionFeature. horizontal coordinate centroid. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used first. m02. m11.

vol. ’grey’. ’double’). options) as above but m is the number of regions found. J. Urban. Chum. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. [label. Matas. and T.png’. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. pp. 2004. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.m] = imser(im. ’light’). by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX file Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org). O. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. se. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Sept. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. m. Image and Vision Computing.CHAPTER 2. 761767. 22. The labels [L. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im.m] = imser(im. Pajdla.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ˆ2).CHAPTER 2. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.

out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. See also iclose. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. n. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as specified by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.CHAPTER 2. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides.

otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. otherwise im2 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. p.V]. 20. im2. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 10. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ’t’.CHAPTER 2. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im1. ’tblr’. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.

iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uv] = iprofile(im. See also bresenham. [p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iprofile Extract pixels along a line v = iprofile(im. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to find points along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p.CHAPTER 2.

12. ismooth irank Rank filter out = irank(im. 1.2) = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = ipyramid(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. See also iscalespace. op. order.5)). The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. op. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median filter: irank(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. se). out = ipyramid(im. se. idecimate. se) is a rank filtered version of im. is order=1. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be specified. ones(5. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. hence output image had reduced dimensions. out = imorph(image. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. The highest rank.3). sigma. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. im > irank(im. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . nbins. se(2. out = imorph(image.CHAPTER 2. the maximum.

CHAPTER 2. return an image with double precision floating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. See also imorph. im = iread(file. R ‘roi’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. vmin vmax]. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision floating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX file. G ‘reduce’. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If multiple files match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. where R=[umin umax. options) reads the specified file and returns a matrix. Wildcards are allowed in file names. ivar. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. iwindow iread Read image from file im = iread() presents a file selection GUI from which the user can select an image file which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix.

im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.h1. Notes • Color images are not supported. im2) is a rectified pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. homwarp. im1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). istereo. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.out2. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. m. See also FeatureMatch. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. imwrite.out2] = irectify(f. imono. im1. igamma.h2] = irectify(f. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. [out1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m.

S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S ‘extrapval’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. [out. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.vmax].umax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.CHAPTER 2.vmin vmax]. See also idisp. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘outsize’. angle. V ‘smooth’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.H] return central part of image. vmin.

s>1 makes the image larger. bias<0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. bias=0.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. out = isamesize(im1. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘outsize’. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s ‘extrapval’. V ‘smooth’. s<1 makes it smaller. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.CHAPTER 2. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. im2. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. while bias>0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is defined with respect to a z-axis into the image. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.5 is symmetric cropping.

s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. idecimate. corresponding to each step of the sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. See also iscalespace.L.s] = iscalespace(im. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.CHAPTER 2.L. n. n) as above but sigma=1. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). The first step in the sequence is the original image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. in space and scale. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.s] = iscalespace(im. [g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ishomog(T. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. See also isrot. ‘valid’) as above. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ismooth. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. it its third dimension is equal to three. else false (0). that is. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax.

im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. Lowe. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • Features are returned in descending strength order. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. 60.vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. pp. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. See also SiftPointFeature. Reference David G. N ‘suppress’. • Wraps a MEX file from www. 91-110. International Journal of Computer Vision. isurf. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. 2 (2004).

Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. zssd. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX file and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. metric) as above but the similarity metric is specified by the function metric which can be any of @sad. and these output pixels are set to NaN.CHAPTER 2. @ncc. [w. @zsad. ssd.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. zsad. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. ncc. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. im. [w. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. s is same size as im. See also imatch. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. @zssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma.H. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @ssd.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. s = isimilarity(T.

gy] = isobel(im. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. [gx. convolved.CHAPTER 2. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. See also iconv. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. then converted back to integer. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to float. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. [gx. sigma.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.

range. imr. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml.M] for an N × M window. isrot(R. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. That is. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. ‘valid’) as above. range is the disparity search range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. the disparity d=d(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. [d.sim] = istereo(iml. See also ishomog. imr.CHAPTER 2. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). icanny. w. H. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. H is the half size of the matching window. else false (0).u).u) means that imr(v. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range. See also ksobel.

For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). M ‘interp’ string that specifies the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). w. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. imr. [d. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. Options ‘metric’. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.5). imr.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefficients. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. B. dx. p.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.A and p.sim. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. 3) See also irectify.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. • sim = max(dsi. w. range. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.5 to +0.CHAPTER 2. [d. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. out = istretch(im. p.sim.dsi] = istereo(iml. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.p] = istereo(iml. ‘ncc’. range. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.

• Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Twente) or a MEX-file OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. or sequences. • Wraps an M-file implementation of OpenSurf by D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘thresh’. are first converted to greyscale. Kroon (U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold.CHAPTER 2. T ‘octaves’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Notes • Color images. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature.

Vol. No. out = ithin(im. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. Andreas Ess. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Tinne Tuytelaars. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 346–359.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Otherwise false (0). Luc Van Gool. See also hitormiss. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . itriplepoint.CHAPTER 2. 110. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). pp. either a row. 3. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. See also ishomog. isvec(v. else false (0).or columnvector. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. isift.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • Greyscale image only. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.out2] = itrim(im1. The same cropping is applied to each input image.5. It assumes that the undefined pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. When images are rectified or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.im2. See also homwarp.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. ithresh(im. [out1.out2] = itrim(im1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For a floating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. a lower value will include more. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. The default is 0.

that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. se. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. See also iendpoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. op) is an image where each output pixel is the specified statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. ithin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. op. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im.CHAPTER 2. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX file. se.

@std). The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the specified function handle func. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5). See also ivar. func. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2.3). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. se. @max). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. ones(3. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The neighbourhood is defined by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. se. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. Notes • Is a MEX file. out = iwindow(image. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. ones(5.

imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. See also ones. See also kgauss. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. k = kcircle(R. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . dG/dy. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. • The vertical derivative. kdog. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. k = kdgauss(sigma. H) as above but the half-width is explictly specified. is k’. ktriangle.CHAPTER 2.s) as above but s is explicitly specified. dG/dx. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .CHAPTER 2.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). where sigma1 > SIGMA2. See also kdgauss. sigma2. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efficient approximation. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kgauss(sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is specified. kdog. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is specified directly. See also kgauss. kdgauss. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kdog(sigma1.6*sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog. H) as above but the kernel half-width is specified. k = kdog(sigma1.

iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. kdgauss. See also ilaplace. and W=2 × H+1. kdog. H) as above but the half-width H is specified. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also kgauss. k = klog(sigma.

k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension.CHAPTER 2. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.C] = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). [L. Pattern Recognition Principles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. k. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also
isobel

ktriangle
Triangular kernel
k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples
>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also
kcircle

lambda2rg
RGB chromaticity coordinates
rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the specific wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also
cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy
= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for
illumination at the specific wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also
cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum
Load spectrum data
s = loadspectrum(lambda, filename) is spectral data (N × D) from file filename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] specified in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, filename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes
• The file is assumed to have its first column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos
Photopic luminosity function
p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also
rluminos

maxfilt
maximum filter
MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum filter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medfilt, minfilt pic 6/93

medfilt1
Median filter
y = medfilt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median filter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes
• A median filter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing filters.

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y. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that define the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. s.y. [x. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. symmetric about the origin. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a mesh that defines the edges of a cube.z] = mkcube(s. ‘edge’. Options ‘T’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that define a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). C ‘T’. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. [x. See also cylinder. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. The points are the columns of p. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.

y. n) MPLOT(y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is first data column. or y(:.2)). See also mpq poly. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.yq . Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. n. Subplots are labelled as per the data fields. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is first data column.xp . p. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. That is.y). mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. npq. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. the sum of I(x. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and first column is time.2)).CHAPTER 2. y) MPLOT(t. or y(:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. MPLOT(t. y. n) MPLOT(t.

The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. See also mpq. • If the first and last point in the list are the same. they are considered to be a single vertex. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. upq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in figure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. p. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.CHAPTER 2.

[T. 1986.s] = niblack(im. where W=2*w2+1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m. sad. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. See also zncc. niblack. k. ssd. k. Example t = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.2. idisp(im >= t). Notes • This is an efficient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. in text segmentation. -0.CHAPTER 2.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. the height of a character. W. • A common choice of k=-0. for example. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. 20). w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. Prentice-Hall.

ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.q)/MPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.CHAPTER 2. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. That is UPQ(im. See also npq poly. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. mpq.0. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.p.0).

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). they are considered as a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. so centroids will be still be correct. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also mpq poly. • If the first and last point in the list are the same. npq. upq. mpq. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. otsu IEEE Trans. [yp. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.CHAPTER 2. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = otsu(im). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. [yp.xp] = peak(y. Systems. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. idisp(im >= t). T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Jan 1979. x.i] = peak(y. N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms.

Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. [zp. • The interp options fits points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. • The interp options fits points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Typically choose N to be odd.S points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To find minima. N ‘scale’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.CHAPTER 2. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To find minima. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. use peak(-V).ij] = peak2(z.S points. S ‘interp’. use peak2(-V).

sub2ind pgmfilt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmfilt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. If p has three dimensions. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix filter program and returns its output as an image. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2(p.CHAPTER 2. See also pnmfilt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. ie. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

R.CHAPTER 2. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. W. Examples plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ls) draws a box defined by b=[XL XR. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. 5). ‘size’. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. r. ’fillcolor’.y2). P. ‘size’. r. ‘g:’) for a non-filled circle. PLOT BOX(x1. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘fillcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. 1=solid. ‘r’. P.y2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Matlab color spec transparency of the filled circle: 0=transparent.y1. ’r’).Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. x2. ’LineWidth’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’edgecolor’. ’b’). plot_circle(c. W. ’g’. or a set of name. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. plot_circle(c. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. r. value pairs that are passed to plot.

PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y. C.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. If C=[X. with Matlab line style ls. Options ‘color’. centred at the origin. ls) ls is the standard line styles. xc. ls) draws an ellipse defined by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. current plot. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. c Specify color of the axes.Y].

colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. trplot( T.CHAPTER 2. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. to ‘view’. ’color’. options) adds point markers to a plot. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’name’. fmt.X = 0. Matlab line specification ls can be set. ls) draws a line in the current figure L. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ’r’). ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’r’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. n ‘text opts’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ‘framename’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’color’. Options ‘textcolor’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ‘printf’.

1=solid. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Matlab color spec transparency of the filled circle: 0=transparent. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. The default is 1. color. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . NOTES • The sphere is always added. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. See also plot. irrespective of figure hold state. either a letter or 3-vector. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. options) plot a polygon defined by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. alpha) as above but alpha specifies the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. patch. options ‘fill’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R. R. color) add spheres to the current figure. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2.

plot2 pnmfilt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmfilt(im. See also pgmfilt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix filter program and returns its output as an image. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.CHAPTER 2. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. [gr. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. centre) as above but the centre of the image is specified as centre=[X. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.CHAPTER 2. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.gt] = radgrad(im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.

CHAPTER 2. [m.resid] = ransac(func.in. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best fit the model described by the function func and the parameter m. options) as above but returns the final residual of applying func to the inlier set. Options ‘maxTrials’.in] = ransac(func. T. d) as above but elements increment by d. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. x typically contains corresponding point data. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. T. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly fits data x to the model represented by the function func. ransac classifies Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. N ‘maxDataTrials’. T is a threshold on how well a point fits the estimated. x. one column per point pair. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. if the fit residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. [m.

N point pairs (6 × N ) R.x and returns the best model out.C. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .resid] = EST(R.theta] = ERR(R.R.s out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.x = CONDITION(R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. pp 381-395.theta and the subset of R.out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.theta. No 6.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.s sample size (1 × 1) out. Fishler and R. [out. For efficiency the data is conditioned once.x. Mach.misc private data (cell array) out. Cambridge University Press.x) returns the best fit model and residual for the subset of points R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. pp 101-113.theta is a cell array. References • m.misc element.x data to work on.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta = DECONDITION(R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.theta to the points R. [out.theta = [].CHAPTER 2.x) condition the point data out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. Comm.out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Assoc.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. that is they will produce a model. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. that is. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. Comp.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.inlier.A. Boles. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. If this function cannot fit a model then out.theta. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. If multiple models are found out.x.resid model fit residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. they detect a structure argument. Vol 24..

csse. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. If lambda is a vector. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.CHAPTER 2.uwa. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.edu. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.

rotz. See also rotx. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. See also roty. roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the specified roll. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. See also tr2rpy. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.CHAPTER 2. pitch. Y. T = rpy2tr(roll. yaw. • many texts (Paul. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. Z axes respectively. pitch. If roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy.

theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. ssd. and rotation theta in the plane. r2t. ncc. See also zsad.CHAPTER 2.y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. theta) as above where xy=[x. y. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.

See also zsdd. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. ncc. Two cross-hairs are created. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. sad. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels].

• the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. then R is 2 × 2.CHAPTER 2. tr2rt. varargin) opt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.choose = {’this’. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. – If T is 3 × 3. then R is 3 × 3. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).foo = true.blah = []. opt. opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’that’.bar = false. ’other’}. c. The software pattern is: function(a. b. It supports options that have an assigned value. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.

y sets opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the field names.select = {’#no’. varargin).true ‘nobar’ sets opt.x.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. N ‘setopt’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.1.blah <. The return structure is automatically populated with fields: verbose and debug. The allowable options are specified by the names of the fields in the structure opt.choose <. ’#yes’}.select <.CHAPTER 2. args) creates a test pattern image.foo <. x.3 ‘blah’.debug <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. varargin). • that only one value can be assigned to a field.foo <. By default if an option is given that is not a field of opt an error is declared. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are specified then opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.false ‘blah’.y ‘that’ sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are specified then opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. The image is specified by the string type and one or two (type specific) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. If neither of ‘this’. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).select <.verbose <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. opt = tb_optparse(opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.‘this’.blah <.true sets opt. 3 sets opt.N sets opt <. w.choose <.

args are theta (rad). The trajectory s. binary square pattern. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. a line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. dot diameter.sd. 50. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. T) as above but specifies the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. intercept. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. 25). args is the number of cycles. sf. 256. [s. 2). See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. 256. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.CHAPTER 2. sf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are pitch (distance between centres). args is the number of cycles. binary dot pattern. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles.sd. args is the number of cycles. sd and sdd are n-vectors. square side length.

Notes • If no output arguments are specified the result is displayed. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2. Y and Z axes respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. The 3 angles rpy=[R.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.P. [theta.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. See also angvec2r. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).

then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. If T has three dimensions. y. • The validity of R is not checked. – If TR is 3 × 3.z]. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. See also rt2tr. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. ie. r2t. See also rpy2tr.y. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.:. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.

if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [o1. or x and y.CHAPTER 2. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. [c1.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. each N × 1. An historical anomaly. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3).

troty. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent finite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. and displays in RPY format. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. f ‘label’. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotx. trotx.

mpq. See also upq poly.y0) is the centroid.(x-x0)p . the sum of I(x.CHAPTER 2. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq Central image moments m = upq(im.(y-y0)q where (x0. p. That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.y). Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly
Central polygon moments
m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes
• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the first and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also
upq, mpq poly, npq poly

usefig
a named figure or create a new figure
usefig(’Foo’) make figure ‘Foo’ the current figure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = usefig(’Foo’) as above, but returns the figure handle

vex
Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector
v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes
• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also
skew

xaxis
X-axis scaling
xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace
Display spectral locus
xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes
• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also
rg addticks

yaxis
Y-axis scaling
yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross
Zero-crossing detector
iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes
• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also
ilog

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isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to affine changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also sad. ssd. ssd. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. See also ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. sad. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd.

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