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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. is open-source. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. and I commend it to you. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. However the book “Robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . iblobs . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . ipixswitch . . . . . iproﬁle . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . norm2 . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . rt2tr . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . upq poly . .

You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. That’s what you your teachers. You need to signup in order to post.google. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. tutors. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and you will be suitably acknowledged.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.com.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. lecturers and professors are paid to do.

Corke}. Author = {P.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. The ﬁle robot.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.zip).6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.gz) or zip format (.3. 1. type of organization and application. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1. 1. Month = nov.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.petercorke.html on a server for class use. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. the table of content to functions. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. and the “See also” functions to each other. Year = {2005}. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Number = {4}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Volume = {12}. 1.1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.I. The details are @article{Corke05f.

this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.7.mathworks. and there are hundreds of modules available.. 1. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. MSER. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .I. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.1. P. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.6.Functions such as SURF. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.S. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.7 Acknowledgements Last. pp 16–25. Coimbra. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.vlfeat. Vincent Lepetit.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. 1.R. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. November 2005. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. Twente. VLFeat http://www. Corke.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. but not least. 12(4). 1994 University of British Columbia.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. SIGMA ‘pose’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. N ‘sensor’. Options ‘name’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. S ‘noise’. IM ‘resolution’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. N ‘image’. T ‘color’. S ‘centre’. used by all subclasses. Camera. P ‘pixel’.

Camera.char Convert to string s = C. CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.clf Clear the image plane C.centre Get camera position p = C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera Camera.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.display Display value C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.

char Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Camera. See also Camera.CHAPTER 2.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.v + c = 0.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera. C. Camera.u + b.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and off if H is false (or 0). otherwise false (0).

Camera. y.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. mkcube. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also mesh.T. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. z.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. cylinder. sphere. Options ‘Tobj’. y. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). uv = C.plot. y.plot(p.clf Camera.hold. Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. T ‘Tcam’. z to the image plane and plots them. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. The matrices x.mesh(x.

plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.mesh. ‘Tobj’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Overrides the current camera pose C.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tcam’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.CHAPTER 2.hold. ‘Tcam’. T ‘scale’. Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Camera.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. ‘fps’.T. Camera. T See also Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.clf Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.

y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted.p.CHAPTER 2.rpy(R. a subclass of Camera. p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy Set camera attitude C. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. C.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CHAPTER 2.C Camera matrix C = C. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.

CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S ‘noise’. N ‘sensor’.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”.and v-axes parallel to x. Reference Y. S ‘centre’.and y-axes respectively. SIGMA ‘pose’. 2003.Sastry. E = C. J. E = C. D ‘default’ ‘image’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. optical axis is z-axis. T ‘color’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.Soatto.E Essential matrix E = C. P ‘pixel’. F ‘distortion’. f=8mm.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.F. p. camera at origin. N ‘focal’. Springer. u.177 See also CentralCamera.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).Kosecka. IM ‘resolution’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. 10um pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.8]) See also Camera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. CatadioptricCamera. S.

from two viewpoints.E CentralCamera.Soatto. J. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. n.Sastry.Kosecka. S. 2003.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Reference Y.H CentralCamera. p. “An invitation to 3D”. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).F Fundamental matrix F = C.Ma.H Homography matrix H = C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. Springer. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. F = C.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.177 See also CentralCamera.H(T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.

fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Moreno-Noguer. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Journal on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Feb.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Lepetit. a = C. F.estpose(xyz.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. 2009.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. CentralCamera. 81.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.CHAPTER 2. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera. vol.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Int. 155-166. and P.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. pp. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Fua. V.

259 Y.Soatto. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Reference Y.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. section 5. translation not to scale • n. 2003. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. Springer.invE(E. s. p116. J. See also CentralCamera.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Chap 9.Ma. J. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”. Springer. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Kosecka.CHAPTER 2.Sastry. “Multiview Geometry”.Ma.E CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”.Kosecka. s.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Sastry. p.Soatto. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.

plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. H = C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. See also Hough CentralCamera.T. p.project(p. CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.CHAPTER 2. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. C.H CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. one per line. ‘Tcam’. ‘Tobj’.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

Rives. Chaumette. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 8. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.c. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. “Multiview Geometry”. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. F.b. 313-326. Espiau. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.CHAPTER 2. vol. and P. See also Camera. pp. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. June 1992.plot CentralCamera.visjac e(E. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. Reference B.

Vol 12(5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. R&A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. 8.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. pp 651-670. CentralCamera. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. IEEE Trans.visjac p(uv. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pp.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. Hager & Corke. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p polar. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Chaumette. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Espiau. 1996. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Reference B. See also CentralCamera.visjac l(L. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).c. June 1992. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. 313-326. Oct. vol. and P. Hutchinson. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac p.visjac p. Rives. CentralCamera.b. F.

visjac p polar. and F. P.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Louis).visjac p polar(rt. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. (St. I. radius and theta.CHAPTER 2. Chaumette. 5962-5967. in Proc. Corke. Spindler. See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. F. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac l. 2009. pp.visjac p.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). CentralCamera.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac l. Oct. Int. CentralCamera.

Int. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Nov.60. Journal on Computer Vision. vol. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. PointFeature. 2004. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. See also isift. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.91-110.Lowe. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. See README. ScalePointFeature.SIFT.

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale Plot feature scale F.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.match(f2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.match Match SIFT point features m = F. 0=transparent (default 0. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F.plot scale(options.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 1=opaque. C ‘alpha’. See also isift SiftPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. [out.support Support region of feature out = F.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.T] = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(im.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

T ‘Tcam’. S ‘pose’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.project(p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Options ‘name’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. CentralCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ﬁsheyecamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’. Overrides the current camera pose C.T. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). N ‘pixel’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. See also SphericalCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

scalar for If null take actual value all points.5) target center . error. of 4-vector. The camera view.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. camera pose.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . error norm. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.01) . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .CHAPTER 2. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.center of the target in world coords (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The external view. The camera view. image plane size and desired feature locations. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number.depth of points to use for Jacobian.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . defaults in parentheses: target size .the side length of the target in world units (0. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.gain. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.

pp.visjac l. (Anchorage). or a vector (N × 1) for each point. for all points. 5550-5555. CentralCamera. Corke.visjac p polar.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .depth of points to use for Jacobian.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. May 3-7 2010.the side length of the target in world units (0. Jacobian condition number. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.CHAPTER 2. The external view. P.gain.visjac p(pt. error norm.01) .5) target center . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Robotics and Automation. in Proc.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . image plane size and desired feature locations. I. See also CentralCamera.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .0. camera pose. CentralCamera. defaults in parentheses: target size . z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).center of the target in world coords (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Conf. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. error. IEEE Int.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. of 4-vector.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. No. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 3. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Vol. Luc Van Gool.CHAPTER 2. Andreas Ess. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. 110.

options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. v. [m. Options ‘thresh’. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ScalePointFeature.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. PointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.C] = F. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].

w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.2) SurfPointFeature. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. 0=transparent (default 0. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im. [out.plot scale(options. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(im. out = F. F.plot scale Plot feature scale F.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support(images. 1=opaque. C ‘alpha’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.T] = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.

Video AxisWebCamera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. G ‘scale’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2.com) web camera.com).axis. S ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. otherwise the result is not predictable.

char Convert to string A.close Close the image source A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. AxisWebCamera.

Sivic and A.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.Zisserman. Conf. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. on Computer Vision.1470-1477. Ninth IEEE Int. f can also be a cell array. pp.CHAPTER 2. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.org). b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. 2003. Oct. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. in Proc. b = BagOfWords(f.

display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars(w. images.contains Find images containing word k = B.CHAPTER 2. See also BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.exemplars display exemplars of words B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. BagOfWords.char BagOfWords. BagOfWords.display Display value B.char Convert to string s = B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.

n] = B. Options ‘ncolumns’. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. M ‘width’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.remove stop Remove stop words B.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords. N ‘maxperimage’.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.isword Features from words f = B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. subclass of Camera.

CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

10um pixels. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘equisolid’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. optical axis is z-axis. A ‘resolution’.T. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘sine’.and y-axes respectively. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. See also Camera. N ‘sensor’. u. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . K ‘maxangle’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.and v-axes parallel to x. camera at origin.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. P ‘pixel’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.CHAPTER 2. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default).project(p. T ‘Tcam’. S ‘centre’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. See also Camera. f=8mm. M ‘k’. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’. CatadioptricCamera. SIGMA ‘pose’. ﬁsheyecamera.

See also PointFeature. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. SurfPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.CHAPTER 2. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. such as ScalePointFeature.

char Convert to string s = M. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display Display value M. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. m = FeatureMatch(f1.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also PointFeature. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SurfPointFeature. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. f2. one per element. See also FeatureMatch.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.

inlier Inlier features m2 = M. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.CHAPTER 2.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.v2].u2.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch.v1.outlier.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier.

p1.p2 FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p2.plot() M.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .im2}) m. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p1. FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.plot Show corresponding points M. These are the (u.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.

See also idisp FeatureMatch. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. 1e-4). homography. m = f1.ransac Apply RANSAC M.ransac(func. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.ransac( @fmatrix. See also fmatrix. m. ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. Example f1 = isurf(im1). f2 = isurf(im2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.

that is.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. v.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.

optical axis is z-axis. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. camera at origin. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. ‘equisolid’. ‘sine’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. M ‘k’. u. S ‘centre’. f=8mm. K ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. N ‘sensor’.axes respectively. SIGMA ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). P ‘pixel’.and v-axes are parallel to x. 10um pixels. Options ‘name’.and y. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘noise’.

The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project(p. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. CentralCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.T. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Options ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera. See also FishEyeCamera. T ‘Tcam’.

See also LineFeature Hough. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. A horizontal line has theta = 0.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. The voting array is 2-dimensional.0) and the line. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.H). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.

display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Set ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. T ‘edgethresh’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value HT. Nrho]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. W ‘nbins’.CHAPTER 2. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.edgeThresh.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.houghThresh (default 0. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Hough.edgeThresh (default 0. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Default 400 × 401.5) Set ht. else N = [Ntheta. See also Hough. W ‘houghthresh’.1). Hough. T ‘suppress’.

CHAPTER 2.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot(n.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. H = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. L = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot Plot line features HT.lines Hough. The highest peak is found. HT. See also Hough. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . reﬁned to subpixel precision. See also Hough. HT. LineFeature Hough.lines Find lines L = HT.plot. then all elements in an HT.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. RegionFeature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. theta.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value L. strength. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LENGTH is undeﬁned. L = LineFeature(rho. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. See also LineFeature. LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.char Convert to string s = L. one per element. theta. L = LineFeature(rho.

plot Plot line L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. l2 = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength(edge.plot() overlay the line on current plot. l2 = L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).points Return points on line segments p = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.CHAPTER 2. LineFeature. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. See also icanny LineFeature. Small gaps.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

S ‘skip’.close() closes the connection to the movie. Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string M.CHAPTER 2.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com). Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.close Close the image source M. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.axis. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. G ‘scale’.

F Skip frames. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph create an n-d. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.CHAPTER 2.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vid • edges are represented by integer ids. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. S ‘frame’. planar.

distance(v1.add node(coord. v2) g.next(v) g.component(v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.coord(v) g.plot() g.connectivity() g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). return vid add vertex and edge to v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.path(v) set goal vertex.CHAPTER 2.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .neighbours(v) g. Object properties (read/write) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. v) g.add edge(v1. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.add node(coord) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.cost(e) g.goal(v) g.clear() add vertex.edges(e) g.

v = G. and returns the node id v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where x is D × 1.CHAPTER 2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. and returns the edge id E. E = G. Options ‘distance’.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add edge(v1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add edge(v1. v. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add node(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. PGraph. v2. v = G. PGraph.add node(x. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.

coord Coordinate of node x = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.clear Clear the graph G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph. edges and components.d] = G.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph. PGraph. D × 1. and the distance d.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.char Convert graph to string s = G. [v.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.closest Find closest node v = G. of node id v.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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char Convert to string s = F. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. PointFeature. SurfPointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. See also ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.CHAPTER 2.display Display value F. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. [m. where 1 is perfect match. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.C] = F.CHAPTER 2.char PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘thresh’. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match Match point features m = F.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match(f2.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. PointFeature.

CHAPTER 2.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot Plot feature F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon . miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. http://puddle.area() is the area of the polygon. intersection. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Pankratov. union.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. p = Polygon(C.mit. Polygon. difference.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Polygon. one column per vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.html and require a licence. HEIGHT]. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. kirill@plume.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.edu.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.char String representation s = P.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. so use with care. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P.

intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns coordinates of P.CHAPTER 2. See also Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Polygon. else 0.char Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.display Display polygon P.

intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. returns empty polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P.CHAPTER 2.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. See also mpq poly Polygon.moments(p. y1 y2].perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. each column is [x y]’.

Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.union Union of polygons i = P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot() plot the polygon. Polygon. P.

Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

display Display value R.E] = R. Ray3D.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.E] = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. [x.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also Ray3D. [x.

vertical coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.c. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.0) 1 for a circle. horizontal coordinate centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.b. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.

char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. RegionFeature.char Convert to string s = R.th] = R. See also iblobs. RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. For example R.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. one per element. imoments RegionFeature.xmax.box Return bounding box b = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. ymax].CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymin.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R. RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot boundary plot boundary R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.display Display value R.and xmarkers. See also RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

plot box Plot bounding box R.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.

f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options. v. strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. SurfPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. 0=transparent (default 0.CHAPTER 2. F. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also PointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. C ‘alpha’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=opaque. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. C.CHAPTER 2. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. T ‘movie’. options) is a new tracker object. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. See also PointFeature Tracker.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. N ‘thresh’. one per active track. A complete history of all tracks is maintained.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. Options ‘radius’. R ‘nslots’.

Tracker.display Display value T.char Convert to string s = T.plot Show feature trajectories T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. See also Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Tracker.

and their characteristics is displayed. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Movie Video. AxisWebCamera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. otherwise the result is not predictable. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

close Close the image source V.close() closes the connection to the camera.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char Convert to string V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. Video. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. color. right. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle.CHAPTER 2. By default the left image is red. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If th1 is a column vector. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. and the right image is cyan. if negative it is reduced. the ﬁrst for left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. a = anaglyph(left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). right.

[x. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.CHAPTER 2. 6500). p = bresenham(p1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. If lambda is a column vector. y1. % emission of sun plot(l. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. See also RegionFeature. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y2].s] = boundmatch(R1.boundary. x2.y1] and p2=[x2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. Endpoints must be integer.y1) to (x2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.Y. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. [C. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.CHAPTER 2.

R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. that is. [k. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. green and blue primaries respectively. R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). Options ‘n’.d1] = closest(a. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. x = circle(C. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.CHAPTER 2. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. k = closest(a. and x is N × 3. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).

3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). 19000 (526.d1. since. As noted in footnote a on p. 335 of Table 1(5.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. (Table 1(5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). and 22500 (444.16).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.5. • From Table I(5.ucl. they were measured directly.32). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.5. while Table I(5.d2] = closest(a. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ac.5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. The data are referred to as pilot data. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ioo.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ioo. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.M). E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uk See also cmfrgb.ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize is a 2-vector (N. out = col2im(pix.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .CHAPTER 2. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im.

The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. k. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.G. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. See also imono. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. im<100. func. out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. [L.CHAPTER 2. mask. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.C] = colorkmeans(im. @isnan. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. @isnan. eg.B). and returns a per-pixel logical result. icolor. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.

Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. low is good. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. L = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. eg. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. k) as above but also returns the residual R. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. XYZ = colorname(name.C. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.CHAPTER 2. name = colorname(XYZ. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R] = colorkmeans(im. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.

and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.CHAPTER 2.i2.o2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. s = ‘src->dest’.o3] = colorspace(s. colorspace(s. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. it can be omitted. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.txt. s = ‘dest<-src’. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. [o1. • Color space names are case insensitive. Input and output images have 3 planes. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. or alternatively. i1.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. double data is the natural choice. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.

100). B = rand(400.200). However.2*A. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. • If im is an M × 3 array. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.CHAPTER 2. out will also have size M × 3. d = distance(A.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . like a colormap. for memory and computational performance. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B). Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. Example A = rand(400.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. bunschot@wins.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. in matrix coordinate frame. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. E = edgelist(im. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.y).CHAPTER 2.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.j). Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . non zero is counter-clockwise. non-zero is an object. not image frame. Tested: PC Matlab v5. seed. University of Amsterdam. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. The result E is a matrix.uva.3. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.(+31)20-5257524. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. tel.

Author Based on fmatrix code by. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Oct 27. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. one per line drawn. I. See also fmatrix. p1. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.S. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p. H = epiline(f. p. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). epiline(f. See also epiline. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Coimbra. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. 1998.R.CHAPTER 2.

and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. epiline. The University of Western Australia. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. • Contains a RANSAC driver. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. http://www. c. that is. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). p2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. homography. Notes • The points must be corresponding. that is.uwa. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. it is singular.CHAPTER 2. page 270. • f is a rank 2 matrix. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.au/. which means it can be passed to ransac().csse. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.edu. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ransac. no outlier rejection is performed. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.

y2). x2.CHAPTER 2. itriplepoint. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.y1) and (x2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also imorph. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. ithin. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y1.

p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. which means it can be passed to ransac(). fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. The University of Western Australia. See also ransac.CHAPTER 2.uwa. invhomog. Notes • The points must be corresponding. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.au/. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.edu.csse. no outlier rejection is performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. http://www. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. S output image contains all the warped pixels. S ‘dimension’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. ie. im.CHAPTER 2.offs] = homwarp(H. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. that is tp=T*T1. itrim. R ‘scale’. [out. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. D ‘size’. See also homography. See also e2h. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. V ‘roi’.

See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. 1962. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. Hu. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IRE Trans. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ianimate(im. ’gs’). features. ’nfeat’. IT-8:pp.CHAPTER 2. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features. 179-187. 200). Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. on Information Theory. ianimate(seq.

iblobs features f = iblobs(im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). N ‘only’.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. iharris. YMIN YMAX]. M ‘npoints’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX.

[A1.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. A set pixel aspect ratio. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [S1. ilabel. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle. C set connectivity.0 ‘connect’. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. horizontal coordinate centroid.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. default 1.

n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. se.CHAPTER 2. 1996-7. out = iclose(im. See also iopen.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘th0’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. T ‘th1’. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. See also isobel. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Tel Aviv University. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.

Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. See also imono. C = icolor(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [0 1 1]).CHAPTER 2.u] = iconcat(im. colorize. The images do not have to be of the same size. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. [C.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. D ‘bgval’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. iconcat(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Options ‘dir’.

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. options) convolves im1 with im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. im2.CHAPTER 2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.

The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. E ‘suppress’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. CM ‘cminthresh’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. N ‘detector’. K ‘patch’. D ‘k’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. S ‘deriv’.CHAPTER 2. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector has zero mean and unit norm. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. CT ‘edgegap’. D ‘sigma’. R ‘nfeat’.

Proc. with a delay of 0. Tomasi. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.d] = icp(p1. Options ‘dplot’. IEEE Computer Society. 593-593. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. See also PointFeature. J. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. with a delay of d [sec]. Harris and M. C. J. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. N ‘mindelta’. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. [T. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. T ‘distthresh’. vol..121-128. where * denotes squared and smoothed.5 [sec].J. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.6. T ‘maxiter’.Noble. Manchester. • “Good features to track”. 1994. May 1988. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 1988. pp 147-151. Shi and C. p2. pp. • “Finding corners”. p2. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Proc. Image and Vision Computing. Stephens.G.CHAPTER 2. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.

s = idecimate(im.McKay. pp. P.CHAPTER 2. Pattern Anal. 2. each plane is decimated. s = idecimate(im.. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Intell. no. See also iscale. m. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Feb. 239-256. vol. 1992. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Mach. IEEETrans.Besl and H. m. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.or 3-dimensional. 14.

• The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. negative is red. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. C ‘xydata’. positive is blue. zero is black. negative is red. zero is white color map: random values. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. positive is blue. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. XY ‘colormap’. If im is a cell array of images.CHAPTER 2. histogram and zooming. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. linear proﬁle. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. Options ‘ncolors’.and y-axes respectively. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. darker than ‘grey’. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. If the image is zoomed. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top.

iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colormap. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. caxis. icolorize. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. See also image. idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. See also iblobs. labels. labelimage. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labelimage. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. See also itriplepoint.2.CHAPTER 2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.45.

m] = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. pp. Huttenlocher. L = igraphseg(im. P. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 100.jpg’). See also ithresh. Int. 2004. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Journal on Computer Vision. min. min. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 2006.5). 1500. [l. min is the minimum region size (pixels). k is the scale parameter. [L. 167181.CHAPTER 2.m] = igraphseg(im. k. 59. vol. 0. Example im = iread(’58060. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Felzenszwalb and D. k. Sept. k. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.5).

’normcdf’). options) displays the image histogram.CHAPTER 2. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. [h. plot(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. bar(x. [H. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.h).x] = ihist(im).x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im.h). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. y1. x1.CHAPTER 2.y1) and bottom-right (x2. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.m. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. [L.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. ii is a precomputed integral image. [L. y2. same size as im. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.

out = iline(im.maxlabel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. otherwise it does not. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. The pixels on the line are set to 1.maxlabel. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .parents.class. p1. p2. [L. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. • This is a “low level” function. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. ilabel(im. See also iblobs.parents. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. each a 2-vector [X.Y]. iproﬁle. 8).edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. eg. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.

centred at (x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. The return value is xm=[DX.y). More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. ymax] relative to (x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x. w2.CC] where (DX. H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2.score] = imatch(im1. x.y) and its half-width is H. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. a perfect match score is 1.y).and y-offsets relative to (x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.DY. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. The template in im1 is centred at (x. im2. im2. -s.DY) are the x. [xm. s] % relative to (x. s. ymin. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. and columns the vertical position. xmax. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. y. • ZNCC matching is used. y. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.y) and of size s.

v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . effectively a greyscale image.CHAPTER 2. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(w. All pixels are equally weighted. [u. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].u) = u and v(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.u) = v. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image.

vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. m20.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2.CHAPTER 2. See also RegionFeature. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m10. m01. icolor. Different conversion functions are supported. m02. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. ilabel. the elements are m00. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m11. or its area. horizontal coordinate centroid. • This function does not perform connectivity.

2004. Image and Vision Computing. ’grey’. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Sept.m] = imser(im.png’. se. pp. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Urban. Pajdla.m] = imser(im. O. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. and T. 22. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. ’double’). [label. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Matas. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. vol.CHAPTER 2. Chum. ’light’). m. The labels [L. J. 761767.org). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.

igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.CHAPTER 2. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.ˆ2). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.

that is n erosions followed by n dilations. This is an erosion followed by dilation. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. See also iclose. se. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. sides. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.CHAPTER 2. ’tblr’. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im1. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise im2 is selected. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ’t’.V]. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2. p. 10. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 20.

See also bresenham. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) for the corresponding row of p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. [p. p1. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.uv] = iproﬁle(im.

See also iscalespace. out = imorph(image. ones(5. 1. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.2) = 0. im > irank(im. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. The highest rank. idecimate. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. is order=1. se). se(2. op.3). op. the maximum. order. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se. 12. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. nbins. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = ipyramid(im. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. se. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.CHAPTER 2. out = ipyramid(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.5)). sigma. out = imorph(image.

CHAPTER 2. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. vmin vmax]. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. where R=[umin umax. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also imorph. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. im = iread(ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. ivar. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). R ‘roi’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value.

See also FeatureMatch. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.out2] = irectify(f. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. Notes • Color images are not supported. m. homwarp. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im1. im1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.out2. imono. [out1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). igamma. istereo. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.h1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imwrite.h2] = irectify(f. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. m.CHAPTER 2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.

R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.vmax]. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. vmin.umax. angle. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. V ‘smooth’. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.vmin vmax].H] return central part of image. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. Options ‘outsize’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. See also idisp.CHAPTER 2. [out. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. S ‘extrapval’.

See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s>1 makes the image larger. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.CHAPTER 2. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. V ‘smooth’. bias<0. Options ‘outsize’. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 is symmetric cropping.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s ‘extrapval’. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. out = isamesize(im1. while bias>0. im2.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s<1 makes it smaller. bias=0.

L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. idecimate. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN).L. [g.s] = iscalespace(im. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in space and scale. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. n. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.CHAPTER 2. n) as above but sigma=1.s] = iscalespace(im. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. corresponding to each step of the sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. See also iscalespace.L.

ishomog(T. ismooth. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. that is. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. See also isrot. ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ‘valid’) as above. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. it its third dimension is equal to three.CHAPTER 2. else false (0).

N ‘suppress’. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 2 (2004). • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. Reference David G. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 60. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. isurf. 91-110. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.CHAPTER 2. pp. Lowe. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Features are returned in descending strength order. International Journal of Computer Vision.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. See also SiftPointFeature. • ISURF is a functional equivalent.

H. zsad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. See also imatch.CHAPTER 2. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. s = isimilarity(T. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. @ssd. zssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @zssd. ncc. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. ssd. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. and these output pixels are set to NaN. s is same size as im. [w. @zsad. sad. im. @ncc. [w.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im.

[gx. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.CHAPTER 2. sigma.gy] = isobel(im. convolved. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. then converted back to integer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. See also iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.

H is the half size of the matching window. imr. else false (0). range. That is. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. H. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. range is the disparity search range.M] for an N × M window. See also ksobel.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. icanny.u). which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. w. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [d. ‘valid’) as above. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. imr. See also ishomog. isrot(R. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. range.u) means that imr(v. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. the disparity d=d(v. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.sim] = istereo(iml.

B. [d.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. Options ‘metric’. imr.p] = istereo(iml. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. range. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. [d. imr. p. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.sim. That is. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).dsi] = istereo(iml. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. 3) See also irectify. ‘ncc’.sim. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.5 to +0. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.A and p. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. dx. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. out = istretch(im. • sim = max(dsi.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. w.CHAPTER 2. range. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).5).dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.

Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Notes • Color images. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. T ‘octaves’. Kroon (U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. N ‘thresh’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark.CHAPTER 2. or sequences. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time.

110. itriplepoint. Andreas Ess. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Otherwise false (0). 3. isift. Tinne Tuytelaars. Vol. No.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 346–359. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Luc Van Gool. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay.or columnvector. else false (0). isvec(v. pp. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. either a row. See also ishomog. See also hitormiss. out = ithin(im.

• For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.5.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. a lower value will include more.CHAPTER 2. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. [out1. The same cropping is applied to each input image.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. The default is 0.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. See also homwarp. ithresh(im.out2] = itrim(im1.im2. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. Notes • Greyscale image only.out2] = itrim(im1.

ithin. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. hence output image had reduced dimensions. See also iendpoint.CHAPTER 2. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. se. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. op. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point.

hence output image had reduced dimensions. @max). ones(5. func.3). The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. @std). se. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. See also ivar. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5). func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.CHAPTER 2. out = iwindow(image. ones(3. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.

k = kcircle(R. dG/dx. See also ones. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. ktriangle. is k’. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. • The vertical derivative. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. k = kdgauss(sigma. See also kgauss. klog. kdog. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. dG/dy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.

By default SIGMA2 = 1. kdgauss. See also kdgauss. See also kgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. kdog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. klog. k = kdog(sigma1.6*sigma1. klog. where sigma1 > SIGMA2.CHAPTER 2. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kgauss(sigma.

and W=2 × H+1. iconv. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. kdog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also kgauss. kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ilaplace. k = klog(sigma.

C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.C] = kmeans(x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it is assumed to have been completed previously. L = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. k. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. Pattern Recognition Principles. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.C] = kmeans(x.CHAPTER 2. k. and D is the dimension. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). [L.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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[x.z] = mkcube(s. ‘edge’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. symmetric about the origin.y. s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. C ‘T’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. See also cylinder. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).z] = mkcube(s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.CHAPTER 2. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The points are the columns of p. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. [x. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.y. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. Options ‘T’.

npq. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. the sum of I(x. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. or y(:.yq . MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. y) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(t. y. n) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(t. or y(:.y). That is. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. n. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. y. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.xp . upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also mpq poly. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.CHAPTER 2. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. p.2)).2)).

q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. they are considered to be a single vertex. so centroids will be still be correct. p. npq poly. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq poly.CHAPTER 2.

• w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. idisp(im >= t). isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Example t = niblack(im.s] = niblack(im. for example. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.CHAPTER 2. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. where W=2*w2+1. [T. Prentice-Hall. -0. in text segmentation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. 1986. sad. ssd. k.m. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the height of a character. See also zncc. k. W. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. T has the same dimensions as im. niblack. • A common choice of k=-0.2. 20).

0). b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. See also npq poly. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.p. That is UPQ(im.0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.q)/MPQ(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.

See also mpq poly.CHAPTER 2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. upq. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered as a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. mpq.

N. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y.i] = peak(y. otsu IEEE Trans. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Systems. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. [yp. [yp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. x. Jan 1979. Example t = otsu(im).xp] = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.CHAPTER 2. idisp(im >= t).

options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.S points. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’.ij] = peak2(z. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. [zp. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. use peak(-V).S points.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Typically choose N to be odd. use peak2(-V). S ‘interp’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.

Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot.CHAPTER 2. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ie. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. If p has three dimensions. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. See also pnmﬁlt. plot2(p.

Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ’LineWidth’. x2. plot_circle(c. r. ’fillcolor’. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. R. 1=solid.CHAPTER 2. P. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. P. ‘r’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’b’). plot_circle(c. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’edgecolor’.y1. value pairs that are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. r. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. Examples plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.y2. or a set of name. r. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ‘size’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’g’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. W. 5). ‘size’.y1) and (x2. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ’r’). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. W.y2). ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. PLOT BOX(x1. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.

with Matlab line style ls. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.CHAPTER 2. xc. Options ‘color’.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.Y. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. c Specify color of the axes.Y]. C. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. If C=[X. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles. centred at the origin. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . current plot.

fmt. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. Options ‘textcolor’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. options) adds point markers to a plot. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. n ‘text opts’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’name’. ’r’. ’color’. ‘framename’.X = 0. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. to ‘view’. ’r’). ‘printf’. trplot( T. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L.

Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. NOTES • The sphere is always added. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque.CHAPTER 2. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. either a letter or 3-vector. 1=solid. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. The default is 1. patch. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. color. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state.

CHAPTER 2. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plotp(p. See also pgmﬁlt. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. See also plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.CHAPTER 2. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. [gr.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.gt] = radgrad(im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.

T.resid] = ransac(func.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘maxTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. T. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. one column per point pair. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.in] = ransac(func. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated.in. N ‘maxDataTrials’. x. d) as above but elements increment by d. [m. x. x. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T. [m. x typically contains corresponding point data.

out.A.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.out. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. References • m. If multiple models are found out.misc private data (cell array) out. Assoc. that is.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.inlier.x) condition the point data out. [out.theta] = ERR(R. that is they will produce a model. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.x.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. [out.theta and the subset of R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.C.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.theta = []. Comm.s sample size (1 × 1) out.theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.. Mach.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .R.x.x = CONDITION(R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. Cambridge University Press.CHAPTER 2. they detect a structure argument.theta.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. Fishler and R. Vol 24.x data to work on.s out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. pp 381-395. No 6.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.theta to the points R.resid] = EST(R. Comp. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.misc element. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. pp 101-113. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .theta is a cell array. Boles.theta = DECONDITION(R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.x and returns the best model out.t threshold (1 × 1) R.

If lambda is a vector. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse.edu. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.CHAPTER 2. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. See also roty. roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx.

pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R.CHAPTER 2. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch. Y. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. T = rpy2tr(roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. • many texts (Paul. Z axes respectively. See also tr2rpy. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. If roll.

T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ssd.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. y. ncc.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. r2t. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. theta) as above where xy=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsad. and rotation theta in the plane.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.

i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.CHAPTER 2. sad. Two cross-hairs are created. See also zsdd.

then R is 3 × 3. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. opt. – If T is 3 × 3. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .foo = true. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. The software pattern is: function(a. b. opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. varargin) opt. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.choose = {’this’.CHAPTER 2. It supports options that have an assigned value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. c. tr2rt. ’that’. then R is 2 × 2.blah = []. ’other’}.bar = false.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt.

y sets opt. x.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.foo <. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.CHAPTER 2.true sets opt.1. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.choose <. If neither of ‘this’. varargin). ’#yes’}. opt = tb_optparse(opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.debug <.select <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.‘this’.N sets opt <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.y ‘that’ sets opt. varargin). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.false ‘blah’.blah <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.x.blah <.select <.verbose <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.3 ‘blah’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.foo <.select = {’#no’. args) creates a test pattern image. N ‘setopt’.choose <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. 3 sets opt.

args are theta (rad). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. a line. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. binary dot pattern.sd. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’.sd. square side length. sd and sdd are n-vectors. The trajectory s. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 256. args is the number of cycles. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sf. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial.sdd] = tpoly(s0.CHAPTER 2. intercept. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. [s. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 25). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 256. binary square pattern. dot diameter. sf. args are pitch (distance between centres). 50. 2).

P. Y and Z axes respectively. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). [theta. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The 3 angles rpy=[R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. See also angvec2r. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). rpy = tr2rpy(R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.

:. r2t. • The validity of R is not checked. – If TR is 3 × 3. See also rpy2tr. ie. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. If T has three dimensions. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.z]. See also rt2tr.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.CHAPTER 2. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.y. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.

See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.CHAPTER 2.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). [o1.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. each N × 1. or x and y. [c1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. An historical anomaly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. troty.

trotx. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. f ‘label’. and displays in RPY format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx.CHAPTER 2. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’.

q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. mpq. See also upq poly. p.CHAPTER 2.y0) is the centroid. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy. That is.y). the sum of I(x.(x-x0)p .(y-y0)q where (x0.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. See also ncc. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. sad. ssd. ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.

ncc. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. See also sdd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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