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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

However the book “Robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This is extravagant on storage. is open-source. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. and I commend it to you. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . colorspace . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . colnorm . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . imser . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . iroi . . . kgauss . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . plot box . rluminos . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . .

. . trotx . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

You need to signup in order to post.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.com. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. tutors.google. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. That’s what you your teachers.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. and you will be suitably acknowledged.

html on a server for class use. Month = nov.gz) or zip format (.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Author = {P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The details are @article{Corke05f. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. and the “See also” functions to each other.1.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. The ﬁle robot. the table of content to functions. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Volume = {12}.3.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. type of organization and application. Number = {4}. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Corke}. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.petercorke. 1. Year = {2005}.zip). 1. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.I. 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1.

the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. 1.I.. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. Coimbra. Corke.6.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.1.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. and there are hundreds of modules available. MSER. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.7 Acknowledgements Last.R. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Twente. but not least. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. 1. November 2005. 1994 University of British Columbia. 12(4). P.mathworks. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Vincent Lepetit.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.7. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.vlfeat. pp 16–25. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.Functions such as SURF.S. VLFeat http://www.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

T ‘color’.CHAPTER 2. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. N ‘image’. S ‘noise’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘sensor’. Options ‘name’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. IM ‘resolution’. used by all subclasses. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. P ‘pixel’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters.

Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.char Convert to string s = C. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C. CatadioptricCamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.centre Get camera position p = C.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value C. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf Clear the image plane C.

v + c = 0. and off if H is false (or 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.u + b.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. See also Camera. C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.CHAPTER 2. otherwise false (0). Camera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.

y. The matrices x. Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.plot Plot points on image plane C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. z to the image plane and plots them. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.plot. z. Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.plot(p. Camera. Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clf Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). y.T.hold.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. T ‘Tcam’. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. sphere. See also mesh. Options ‘Tobj’. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. cylinder. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. mkcube. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.mesh(x. y.CHAPTER 2.

S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.CHAPTER 2. ‘Tcam’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T. Options ‘Tcam’. Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. ‘fps’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mesh.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Overrides the current camera pose C.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.hold. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. T See also Camera.clf Camera. Camera. ‘Tobj’. T ‘scale’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.

p. C.rpy(R. The image is not inverted. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.y]. p. a subclass of Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy Set camera attitude C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.

CHAPTER 2. optical axis is z-axis. camera at origin. N ‘focal’. f=8mm. S.and y-axes respectively. CatadioptricCamera. CentralCamera.Soatto. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.8]) See also Camera. N ‘sensor’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘default’ ‘image’. S ‘centre’.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. 2003. F ‘distortion’.and v-axes parallel to x.E Essential matrix E = C.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. S. E = C. Reference Y.Ma. T ‘color’. u.177 See also CentralCamera. E = C.Kosecka. ﬁsheyecamera. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. J. 10um pixels. S ‘noise’. p.Sastry. IM ‘resolution’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.F. “An invitation to 3D”. Springer. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.

E CentralCamera. S. n. from two viewpoints. Reference Y.Sastry.F Fundamental matrix F = C.CHAPTER 2. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.H CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Soatto. F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. p. “An invitation to 3D”. See also CentralCamera. J.177 See also CentralCamera. 2003. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.Ma.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S.Kosecka.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.H(T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H Homography matrix H = C. Springer. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Lepetit. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. See also quiver CentralCamera. Feb. CentralCamera. F. Fua. CentralCamera. Moreno-Noguer.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 2009. pp. Int. a = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). 81. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. and P.CHAPTER 2. Journal on Computer Vision.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. 155-166.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. V. vol. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.estpose(xyz.

Sastry. 2003. See also CentralCamera.Ma. Springer.Soatto. p116. Springer. s. J. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Kosecka. s. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. “An invitation to 3D”. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.CHAPTER 2. section 5. “An invitation to 3D”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Chap 9.Sastry. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). p.E CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”. 2003.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.invE(E. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. J.Soatto. translation not to scale • n. s. Reference Y.Kosecka. 259 Y.Ma.

plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.T. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. ‘Tcam’.plot epiline(f. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f.CHAPTER 2.plot epiline(f.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.H CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. p.project(p. C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. ‘Tobj’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. See also Hough CentralCamera. CentralCamera. H = C.

“A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.c. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.plot CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”. Chaumette.b. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 8. Reference B. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. and P.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. pp. Rives.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. F. June 1992. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. vol.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.CHAPTER 2. 313-326. Espiau.visjac e(E.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). R&A.visjac l CentralCamera. and P. 1996. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Hager & Corke.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. F. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p polar. Espiau.c. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. pp. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. 313-326. June 1992. Reference B. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.CHAPTER 2. pp 651-670. Vol 12(5). Oct.visjac p polar.visjac l(L. Chaumette. vol.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Rives. Hutchinson. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. 8.visjac e CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p.b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p. IEEE Trans. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p(uv. See also CentralCamera.

z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. See also CentralCamera.visjac l. (St. radius and theta.visjac p. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. 5962-5967. Spindler. CentralCamera. and F. Louis).visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Oct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Int. I. Corke.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac e CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2.visjac p polar(rt. CentralCamera. 2009. Chaumette. pp. F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). CentralCamera. in Proc. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac l.

u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. See also isift. vol. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.Lowe.CHAPTER 2. D. pp. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.91-110.60. Nov. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Journal on Computer Vision.SIFT. See README. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. 2004. PointFeature. ScalePointFeature. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Int.

CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature. See also isift SiftPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. v. C ‘alpha’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 1=opaque. f = PointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0.match(f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F.

support(images. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.T] = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images.support(im.CHAPTER 2.support(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

project Project world points to image plane pt = C. N ‘pixel’. Options ‘name’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. See also SphericalCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tobj’.project(p. S ‘pose’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).T. Overrides the current camera pose C. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

image plane size and desired feature locations.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.5) target center .sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Jacobian condition number. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The external view. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. camera pose.the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . defaults in parentheses: target size . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.01) . The camera view.gain. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The camera view. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.center of the target in world coords (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . of 4-vector. error.depth of points to use for Jacobian. error norm.

The external view.the side length of the target in world units (0. of 4-vector. in Proc. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.visjac p polar. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. error norm. camera pose. error. P.01) . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. May 3-7 2010. for all points. IEEE Int.center of the target in world coords (0. I. Conf. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. Corke.CHAPTER 2.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac p(pt.5) target center . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. defaults in parentheses: target size . Jacobian condition number. (Anchorage).0.gain. See also CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).visjac l.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.depth of points to use for Jacobian.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. image plane size and desired feature locations. Robotics and Automation. pp. scalar for If null take actual value all points. 5550-5555. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

3. Andreas Ess. Tinne Tuytelaars. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 346–359. 110. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Luc Van Gool. pp. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.CHAPTER 2. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Vol. No.

v. f = PointFeature(u.C] = F. Options ‘thresh’. ScalePointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match Match SURF point features m = F. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.match(f2. PointFeature. [m. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2.

support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.T] = F.support(im.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’. out = F. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale(options. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F.2) SurfPointFeature. [out. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.support Support region of feature out = F.support(images.support(im. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

axis. otherwise the result is not predictable.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com) web camera. G ‘scale’.com). Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Video AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. S ‘resolution’.

display AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. See also AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string A.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.close() closes the connection to the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source A. AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.

CHAPTER 2. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.Zisserman. pp. in Proc. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.1470-1477. Conf. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Ninth IEEE Int. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.Sivic and A. b = BagOfWords(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.org). 2003. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Oct. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. on Computer Vision. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. f can also be a cell array.

exemplars(w.CHAPTER 2. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.contains Find images containing word k = B. isurf BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B.char BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. images.display Display value B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.exemplars display exemplars of words B. BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

n] = B. Options ‘ncolumns’.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.remove stop Remove stop words B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .isword Features from words f = B. M ‘width’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.

subclass of Camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].T.and y-axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera at origin. CatadioptricCamera. SIGMA ‘pose’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. M ‘k’.and v-axes parallel to x. f=8mm. K ‘maxangle’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. 10um pixels. S ‘centre’. N ‘focal’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). See also Camera. optical axis is z-axis. ‘equisolid’.CHAPTER 2. u. ﬁsheyecamera. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. ‘sine’.project(p. T ‘Tcam’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. P ‘pixel’. S ‘noise’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. A ‘resolution’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.

SurfPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.CHAPTER 2. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. such as ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. See also PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.

char() is a compact string representation of the match object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. f2. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. one per element.char Convert to string s = M.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also FeatureMatch. m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. SurfPointFeature.display Display value M.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also PointFeature. FeatureMatch.

outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.inlier.CHAPTER 2.outlier. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.u2.v1.v2]. See also FeatureMatch.

These are the (u. These are the (u.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.p1.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.im2}) m.plot() M.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1.p2. See also FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.

ransac Apply RANSAC M.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.CHAPTER 2. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). See also idisp FeatureMatch. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. f2 = isurf(im2). ransac FeatureMatch.ransac( @fmatrix. Example f1 = isurf(im1). 1e-4). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. m = f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m.ransac(func. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. homography.match(f2). See also fmatrix.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is.CHAPTER 2. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v.

S ‘noise’. optical axis is z-axis. 10um pixels. S ‘centre’. camera at origin. ‘sine’. Options ‘name’. u. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).and y. P ‘pixel’. N ‘sensor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. SIGMA ‘pose’. f=8mm.axes respectively. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. K ‘resolution’.and v-axes are parallel to x. M ‘k’.CHAPTER 2. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.

plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera.project(p.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.CHAPTER 2. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. See also FishEyeCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also Camera.

H). Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.CHAPTER 2. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. See also LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A horizontal line has theta = 0. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). The voting array is 2-dimensional.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.

display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Hough.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. T ‘edgethresh’.1). W ‘houghthresh’. T ‘suppress’. Hough.edgeThresh (default 0. N All edge pixels have equal weight.edgeThresh. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. else N = [Ntheta. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.5) Set ht. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.display Display value HT.CHAPTER 2. Nrho].char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .houghThresh (default 0. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Default 400 × 401. W ‘nbins’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Set ht. See also Hough.

CHAPTER 2.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. then all elements in an HT. See also Hough.lines Find lines L = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. L = HT. The highest peak is found.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. LineFeature Hough.plot(n.lines Hough.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. H = HT.plot. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also Hough.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot Plot line features HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. The process is repeated for all peaks.

PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2.

length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.display Display value L.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. L = LineFeature(rho. LENGTH is undeﬁned. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also LineFeature. theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. strength. theta.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . LineFeature. one per element. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = L.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. Small gaps.points Return points on line segments p = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. See also icanny LineFeature.seglength(edge. L.plot Plot line L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. LineFeature.plot() overlay the line on current plot. l2 = L. l2 = L.

S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Movie.axis.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. S ‘skip’.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.char Convert to string M. G ‘scale’.close() closes the connection to the movie.com). Movie.close Close the image source M.

and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. planar.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. undirected graph create an n-d.CHAPTER 2.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. F Skip frames.

path(v) set goal vertex.goal(v) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric(). v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.add node(coord.connectivity() g.plot() g.coord(v) g.next(v) g.cost(e) g. v) g.component(v) g.clear() add vertex.edges(e) g.add node(coord) g. v2) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add edge(v1.CHAPTER 2. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.distance(v1. Object properties (read/write) g.neighbours(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.

v2. PGraph.CHAPTER 2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. and returns the node id v. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x.add node(x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. and returns the edge id E.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge(v1.add edge(v1.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. PGraph.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. E = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘distance’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. where x is D × 1. v = G. v = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.

char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph. D × 1.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.clear Clear the graph G.closest Find closest node v = G. edges and components.d] = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. [v.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. of node id v. and the distance d.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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PointFeature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. PointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.display Display value F. v. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also ScalePointFeature. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.

T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m.match Match point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.match(f2.char PointFeature. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.CHAPTER 2.match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.C] = F. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. where 1 is perfect match. Options ‘thresh’. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.

plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Polygon . miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot Plot feature F.

p = Polygon(C. Polygon. intersection.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. Polygon. Pankratov.mit. kirill@plume.edu.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Polygon. so use with care. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.area Area of polygon a = P. difference. Polygon. union.CHAPTER 2. one column per vertex.html and require a licence. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.area() is the area of the polygon. http://puddle.char String representation s = P. HEIGHT].Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.

inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.CHAPTER 2.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). returns coordinates of P.char Polygon. else 0. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.display Display polygon P. Polygon. See also Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. returns empty polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. y1 y2]. Polygon. each column is [x y]’.moments(p. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.CHAPTER 2.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.

union Union of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Polygon. P. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.CHAPTER 2.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot() plot the polygon.plot Plot polygon P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.

Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.CHAPTER 2. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. [x. one per element.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.char Convert to string s = R. Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. See also Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.E] = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char Ray3D. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

CHAPTER 2.0) 1 for a circle. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.c. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box.b. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. horizontal coordinate centroid.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .box Return bounding box b = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. RegionFeature. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. For example R.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2.th] = R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. one per element. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. ymin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.xmax. See also iblobs.uc will be a list not a vector. ymax].

R.and xmarkers.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. It is indicated with overlaid o. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. See also RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot Plot centroid R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.display Display value R.char RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R.

RegionFeature. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.

v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 1=opaque. ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. f = ScalePointFeature(u.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. SurfPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. strength. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2. f = ScalePointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. C ‘alpha’.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. F. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v. 0=transparent (default 0.

N ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘movie’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.CHAPTER 2. C. R ‘nslots’. one per active track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. options) is a new tracker object. See also PointFeature Tracker. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.

See also Tracker.CHAPTER 2.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tracker.char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Show feature trajectories T.display Display value T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Tracker.

Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Movie Video. otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’. AxisWebCamera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S ‘resolution’. and their characteristics is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.CHAPTER 2. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

close Close the image source V.close() closes the connection to the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.grab() acquires an image from the camera.CHAPTER 2. Video.char Convert to string V. Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.

Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). and the right image is cyan. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. right. By default the left image is red. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. If th1 is a column vector. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. right. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. the ﬁrst for left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. color.CHAPTER 2. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. a = anaglyph(left.

then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].y1] and p2=[x2.y2]. See also RegionFeature.y1) to (x2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. Endpoints must be integer. % emission of sun plot(l. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.s] = boundmatch(R1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. p = bresenham(p1. y1. [x.y2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.CHAPTER 2. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.boundary. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. p2) as above but p1=[x1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. If lambda is a column vector. 6500).

See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. [C.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.CHAPTER 2.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

that is. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. and x is N × 3.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). x = circle(C. R. [k. Options ‘n’. R. k = closest(a. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.CHAPTER 2. green and blue primaries respectively. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D.d1] = closest(a.

while Table I(5. The data are referred to as pilot data.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). since. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5.d1. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. 335 of Table 1(5.ucl. 19000 (526. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. (Table 1(5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.16). they were measured directly.ioo. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. As noted in footnote a on p. • From Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. and 22500 (444.CHAPTER 2.5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ac.d2] = closest(a.32).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.5.

Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.ucl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.uk See also cmfrgb. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.M). E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ioo. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. out = col2im(pix.CHAPTER 2. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.

icolor. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. [L. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . func. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. See also imono. eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. @isnan. k. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. im<100. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. mask. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.G. @isnan.CHAPTER 2. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.B).C] = colorkmeans(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to.

CHAPTER 2. name = colorname(XYZ. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. eg. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming.R] = colorkmeans(im. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. XYZ = colorname(name. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.C. low is good. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. k) as above but also returns the residual R. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.

o3] = colorspace(s.i2.o2. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. or alternatively. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. double data is the natural choice.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. Input and output images have 3 planes. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. [o1. • Color space names are case insensitive. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = ‘src->dest’.txt. s = ‘dest<-src’.CHAPTER 2.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. As MATLAB’s native datatype. i1. it can be omitted. colorspace(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.

out will also have size M × 3. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.100). d = distance(A. B = rand(400. for memory and computational performance.2*A.200).b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Example A = rand(400. • If im is an M × 3 array. However. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.B). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . like a colormap.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.CHAPTER 2. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.

2 and Solaris Matlab v5.y). Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. in matrix coordinate frame.(+31)20-5257524. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. tel. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bunschot@wins. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. non-zero is an object.CHAPTER 2. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.3.j). The result E is a matrix. University of Amsterdam. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Tested: PC Matlab v5. not image frame. seed.uva. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. E = edgelist(im. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. non zero is counter-clockwise.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Author Based on fmatrix code by. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. I. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Coimbra. See also fmatrix. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. epiline(f. one per line drawn.S. H = epiline(f.CHAPTER 2.R. p1. 1998. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Oct 27. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. See also epiline.

edu. homography.au/. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. c.uwa. page 270. no outlier rejection is performed. it is singular. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. • Contains a RANSAC driver.csse. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. • f is a rank 2 matrix. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. p2. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). http://www. Notes • The points must be corresponding. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. epiline. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. See also ransac. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. The University of Western Australia.CHAPTER 2. that is.

See also imorph. ithin. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).CHAPTER 2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y2). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. x2.y1) and (x2. y1. itriplepoint. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.

School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. no outlier rejection is performed.uwa. See also ransac. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac().edu. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. Notes • The points must be corresponding. http://www. The University of Western Australia. invhomog.csse. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.

options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. See also e2h. im. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.offs] = homwarp(H. V ‘roi’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. See also homography. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. [out. S output image contains all the warped pixels. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. im. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘size’.CHAPTER 2. ie. that is tp=T*T1. S ‘dimension’. itrim. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. R ‘scale’.

ianimate(im. 200).CHAPTER 2. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Hu. IT-8:pp. IRE Trans. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ’gs’). features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. features. ianimate(seq. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 179-187. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. ’nfeat’. on Information Theory. 1962.

CHAPTER 2. isurf. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. M ‘npoints’. iharris. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). N ‘only’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. YMIN YMAX]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.CHAPTER 2. vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. ilabel. C set connectivity.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.0 ‘connect’.0) 1 for a circle. A set pixel aspect ratio. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. [S1. default 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. [A1.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.

1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. S ‘th0’. out = iclose(im. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is n dilations followed by n erosions. 1996-7. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. T ‘th1’. This is an dilation followed by erosion.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. See also iopen. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se. See also isobel. Tel Aviv University.CHAPTER 2.

D ‘bgval’. iconcat(im. C = icolor(im.u] = iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). [C. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. colorize. [0 1 1]). Options ‘dir’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. The images do not have to be of the same size. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. See also imono.

resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. options) convolves im1 with im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CT ‘edgegap’. N ‘detector’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. D ‘k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. S ‘deriv’. K ‘patch’. R ‘nfeat’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CM ‘cminthresh’. E ‘suppress’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. D ‘sigma’.CHAPTER 2.

Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.d] = icp(p1. [T.6. pp. p2. vol. Options ‘dplot’. p2. pp. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. May 1988.CHAPTER 2. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. Harris and M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. 1988. Manchester. T ‘maxiter’. 1994. Image and Vision Computing. Shi and C. • “Good features to track”. J. C.G. with a delay of 0. N ‘mindelta’. J. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. pp 147-151. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.121-128.5 [sec]. Tomasi.J. where * denotes squared and smoothed. 593-593.. See also PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IEEE Computer Society. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. T ‘distthresh’. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. • “Finding corners”.Noble. with a delay of d [sec]. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Proc. Stephens. Proc.

2.or 3-dimensional. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = idecimate(im. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. m. Pattern Anal. P. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. See also iscale. pp. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. 1992.. Feb.Besl and H. Mach. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 14.McKay.CHAPTER 2. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. 239-256. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. no. vol. s = idecimate(im. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Intell. IEEETrans. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. each plane is decimated.

useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. histogram and zooming.and y-axes respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If the image is zoomed. negative is red. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. negative is red. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. positive is blue. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. zero is black. Options ‘ncolors’. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. zero is white. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. If im is a cell array of images. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. C ‘xydata’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed.CHAPTER 2. positive is blue. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. darker than ‘grey’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. XY ‘colormap’. zero is white color map: random values. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. linear proﬁle. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view.

colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. See also image. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. See also iblobs. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. colormap. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. icolorize. caxis. labelimage.CHAPTER 2. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labels.

• For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. See also itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. ithin. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.45. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). out = igamma(im.2.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.

min. 2006. Felzenszwalb and D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. 1500.5). pp. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 167181. min is the minimum region size (pixels). k is the scale parameter. 0. Sept. [l. Huttenlocher.m] = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. P. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. vol. See also ithresh. Int. 100. [L. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. 2004.jpg’). min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.m] = igraphseg(im. k. Example im = iread(’58060. min. 59. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.5). sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. k. Journal on Computer Vision. L = igraphseg(im.

[h. H = ihist(im. plot(x.h). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed.x] = ihist(im.h). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) displays the image histogram. bar(x.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [H. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

y1) and bottom-right (x2.CHAPTER 2. ii is a precomputed integral image. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. y2. [L. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.m. [L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.y2). x1. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. y1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. same size as im. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.

To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.maxlabel. [L.CHAPTER 2. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.class.parents. p2. ilabel(im. p1. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. out = iline(im. See also iblobs. otherwise it does not. each a 2-vector [X. • This is a “low level” function.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.parents. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. iproﬁle. eg.maxlabel. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y]. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p1. The pixels on the line are set to 1. 8).

The return value is xm=[DX. The template in im1 is centred at (x. w2. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. • Is a MEX ﬁle. s. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. x. s] % relative to (x.CC] where (DX.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. -s. • ZNCC matching is used. ymin. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. y. H.y) and its half-width is H.y). y. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.DY. xmax.score] = imatch(im1. [xm. and columns the vertical position.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). a perfect match score is 1.y) and of size s. centred at (x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. im2.DY) are the x. im2. ymax] relative to (x. x.and y-offsets relative to (x.

The element u(v. [u. All pixels are equally weighted.u) = v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . effectively a greyscale image. H) as above but the domain is w × H. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].v] = imeshgrid(w.u) = u and v(v.CHAPTER 2. effectively a binary image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. f = imoments(u. v. f = imoments(u. [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.

See also RegionFeature. • This function does not perform connectivity.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m20. or its area. Different conversion functions are supported. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. ilabel. m01. m11. horizontal coordinate centroid. m02.CHAPTER 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. m10. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. the elements are m00. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icolor.

’double’). 761767.CHAPTER 2. [label. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. vol. The labels [L. pp.m] = imser(im. Chum. part of VLFeat (vlfeat.m] = imser(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. m.org). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Pajdla. J. ’light’). idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. se. 22. Urban. Sept. Matas. 2004. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. O. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Image and Vision Computing. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. ’grey’.png’. and T.

Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.ˆ2).CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. This is an erosion followed by dilation. se. sides. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also iclose. out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. n. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.

CHAPTER 2. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. otherwise im2 is selected. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im1. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ’tblr’. 20. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. im2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ’t’.V].

p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.uv] = iproﬁle(im. [p. See also bresenham. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1.CHAPTER 2. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p1.v) for the corresponding row of p.

3).5)). op. op. out = ipyramid(im. 1. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. im > irank(im. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. is order=1. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. out = imorph(image.2) = 0. 12. sigma. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. se. ones(5. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se(2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. nbins. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. The highest rank. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. See also iscalespace. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. out = ipyramid(im.CHAPTER 2. idecimate. se). out = imorph(image. order. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the maximum. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.

Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. vmin vmax]. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. ivar. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). im = iread(ﬁle. where R=[umin umax. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. See also imorph. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. G ‘reduce’. R ‘roi’. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value.

f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.h2] = irectify(f. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. imwrite. im1. [out1. Notes • Color images are not supported. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. m. m.h1.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. See also FeatureMatch. imono. im1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.out2.out2] = irectify(f. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. igamma. istereo. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. homwarp.

options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. Options ‘outsize’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. vmin. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. V ‘smooth’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. angle.umax.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmax]. See also idisp. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S ‘extrapval’.H] return central part of image.CHAPTER 2.vmin vmax].

5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias<0. V ‘smooth’. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. bias=0.CHAPTER 2. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s<1 makes it smaller.5 is symmetric cropping. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. out = isamesize(im1. Options ‘outsize’.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s ‘extrapval’. while bias>0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s>1 makes the image larger.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. im2. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.L. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.s] = iscalespace(im. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). n. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. n) as above but sigma=1. corresponding to each step of the sequence. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [g.CHAPTER 2. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). See also iscalespace. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.L.s] = iscalespace(im. idecimate. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . in space and scale.

options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. See also isrot. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. else false (0). ilaplace. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. it its third dimension is equal to three. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ‘valid’) as above. ismooth. ishomog(T. that is.

CHAPTER 2. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T.vlfeat. N ‘suppress’. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. 91-110. • Features are returned in descending strength order. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. isurf. See also SiftPointFeature. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . International Journal of Computer Vision. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. 2 (2004). • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. 60. Lowe. pp. Reference David G.

[w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. @ssd.CHAPTER 2. sad. and these output pixels are set to NaN. im. s = isimilarity(T. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. s is same size as im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one.H. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. See also imatch. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @zssd. ssd. @zsad. ncc.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. [w. zssd. @ncc. zsad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.

Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. convolved. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.CHAPTER 2. See also iconv. [gx.gy] = isobel(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. sigma. then converted back to integer.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. [gx.

imr. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. ‘valid’) as above. [d. See also ksobel. isrot(R. range.CHAPTER 2. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. imr.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. w. H.M] for an N × M window.sim] = istereo(iml. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u). the disparity d=d(v. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. See also ishomog. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. That is. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. icanny. H is the half size of the matching window. else false (0). range is the disparity search range. range.u) means that imr(v.

dx.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. 3) See also irectify. out = istretch(im. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. • sim = max(dsi. [d. That is. range. imr. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. p. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). [d.p] = istereo(iml. ‘ncc’.5 to +0. w. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.sim. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5).dsi] = istereo(iml.sim.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. w. range. imr.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. Options ‘metric’. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. p. B. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).CHAPTER 2. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.A and p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.

• Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. T ‘octaves’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Kroon (U. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. N ‘thresh’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time.CHAPTER 2. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Notes • Color images. or sequences.

Vol. itriplepoint. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Luc Van Gool. isift. Andreas Ess. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. out = ithin(im. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. See also hitormiss. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. else false (0). Tinne Tuytelaars. 3. Otherwise false (0). isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im.CHAPTER 2. 346–359. pp. either a row.or columnvector. No.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. See also ishomog. isvec(v. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 110.

See also homwarp. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. a lower value will include more. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.5. ithresh(im.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.im2. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. The default is 0. The same cropping is applied to each input image.CHAPTER 2. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Greyscale image only.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1. [out1.

hence output image had reduced dimensions. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. ithin. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point.CHAPTER 2. See also iendpoint. se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. se. op. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.

Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. @max). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. @std).5). See also ivar. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. ones(3.CHAPTER 2. ones(5. func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. out = iwindow(image. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. se.

H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. is k’. See also ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. dG/dy. klog.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. dG/dx. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. kdog. See also kgauss. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ktriangle. • The vertical derivative.CHAPTER 2. k = kcircle(R.

klog. See also kgauss.6*sigma1. kdgauss. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . See also kdgauss. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kgauss(sigma. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kdog(sigma1. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2.CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where sigma1 > SIGMA2. kdog.

CHAPTER 2. kdog. See also ilaplace. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv. kdgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and W=2 × H+1. k = klog(sigma. See also kgauss.

C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. Pattern Recognition Principles. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez.C] = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and D is the dimension. k. L = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. it is assumed to have been completed previously. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.CHAPTER 2.C] = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). [L.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. The points are the columns of p. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.y. s.z] = mkcube(s. symmetric about the origin. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). [x. Options ‘T’. ‘edge’.z] = mkcube(s. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.y. C ‘T’. See also cylinder. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).CHAPTER 2. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.

or y(:. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. p.2)).2)). MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. See also mpq poly. or y(:. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. npq. y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n) MPLOT(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.CHAPTER 2. the sum of I(x. That is. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.y). y.xp . upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . MPLOT(t. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n. n) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.yq . y) MPLOT(t.

npq poly.CHAPTER 2. p. so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered to be a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq poly. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

1986. ssd. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.CHAPTER 2. the height of a character. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Prentice-Hall.s] = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. idisp(im >= t). Example t = niblack(im. sad.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. in text segmentation. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. 20).2. where W=2*w2+1. -0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . W. [T.m. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. k. niblack. for example. See also zncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. k.

p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.0.p.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0). mpq. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.q)/MPQ(im. See also npq poly. That is UPQ(im.

mpq. See also mpq poly. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered as a single vertex. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m.CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. npq. upq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. pp 62-66 See also niblack. [yp. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y.xp] = peak(y. idisp(im >= t). x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. [yp. Example t = otsu(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.i] = peak(y. N. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. otsu IEEE Trans. Jan 1979. x. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Systems.CHAPTER 2. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. use peak2(-V). S ‘interp’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘scale’.S points. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. [zp. use peak(-V). Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. N ‘scale’. Typically choose N to be odd. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.

ie. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. plot2(p. If p has three dimensions. See also pnmﬁlt. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. R. ’edgecolor’. ’r’). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’g’. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. r. ’b’). ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ’LineWidth’. PLOT BOX(’centre’. P. P. value pairs that are passed to plot. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. or a set of name. ‘r’. r. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y1) and (x2. ‘size’. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg.y2). plot_circle(c. W. Examples plot_circle(c.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.y1. r.y2.CHAPTER 2. 1=solid. 5). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. PLOT BOX(x1. ’fillcolor’. x2. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. W.

Y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. xc. centred at the origin. ls) ls is the standard line styles. current plot. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. C. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.CHAPTER 2. If C=[X. with Matlab line style ls. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘color’. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.Y. c Specify color of the axes.

‘framename’. ’color’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’r’. Options ‘textcolor’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’name’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ’r’). See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. n ‘text opts’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fmt. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ‘printf’.X = 0. ’color’. options) adds point markers to a plot. to ‘view’.CHAPTER 2. trplot( T. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set.

R. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. See also plot. either a letter or 3-vector. The default is 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. R. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns.CHAPTER 2. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. 1=solid. color. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. patch. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. NOTES • The sphere is always added. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure.

p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plotp(p. See also pgmﬁlt. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im.CHAPTER 2. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. See also plot.

[gr. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.gt] = radgrad(im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.CHAPTER 2. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.

in] = ransac(func. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. one column per point pair. T. Options ‘maxTrials’. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T. N ‘maxDataTrials’. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. [m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. d) as above but elements increment by d. [m.resid] = ransac(func. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.in. x.CHAPTER 2. x typically contains corresponding point data. T. x. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.

theta is a cell array.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . [out.s sample size (1 × 1) out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. Vol 24.theta.theta = [].resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. Comp.R.out. Comm. that is. Boles. Assoc.CHAPTER 2.theta] = ERR(R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .resid] = EST(R. Fishler and R. References • m. Cambridge University Press. pp 101-113.x. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x) condition the point data out.t threshold (1 × 1) R. [out.C. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.x.A. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. they detect a structure argument. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.x and returns the best model out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x data to work on.out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.misc private data (cell array) out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. pp 381-395.theta and the subset of R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.s out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.inlier.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.x = CONDITION(R.theta = DECONDITION(R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.theta to the points R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. that is they will produce a model.theta.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. If multiple models are found out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. No 6.misc element. Mach.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.

edu.uwa. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. If lambda is a vector.au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.csse. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. rotz. rotz. roty. See also rotx.

yaw. See also tr2rpy. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Z axes respectively. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. Y. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R.CHAPTER 2. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. T = rpy2tr(roll. • many texts (Paul. If roll. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX.

y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. and rotation theta in the plane.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. See also zsad. theta) as above where xy=[x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ncc.y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.CHAPTER 2. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. r2t.

isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. sad. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. ncc. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Two cross-hairs are created. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

c. then R is 2 × 2. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.blah = [].CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. ’that’. then R is 3 × 3. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. The software pattern is: function(a. tr2rt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.foo = true.choose = {’this’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt.bar = false. opt. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. opt. It supports options that have an assigned value. ’other’}. b. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). – If T is 3 × 3.

blah <. varargin). w. args) creates a test pattern image. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. If neither of ‘this’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.1.select <. x.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. 3 sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt. varargin). The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.y ‘that’ sets opt.true sets opt.verbose <.N sets opt <.debug <.false ‘blah’. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.select = {’#no’.blah <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.choose <.foo <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.‘this’. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .select <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.choose <. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.CHAPTER 2. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.foo <. ’#yes’}. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.x.y sets opt.3 ‘blah’.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. N ‘setopt’.

args are theta (rad).CHAPTER 2. 50. a line. args is the number of cycles.sd. 256. sd and sdd are n-vectors. dot diameter.sd. binary square pattern. [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args are pitch (distance between centres). binary dot pattern. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. sf. 25). square side length. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sf. args is the number of cycles. 256. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. 2). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. The trajectory s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . intercept.

CHAPTER 2. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. See also angvec2r. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.P. Y and Z axes respectively. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. The 3 angles rpy=[R. [theta. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.

If T has three dimensions. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. See also rt2tr.z]. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. r2t. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.CHAPTER 2. ie.y. See also rpy2tr. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. – If TR is 3 × 3.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.:. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. • The validity of R is not checked.

or x and y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [c1.CHAPTER 2.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. [o1. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. An historical anomaly.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). each N × 1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).

troty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

trotx. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trotx. and displays in RPY format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trprint T is the command line form of above. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.CHAPTER 2. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. f ‘label’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line.

(y-y0)q where (x0. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. See also upq poly. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(x-x0)p .y0) is the centroid.CHAPTER 2. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. mpq. tr2rpy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. p. the sum of I(x.y). That is. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. See also ncc. See also sad. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. See also sdd.CHAPTER 2.

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