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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. and I commend it to you. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. However the book “Robotics. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. is open-source. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This is extravagant on storage. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . CentralCamera . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . 2 . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . Movie . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . 6 . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . igraphseg . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . iconcat . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . imorph . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . iproﬁle . . . kdog . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . irectify . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . irank . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . plot ellipse . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . lambda2xy . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . numcols . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . klog . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . .

au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. You need to signup in order to post. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. tutors. That’s what you your teachers. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.google. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.com. and you will be suitably acknowledged. lecturers and professors are paid to do. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.

type of organization and application. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1.1. Corke}. Number = {4}. The details are @article{Corke05f. 1.gz) or zip format (. and the “See also” functions to each other.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.3. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Volume = {12}.html on a server for class use. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Author = {P.I. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. 1.zip).petercorke. the table of content to functions. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Month = nov.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. The ﬁle robot. Year = {2005}. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.

. and there are hundreds of modules available.7. Twente. pp 16–25.7 Acknowledgements Last.vlfeat. VLFeat http://www. 1994 University of British Columbia. November 2005.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. but not least. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. Vincent Lepetit. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. P. 12(4). pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. MSER. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.1.6. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.I.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. Coimbra.Functions such as SURF. Corke.R. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. 1. 1.mathworks. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.S.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

N ‘image’. P ‘pixel’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. S ‘centre’. IM ‘resolution’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. used by all subclasses. S ‘noise’. SIGMA ‘pose’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. Options ‘name’. T ‘color’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. N ‘sensor’. Camera.CHAPTER 2. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.clf Clear the image plane C.display Display value C.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. SphericalCamera Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.centre Get camera position p = C. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.char Convert to string s = C.

hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.u + b. Camera. See also Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.char Camera.v + c = 0.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). otherwise false (0). and off if H is false (or 0). C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Camera.CHAPTER 2.T.hold. uv = C. See also mesh. y.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. T ‘Tcam’.plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. The matrices x. y. cylinder. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. z to the image plane and plots them. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.mesh(x. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot(p. mkcube. y.clf Camera. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). sphere. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera. z.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.

Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. ‘Tobj’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Camera. Options ‘Tcam’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Camera.hold. T ‘scale’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. T See also Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘Tcam’.mesh.clf Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘fps’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.CHAPTER 2.T. Overrides the current camera pose C. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.

CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.p. that is. The image is not inverted. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. a subclass of Camera.rpy Set camera attitude C. C. p.y].rpy(R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

E = C. E = C.8]) See also Camera. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. S ‘centre’. S.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. D ‘default’ ‘image’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). optical axis is z-axis.CHAPTER 2.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. f=8mm.Sastry. 10um pixels. CatadioptricCamera.F. ﬁsheyecamera. J.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. IM ‘resolution’. Reference Y. T ‘color’. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’.Soatto.E Essential matrix E = C. N ‘focal’.Ma. CentralCamera.and y-axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. Springer. u.and v-axes parallel to x. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.177 See also CentralCamera. F ‘distortion’. p. camera at origin. S. S ‘noise’. 2003.Kosecka. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.

E CentralCamera. S.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. J.Soatto. F = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. p.F Fundamental matrix F = C. Springer.Ma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “An invitation to 3D”. from two viewpoints.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.Sastry.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.177 See also CentralCamera.H(T. See also CentralCamera. n. Reference Y.Kosecka.H CentralCamera.H Homography matrix H = C. 2003. S.CHAPTER 2.

uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Journal on Computer Vision. 81. Fua.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.estpose(xyz. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. CentralCamera. 2009. and P.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. See also quiver CentralCamera. a = C. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. F.CHAPTER 2. pp. Moreno-Noguer.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. 155-166. CentralCamera. Feb. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. V.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Lepetit. Int.

s. Springer.invE(E. section 5.Sastry. translation not to scale • n. 259 Y. p116. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). “An invitation to 3D”. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. “An invitation to 3D”.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. J. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Sastry.E CentralCamera. s.Soatto. “Multiview Geometry”.Kosecka. Springer.Soatto. See also CentralCamera.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. p. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Ma. 2003. s. Reference Y. 2003. s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. J.CHAPTER 2.Ma.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Kosecka. Chap 9.

options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). See also Hough CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.H CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline(f. C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. one per line.project(p. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot epiline(f.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tcam’. p.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. H = C.CHAPTER 2. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.

and P. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . 313-326. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Espiau. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.visjac e(E.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. June 1992. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2.plot CentralCamera. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. pp. Rives. Chaumette.c. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference B. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. See also Camera.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.b.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. 8. F.

visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 313-326. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac e CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.visjac p. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac p. Reference B.visjac p polar. 1996. June 1992. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. Rives.visjac l(L. Vol 12(5). Espiau. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Hager & Corke. Oct.visjac p polar. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Chaumette. CentralCamera.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. pp 651-670. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).b. 8. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. IEEE Trans.c. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. vol. See also CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. R&A. Hutchinson.visjac l CentralCamera. and P. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. CentralCamera.visjac p(uv. pp. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). F.

visjac l. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. radius and theta. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. F. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Oct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. (St. 2009. CentralCamera. and F. Louis).visjac p polar(rt. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). CentralCamera. 5962-5967. See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. P. Corke. I. Spindler. pp.visjac p.visjac l. CentralCamera. in Proc. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac e CentralCamera. Int.visjac p polar.CHAPTER 2. Chaumette.

D. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. ScalePointFeature. Journal on Computer Vision.60. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.91-110. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. Int. See README.SIFT. 2004. PointFeature.Lowe. Nov. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. See also isift.CHAPTER 2. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. vol. pp.

F. 1=opaque. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. C ‘alpha’.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.match(f2.CHAPTER 2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options. f = PointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. v.match Match SIFT point features m = F. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also isift SiftPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.

T] = F.support(images. [out. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = F.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images. F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘name’. T ‘Tcam’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.T. Options ‘Tobj’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Overrides the current camera pose C. ﬁsheyecamera. CentralCamera. S ‘pose’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. N ‘pixel’. See also SphericalCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.

showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.CHAPTER 2. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.01) .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .5) target center .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . camera pose. The camera view. The external view.0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. image plane size and desired feature locations. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Jacobian condition number. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. defaults in parentheses: target size .center of the target in world coords (0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.gain. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. error norm. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.depth of points to use for Jacobian. The camera view. of 4-vector.

P. CentralCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations.visjac l. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. I. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.center of the target in world coords (0. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. error norm. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Jacobian condition number. Robotics and Automation. (Anchorage).visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p(pt.gain. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. defaults in parentheses: target size . Corke. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. IEEE Int.5) target center .CHAPTER 2. scalar for If null take actual value all points.the side length of the target in world units (0. error. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. for all points.0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. of 4-vector.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The external view. 5550-5555. Conf.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . May 3-7 2010. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).01) . camera pose. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . CentralCamera. in Proc. pp.

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Andreas Ess. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Luc Van Gool. pp. 346–359.CHAPTER 2. No. Vol. 110. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Tinne Tuytelaars.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].C] = F. f = PointFeature(u. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘thresh’. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. [m. ScalePointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.match(f2. v. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.match Match SURF point features m = F.

0=transparent (default 0.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.plot scale Plot feature scale F.support(images.support(im.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.support Support region of feature out = F.support(images. 1=opaque. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. F.2) SurfPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. C ‘alpha’. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. [out. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(im.

G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com).CHAPTER 2. otherwise the result is not predictable.axis.com) web camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Video AxisWebCamera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.

grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. See also AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.close() closes the connection to the web camera.close Close the image source A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string A. AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.

on Computer Vision. f can also be a cell array. Oct. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. b = BagOfWords(f. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.Sivic and A. 2003. in Proc. Ninth IEEE Int.org).CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.Zisserman. Conf. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.1470-1477.

CHAPTER 2. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .exemplars(w. BagOfWords.display Display value B. BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. images.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.exemplars display exemplars of words B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.char BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B.contains Find images containing word k = B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. See also BagOfWords.

w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.remove stop Remove stop words B. N ‘maxperimage’.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. M ‘width’.n] = B.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’.CHAPTER 2.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords.

The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.

Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. optical axis is z-axis. N ‘sensor’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. S ‘centre’. See also Camera. CatadioptricCamera. T ‘Tcam’. K ‘maxangle’. f=8mm. 10um pixels. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. u. ‘equisolid’. SIGMA ‘pose’.and y-axes respectively. ‘sine’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Options ‘Tobj’. P ‘pixel’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].T. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). See also Camera.project(p.and v-axes parallel to x.CHAPTER 2. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. ﬁsheyecamera. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. S ‘noise’. A ‘resolution’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. camera at origin.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. N ‘focal’. M ‘k’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. See also PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = M. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. f2. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature. FeatureMatch. one per element.display Display value M. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also FeatureMatch.

outlier.ransac FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v2]. See also FeatureMatch.v1.u2.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier. FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.

CHAPTER 2.p1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. for example by: idisp({im1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.im2}) m.plot Show corresponding points M.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p1.FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. These are the (u. See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p2.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() M.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. See also FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.

ransac( @fmatrix.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. m = f1. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. homography. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. m. f2 = isurf(im2).CHAPTER 2. 1e-4). See also fmatrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac(func. Example f1 = isurf(im1). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.match(f2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac Apply RANSAC M. ransac FeatureMatch.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. v. Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. N ‘sensor’. f=8mm. S ‘noise’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). camera at origin. S ‘centre’. optical axis is z-axis. SIGMA ‘pose’.and y. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. M ‘k’. K ‘resolution’. ‘sine’. Options ‘name’.axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. u. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. P ‘pixel’.CHAPTER 2.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. ‘equisolid’. 10um pixels.and v-axes are parallel to x.

Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.project(p. CatadioptricCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also Camera. See also FishEyeCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tobj’.

A horizontal line has theta = 0. See also LineFeature Hough. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.H). Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. The voting array is 2-dimensional.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.CHAPTER 2. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.0) and the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.

Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Convert to string s = HT. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.houghThresh (default 0. T ‘suppress’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.5) Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0.CHAPTER 2. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Nrho].1). W ‘houghthresh’. Default 400 × 401. W ‘nbins’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Set ht. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Hough. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. T ‘edgethresh’. Hough. N All edge pixels have equal weight.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edgeThresh. else N = [Ntheta.display Display value HT.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. See also Hough.

HT.CHAPTER 2. The highest peak is found. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. See also Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. LineFeature Hough.lines Find lines L = HT. H = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. L = HT.plot(n. HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.lines Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. then all elements in an HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision. The process is repeated for all peaks. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line features HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. See also Hough.plot.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.

hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. theta. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. strength.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. L = LineFeature(rho. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. LENGTH is undeﬁned.char Convert to string s = L. one per element. LineFeature.display Display value L. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. theta. See also LineFeature. LineFeature.

gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L. l2 = L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot() overlay the line on current plot. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.points Return points on line segments p = L. See also icanny LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. LineFeature.plot Plot line L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Small gaps. L.seglength(edge. less than gap pixels are tolerated.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.

S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com). Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.close Close the image source M. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.axis.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Movie. S ‘skip’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.char Convert to string M.close() closes the connection to the movie.

grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. planar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. F Skip frames. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. undirected graph create an n-d. S ‘frame’.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.

CHAPTER 2.edges(e) g.distance(v1. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.path(v) set goal vertex.add node(coord.connectivity() g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.coord(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Object properties (read/write) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.plot() g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. v2) g.clear() add vertex. v) g.component(v) g.next(v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().cost(e) g.neighbours(v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add node(coord) g.goal(v) g.add edge(v1.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.

PGraph. and returns the node id v. v = G. v2.add node(x. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v.add edge(v1. and returns the edge id E.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v = G.CHAPTER 2. E = G. PGraph.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. Options ‘distance’. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.add node(x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add edge(v1. where x is D × 1.

PGraph. and the distance d. [v. edges and components.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord(v) return coordinate vector.d] = G.clear Clear the graph G. D × 1. PGraph. PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord Coordinate of node x = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. of node id v.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. one per element.char Convert to string s = F. v. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature. PointFeature. SurfPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.

options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.C] = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.match(f2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. PointFeature.char PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. the norm of the Euclidean distance.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Options ‘thresh’.match Match point features m = F. where 1 is perfect match.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.

CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot Plot feature F. F. Polygon . If F is a vector then each element is plotted.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).

union. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.mit. p = Polygon(C.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.html and require a licence.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.char String representation s = P. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Polygon. kirill@plume. http://puddle. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon. intersection. one column per vertex.area Area of polygon a = P. Pankratov.edu.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. HEIGHT].Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.CHAPTER 2. so use with care. Polygon. difference. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.mit.

difference Difference of polygons d = P.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon. Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.display Display polygon P. else 0. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. See also Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.char Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns coordinates of P.

i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. y1 y2]. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. each column is [x y]’. Polygon.moments(p.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns empty polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.CHAPTER 2. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. See also mpq poly Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union Union of polygons i = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.plot Plot polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. P.CHAPTER 2.plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. Ray3D.E] = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value R. Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. [x. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. See also Ray3D.E] = R.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.char Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.char Convert to string s = R. one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.b.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. horizontal coordinate centroid. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. vertical coordinate bounding box.

If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.uc will be a list not a vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. RegionFeature.xmax. one per element. For example R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. ymin.char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. See also iblobs.box Return bounding box b = R. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature.th] = R. ymax].

display Display value R. R. See also RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary plot boundary R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.and xmarkers.plot Plot centroid R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.char RegionFeature. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.CHAPTER 2.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R.

CHAPTER 2. f = ScalePointFeature(u. See also PointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. strength. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. F. 0=transparent (default 0. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options. ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. f = ScalePointFeature(u.

The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. C. options) is a new tracker object.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. R ‘nslots’. See also PointFeature Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.CHAPTER 2. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. one per active track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. Options ‘radius’. T ‘movie’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. N ‘thresh’.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Convert to string s = T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display Display value T. Tracker.char Tracker. See also Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.

G ‘scale’. Movie Video. AxisWebCamera. S ‘resolution’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera.CHAPTER 2. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. and their characteristics is displayed. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the camera.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string V. Video. Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close Close the image source V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() acquires an image from the camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If disp is positive the disparity is increased. a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). If th1 is a column vector. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. if negative it is reduced. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. the ﬁrst for left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and the right image is cyan. By default the left image is red.CHAPTER 2. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. the second for right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. color. right. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1.

See also RegionFeature.y1] and p2=[x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. p = bresenham(p1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.CHAPTER 2. x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . % emission of sun plot(l. If lambda is a column vector.y2]. 6500).y1) to (x2. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. Endpoints must be integer.s] = boundmatch(R1.boundary.y2). For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. y1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.

Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. [C. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.Y.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].

R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.d1] = closest(a.CHAPTER 2. green and blue primaries respectively. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. x = circle(C. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. R. that is. R. and x is N × 3. [k. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. k = closest(a. Options ‘n’. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.

5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. while Table I(5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d1.5.5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.CHAPTER 2. since. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.d2] = closest(a.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.ucl.16). Notes • Data from http://cvrl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ac. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). • From Table I(5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. 335 of Table 1(5. they were measured directly.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).5. As noted in footnote a on p.32). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. 19000 (526.ioo. The data are referred to as pilot data. and 22500 (444.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. (Table 1(5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.

ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ac. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .uk See also cmfrgb. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.CHAPTER 2. out = col2im(pix. imsize is a 2-vector (N. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ucl. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.M).

g] to every pixel in the color image im.CHAPTER 2. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.

B). @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [L. k. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to.G. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.CHAPTER 2. func. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. eg. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = colorkmeans(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. @isnan. mask. icolor. See also imono. im<100. and returns a per-pixel logical result. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.

low is good. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(XYZ. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. L = colorkmeans(im. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.C. XYZ = colorname(name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. k) as above but also returns the residual R. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities.CHAPTER 2. eg. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.R] = colorkmeans(im. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space.

• Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. double data is the natural choice. As MATLAB’s native datatype.o2.CHAPTER 2. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. s = ‘src->dest’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. i1. [o1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. or alternatively.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Color space names are case insensitive.i2.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.txt. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes.o3] = colorspace(s. it can be omitted. s = ‘dest<-src’.

2*A. d = distance(A. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. However. for memory and computational performance.100). out will also have size M × 3. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. Example A = rand(400. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. B = rand(400.B).200).J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . like a colormap. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. • If im is an M × 3 array. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .

2 and Solaris Matlab v5. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. seed.3. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. tel. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. non-zero is an object. The result E is a matrix.uva. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(+31)20-5257524. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. in matrix coordinate frame. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.CHAPTER 2.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. bunschot@wins. University of Amsterdam. not image frame. Tested: PC Matlab v5. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.j). Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. non zero is counter-clockwise.y). but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. E = edgelist(im.

ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).S. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. one per line drawn. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. H = epiline(f. 1998. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. epiline(f. See also fmatrix. See also epiline. I.CHAPTER 2. Coimbra. p. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Oct 27.R. p.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p1. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Reference Hartley and Zisserman. p2. homography.csse. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.au/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. http://www. • f is a rank 2 matrix. See also ransac. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. epiline. no outlier rejection is performed. page 270. that is.edu. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . it is singular. • Contains a RANSAC driver.CHAPTER 2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. that is. c. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.uwa. The University of Western Australia. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac().

itriplepoint. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.y1) and (x2. See also imorph.y2). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y1. ithin.CHAPTER 2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

The University of Western Australia. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. no outlier rejection is performed. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. which means it can be passed to ransac(). • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.edu.au/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. Notes • The points must be corresponding. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . invhomog.uwa. See also ransac.csse. http://www. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines.offs] = homwarp(H.CHAPTER 2. S output image contains all the warped pixels. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. S ‘dimension’. that is tp=T*T1. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. [out. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. V ‘roi’. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. See also e2h. itrim. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. See also homography. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. im. ie. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. R ‘scale’. D ‘size’.

200). Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ianimate(im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ianimate(seq. 179-187. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ’gs’). IT-8:pp. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. 1962. on Information Theory. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im.CHAPTER 2. IRE Trans. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Hu. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. ’nfeat’. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. features. features.

box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . YMIN YMAX].CHAPTER 2. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. iharris. isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. M ‘npoints’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). N ‘only’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.

[S1. ilabel.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. default 1.CHAPTER 2. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.0 ‘connect’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and larger values correspond to stronger edges. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. C set connectivity.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. [A1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an dilation followed by erosion. se. T ‘th1’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.CHAPTER 2. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. out = iclose(im. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. 1996-7. See also iopen. Tel Aviv University. See also isobel. S ‘th0’.

B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.u] = iconcat(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). Options ‘dir’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. colorize. See also imono. iconcat(im. [C. [0 1 1]).options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.CHAPTER 2. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = icolor(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. D ‘bgval’.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) convolves im1 with im2.

CHAPTER 2. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. N ‘detector’. R ‘nfeat’. CT ‘edgegap’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. E ‘suppress’. D ‘sigma’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘k’. K ‘patch’. S ‘deriv’.

options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.5 [sec]. T ‘distthresh’.. May 1988. with a delay of d [sec]. Stephens. Proc. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. 1988.d] = icp(p1. IEEE Computer Society. J. Image and Vision Computing. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2.J. J.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. 593-593. [T.6. vol. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf.CHAPTER 2. Tomasi.121-128. C. Options ‘dplot’. Shi and C. pp. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Harris and M. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.Noble. • “Finding corners”. Proc. with a delay of 0. T ‘maxiter’. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. pp.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. where * denotes squared and smoothed. N ‘mindelta’. • “Good features to track”. 1994. See also PointFeature.G. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. p2. pp 147-151. Manchester.

Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.CHAPTER 2. Feb. Mach. 2. P. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. no. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. Pattern Anal. s = idecimate(im.Besl and H. 239-256. m. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. pp. See also iscale. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.or 3-dimensional. Intell. IEEETrans. m. s = idecimate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.. 14.McKay. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. each plane is decimated. 1992.

linear proﬁle. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. zero is black. If the image is zoomed. C ‘xydata’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. zero is white. positive is blue. negative is red. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. zero is white color map: random values. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. Options ‘ncolors’. positive is blue. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. histogram and zooming. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned.CHAPTER 2. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x.and y-axes respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zero is black color map: greyscale signed. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. negative is red. XY ‘colormap’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. If im is a cell array of images. darker than ‘grey’. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap.

See also image. idisplabel(im. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. caxis. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labelimage.CHAPTER 2. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labels. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. icolorize. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. colormap. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also iblobs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map.

• For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. See also itriplepoint. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.CHAPTER 2. ithin. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0.45.2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. out = igamma(im. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.

min is the minimum region size (pixels). k. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Journal on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im.m] = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. See also ithresh. k is the scale parameter. 167181. min. P. pp. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. k. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”.5).5). 0. 2004. 100. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.m] = igraphseg(im.jpg’). L = igraphseg(im. 59. Huttenlocher. Int. 2006. Example im = iread(’58060. [l. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.CHAPTER 2. Sept. 1500. k. vol. [L. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . min. Felzenszwalb and D.

[H. [h.x] = ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im).h). bar(x. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. plot(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.h). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. H = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2.

See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. y1. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. [L.y2). x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. y2. [L. x1.CHAPTER 2. ii is a precomputed integral image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.y1) and bottom-right (x2. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.m. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. same size as im.

parents. [L.maxlabel. iproﬁle.class.Y].CHAPTER 2. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. The pixels on the line are set to 1. See also iblobs. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.parents. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. eg. 8).edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. ilabel(im. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iline(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.maxlabel. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. each a 2-vector [X. otherwise it does not. p2. p1.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. • This is a “low level” function. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.

H. The template in im1 is centred at (x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.DY. y. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. ymin. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. s.DY) are the x. w2.y). a perfect match score is 1. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. • ZNCC matching is used.and y-offsets relative to (x.CHAPTER 2. xmax. • Is a MEX ﬁle.y) and its half-width is H. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. -s. x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.y). ymax] relative to (x.score] = imatch(im1. [xm. im2. y. and columns the vertical position. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). s] % relative to (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. x. centred at (x.CC] where (DX. The return value is xm=[DX.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2.y) and of size s.

u) = v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.CHAPTER 2. effectively a greyscale image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. [u. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(w. f = imoments(u. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. v. effectively a binary image. All pixels are equally weighted. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.u) = u and v(v. [u.

m10. m11. or its area. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. icolor. ilabel. the elements are m00. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. • This function does not perform connectivity. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst.CHAPTER 2. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. See also RegionFeature. horizontal coordinate centroid.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m01. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Different conversion functions are supported. m20. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m02.

Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. J. ’double’).png’. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . O. ’light’). 761767. m. pp. se. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.org). Image and Vision Computing. [label.m] = imser(im. and T. 2004. Urban. 22. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. The labels [L. Chum. ’grey’. vol. Sept. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.m] = imser(im. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.CHAPTER 2. Pajdla. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Matas. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.

• Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

sides. out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n. se. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. See also iclose. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. sides.

p.CHAPTER 2. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ’t’. im2. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. ’tblr’.V]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. 20. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im1. otherwise im2 is selected. 10. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.

CHAPTER 2. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. See also bresenham. p1. p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). [p.uv] = iproﬁle(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.

out = imorph(image. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.3). 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.2) = 0. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. is order=1.CHAPTER 2. See also iscalespace. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. ones(5. op. out = ipyramid(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. im > irank(im. se(2. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im.5)). 1. 12. order. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . nbins. The highest rank. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. sigma. the maximum. idecimate. se. se. out = imorph(image. out = ipyramid(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. se). op.

R ‘roi’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. See also imorph. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. ivar. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. where R=[umin umax. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. G ‘reduce’. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. im = iread(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. vmin vmax]. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.out2] = irectify(f.h2] = irectify(f. istereo.out2. imono. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. imwrite. Notes • Color images are not supported. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. [out1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. See also FeatureMatch. im1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.h1. homwarp. m. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. igamma. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. m.

V ‘smooth’.CHAPTER 2.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. S ‘extrapval’. vmin. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.H] return central part of image.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.umax.vmin vmax].vmax]. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. angle. See also idisp. Options ‘outsize’.

out = isamesize(im1. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s<1 makes it smaller. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. Options ‘outsize’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s>1 makes the image larger. bias<0. im2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 is symmetric cropping. s ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. bias=0. while bias>0. V ‘smooth’.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.

s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. in space and scale.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. n) as above but sigma=1. idecimate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.s] = iscalespace(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [g. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . corresponding to each step of the sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. See also iscalespace.L. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.s] = iscalespace(im.

CHAPTER 2. ilaplace. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. it its third dimension is equal to three. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. ismooth. else false (0). that is. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. See also isrot.

60. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. isurf.vlfeat. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. See also SiftPointFeature.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. 2 (2004). • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. N ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. Reference David G. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. International Journal of Computer Vision. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. 91-110. Lowe.

Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. ncc. @ssd. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. [w.H. @ncc. zsad. and these output pixels are set to NaN.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. See also imatch. sad. [w. s = isimilarity(T.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. @zsad. zssd. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s is same size as im.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. ssd. @zssd. im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. See also iconv.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. [gx. then converted back to integer. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma.gy] = isobel(im. [gx. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. convolved.

imr. else false (0).sim] = istereo(iml. H. range is the disparity search range. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. w. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. imr. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. icanny. That is. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range.CHAPTER 2. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. H is the half size of the matching window. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. See also ishomog. range. the disparity d=d(v. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.M] for an N × M window. isrot(R. See also ksobel. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. [d. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u) means that imr(v.u). ‘valid’) as above.

B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. w.p] = istereo(iml.A and p. p. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. 3) See also irectify. w. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.sim. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. That is.5 to +0. imr. [d.5). • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. [d. range.sim. p.CHAPTER 2. • sim = max(dsi. Options ‘metric’. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.dsi] = istereo(iml. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. imr. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). dx. B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. ‘ncc’. out = istretch(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.

• Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. N ‘thresh’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. or sequences. Notes • Color images. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. T ‘octaves’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Kroon (U. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).

Luc Van Gool. either a row. else false (0). No. isift. 3. pp. itriplepoint.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 346–359. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 110. out = ithin(im. See also hitormiss. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. isvec(v. Otherwise false (0). Vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay.or columnvector. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. See also ishomog. Tinne Tuytelaars. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Andreas Ess.CHAPTER 2.

T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. ithresh(im. The default is 0. The same cropping is applied to each input image. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. Notes • Greyscale image only.CHAPTER 2.5. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. a lower value will include more. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.im2. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. See also homwarp. [out1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.

se. See also iendpoint. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. op. ithin. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. se. out = iwindow(image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled.3). hence output image had reduced dimensions. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. ones(5. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. See also ivar. ones(3. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.5). se. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. @std). func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. @max). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ktriangle. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. dG/dy. dG/dx. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. • The vertical derivative. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. k = kcircle(R. kdog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. See also ones.CHAPTER 2. k = kdgauss(sigma. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. klog. is k’.

k = kdog(sigma1.CHAPTER 2. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2. k = kgauss(sigma. kdog. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . See also kdgauss. See also kgauss. klog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). kdgauss.6*sigma1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default SIGMA2 = 1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. klog. where sigma1 > SIGMA2.

kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. kdog. iconv. k = klog(sigma. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ilaplace. and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also kgauss.

C] = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Pattern Recognition Principles. k. L = kmeans(x. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. and D is the dimension. [L.CHAPTER 2.C] = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. it is assumed to have been completed previously.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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‘edge’.z] = mkcube(s. See also cylinder. [x. Options ‘T’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. s. C ‘T’. [x. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).z] = mkcube(s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. The points are the columns of p.y. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. symmetric about the origin.y. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.CHAPTER 2.

2)). MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.yq . y) MPLOT(t. the sum of I(x. See also mpq poly.2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(t.xp . mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. y. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. or y(:. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.y). MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.CHAPTER 2. n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. That is. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. or y(:. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq. y. p. n) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(t.

i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. p. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). npq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. W. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.m. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. where W=2*w2+1. [T. the height of a character. sad. 1986. Prentice-Hall. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = niblack(im. -0. k. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. ssd. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. T has the same dimensions as im. • A common choice of k=-0. See also zncc. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. k. in text segmentation. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing.2.CHAPTER 2. idisp(im >= t). for example. niblack.s] = niblack(im. 20).

Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.0. mpq. That is UPQ(im. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.0). upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. See also npq poly. p.p.q)/MPQ(im.CHAPTER 2. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.

npq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. they are considered as a single vertex. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also mpq poly. mpq. upq.

idisp(im >= t). Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Systems. otsu IEEE Trans. Jan 1979. x. [yp. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.xp] = peak(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Example t = otsu(im). N. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i] = peak(y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. [yp. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). pp 62-66 See also niblack.

See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. use peak(-V).CHAPTER 2. Typically choose N to be odd. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. S ‘interp’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.S points. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak2(-V).ij] = peak2(z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’.S points. [zp. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.

If p has three dimensions. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also pnmﬁlt. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plot2(p. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.CHAPTER 2. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.

plot_circle(c.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. value pairs that are passed to plot. r. Examples plot_circle(c. P. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ’b’). ’r’). ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. PLOT BOX(’centre’. plot_circle(c. W. 5).y2). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. or a set of name. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. R.y1) and (x2.y2. W. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’g’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’LineWidth’. ‘r’. r. ’edgecolor’. 1=solid. PLOT BOX(x1.CHAPTER 2. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.y1. r. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ‘size’. x2. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. P. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’fillcolor’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls.

PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y. C. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) ls is the standard line styles.Y]. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. centred at the origin. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. with Matlab line style ls. c Specify color of the axes.CHAPTER 2.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. Options ‘color’. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. current plot. If C=[X. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. xc.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’r’. ‘framename’. options) adds point markers to a plot.CHAPTER 2. ’color’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. to ‘view’. n ‘text opts’. ‘printf’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. fmt. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. trplot( T. ’name’. ’color’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. Options ‘textcolor’.X = 0. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ’r’).

color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. 1=solid. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R. either a letter or 3-vector. The default is 1. See also plot. patch. color. R. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state.CHAPTER 2. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot.

See also plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. See also pgmﬁlt. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plotp(p.CHAPTER 2. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used.

gt] = radgrad(im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.CHAPTER 2. [gr. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.

ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x. T. T. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set.in. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.resid] = ransac(func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. x. one column per point pair. Options ‘maxTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. [m. T.CHAPTER 2.in] = ransac(func. x typically contains corresponding point data. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. x. N ‘maxDataTrials’. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.

misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.x) condition the point data out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.theta. Mach.x that best supports (most inliers) that model..theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. that is. Boles.s out.theta.x data to work on. Vol 24. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. Comp. Cambridge University Press.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.CHAPTER 2. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.misc element.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.C.resid] = EST(R.x = CONDITION(R. References • m.theta] = ERR(R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.theta = [].A. Fishler and R.out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. pp 101-113.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.s sample size (1 × 1) out. If multiple models are found out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.theta to the points R. pp 381-395. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.x and returns the best model out.theta and the subset of R. that is they will produce a model.x.out.x.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.inlier.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. [out. Comm. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .theta = DECONDITION(R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. they detect a structure argument. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.R.misc private data (cell array) out. No 6.theta is a cell array. [out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Assoc.

csse.CHAPTER 2. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix.edu. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. If lambda is a vector. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.uwa.

CHAPTER 2. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. See also rotx. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also roty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. roty.

where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. If roll. pitch. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. • many texts (Paul. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. See also tr2rpy. Y. pitch. T = rpy2tr(roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Z axes respectively. yaw. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll.CHAPTER 2.

ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2t. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. y. See also zsad.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y. and rotation theta in the plane. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. theta) as above where xy=[x. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2.

See also zsdd. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. ncc. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. sad. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image.CHAPTER 2. Two cross-hairs are created. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector.

b.blah = []. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). then R is 3 × 3. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. The software pattern is: function(a. varargin) opt. opt. ’other’}. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. It supports options that have an assigned value. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. – If T is 3 × 3.foo = true. c. tr2rt. ’that’.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.CHAPTER 2.bar = false. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. then R is 2 × 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose = {’this’. opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp.

’#yes’}.blah <.false ‘blah’.1. x. If neither of ‘this’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. opt = tb_optparse(opt. args) creates a test pattern image.‘this’.x.choose <.choose <.CHAPTER 2.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.select = {’#no’.true sets opt.3 ‘blah’. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. w. N ‘setopt’.verbose <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.select <.debug <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.blah <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.N sets opt <.foo <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. 3 sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.select <. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.foo <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.y sets opt. varargin). Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. varargin).

sdd] = tpoly(s0. 256. args is the number of cycles. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. sf. args is the number of cycles. sf. sd and sdd are n-vectors. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. intercept. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. binary dot pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. square side length.sd.sd. 25). n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. a line. args are pitch (distance between centres).CHAPTER 2. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. dot diameter. args is the number of cycles. 50. The trajectory s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2). binary square pattern. 256. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args are theta (rad). [s. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args is the number of cycles. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. The 3 angles rpy=[R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.CHAPTER 2. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .P. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). [theta. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). See also angvec2r. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Y and Z axes respectively.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.

y. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. r2t. See also rt2tr. • The validity of R is not checked. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. If T has three dimensions.:.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .z]. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. – If TR is 3 × 3. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. ie. See also rpy2tr. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.y. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.

out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. each N × 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [c1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. or x and y.CHAPTER 2. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [o1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. An historical anomaly. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.

Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.CHAPTER 2. troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.

trprint T is the command line form of above. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. and displays in RPY format. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. f ‘label’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line.CHAPTER 2.

p.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy.y0) is the centroid. See also upq poly. mpq. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.y). tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(y-y0)q where (x0. That is. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the sum of I(x.(x-x0)p .

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. ssd. sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. See also sad. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ncc. ssd.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sdd.

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