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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface
This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,
Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the field this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and figures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and finally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,
Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1
Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reflecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image file reading and writing, acquisition, display, filtering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufficiently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a firewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, filtering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-files that implement functions and classes, and mex-files for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-files to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for firewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efficiency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

and I commend it to you. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This is extravagant on storage. nearly 400 figures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-files and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. However the book “Robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and figures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. though this is much less significant today than it was in the past. is open-source.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . anaglyph . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . Hough . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . epidist . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . ilabel . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . iprofile . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmfilt . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . rotz . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . ramp . . . . . . . . . . pnmfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . medfilt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . maxfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . usefig . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . troty . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . .

au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you find it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deficiencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. That’s what you your teachers. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 • x New features: • x Bugfixes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. You need to signup in order to post. tutors. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.google. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. and you will be suitably acknowledged. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.com.

the table of content to functions. Year = {2005}.zip). It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. 1. The details are @article{Corke05f. 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the first two pages (cover and licence). Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. Volume = {12}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. The file robot.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.1.gz) or zip format (. type of organization and application. Number = {4}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.I.html on a server for class use. Author = {P. 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Corke}.com The files are available in either gzipped tar format (.petercorke.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Month = nov. 1. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 Use in teaching This is definitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. and the “See also” functions to each other.3.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.R. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. 1. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. P. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.Functions such as SURF.7. but not least.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX file use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. pp 16–25. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.S. Coimbra. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.. 12(4). and there are hundreds of modules available.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.vlfeat. 1994 University of British Columbia. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Corke. November 2005. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. 1. Twente. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodified. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION file. See the file CONTRIB for details.1.mathworks.6. VLFeat http://www.I. MSER. Vincent Lepetit.7 Acknowledgements Last.

Methods plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control figure hold for image plane window test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the specified image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. Options ‘name’. used by all subclasses.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IM ‘resolution’. P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method defined. S ‘noise’. N ‘sensor’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. T ‘color’. N ‘image’. S ‘centre’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.CHAPTER 2.

clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). fisheyecamera.delete Camera object destructor C.CHAPTER 2.display Display value C. Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.delete() destroys all figures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Camera. CatadioptricCamera.char Convert to string s = C. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SphericalCamera Camera.clf Clear the image plane C.centre Get camera position p = C.

ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. and off if H is false (or 0).u + b. See also Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are defined by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. otherwise false (0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.v + c = 0.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).figure() is the handle of the figure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.char Camera. C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.figure Return figure handle H = C. Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2.

uv = C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices define 3D points. Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. y. Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).plot.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. z to the image plane and plots them. The matrices x. T ‘Tcam’.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.mesh(x.clf Camera. mkcube. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot(p. y.hold. Options ‘Tobj’. y.T. Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) projects a 3D shape defined by the matrices x. sphere. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. See also mesh. Camera.CHAPTER 2. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. z.plot Plot points on image plane C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. cylinder.

CHAPTER 2.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current figure.T.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Options ‘Tcam’. T See also Camera. Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. ‘Tobj’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are defined by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Overrides the current camera pose C.hold. ‘Tcam’.mesh. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T ‘scale’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.clf Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera. ‘fps’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.

The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.y]. C.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.p.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The image is not inverted. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .rpy Set camera attitude C. p. y) sets the camera attitude to the specified roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(R. that is. a subclass of Camera.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline flowfield visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix field of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical flow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters.C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

Soatto.CHAPTER 2. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.F.Sastry. D ‘default’ ‘image’. The first view is from the current camera pose C. J.8]) See also Camera. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.Ma. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. E = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. fisheyecamera.and y-axes respectively. 10um pixels. S ‘noise’. CentralCamera.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (first view) and C2 (second view). N ‘sensor’.177 See also CentralCamera.E Essential matrix E = C. F ‘distortion’. optical axis is z-axis. Springer. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. S. P ‘pixel’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. u. T ‘color’. CatadioptricCamera.Kosecka. p. f=8mm.and v-axes parallel to x. S. camera at origin. E = C. Reference Y. SIGMA ‘pose’. “An invitation to 3D”.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. 2003. N ‘focal’.

K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H CentralCamera.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.CHAPTER 2. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.E CentralCamera. Reference Y. n.H(T. 2003.Soatto. p.H Homography matrix H = C. F = C.Sastry. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.Ma.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. S. S. “An invitation to 3D”. J.Kosecka. The first view is from the current camera pose C.F Fundamental matrix F = C. Springer. See also CentralCamera. The first view is from the current camera pose C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (first view) and C2 (second view). from two viewpoints.177 See also CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.

81.flowfield(v) displays the optical flow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).flowfield Optical flow C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.fov Camera field-of-view angles. Feb. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. pp. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera. vol. CentralCamera. Lepetit.fov() are the field of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object defined by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Fua.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 2009. Moreno-Noguer. a = C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. F.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.CHAPTER 2. and P. Journal on Computer Vision. Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. V. 155-166.estpose(xyz. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Soatto. 259 Y. p. Reference Y.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. J. section 5.E CentralCamera.Ma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. p116. s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. “Multiview Geometry”. J. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). Reference Hartley & Zisserman.invE(E. s. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. Springer. translation not to scale • n. “An invitation to 3D”. 2003.CHAPTER 2.Sastry. See also CentralCamera.Sastry.Ma.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. Chap 9. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. Springer.Kosecka. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Kosecka.Soatto.

See also Hough CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).project(p. one per line. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. H = C. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.T. p.

ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. vol. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.plot CentralCamera. Espiau. Reference B. and P. Rives. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. 313-326. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. June 1992. 8. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world.CHAPTER 2.b. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.c.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac e(E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also Camera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pp. one for each point defined by the columns of p.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. Chaumette. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. “Multiview Geometry”.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. F.

or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. R&A.visjac p. IEEE Trans. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Vol 12(5). Reference B. Hager & Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. 8. 313-326. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. CentralCamera.c. 1996.visjac p. vol. Rives. Hutchinson. Oct. pp 651-670. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). CentralCamera. F.visjac l CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Espiau. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p polar.visjac l(L. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. and P.visjac p polar.visjac e CentralCamera. June 1992.CHAPTER 2. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.b. Chaumette.visjac p(uv. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

visjac l.visjac p polar. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. pp. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac l. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Int.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 5962-5967. I. P. 2009. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac e CentralCamera. Corke. Oct. Louis). CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Spindler. radius and theta. F. (St.visjac p polar(rt. Chaumette.visjac p.CHAPTER 2. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). in Proc. and F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Journal on Computer Vision.60. Int. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature. D. 2004. pp.Lowe. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Nov. See also isift. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. vol.SIFT. See README.91-110.

v.plot scale(options. See also isift SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F.match(f2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. strength) as above but with specified strength.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. C ‘alpha’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. F.

w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.T] = F.CHAPTER 2. [out.support(im.support(images.support(im. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. out = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

S ‘pose’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.T. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CentralCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. N ‘pixel’. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘name’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project(p. See also SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tobj’. fisheyecamera. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

camera pose.0. Jacobian condition number. defaults in parentheses: target size . scalar for If null take actual value all points.01) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.center of the target in world coords (0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The external view. The camera view. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. image plane size and desired feature locations. error. The camera view.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .CHAPTER 2. error norm.depth of points to use for Jacobian.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.gain.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. of 4-vector.5) target center . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.the side length of the target in world units (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also CentralCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . IEEE Int.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . (Anchorage). pp. P.center of the target in world coords (0.01) . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.gain. error norm. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Jacobian condition number. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.5) target center . The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l. May 3-7 2010. I.depth of points to use for Jacobian.visjac p polar. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. for all points. error. camera pose.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .CHAPTER 2.0.the side length of the target in world units (0. Corke. scalar for If null take actual value all points.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .visjac p(pt. The external view. Robotics and Automation. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. of 4-vector.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . in Proc. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. image plane size and desired feature locations. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Conf. defaults in parentheses: target size . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. 5550-5555.

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Andreas Ess. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Vol. 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. Luc Van Gool. 110. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. No. 3.

[m. Options ‘thresh’. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. v.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with specified strength. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. ScalePointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u.C] = F. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isurf SurfPointFeature.

C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque. F.support(im. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.2) SurfPointFeature.support(images. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T] = F.plot scale(options. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed.plot scale Plot feature scale F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. 0=transparent (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.support Support region of feature out = F. [out. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F.

com). • The specified ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.axis. otherwise the result is not predictable.com) web camera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. G ‘scale’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Video AxisWebCamera.

See also AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Some web cameras have a fixed picture taking interval.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A.display AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.

f can also be a cell array. in Proc. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.Sivic and A. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.1470-1477. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.org). Ninth IEEE Int. on Computer Vision.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters specified The number of stop words specified The number of images in the bag Reference J. Oct. 2003. b = BagOfWords(f.Zisserman.CHAPTER 2. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Conf.

exemplars(w.contains Find images containing word k = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words specified by the vector w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.char BagOfWords.display Display value B.exemplars display exemplars of words B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. images. See also BagOfWords. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.

wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.CHAPTER 2.isword Features from words f = B. Options ‘ncolumns’. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .n] = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.remove stop Remove stop words B. N ‘maxperimage’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. M ‘width’.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.

The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the first call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

fisheyecamera. ‘equisolid’.and y-axes respectively. camera at origin. P ‘pixel’. 10um pixels.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘centre’. u. M ‘k’.and v-axes parallel to x. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. See also Camera.CHAPTER 2. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). SIGMA ‘pose’. f=8mm. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. A ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. K ‘maxangle’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.T. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. N ‘sensor’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera.project(p. T ‘Tcam’. See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. optical axis is z-axis. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. CatadioptricCamera. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘sine’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. N ‘focal’.

A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. See also PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object.

SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. See also FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature.display Display value M. See also PointFeature.char Convert to string s = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. m = FeatureMatch(f1. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f2. one per element. FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the match object.

inlier. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1.outlier.u2.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac FeatureMatch.v2].outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.CHAPTER 2.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.

plot() M.p2 FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current figure. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.p1. FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . These are the (u.p1.FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. The figure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.im2}) m.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. for example by: idisp({im1.p FeatureMatch.

show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac(func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the figure. See also fmatrix. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). m = f1.CHAPTER 2. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. homography.ransac Apply RANSAC M. ransac FeatureMatch. 1e-4). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to fit the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.ransac( @fmatrix. Example f1 = isurf(im1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. f2 = isurf(im2). m.match(f2).

subset Subset of matches m2 = M.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. The image is not inverted. that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. v. Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a fisheye lense projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Y This camera model assumes central projection. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

Options ‘name’. ‘equisolid’. f=8mm. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. 10um pixels.and v-axes are parallel to x.and y. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘sine’. N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters.axes respectively. optical axis is z-axis. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. M ‘k’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’.CHAPTER 2. camera at origin. u. K ‘resolution’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. P ‘pixel’.FishEyeCamera Create fisheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a fisheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not specified it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally fills the square image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Camera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.T.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for finding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Options ‘Tobj’.project(p.

A horizontal line has theta = 0. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.H). For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. See also LineFeature Hough. The voting array is 2-dimensional.

display Display value HT.5) Set ht. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.CHAPTER 2. Set ht. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.edgeThresh (default 0. T ‘suppress’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Nrho]. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘houghthresh’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh. See also Hough. else N = [Ntheta.1). The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. W ‘nbins’. Hough.houghThresh (default 0.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. T ‘edgethresh’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Default 400 × 401.

show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot Plot line features HT. The process is repeated for all peaks. then all elements in an HT. HT. refined to subpixel precision.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current figure.lines Hough. See also Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. L = HT. See also Hough. HT. H = HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays all detected lines on the current figure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.CHAPTER 2.lines Find lines L = HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot(n. The highest peak is found. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot. LineFeature Hough.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. RegionFeature.

strength) is a line feature object with the specified properties. strength.CHAPTER 2. See also LineFeature. LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. one per element. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. L = LineFeature(rho. theta. L = LineFeature(rho. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. LineFeature.char Convert to string s = L. theta. length) is a line feature object with the specified properties.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. LENGTH is undefined.

less than gap pixels are tolerated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.plot Plot line L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.CHAPTER 2. Small gaps. LineFeature. L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also icanny LineFeature.points Return points on line segments p = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.plot() overlay the line on current plot. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). l2 = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identifies lines but cannot determine their length. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. l2 = L.seglength(edge.

Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. G ‘scale’.char Convert to string M.close Close the image source M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie file A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘skip’. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie file file.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(file.CHAPTER 2.axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

undirected graph create an n-d. planar. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F Skip frames. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be specified. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. S ‘frame’.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Options ‘skip’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.CHAPTER 2. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.

clear() add vertex. v2) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().add node(coord) g.component(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add edge(v1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.next(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow flies g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. Object properties (read/write) g.plot() g.edges(e) g.goal(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.add node(coord.cost(e) g.coord(v) g.connectivity() g.path(v) set goal vertex.distance(v1.neighbours(v) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.CHAPTER 2. v) g.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. E = G. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. and returns the node id v. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. and returns the edge id E. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v2. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. PGraph.add node(x. v = G.add edge(v1.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v = G.add edge(v1.CHAPTER 2. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v. PGraph. Options ‘distance’. where x is D × 1.

PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. edges and components. [v.clear Clear the graph G. PGraph.CHAPTER 2.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G.closest Find closest node v = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G. and the distance d. PGraph. D × 1.coord(v) return coordinate vector.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.char Convert graph to string s = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. of node id v.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost
Cost of edge
C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display
Display state of the graph
G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also
PGraph.char

PGraph.distance
Distance between nodes
d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances
distance to all nodes
d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges
Find edges given vertex
E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal
Set goal node
G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also
PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours
Neighbours of a node
n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next
Find next node toward goal
v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also
PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path
Find path to goal node
p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously specified goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also
PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick
Graphically select a node
v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also
PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot
Plot the graph
G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current figure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options
‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent
t
G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex
Highlight a vertex
G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices
Find vertices given edge
v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that define edge E.

PointFeature
PointCorner feature object
A superclass for image corner features.

Methods
plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. v.display Display value F. PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SurfPointFeature. one per element. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with specified strength.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f = PointFeature(u.

05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. Options ‘thresh’. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. [m.match Match point features m = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.C] = F. where 1 is perfect match.char PointFeature.match(f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.match(f2.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.

plot Plot feature F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon . If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. p = Polygon(C.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. http://puddle. intersection. kirill@plume. Polygon. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.char String representation s = P. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. HEIGHT].html and require a licence.mit.area() is the area of the polygon.edu. Pankratov. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . difference. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Polygon. union.area Area of polygon a = P.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. so use with care.mit. one column per vertex.

Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). See also Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.char Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.difference Difference of polygons d = P. returns coordinates of P. Polygon.display Display polygon P. else 0.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.

moments(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. y1 y2]. Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. returns empty polygon.CHAPTER 2.moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. each column is [x y]’. Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.

union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.plot Plot polygon P.union Union of polygons i = P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

defined by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object defined by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.

If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element. [x. See also Ray3D.E] = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.CHAPTER 2.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. [x.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value R.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Ray3D.char Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.

minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.c. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.b. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate bounding box.

box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.char Convert to string s = R.uc will be a list not a vector.CHAPTER 2. imoments RegionFeature. RegionFeature. ymin.xmax. RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.th] = R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. one per element. For example R.box Return bounding box b = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iblobs. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. ymax].boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.

plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display Display value R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.and xmarkers.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature.char RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also RegionFeature. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R. It is indicated with overlaid o. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot Plot centroid R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.

ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.CHAPTER 2. R.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box Plot bounding box R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R. RegionFeature.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.plot scale(options. strength.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. v. strength) as above but with specified strength.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also PointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. scale) as above but with specified feature scale. 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = ScalePointFeature(u.

M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identifier of the track.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. N ‘thresh’. Options ‘radius’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identifier and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.CHAPTER 2. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. C. options) is a new tracker object. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. R ‘nslots’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature Tracker. one per active track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential filenames. T ‘movie’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.

plot Show feature trajectories T.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Tracker.char Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.display Display value T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Tracker.

Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. • The specified ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.CHAPTER 2. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. and their characteristics is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S ‘resolution’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera specified by the string camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’. Movie Video. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.close Close the image source V.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.close() closes the connection to the camera.char Convert to string V. Video.

See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. If th1 is a column vector. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left.CHAPTER 2. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. the second for right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. and the right image is cyan. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a = anaglyph(left. the first for left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or field of view. color. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. right. right. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). By default the left image is red. The result is in the interval [-pi pi).

r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.CHAPTER 2.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.s] = boundmatch(R1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary profiles R1 and r2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. [x. See also RegionFeature. % emission of sun plot(l. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. e) boundmatch Match boundary profiles x = boundmatch(R1. If lambda is a column vector. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one profile with respect to the other. 6500).y2].y1] and p2=[x2.boundary. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.y1) to (x2. x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. y1. p2) as above but p1=[x1. Endpoints must be integer. p = bresenham(p1.

See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR filter fitted.Y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [C. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].

R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).CHAPTER 2. and x is N × 3. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). that is. R.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. k = closest(a. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows define the coordinates [x. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. [k. Options ‘n’. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x = circle(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Define CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D.d1] = closest(a. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. green and blue primaries respectively.

The data are referred to as pilot data.32). If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.d1.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. 19000 (526.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum defined by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].d2] = closest(a.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. (Table 1(5.5.ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 335 of Table 1(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. while Table I(5. they were measured directly. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • From Table I(5.ioo.16).5. As noted in footnote a on p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.ac. since. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.CHAPTER 2.5. Notes • Is a MEX file. and 22500 (444.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).

R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum defined by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. out = col2im(pix.ioo.uk See also cmfrgb.ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.M).CHAPTER 2. imsize is a 2-vector (N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.

Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .CHAPTER 2. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.

Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. The color is specified as a 3-vector (R.CHAPTER 2. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. @isnan. mask. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. out = colorize(im. k. icolor. im<100. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. See also imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a specified color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.G.B). func. [L. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.C] = colorkmeans(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. eg.

See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color specified by the string name. k) as above but also returns the residual R. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ.R] = colorkmeans(im. • The residual is an indication of quality of fit. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the first three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. L = colorkmeans(im. XYZ = colorname(name. low is good. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre.CHAPTER 2. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.C. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are defined by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color specified by the string name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.

i2.o3] = colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. As MATLAB’s native datatype. it can be omitted.i3) as above but specifies separate input channels.CHAPTER 2. [o1. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which specifies the source and destination color spaces.txt. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. colorspace(s. • Color space names are case insensitive.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. double data is the natural choice. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i1. im) as above but specifies separate output channels or planes.o2. s = ‘dest<-src’. or alternatively. Input and output images have 3 planes. s = ‘src->dest’.

• If im is an M × 3 array.100).2*A.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.200). d = distance(A. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. like a colormap.CHAPTER 2. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. colorspace will first cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. for memory and computational performance. B = rand(400. Example A = rand(400. out will also have size M × 3.B). However.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.

uva. non-zero is an object. Tested: PC Matlab v5. in matrix coordinate frame. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. tel. E = edgelist(im. University of Amsterdam. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. seed.j).(+31)20-5257524. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. not image frame.3.y). Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. • The seed point is always the first element of the returned edgelist. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. bunschot@wins. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.CHAPTER 2. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. but the direction of edge following is specified. non zero is counter-clockwise. The result E is a matrix.

See also fmatrix. Author Based on fmatrix code by. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. epiline(f.CHAPTER 2.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). one per line drawn. p1. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Oct 27. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. I. p) draws epipolar lines in current figure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Coimbra.S.R. H = epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. 1998. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. See also epiline. Points are specified by the columns of p. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.

Reference Hartley and Zisserman. • Contains a RANSAC driver. homography. Notes • The points must be corresponding. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. page 270. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. no outlier rejection is performed. The University of Western Australia. that is. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. that is. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse.uwa. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. epiline.CHAPTER 2. p2. it is singular. http://www. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.au/. • f is a rank 2 matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. See also ransac. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). If w is not specified it defaults to 2*sigma.edu.

y2). x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y1.y1) and (x2. itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).CHAPTER 2. ithin. See also imorph. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.

which means it can be passed to ransac(). p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.csse. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. The University of Western Australia. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Notes • The points must be corresponding. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. invhomog.au/.CHAPTER 2. no outlier rejection is performed. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.edu.uwa. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. See also ransac. http://www.

R ‘scale’. See also homography. D ‘size’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. [out. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. itrim. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘roi’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the specified ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as defined by the first two dimensions.offs] = homwarp(H. that is tp=T*T1. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. im.CHAPTER 2. S output image contains all the warped pixels. ie. S ‘dimension’. See also e2h.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. im. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.

features. ’nfeat’. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. features. ianimate(seq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. 179-187. IRE Trans. ’gs’). 1962. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. on Information Theory.CHAPTER 2. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 200). ianimate(im. IT-8:pp. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. Hu. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K.

I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. iharris. N ‘only’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. M ‘npoints’. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. isurf.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . YMIN YMAX]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. default 1. [A1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. [S1. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. ilabel.0 ‘connect’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.0) 1 for a circle. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.CHAPTER 2. C set connectivity.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. A set pixel aspect ratio.

that is n dilations followed by n erosions. See also isobel. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also iopen. S ‘th0’. se.CHAPTER 2. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Tel Aviv University. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. 1996-7. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an dilation followed by erosion. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. out = iclose(im. T ‘th1’. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. C = icolor(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). D ‘bgval’. Options ‘dir’. See also imono. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be specified.u] = iconcat(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. The images do not have to be of the same size. [C.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. iconcat(im. colorize.CHAPTER 2. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. [0 1 1]).options) concatenates images from the cell array im.

If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.CHAPTER 2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justified • In horizontal mode all images are top justified See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to first character. options) convolves im1 with im2. im2.

CM ‘cminthresh’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. N ‘detector’. D ‘sigma’. E ‘suppress’. R ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. CT ‘edgegap’. S ‘deriv’. K ‘patch’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. D ‘k’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default).

options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. p2. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Options ‘dplot’. Stephens. J. • “Good features to track”. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. vol.. pp 147-151. Shi and C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Manchester. with a delay of 0. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.121-128. [T.6.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Proc. N ‘mindelta’. with a delay of d [sec]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. 1988. Image and Vision Computing. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.Noble.5 [sec]. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. May 1988. See also PointFeature. 1994. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. pp.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. J. T ‘distthresh’. 593-593.G. Tomasi. Proc. Harris and M. IEEE Computer Society. where * denotes squared and smoothed. T ‘maxiter’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. pp. p2. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf.CHAPTER 2. • The descriptor is a vector of float types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. C.d] = icp(p1. • “Finding corners”.J.

14. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. pp. P. s = idecimate(im. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Feb.McKay. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.CHAPTER 2. See also iscale. 1992. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. no.or 3-dimensional. m. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. m. s = idecimate(im. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Intell. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging.Besl and H. 2. 239-256. Pattern Anal. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. each plane is decimated. vol. Mach. IEEETrans.. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.

negative is red. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘flatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which defines the zoomed view. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new figure. positive is blue.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. Options ‘ncolors’. darker than ‘grey’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. they are first concatenated (horizontally). • The “line” button allows two points to be specified and a new figure displays intensity along a line between those points. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. histogram and zooming. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. If im is a cell array of images. highlights fine structure color map: greyscale unsigned. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to file F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make figure very wide. zero is black. The image is displayed in a figure with a toolbar across the top. XY ‘colormap’.and y-axes respectively. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. If the image is zoomed. zero is white color map: random values. C ‘xydata’. negative is red. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . positive is blue. zero is white. linear profile. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that specifies the grey value range that spans the colormap. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value.

The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. icolorize. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labelimage.CHAPTER 2. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is specified by bg in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the first and last element of the color map. See also image. See also iblobs. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. colormap. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage. labels. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a specific class. caxis.

• For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.2. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. See also itriplepoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.CHAPTER 2. out = igamma(im.45. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.

1500. k. Example im = iread(’58060. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Journal on Computer Vision. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 59. idisp(im) Reference “Efficient graph-based image segmentation”.5). k is the scale parameter. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.CHAPTER 2. k. P. vol. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. See also ithresh. Felzenszwalb and D. [L. min.jpg’). sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Sept. k. min. Huttenlocher. 100. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [l. Int.5). min is the minimum region size (pixels). 2006.m] = igraphseg(im. Notes • Is a MEX file Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 2004. 167181. 0. L = igraphseg(im.m] = igraphseg(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) displays the image histogram. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a floating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For floating point images all NaN and Inf values are first removed. plot(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h). [H. H = ihist(im.h).CHAPTER 2. bar(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [h.x] = ihist(im).x] = ihist(im.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and bottom-right (x2. y2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region defined by its top-left (x1. y1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. [L.CHAPTER 2.m. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. [L. ii is a precomputed integral image. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. The floating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.y2). A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. x1. same size as im.

• This is a “low level” function. [L. ilabel(im.parents. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.maxlabel. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. 8). p2. eg. See also iblobs. iprofile. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.Y]. out = iline(im. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.CHAPTER 2. otherwise it does not.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IBLOBS is a higher level interface. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. each a 2-vector [X.maxlabel. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. p1.parents. The pixels on the line are set to 1.class. Notes • Is a MEX file.

s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. y. -s.CHAPTER 2. ymax] relative to (x.and y-offsets relative to (x. • ZNCC matching is used. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. s] % relative to (x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). im2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.score] = imatch(im1.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. The template in im1 is centred at (x. x.y). s.CC] where (DX. y.DY) are the x. ymin. and columns the vertical position. w2. The return value is xm=[DX. xmax. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. x.y). a perfect match score is 1. centred at (x.DY. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. [xm.y) and its half-width is H. H. im2.y) and of size s. • Is a MEX file.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.

v] = imeshgrid(w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. effectively a greyscale image. v.u) = v.u) = u and v(v. [u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. [u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. H) as above but the domain is w × H. effectively a binary image.CHAPTER 2. f = imoments(u. f = imoments(u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. The element u(v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.

See also RegionFeature. ilabel. the elements are m00. m01. m20. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. horizontal coordinate centroid. Different conversion functions are supported. m10.CHAPTER 2. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used first. m02. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. or its area. m11. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. icolor. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. • This function does not perform connectivity. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

org). 2004. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. J.CHAPTER 2. 22. Urban. The labels [L. m. vol. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.png’. ’light’). ’double’). [label. pp. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.m] = imser(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX file Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. ’grey’. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Chum. Sept. Image and Vision Computing. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. 761767. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Matas. and T.m] = imser(im. Pajdla. O.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.CHAPTER 2. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.ˆ2).

sides. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is n erosions followed by n dilations. out = iopen(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. se.CHAPTER 2. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. sides. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as specified by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. See also iclose. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n.

by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 10. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask.V]. otherwise im2 is selected. im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. p. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ’t’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. im2. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 20. ’tblr’. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iprofile Extract pixels along a line v = iprofile(im. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to find points along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p. [p. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.uv] = iprofile(im. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. See also bresenham. p1. p1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).

2) = 0.3). op. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median filter: irank(im. is order=1. order. se). se(2. op. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be specified. out = ipyramid(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. se) is a rank filtered version of im. ones(5. the maximum. idecimate. im > irank(im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. se. sigma. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. nbins. The highest rank. out = imorph(image. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. out = imorph(image. hence output image had reduced dimensions.5)). out = ipyramid(im. 12. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. 1. See also iscalespace. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. ismooth irank Rank filter out = irank(im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.

vmin vmax]. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. ivar. return an image with double precision floating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Wildcards are allowed in file names. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision floating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. If multiple files match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. im = iread(file. See also imorph. G ‘reduce’. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX file. iwindow iread Read image from file im = iread() presents a file selection GUI from which the user can select an image file which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. R ‘roi’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). where R=[umin umax. options) reads the specified file and returns a matrix. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value.

m. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. imwrite. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. istereo.out2] = irectify(f. igamma. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). homwarp. [out1. im2) is a rectified pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.h2] = irectify(f. m. Notes • Color images are not supported. im1.h1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. imono. im1.out2. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.CHAPTER 2.

iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.CHAPTER 2. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. V ‘smooth’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘extrapval’. [out. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmin vmax].R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.umax.H] return central part of image. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. See also idisp. vmin. Options ‘outsize’.vmax]. angle.

while bias>0. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. bias<0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. Options ‘outsize’. out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘smooth’.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. im2. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s>1 makes the image larger. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.CHAPTER 2. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is defined with respect to a z-axis into the image.5 is symmetric cropping.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s ‘extrapval’. s<1 makes it smaller. bias=0.

L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. n) as above but sigma=1.s] = iscalespace(im.s] = iscalespace(im.CHAPTER 2. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.L. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). The first step in the sequence is the original image. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). idecimate. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. n. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. in space and scale. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. [g. corresponding to each step of the sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . See also iscalespace.L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

that is. See also isrot. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ismooth. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘valid’) as above. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog(T. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. else false (0).CHAPTER 2. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. it its third dimension is equal to three. ilaplace.

• Features are returned in descending strength order. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • Wraps a MEX file from www. 2 (2004). • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 60.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • ISURF is a functional equivalent.CHAPTER 2. Lowe. N ‘suppress’. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. pp.vlfeat. International Journal of Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. isurf. 91-110. Reference David G. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. See also SiftPointFeature.

ssd. zssd. @zsad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX file and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. sad. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zsad. [w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ncc. See also imatch.CHAPTER 2.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s is same size as im. @ncc.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. and these output pixels are set to NaN. s = isimilarity(T. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is specified by the function metric which can be any of @sad. [w. @ssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.H. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @zssd.

Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to float.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . convolved. sigma. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.gy] = isobel(im. [gx. See also iconv. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. then converted back to integer.

H is the half size of the matching window. range is the disparity search range. else false (0). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml.M] for an N × M window. ‘valid’) as above. imr. w. the disparity d=d(v. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. imr. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u) means that imr(v. See also ksobel. isrot(R.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. H. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. That is. icanny. range. range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.u). d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sim] = istereo(iml. See also ishomog. [d. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ).CHAPTER 2.

That is.p] = istereo(iml. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.5). • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. M ‘interp’ string that specifies the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). range. range. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). [d.CHAPTER 2. w. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. 3) See also irectify. dx. p.5 to +0.A and p. ‘ncc’. [d. w. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. p.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. Options ‘metric’. • sim = max(dsi.dsi] = istereo(iml.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.sim. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.sim. out = istretch(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefficients. imr. B. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. imr.

are first converted to greyscale. N ‘thresh’. • Wraps an M-file implementation of OpenSurf by D. T ‘octaves’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. or sequences. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. Notes • Color images. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Kroon (U. Twente) or a MEX-file OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im.

isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Tinne Tuytelaars. 346–359. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.CHAPTER 2. Otherwise false (0). iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Luc Van Gool. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. out = ithin(im. Vol. See also hitormiss. isift. else false (0). Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. isvec(v. Andreas Ess. 3. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). See also ishomog. either a row.or columnvector. itriplepoint. No. 110.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. pp.

CHAPTER 2. • For a floating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. When images are rectified or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. Notes • Greyscale image only.5.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. The default is 0.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. The same cropping is applied to each input image. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. It assumes that the undefined pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. [out1. See also homwarp. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. ithresh(im. a lower value will include more. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1.im2. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.

The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. se. See also iendpoint. hence output image had reduced dimensions.CHAPTER 2. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX file. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. op) is an image where each output pixel is the specified statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. se. ithin.

5). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @std). ones(3.3). out = iwindow(image. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. See also ivar. Notes • Is a MEX file. @max).CHAPTER 2. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the specified function handle func. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The neighbourhood is defined by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. ones(5.

See also kgauss. k = kdgauss(sigma. • The vertical derivative. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kcircle(R. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.s) as above but s is explicitly specified. klog. See also ones. ktriangle. H) as above but the half-width is explictly specified.CHAPTER 2. kdog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. dG/dx. is k’. dG/dy. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . kdgauss. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. k = kgauss(sigma. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efficient approximation. H) as above but the half-width H is specified. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is specified. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. kdog. klog.6*sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). sigma2) as above but sigma2 is specified directly. sigma2. klog. See also kgauss. See also kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1.CHAPTER 2.

zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv. See also ilaplace. H) as above but the half-width H is specified. kdgauss. and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also kgauss. kdog.CHAPTER 2. k = klog(sigma. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.

L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. Pattern Recognition Principles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).C] = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension. it is assumed to have been completed previously. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. [L. L = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. k. k.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also
isobel

ktriangle
Triangular kernel
k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples
>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also
kcircle

lambda2rg
RGB chromaticity coordinates
rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the specific wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also
cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy
= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for
illumination at the specific wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also
cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum
Load spectrum data
s = loadspectrum(lambda, filename) is spectral data (N × D) from file filename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] specified in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, filename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes
• The file is assumed to have its first column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos
Photopic luminosity function
p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also
rluminos

maxfilt
maximum filter
MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum filter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medfilt, minfilt pic 6/93

medfilt1
Median filter
y = medfilt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median filter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes
• A median filter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing filters.

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T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.z] = mkcube(s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.z] = mkcube(s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also cylinder. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. [x. symmetric about the origin. ‘edge’. Options ‘T’. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. C ‘T’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that define the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. The points are the columns of p.y. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).y. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a mesh that defines the edges of a cube. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. [x. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that define a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. y) MPLOT(t.2)). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is first data column. n) MPLOT(t.2)).xp . or y(:. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and first column is time. p.y). Subplots are labelled as per the data fields. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n) MPLOT(y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is first data column. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. the sum of I(x. or y(:. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. See also mpq poly. n. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. npq.yq . mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. y. That is. y.

upq poly. npq poly. See also mpq. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in figure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. so centroids will be still be correct. p. they are considered to be a single vertex. • If the first and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

in text segmentation. [T. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. 1986.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. k. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for example. Example t = niblack(im. Notes • This is an efficient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. W. idisp(im >= t). 20). See also zncc.CHAPTER 2. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. niblack. -0. where W=2*w2+1.2. ssd. Prentice-Hall.m.s] = niblack(im. T has the same dimensions as im. k. the height of a character. sad. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. • A common choice of k=-0. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.q)/MPQ(im. See also npq poly.0. mpq.p. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. That is UPQ(im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. p.0). upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.

they are considered as a single vertex. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also mpq poly. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • If the first and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. mpq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. upq.CHAPTER 2.

[yp.i] = peak(y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Jan 1979.CHAPTER 2. x. N. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Example t = otsu(im). [yp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.xp] = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Systems. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. idisp(im >= t). otsu IEEE Trans. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).

S ‘interp’. N ‘scale’. [zp. • The interp options fits points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. N ‘scale’.S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ij] = peak2(z. use peak(-V). options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To find minima. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To find minima. Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options fits points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.CHAPTER 2. use peak2(-V). Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.S points.

ie. sub2ind pgmfilt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmfilt(im. See also pnmfilt. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix filter program and returns its output as an image. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p.CHAPTER 2. plot2(p. If p has three dimensions. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot.

PLOT BOX(x1.y1) and (x2. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ‘size’. plot_circle(c. r. Examples plot_circle(c. r. x2. value pairs that are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. P. ‘g:’) for a non-filled circle.y2). Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ’LineWidth’. ’fillcolor’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ‘r’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘fillcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. W. ’b’). ’r’). W. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ’g’. ls) draws a box defined by b=[XL XR. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. or a set of name. PLOT BOX(’centre’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’edgecolor’. plot_circle(c. 1=solid. ‘size’.y2. R. r. 5). P. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Matlab color spec transparency of the filled circle: 0=transparent. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg.y1.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.

c Specify color of the axes. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.Y]. C. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Options ‘color’. with Matlab line style ls. ls) ls is the standard line styles. centred at the origin. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. xc.CHAPTER 2. If C=[X.Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. current plot. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. ls) draws an ellipse defined by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.

‘framename’. ’color’. ’r’. ’r’). See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. trplot( T. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. Options ‘textcolor’. to ‘view’. ’color’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line.X = 0. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. n ‘text opts’. ‘printf’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. fmt. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’.CHAPTER 2. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’name’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. Matlab line specification ls can be set. ls) draws a line in the current figure L. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame.

1=solid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The default is 1. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. options) plot a polygon defined by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. patch.CHAPTER 2. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. either a letter or 3-vector. See also plot. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. color) add spheres to the current figure. irrespective of figure hold state. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color. Matlab color spec transparency of the filled circle: 0=transparent. alpha) as above but alpha specifies the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. R. R. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R. options ‘fill’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired.

See also plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. plotp(p.CHAPTER 2. plot2 pnmfilt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmfilt(im. See also pgmfilt. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix filter program and returns its output as an image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is specified as centre=[X.gt] = radgrad(im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.CHAPTER 2. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.

options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. x typically contains corresponding point data.CHAPTER 2.resid] = ransac(func.in] = ransac(func. N ‘maxDataTrials’. [m. x. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) as above but returns the final residual of applying func to the inlier set. one column per point pair.in. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. if the fit residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best fit the model described by the function func and the parameter m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. T. T. [m. T is a threshold on how well a point fits the estimated. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d) as above but elements increment by d. T. ransac classifies Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly fits data x to the model represented by the function func. x.

Fishler and R.out. Comm. [out. Vol 24.R. pp 101-113. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x data to work on.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta. [out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta] = ERR(R. that is. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. Comp.theta = DECONDITION(R. that is they will produce a model. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.resid] = EST(R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.A. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . References • m.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.x) condition the point data out.theta. they detect a structure argument.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.x.C.misc private data (cell array) out. No 6..valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Cambridge University Press. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. Boles. If multiple models are found out. If this function cannot fit a model then out. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.misc element.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.inlier.s out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.t threshold (1 × 1) R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta = [].inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. Mach. Assoc.x and returns the best model out. For efficiency the data is conditioned once. pp 381-395.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.CHAPTER 2.theta is a cell array.x) returns the best fit model and residual for the subset of points R.theta to the points R.resid model fit residual (1 × 1) The values of R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.theta and the subset of R.x.x = CONDITION(R.

edu. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2.csse. If lambda is a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.

angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. See also roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. rotz. roty. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

pitch. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Z axes respectively. See also tr2rpy. If roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. Y. yaw. T = rpy2tr(roll. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. • many texts (Paul. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the specified roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.CHAPTER 2.

r2t. and rotation theta in the plane.y. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ssd. ncc. See also zsad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. y. theta) as above where xy=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2.

R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. ncc. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also zsdd. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. Two cross-hairs are created.

foo = true. ’that’. tr2rt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. – If T is 3 × 3. varargin) opt. The software pattern is: function(a. ’other’}. opt. opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose = {’this’.CHAPTER 2.blah = [].args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt.bar = false. c. then R is 3 × 3. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). It supports options that have an assigned value. then R is 2 × 2.

x. The return structure is automatically populated with fields: verbose and debug. 3 sets opt. ’#yes’}.choose <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.y ‘that’ sets opt.foo <.blah <. By default if an option is given that is not a field of opt an error is declared. • that only one value can be assigned to a field. args) creates a test pattern image.N sets opt <. varargin).x. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are specified then opt. The image is specified by the string type and one or two (type specific) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt = tb_optparse(opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are specified then opt.debug <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.1.select = {’#no’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. w. The allowable options are specified by the names of the fields in the structure opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).choose <. varargin). N ‘setopt’.verbose <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.select <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.CHAPTER 2.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’.y sets opt.select <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the field names.foo <.blah <. If neither of ‘this’.‘this’.true sets opt.false ‘blah’.

256. intercept. 256. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. a line. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. sf. args is the number of cycles. args are pitch (distance between centres). binary dot pattern. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction.sd. sf. binary square pattern. args are theta (rad).sd. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. [s. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0.CHAPTER 2. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 50. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. 25). args is the number of cycles. T) as above but specifies the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sd and sdd are n-vectors.sdd] = tpoly(s0. The trajectory s. dot diameter. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. square side length.

X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y and Z axes respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.P. Y.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. See also angvec2r. The 3 angles rpy=[R. [theta.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Notes • If no output arguments are specified the result is displayed. rpy = tr2rpy(R.

See also rt2tr. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.CHAPTER 2.y. y. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. • The validity of R is not checked. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. See also rpy2tr.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. – If TR is 3 × 3. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T has three dimensions. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. r2t. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.z].:.

out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). or x and y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix.CHAPTER 2. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [o1. each N × 1. [c1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. An historical anomaly.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent finite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. f ‘label’. trotx. trprint T is the command line form of above. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. and displays in RPY format. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx.CHAPTER 2.

tr2rpy.(y-y0)q where (x0.(x-x0)p .y0) is the centroid. That is. mpq. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the sum of I(x. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.y). Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2. See also upq poly. p. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly
Central polygon moments
m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes
• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the first and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also
upq, mpq poly, npq poly

usefig
a named figure or create a new figure
usefig(’Foo’) make figure ‘Foo’ the current figure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = usefig(’Foo’) as above, but returns the figure handle

vex
Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector
v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes
• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also
skew

xaxis
X-axis scaling
xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace
Display spectral locus
xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes
• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also
rg addticks

yaxis
Y-axis scaling
yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross
Zero-crossing detector
iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes
• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also
ilog

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to affine changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. See also ncc. sad.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also sad.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. ncc. sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. See also sdd. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.

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