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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. is open-source. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This is extravagant on storage. However the book “Robotics. and I commend it to you. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . PointFeature . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . 1. . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lecturers and professors are paid to do. You need to signup in order to post.com.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.google. and you will be suitably acknowledged. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. tutors. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That’s what you your teachers. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.

1.petercorke.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. The ﬁle robot. Number = {4}.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.gz) or zip format (. The details are @article{Corke05f. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Author = {P.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.zip). Volume = {12}. Month = nov.I. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). and the “See also” functions to each other. the table of content to functions.1.html on a server for class use.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. 1.3. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. type of organization and application. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Corke}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Year = {2005}.

6. Twente.I.. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R. but not least. P. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. Vincent Lepetit. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.7. MSER. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. and there are hundreds of modules available. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. 1.1. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.Functions such as SURF. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. VLFeat http://www.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.S. Coimbra. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.7 Acknowledgements Last.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. 1. pp 16–25.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Corke. 12(4).mathworks. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.vlfeat. 1994 University of British Columbia.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. November 2005.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

used by all subclasses. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. N ‘image’. T ‘color’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. N ‘sensor’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Options ‘name’. P ‘pixel’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.

display Display value C.delete Camera object destructor C. SphericalCamera Camera. CatadioptricCamera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.CHAPTER 2.centre Get camera position p = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.char Convert to string s = C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).

ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera. See also Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.v + c = 0. otherwise false (0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.CHAPTER 2.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.u + b.char Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

plot Plot points on image plane C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). Camera. uv = C. Camera. y.T. mkcube. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. cylinder.hold.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. The matrices x. Camera. See also mesh. sphere. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. y. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2.plot. z. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. T ‘Tcam’.plot(p.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.mesh(x. z to the image plane and plots them.clf Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. y. Camera.

point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. ‘fps’. T See also Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera.CHAPTER 2. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.T.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Overrides the current camera pose C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.clf Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. T ‘scale’.hold. Camera. ‘Tobj’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.mesh.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted. C.rpy(R. p.y].CHAPTER 2.p.rpy Set camera attitude C. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. that is. a subclass of Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C Camera matrix C = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. ﬁsheyecamera.Kosecka. SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘distortion’.and y-axes respectively. Springer. Reference Y. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. 10um pixels.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. E = C.CHAPTER 2. J. P ‘pixel’.and v-axes parallel to x.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. p. T ‘color’. camera at origin. S. “An invitation to 3D”. u. 2003.8]) See also Camera.F. CatadioptricCamera. optical axis is z-axis. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. D ‘default’ ‘image’. E = C. S. N ‘sensor’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. f=8mm.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). CentralCamera.Soatto.Ma.Sastry. N ‘focal’.177 See also CentralCamera.E Essential matrix E = C. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.

K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. Springer. “An invitation to 3D”. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.H(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.E CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .F Fundamental matrix F = C.H CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Kosecka. See also CentralCamera.Sastry. p. J.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. Reference Y.H Homography matrix H = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.177 See also CentralCamera. 2003. n.Soatto.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. F = C. S.CHAPTER 2. from two viewpoints.Ma.

invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. V. 81. pp.estpose(xyz. Moreno-Noguer. Lepetit. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. F. a = C. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. vol. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Int.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Feb.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Fua. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. 155-166. Journal on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. and P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. See also quiver CentralCamera. 2009.

invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.Kosecka. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. “An invitation to 3D”. See also CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. J. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. Chap 9. Reference Y. translation not to scale • n.CHAPTER 2.invE(E. p116. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Springer. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Sastry. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. Springer.Sastry.E CentralCamera. 2003.Kosecka. s. J.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Soatto. p. s. “Multiview Geometry”. 259 Y.Ma. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. 2003. s.Soatto.Ma. section 5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.

plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. C. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’.plot epiline(f. ‘Tobj’.H CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. H = C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. one per line.project(p.plot epiline(f. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot epiline(f.T. See also Hough CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. CentralCamera. p.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Espiau. “Multiview Geometry”.plot CentralCamera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. June 1992. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.CHAPTER 2.b. See also Camera. 8.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. F. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Chaumette.visjac e(E.c. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Rives.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. vol. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 313-326. and P.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Reference B.

June 1992.b. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Reference B. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. See also CentralCamera.visjac p. 8. F. Hutchinson. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac l CentralCamera. Espiau. R&A. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. 313-326. Chaumette. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. pp.visjac l(L.visjac p. vol.c.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. CentralCamera. pp 651-670. IEEE Trans.visjac p polar. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. CentralCamera. Rives. and P.visjac p(uv.visjac e CentralCamera. 1996. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Hager & Corke. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2. Vol 12(5). Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Oct.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p polar. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.

Chaumette. Oct. Corke. CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p polar. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Int. pp.visjac l.visjac p polar(rt.visjac l. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. (St. See also CentralCamera.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. in Proc. F.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Louis).CHAPTER 2. P. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. CentralCamera. radius and theta.visjac p. 5962-5967. and F. Spindler. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. 2009. CentralCamera.

You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. pp.60.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Int. ScalePointFeature. See README. Journal on Computer Vision. 2004.SIFT.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. PointFeature. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isift. D. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.91-110. vol. Nov.Lowe. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

1=opaque.match(f2. See also isift SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. C ‘alpha’.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. SiftPointFeature. F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SIFT point features m = F. v. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

support Support region of feature out = F. [out. out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.CHAPTER 2.T] = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im.support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support(images. F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera.T.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘pose’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘name’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Options ‘Tobj’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’.

from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . scalar for If null take actual value all points. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The external view. defaults in parentheses: target size . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5) target center .01) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. error norm.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera view.the side length of the target in world units (0.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. error.0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. camera pose.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. of 4-vector. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. image plane size and desired feature locations. The camera view.CHAPTER 2.center of the target in world coords (0.gain.

a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . See also CentralCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. error. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. Jacobian condition number.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. P.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . I.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. of 4-vector. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.center of the target in world coords (0. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.01) . CentralCamera. error norm. Conf.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. May 3-7 2010.gain. defaults in parentheses: target size .the side length of the target in world units (0. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. in Proc. CentralCamera. for all points. IEEE Int. Corke. Robotics and Automation.5) target center . pp. (Anchorage). camera pose.CHAPTER 2. The external view.visjac p(pt.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. image plane size and desired feature locations. 5550-5555.visjac l. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac p polar. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.0.

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Andreas Ess. pp. 3. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 346–359. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Tinne Tuytelaars. Luc Van Gool.CHAPTER 2. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 110. Vol. No.

PointFeature.C] = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match(f2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. Options ‘thresh’. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.match(f2. v. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u. [m. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SURF point features m = F. ScalePointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2.

w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options.support(images.support(im. F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. out = F.support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.support Support region of feature out = F. 1=opaque.T] = F. C ‘alpha’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. [out.support(images.2) SurfPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. 0=transparent (default 0. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

axis.com). G ‘scale’.axis. otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com) web camera. Video AxisWebCamera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.char Convert to string A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.display AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.close() closes the connection to the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.

pp. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. on Computer Vision. f can also be a cell array. in Proc. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Zisserman. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. 2003. Ninth IEEE Int. b = BagOfWords(f. Oct.org). Conf. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.1470-1477. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.CHAPTER 2.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.Sivic and A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.

options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. images.display Display value B.exemplars(w. BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. isurf BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char Convert to string s = B. See also BagOfWords.

wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.CHAPTER 2. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. N ‘maxperimage’. Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. BagOfWords.n] = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . M ‘width’.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2.

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

and y-axes respectively.T. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CatadioptricCamera. ‘equisolid’.project(p. f=8mm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. S ‘noise’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. N ‘focal’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. 10um pixels. ‘sine’. SIGMA ‘pose’. K ‘maxangle’. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). See also Camera. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera.and v-axes parallel to x.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. optical axis is z-axis. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. N ‘sensor’. ﬁsheyecamera. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. S ‘centre’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. P ‘pixel’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. camera at origin. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. M ‘k’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . u. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. T ‘Tcam’. A ‘resolution’.

Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. See also PointFeature.

FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also PointFeature. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f2. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.char Convert to string s = M. FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also FeatureMatch.display Display value M. m = FeatureMatch(f1.

See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.outlier.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.v2]. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.v1.ransac FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u2.inlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.

p2 FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. These are the (u. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . These are the (u.p FeatureMatch.im2}) m.plot Show corresponding points M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.CHAPTER 2.FeatureMatch.p1.p1. FeatureMatch.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. homography. m. f2 = isurf(im2). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also fmatrix. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.match(f2).ransac Apply RANSAC M.CHAPTER 2. See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac(func.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. Example f1 = isurf(im1). Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac( @fmatrix.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. m = f1. ransac FeatureMatch. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). 1e-4).

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.

f=8mm. N ‘sensor’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Options ‘name’. S ‘centre’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera at origin.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. K ‘resolution’.axes respectively. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. M ‘k’.CHAPTER 2. ‘sine’. optical axis is z-axis.and v-axes are parallel to x. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. u. ‘equisolid’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). 10um pixels. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. S ‘noise’. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’.and y. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. See also FishEyeCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p.T. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’. See also Camera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.

a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.0) and the line. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).CHAPTER 2.H). The voting array is 2-dimensional. See also LineFeature Hough. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. A horizontal line has theta = 0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.

N All edge pixels have equal weight.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Default 400 × 401.char Convert to string s = HT.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘edgethresh’. Nrho]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.edgeThresh. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.edgeThresh (default 0.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. W ‘houghthresh’.CHAPTER 2. W ‘nbins’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Set ht.1). else N = [Ntheta. Hough. See also Hough. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.houghThresh (default 0.display Display value HT.5) Set ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. T ‘suppress’. Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.

ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.lines Find lines L = HT.plot Plot line features HT. The highest peak is found.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. reﬁned to subpixel precision.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. then all elements in an HT.CHAPTER 2. See also Hough. LineFeature Hough. H = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. See also Hough.plot(n. L = HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.lines Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. HT.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.

If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.display Display value L.char Convert to string s = L. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. See also LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength. L = LineFeature(rho. theta.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. LENGTH is undeﬁned. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. LineFeature. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.

less than gap pixels are tolerated. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. l2 = L. See also icanny LineFeature. L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). LineFeature.points Return points on line segments p = L. l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot line L. Small gaps.seglength(edge.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot() overlay the line on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.

Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie.com).Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. G ‘scale’. S ‘skip’.axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.close Close the image source M. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.char Convert to string M.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.

and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. planar. undirected graph create an n-d.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. F Skip frames. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. Options ‘skip’. S ‘frame’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

v) g.add node(coord) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add node(coord.distance(v1.goal(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add edge(v1. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.CHAPTER 2.cost(e) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.edges(e) g.clear() add vertex.plot() g.component(v) g.connectivity() g.coord(v) g. v2) g.next(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.path(v) set goal vertex.neighbours(v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). Object properties (read/write) g.

add node(x. and returns the node id v. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. where x is D × 1. and returns the edge id E.add edge(v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. PGraph. Options ‘distance’. v. v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CHAPTER 2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add edge(v1. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v2. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v = G. PGraph.add node(x. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. E = G.

clear Clear the graph G. PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. edges and components.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. D × 1.char Convert graph to string s = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.CHAPTER 2. and the distance d.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G. [v. PGraph. of node id v. PGraph.d] = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also ScalePointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. v. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f = PointFeature(u.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. one per element. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.char Convert to string s = F. PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. PointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

Options ‘thresh’.match(f2. [m.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match(f2.match Match point features m = F.char PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where 1 is perfect match. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.C] = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance.

plot Plot feature F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). Polygon .CHAPTER 2. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.

difference. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Pankratov. union.area Area of polygon a = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. so use with care.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. intersection. Polygon. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. p = Polygon(C.area() is the area of the polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.html and require a licence.CHAPTER 2. HEIGHT]. http://puddle. Polygon.edu.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Polygon. Polygon. kirill@plume.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.char String representation s = P. one column per vertex.

else 0.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.display Display polygon P. returns coordinates of P. See also Polygon.char Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .difference Difference of polygons d = P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.

each column is [x y]’.moments(p.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. returns empty polygon.CHAPTER 2.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. y1 y2]. See also mpq poly Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.

Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.union Union of polygons i = P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot() plot the polygon. P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot Plot polygon P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2.

Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.

intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Convert to string s = R. See also Ray3D.E] = R. [x. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char Ray3D. Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. [x.E] = R.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. one per element. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.CHAPTER 2.c. horizontal coordinate centroid. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle.b.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. vertical coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.

For example R.uc will be a list not a vector. RegionFeature.char Convert to string s = R.xmax. one per element.CHAPTER 2.box Return bounding box b = R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.th] = R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also iblobs. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. ymax].char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. imoments RegionFeature. RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. ymin.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Plot centroid R.and xmarkers. RegionFeature.display Display value R. R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. See also RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.char RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. It is indicated with overlaid o.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.

ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R. RegionFeature.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.CHAPTER 2. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength. C ‘alpha’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = ScalePointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.plot scale(options. f = ScalePointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. See also PointFeature. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 0=transparent (default 0. 1=opaque. v.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. ScalePointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature.

The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. R ‘nslots’. C. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. options) is a new tracker object.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. N ‘thresh’. T ‘movie’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. one per active track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.

char Convert to string s = T.plot Show feature trajectories T.display Display value T.CHAPTER 2. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. See also Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Tracker.char Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.

S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Movie Video. S ‘resolution’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and their characteristics is displayed.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. G ‘scale’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. AxisWebCamera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close Close the image source V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.char Convert to string V.

and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. if negative it is reduced. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. right. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). the second for right. color. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. By default the left image is red. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. the ﬁrst for left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. a = anaglyph(left. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the right image is cyan. If th1 is a column vector. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. right.CHAPTER 2. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters.

y1] and p2=[x2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. Endpoints must be integer. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a column vector. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. % emission of sun plot(l.boundary. 6500). T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. See also RegionFeature.y2]. x2. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.s] = boundmatch(R1. p = bresenham(p1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y1) to (x2. [x. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.CHAPTER 2. y1.

The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.Y. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.CHAPTER 2. [C.

[k. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. green and blue primaries respectively. R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. and x is N × 3.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘n’. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. x = circle(C. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. k = closest(a. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). that is.d1] = closest(a.

See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).32).16).CHAPTER 2.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5.5. they were measured directly.ioo.d2] = closest(a. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ac. The data are referred to as pilot data. 19000 (526.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.d1. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.ucl. As noted in footnote a on p. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. 335 of Table 1(5. and 22500 (444. since. while Table I(5. • From Table I(5.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. (Table 1(5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).

xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.uk See also cmfrgb. imsize is a 2-vector (N.M). imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. out = col2im(pix.ioo.ac. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ucl. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .CHAPTER 2.

ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im.G.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. mask. and returns a per-pixel logical result. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. @isnan. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.B). [L. See also imono. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. func. k. im<100. @isnan.CHAPTER 2. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. icolor. eg. out = colorize(im.

“?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.R] = colorkmeans(im. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. XYZ = colorname(name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. eg. low is good.CHAPTER 2. L = colorkmeans(im. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.C. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(XYZ. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. k) as above but also returns the residual R.

CHAPTER 2.o3] = colorspace(s.o2. or alternatively. s = ‘src->dest’. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. s = ‘dest<-src’.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. [o1. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • Color space names are case insensitive. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .txt. Input and output images have 3 planes. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. it can be omitted. i1. colorspace(s.i2. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. double data is the natural choice. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.

colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . like a colormap. out will also have size M × 3. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. B = rand(400.B). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. for memory and computational performance. • If im is an M × 3 array. Example A = rand(400. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.100).b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. d = distance(A. However.2*A.200).CHAPTER 2.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

y). The result E is a matrix. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. tel. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. in matrix coordinate frame. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. seed.uva. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. non zero is counter-clockwise.j). not image frame. E = edgelist(im.CHAPTER 2.3.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.(+31)20-5257524. University of Amsterdam. non-zero is an object. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Tested: PC Matlab v5. bunschot@wins.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.

R.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p. Author Based on fmatrix code by.S. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Oct 27. See also fmatrix. p. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also epiline. H = epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Coimbra. 1998. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. I.CHAPTER 2. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. one per line drawn. p1. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.

homography. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. • f is a rank 2 matrix. http://www. it is singular.csse. page 270. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.uwa. The University of Western Australia. no outlier rejection is performed. which means it can be passed to ransac(). epiline. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. Notes • The points must be corresponding. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.edu. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. See also ransac. that is. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. c. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. p2.CHAPTER 2. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.

ithin. x2.CHAPTER 2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. y1.y1) and (x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also imorph. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.y2). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. itriplepoint.

School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. See also ransac. The University of Western Australia. no outlier rejection is performed. which means it can be passed to ransac().csse.uwa. Notes • The points must be corresponding. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.edu. invhomog. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.au/. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.CHAPTER 2. http://www.

CHAPTER 2. See also e2h. V ‘roi’. im. D ‘size’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. [out. S ‘dimension’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . itrim. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.offs] = homwarp(H. im. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. See also homography. S output image contains all the warped pixels. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. that is tp=T*T1. ie.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. R ‘scale’. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions.

’gs’). Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. Hu. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 179-187. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ianimate(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. IT-8:pp. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. 1962. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. features.CHAPTER 2. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features. ’nfeat’. IRE Trans. on Information Theory. ianimate(seq. 200). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence.

The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). iharris. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. isurf.CHAPTER 2. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. N ‘only’. M ‘npoints’. YMIN YMAX]. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.

options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.0) 1 for a circle. vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. A set pixel aspect ratio. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.CHAPTER 2. ilabel. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C set connectivity.0 ‘connect’. [S1. [A1. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. horizontal coordinate centroid.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. default 1.

This is an dilation followed by erosion. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. S ‘th0’. See also iopen. 1996-7. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. T ‘th1’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im.CHAPTER 2. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also isobel. Tel Aviv University.

ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. iconcat(im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The images do not have to be of the same size. See also imono. colorize.u] = iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. D ‘bgval’. Options ‘dir’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. [C. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [0 1 1]).

Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. options) convolves im1 with im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2.CHAPTER 2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.

• The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. E ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘sigma’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CT ‘edgegap’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. R ‘nfeat’. N ‘detector’. D ‘k’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. K ‘patch’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. S ‘deriv’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default).CHAPTER 2.

show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. with a delay of d [sec]. Image and Vision Computing. pp. p2. T ‘maxiter’.6. IEEE Computer Society. Stephens. [T.Noble. where * denotes squared and smoothed.G. Proc. C. Shi and C.CHAPTER 2. J. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Options ‘dplot’. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor.121-128. 1994. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Harris and M. • “Finding corners”. Proc. May 1988.d] = icp(p1. vol. 1988. T ‘distthresh’. p2. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. pp 147-151. J. with a delay of 0.. Manchester. See also PointFeature. pp.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Tomasi. 593-593.J. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.5 [sec]. N ‘mindelta’. • “Good features to track”.

m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. m. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.McKay. m. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. See also iscale. s = idecimate(im. pp. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. 1992. each plane is decimated. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Intell. 14. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. s = idecimate(im. 239-256. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Feb. Mach. no. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. P. Pattern Anal.CHAPTER 2.or 3-dimensional.Besl and H. IEEETrans. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.. vol.

useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. histogram and zooming. zero is black. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x.CHAPTER 2. positive is blue. zero is white. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . XY ‘colormap’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. Options ‘ncolors’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. darker than ‘grey’. positive is blue. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. negative is red. zero is white color map: random values. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. negative is red. C ‘xydata’.and y-axes respectively. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. linear proﬁle. If the image is zoomed. If im is a cell array of images.

labels. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. See also image. icolorize. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. See also iblobs. labelimage. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labelimage.CHAPTER 2. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. idisplabel(im. caxis.

All pixels are raised to the power gamma.2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.45. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. See also itriplepoint. ithin. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).CHAPTER 2. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. out = igamma(im.

jpg’).5). L = igraphseg(im. Journal on Computer Vision. pp. vol. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 0. See also ithresh. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. 100. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. k. Huttenlocher. min is the minimum region size (pixels). [L. k.m] = igraphseg(im.5). 167181. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. k. Example im = iread(’58060. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. 59. 1500. Felzenszwalb and D. 2004. Sept. k is the scale parameter. P.CHAPTER 2. Int. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. min. min. [l. 2006.m] = igraphseg(im. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

[h. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.h).x] = ihist(im. plot(x. [H.x] = ihist(im. options) displays the image histogram. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.CHAPTER 2.h). H = ihist(im. ’normcdf’). options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bar(x.x] = ihist(im).

A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.y2). See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. y2. [L. y1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Region labels are in the range 1 to M. same size as im.y1) and bottom-right (x2. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. [L. x1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. ii is a precomputed integral image.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.CHAPTER 2. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.

class. p1. p2. • This is a “low level” function.parents. See also iblobs. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. 8). imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.maxlabel.parents.maxlabel. each a 2-vector [X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. p1. eg.Y]. ilabel(im. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. The pixels on the line are set to 1. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.CHAPTER 2. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. out = iline(im. iproﬁle.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. otherwise it does not.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. [L. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.

s] % relative to (x. ymin. y. ymax] relative to (x.score] = imatch(im1.y). • im1 and im2 must be the same size.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.DY) are the x. • ZNCC matching is used. im2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. xmax. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.y). im2.CHAPTER 2. a perfect match score is 1. x. H. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. • Is a MEX ﬁle. s. The return value is xm=[DX.DY.y) and of size s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. -s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.CC] where (DX. w2. [xm. centred at (x. The template in im1 is centred at (x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).y) and its half-width is H. and columns the vertical position.and y-offsets relative to (x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. x.

[u. v.u) = u and v(v. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. H) as above but the domain is w × H. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The element u(v. effectively a greyscale image.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.v] = imeshgrid(w. All pixels are equally weighted. [u. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.u) = v. f = imoments(u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.

m20. m10. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. icolor. • This function does not perform connectivity. horizontal coordinate centroid. Different conversion functions are supported. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m11. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. ilabel.CHAPTER 2. the elements are m00. m02.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. See also RegionFeature. m01. or its area.

imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing. 22. The labels [L. Urban. ’grey’. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. ’light’).m] = imser(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2004. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Pajdla.png’. 761767. Matas. [label.m] = imser(im. se. O. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Sept. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. vol.org). J. pp. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Chum.CHAPTER 2. ’double’). idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. and T. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.

Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.ˆ2). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. See also iclose. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. sides. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. n. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. out = iopen(im. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.

CHAPTER 2. ’t’. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. otherwise im2 is selected. 20. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. im1. ’tblr’. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .V]. 10. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. p. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask.

v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.uv] = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. p1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).CHAPTER 2. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.v) for the corresponding row of p. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. [p. p1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.

5)). is order=1. op. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = ipyramid(im.2) = 0. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. 1. se). im > irank(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the maximum. se. out = ipyramid(im. order. out = imorph(image.CHAPTER 2. se(2. sigma. se. idecimate. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. out = imorph(image. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. ones(5.3). nbins. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. See also iscalespace. The highest rank. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. 12. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im.

return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. See also imorph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. vmin vmax]. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. ivar. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. im = iread(ﬁle. R ‘roi’. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. where R=[umin umax. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value.

h1. [out1. m. im1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. imono. igamma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.out2. Notes • Color images are not supported. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).out2] = irectify(f. homwarp. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. istereo. imwrite. im1. m.h2] = irectify(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.CHAPTER 2.

iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.vmin vmax].vmax]. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘extrapval’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.CHAPTER 2. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. See also idisp. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.H] return central part of image.umax. V ‘smooth’. [out. angle.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. Options ‘outsize’. vmin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.

im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. V ‘smooth’. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. s<1 makes it smaller. s ‘extrapval’. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 moves the crop window up or to the left.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. Options ‘outsize’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s>1 makes the image larger. while bias>0.5 is symmetric cropping. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias<0. bias=0.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.CHAPTER 2. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.

g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.L. [g. n. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.CHAPTER 2.L. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. corresponding to each step of the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. in space and scale. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .s] = iscalespace(im. n) as above but sigma=1. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. See also iscalespace. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = iscalespace(im. idecimate. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.

isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. it its third dimension is equal to three. else false (0). ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. that is. ismooth. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog(T. See also isrot. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ‘valid’) as above. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

vlfeat. 60. 2 (2004). International Journal of Computer Vision.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. N ‘suppress’. isurf. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Lowe. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • Features are returned in descending strength order. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. pp. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. Reference David G. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. 91-110.CHAPTER 2. See also SiftPointFeature.

@zsad. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. s is same size as im.H. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. sad. [w.CHAPTER 2. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zsad. ssd. ncc. See also imatch. and these output pixels are set to NaN. @ncc. [w. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zssd. @ssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. s = isimilarity(T. @zssd.

convolved. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. [gx.gy] = isobel(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. then converted back to integer.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. sigma. [gx. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. See also iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.CHAPTER 2.

options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). w. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. the disparity d=d(v.CHAPTER 2.M] for an N × M window. H is the half size of the matching window. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. See also ksobel.sim] = istereo(iml. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. else false (0). which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. range is the disparity search range. range. imr. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. H. [d.u). range. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. imr. That is. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. isrot(R. icanny.u) means that imr(v. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. ‘valid’) as above. See also ishomog. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.

dx. imr. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.sim.5 to +0. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. w. range.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. p. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.p] = istereo(iml. w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.5). The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. out = istretch(im. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. • sim = max(dsi. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). Options ‘metric’.dsi] = istereo(iml.A and p. ‘ncc’. [d. range. 3) See also irectify. That is. p.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.CHAPTER 2. [d.sim. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imr. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. B. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Notes • Color images. T ‘octaves’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘thresh’. Kroon (U. or sequences. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time.CHAPTER 2. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained.

iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 110. Vol.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. itriplepoint. pp. Andreas Ess. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 346–359. isift. See also ishomog. Luc Van Gool. else false (0). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. out = ithin(im. isvec(v.CHAPTER 2. See also hitormiss. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). No. either a row. Otherwise false (0).or columnvector.

The default is 0. Notes • Greyscale image only. [out1. The same cropping is applied to each input image.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.out2] = itrim(im1. See also homwarp.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.out2] = itrim(im1.im2.5.CHAPTER 2. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. ithresh(im. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. a lower value will include more. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. op. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.CHAPTER 2. ithin. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. See also iendpoint. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hence output image had reduced dimensions.

se. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank.3). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. See also ivar. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. @std). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.5). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. out = iwindow(image. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. ones(5. hence output image had reduced dimensions. @max). func.

• This kernel is an effective edge detector. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. ktriangle. dG/dx. • The vertical derivative. kdog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog. k = kdgauss(sigma. is k’. See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. k = kcircle(R.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. See also ones. dG/dy.

klog. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. See also kgauss. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. By default SIGMA2 = 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. See also kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.KGAUSS(SIGMA2).6*sigma1. sigma2. k = kdog(sigma1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. k = kgauss(sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. kdog. klog.

kdgauss. See also kgauss. See also ilaplace. and W=2 × H+1. iconv. kdog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.CHAPTER 2. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. k = klog(sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.

L = kmeans(x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.CHAPTER 2. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. it is assumed to have been completed previously. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). [L. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. Pattern Recognition Principles. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. k. k.C] = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.y. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. [x. ‘edge’. s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also cylinder. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.z] = mkcube(s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. C ‘T’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).CHAPTER 2. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).y. The points are the columns of p. Options ‘T’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.z] = mkcube(s. symmetric about the origin. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.

n) MPLOT(y.yq . n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . MPLOT(t.y). See also mpq poly. n. n) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. y) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.2)). That is. p. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. npq. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. or y(:.2)). the sum of I(x.CHAPTER 2. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. or y(:. y.xp .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. they are considered to be a single vertex. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. so centroids will be still be correct. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. upq poly. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq poly. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.

T has the same dimensions as im. -0. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. ssd. 20). niblack. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. See also zncc.s] = niblack(im. for example. k. Example t = niblack(im. in text segmentation.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. idisp(im >= t).m. where W=2*w2+1. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. the height of a character. 1986. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. k. [T.2. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Prentice-Hall. • A common choice of k=-0. sad. W.

q)/MPQ(im. p.CHAPTER 2. See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. mpq. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.p. p.0). upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. That is UPQ(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.0.

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered as a single vertex. upq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also mpq poly. npq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. mpq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct.

options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. [yp. Systems. N.CHAPTER 2. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Jan 1979. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. otsu IEEE Trans. Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t). [yp. pp 62-66 See also niblack. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. x.xp] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y.i] = peak(y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.

use peak(-V). N ‘scale’.S points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V). See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.ij] = peak2(z. Typically choose N to be odd. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘scale’. [zp. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.S points. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. S ‘interp’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.

sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p.CHAPTER 2. plot2(p. See also pnmﬁlt. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. If p has three dimensions. ie.

ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ’g’. Examples plot_circle(c. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z.y1.y2). ‘size’.CHAPTER 2. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ’b’). or a set of name. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. 5). ‘r’. value pairs that are passed to plot. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’edgecolor’.y2. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. 1=solid. r. ’r’). x2. R. PLOT BOX(x1.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘size’. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.y1) and (x2. W. ’LineWidth’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. W. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’fillcolor’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. r. P. plot_circle(c. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. P. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. plot_circle(c.

C. If C=[X. current plot. c Specify color of the axes. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) ls is the standard line styles. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Options ‘color’.Y]. xc. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. with Matlab line style ls. centred at the origin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y.

Options ‘textcolor’. trplot( T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. fmt. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’color’. ’color’.X = 0. n ‘text opts’. options) adds point markers to a plot. ‘printf’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’r’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ‘framename’. ’name’. to ‘view’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’r’).

text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. color. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R.CHAPTER 2. R. 1=solid. patch. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. See also plot. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. either a letter or 3-vector. The default is 1. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure.

See also pgmﬁlt. plotp(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.CHAPTER 2.

in. T. x. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. one column per point pair.resid] = ransac(func. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. T. d) as above but elements increment by d. N ‘maxDataTrials’. T. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. x. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. [m. x typically contains corresponding point data.in] = ransac(func.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘maxTrials’. [m.

x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.misc element. Fishler and R. pp 381-395. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.t threshold (1 × 1) R.out. No 6. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.theta. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. that is. Assoc.x.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Comp.A. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .theta.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. pp 101-113.theta = DECONDITION(R. Vol 24. they detect a structure argument.inlier.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.x) condition the point data out. Cambridge University Press. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta to the points R.x = CONDITION(R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. If multiple models are found out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.s out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. Mach.CHAPTER 2.x data to work on.theta and the subset of R.theta] = ERR(R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.C. Comm.s sample size (1 × 1) out. References • m.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.resid] = EST(R.R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. [out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. that is they will produce a model.misc private data (cell array) out.. [out.theta is a cell array.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.x and returns the best model out.theta = []. Boles.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.uwa. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .csse. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.edu.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix.

angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. See also rotx. roty.CHAPTER 2. rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty.

• many texts (Paul. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. yaw. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. pitch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Y. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. See also tr2rpy. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Z axes respectively. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R.CHAPTER 2. pitch. pitch. T = rpy2tr(roll.

i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. r2t. theta) as above where xy=[x. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. See also zsad.y. ssd.CHAPTER 2. and rotation theta in the plane. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. ncc. See also zsdd. sad. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Two cross-hairs are created. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image.

b. ’that’. ’other’}. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.blah = []. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt. varargin) opt.foo = true. – If T is 3 × 3. opt. The software pattern is: function(a.CHAPTER 2. tr2rt.bar = false. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. It supports options that have an assigned value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then R is 3 × 3. then R is 2 × 2.choose = {’this’. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. c.

verbose <.y sets opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. w. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. varargin). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. 3 sets opt. ’#yes’}.blah <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.foo <.select <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. N ‘setopt’.false ‘blah’.select <. varargin). x. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose <. If neither of ‘this’. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.N sets opt <.y ‘that’ sets opt.foo <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.1.x.3 ‘blah’. args) creates a test pattern image.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.true sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.‘this’.select = {’#no’.choose <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.CHAPTER 2.blah <. opt = tb_optparse(opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.debug <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.

sd. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sd and sdd are n-vectors. args is the number of cycles.CHAPTER 2. sf. args are pitch (distance between centres). 256. 25).sd. binary square pattern. args is the number of cycles. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args are theta (rad). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. [s. square side length. intercept. The trajectory s. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 256. sf. args is the number of cycles. 2). args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. a line. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. binary dot pattern. 50. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. dot diameter.

v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. The 3 angles rpy=[R. Y and Z axes respectively. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Y. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.CHAPTER 2.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. [theta. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.P. rpy = tr2rpy(R. See also angvec2r. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. If T has three dimensions.CHAPTER 2. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. y.z]. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. ie. See also rt2tr.:. • The validity of R is not checked. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. r2t. See also rpy2tr. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.y. – If TR is 3 × 3.

each N × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). or x and y. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [c1. An historical anomaly. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).CHAPTER 2. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [o1.

Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotx. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. f ‘label’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. and displays in RPY format.

(y-y0)q where (x0. tr2rpy.(x-x0)p . the sum of I(x. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.CHAPTER 2. mpq. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. That is. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.y).y0) is the centroid. See also upq poly. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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CHAPTER 2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ncc. See also ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. See also sdd. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ncc.

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