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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This toolbox predates IPT by many years. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. is open-source. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. and I commend it to you. However the book “Robotics.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . Movie . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . anaglyph . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . bresenham . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . isurf . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . im2col . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . norm2 . . mlabel . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . mplot . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . transl . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lecturers and professors are paid to do. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You need to signup in order to post. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. and you will be suitably acknowledged. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.google. tutors. That’s what you your teachers. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.

petercorke. 1. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. 1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.zip). The details are @article{Corke05f. Year = {2005}.1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Author = {P. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Corke}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Number = {4}. Month = nov. type of organization and application. 1.html on a server for class use. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1.3. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. the table of content to functions.gz) or zip format (. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .I.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Volume = {12}. The ﬁle robot. and the “See also” functions to each other.

S. MSER. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. Coimbra. 1994 University of British Columbia.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.I. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. Vincent Lepetit. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.vlfeat.7 Acknowledgements Last. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.. Twente. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. 1. pp 16–25.Functions such as SURF.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. November 2005. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Corke. 1.mathworks.6. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . VLFeat http://www. P.1. but not least. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.R. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.7. and there are hundreds of modules available. 12(4).

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

N ‘sensor’. Options ‘name’. T ‘color’.CHAPTER 2. Camera. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘noise’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. N ‘image’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘centre’. used by all subclasses. P ‘pixel’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. IM ‘resolution’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane.

SphericalCamera Camera.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.delete Camera object destructor C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. ﬁsheyecamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.CHAPTER 2. Camera. Camera.char Convert to string s = C.centre Get camera position p = C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). CatadioptricCamera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.

CHAPTER 2. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). otherwise false (0). Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Camera.char Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera.v + c = 0.u + b.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. and off if H is false (or 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.

Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Options ‘Tobj’. y.T. z to the image plane and plots them. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. z.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera. Camera. See also mesh.clf Camera.plot(p.mesh(x. The matrices x.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. mkcube. Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. y.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). y. sphere.hold. cylinder. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.plot. uv = C.plot Plot points on image plane C.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Options ‘Tcam’. Overrides the current camera pose C. ‘Tobj’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Camera.CHAPTER 2. T ‘scale’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. T See also Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.clf Camera. ‘Tcam’.mesh. Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘fps’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T. Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.hold.

rpy Set camera attitude C. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.CHAPTER 2.rpy(R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. a subclass of Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. p. C. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.p.y]. The image is not inverted. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

optical axis is z-axis. ﬁsheyecamera. J.F. F ‘distortion’. IM ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. E = C.177 See also CentralCamera. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. SIGMA ‘pose’.Soatto.Ma. CentralCamera. N ‘sensor’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.Kosecka. T ‘color’. 10um pixels. E = C. S.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Springer.Sastry.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. CatadioptricCamera. Reference Y.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S. S ‘centre’.E Essential matrix E = C. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.8]) See also Camera. S ‘noise’.and v-axes parallel to x. “An invitation to 3D”. p. u. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). 2003.and y-axes respectively.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. N ‘focal’. camera at origin. f=8mm. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. D ‘default’ ‘image’.

from two viewpoints.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.H CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.E CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H(T.Soatto.H Homography matrix H = C. 2003.Sastry. S. Springer.CHAPTER 2.F Fundamental matrix F = C. J.Ma. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).177 See also CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. See also CentralCamera. Reference Y. F = C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. S. “An invitation to 3D”.Kosecka.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. p.

ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. and P. Int.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.CHAPTER 2. F.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. pp. a = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2009. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. vol. Moreno-Noguer. Fua. Journal on Computer Vision.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. V. 81.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Lepetit. 155-166.estpose(xyz.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. See also quiver CentralCamera. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Feb.

“An invitation to 3D”. 2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. s.Sastry. translation not to scale • n. Springer. p116. “Multiview Geometry”.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.E CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Springer. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Sastry.Kosecka.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. See also CentralCamera.Kosecka. Chap 9.Ma. 259 Y.Soatto. Reference Y. 2003. s. section 5. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Soatto. J. s. s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Ma.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . J. “An invitation to 3D”.invE(E. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.

CentralCamera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. H = C.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. ‘Tcam’. one per line. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. C.T. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ‘Tobj’.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.project(p. p. See also Hough CentralCamera.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2.H CentralCamera.

2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. F. 8. Espiau.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.c. and P. Reference B.plot CentralCamera. vol.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. June 1992. 313-326.visjac e(E. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Chaumette. “Multiview Geometry”. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. See also Camera. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .CHAPTER 2.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Rives.b. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference Hartley & Zisserman. pp. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.

See also CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Hager & Corke.b. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. June 1992. F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Chaumette. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. 8. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. vol. Reference B.visjac p. pp 651-670. Oct.visjac p. Vol 12(5).visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. CentralCamera. Hutchinson. R&A. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. IEEE Trans.visjac l CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Espiau.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac l(L. CentralCamera. Rives.CHAPTER 2. 1996. and P.visjac p polar.visjac p(uv.c. pp. 313-326.

CentralCamera. Spindler. (St. CentralCamera. Chaumette.visjac l.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. radius and theta. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac l. and F. Oct. See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. Louis). or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. I. 2009.CHAPTER 2. 5962-5967. pp. in Proc. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p. Int.visjac p polar(rt. F.visjac p polar.

You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.CHAPTER 2.91-110. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp.SIFT. ScalePointFeature. Journal on Computer Vision.60. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.Lowe. 2004. Int. Nov. See README. D. See also isift. PointFeature. vol. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match(f2. See also isift SiftPointFeature.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. 1=opaque. SiftPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F. 0=transparent (default 0.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.

support(im.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(images. out = F.support Support region of feature out = F.support(images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.support(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. [out. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. T ‘Tcam’. S ‘pose’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Options ‘Tobj’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. N ‘pixel’.project(p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Options ‘name’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).T. Overrides the current camera pose C. See also SphericalCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera.

showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.01) .center of the target in world coords (0. The camera view.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . error. The external view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. Jacobian condition number. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera view.CHAPTER 2. defaults in parentheses: target size .depth of points to use for Jacobian.the side length of the target in world units (0. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. image plane size and desired feature locations.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.0.gain. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . error norm.5) target center .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. of 4-vector. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera pose. scalar for If null take actual value all points. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.

a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Conf. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. of 4-vector. error norm. CentralCamera. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.visjac l.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. P. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. See also CentralCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations. scalar for If null take actual value all points.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . CentralCamera. for all points. Corke. camera pose. defaults in parentheses: target size . 5550-5555.gain. pp. in Proc.depth of points to use for Jacobian.center of the target in world coords (0. error. IEEE Int.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . May 3-7 2010.01) . Jacobian condition number.CHAPTER 2. Robotics and Automation. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.0.visjac p polar.the side length of the target in world units (0. The external view. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). (Anchorage).camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. I.5) target center . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.visjac p(pt.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

Andreas Ess. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 3. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. pp. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Tinne Tuytelaars. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). No. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. 110.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 346–359. Luc Van Gool.

match(f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. ScalePointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. PointFeature. [m.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Options ‘thresh’. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u. v.match Match SURF point features m = F.match(f2.CHAPTER 2.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].C] = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.

1=opaque. 0=transparent (default 0. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support(images.2) SurfPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. [out. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support Support region of feature out = F. F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. out = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(im.support(im.support(images.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale Plot feature scale F.T] = F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis. Video AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.com) web camera. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.axis.com). otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. G ‘scale’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.

char Convert to string A. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.close Close the image source A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also AxisWebCamera.

BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Oct. 2003.Zisserman. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.1470-1477. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. on Computer Vision. pp. b = BagOfWords(f. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. in Proc.Sivic and A.org). Conf. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.CHAPTER 2. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. f can also be a cell array. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

isurf BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char BagOfWords. BagOfWords.display Display value B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B. images.exemplars(w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. See also BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.exemplars display exemplars of words B. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’. N ‘maxperimage’.CHAPTER 2.remove stop Remove stop words B.isword Features from words f = B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.n] = B. M ‘width’.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. BagOfWords. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.

wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. subclass of Camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

f=8mm. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. u. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. ‘sine’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. 10um pixels. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.T. optical axis is z-axis. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘equisolid’. Options ‘Tobj’. SIGMA ‘pose’. See also Camera. P ‘pixel’.and v-axes parallel to x. K ‘maxangle’. S ‘centre’. A ‘resolution’.and y-axes respectively. CatadioptricCamera.project(p.CHAPTER 2. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’. camera at origin. F ‘default’ ‘projection’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera. M ‘k’. N ‘sensor’. T ‘Tcam’.

See also PointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.CHAPTER 2. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object.

one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. See also FeatureMatch. f2.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Convert to string s = M. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.display Display value M. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. See also PointFeature. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. SurfPointFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.v1. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.v2].ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.ransac FeatureMatch.u2.inlier. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.p2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.plot() M.FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. These are the (u. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot Show corresponding points M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.im2}) m.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.

f2 = isurf(im2). m = f1. Example f1 = isurf(im1).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. ransac FeatureMatch.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. See also fmatrix.match(f2). See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac(func. m. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.CHAPTER 2.ransac Apply RANSAC M. 1e-4). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and an error is created if this UserData is not found.ransac( @fmatrix. homography. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .subset Subset of matches m2 = M.CHAPTER 2. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. v. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

N ‘sensor’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. K ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. 10um pixels.and v-axes are parallel to x. camera at origin.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. M ‘k’. ‘equisolid’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. u.axes respectively. f=8mm. ‘sine’. SIGMA ‘pose’.and y.CHAPTER 2. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. S ‘noise’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . optical axis is z-axis. Options ‘name’.

CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. CatadioptricCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Options ‘Tobj’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.project(p. CentralCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. See also FishEyeCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.H). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.CHAPTER 2. A horizontal line has theta = 0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. The voting array is 2-dimensional. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.0) and the line.

N All edge pixels have equal weight. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. T ‘edgethresh’.display Display value HT. else N = [Ntheta. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. See also Hough. W ‘nbins’. Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘houghthresh’. Hough. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.houghThresh (default 0. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Set ht.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Nrho].5) Set ht.edgeThresh.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘suppress’.1). Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Default 400 × 401.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh (default 0.

reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot. HT. See also Hough.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.CHAPTER 2. then all elements in an HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. The highest peak is found. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. HT. See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot Plot line features HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. L = HT. LineFeature Hough. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot(n.lines Find lines L = HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. H = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • LineFeature is a reference object.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.

L = LineFeature(rho. theta. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value L. See also LineFeature. theta. strength. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.char Convert to string s = L. LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.

less than gap pixels are tolerated. LineFeature. l2 = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L. L.seglength(edge.points Return points on line segments p = L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay the line on current plot.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line L.CHAPTER 2. Small gaps.

CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source M. G ‘scale’.char Convert to string M. S ‘skip’.com). options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.axis.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

CHAPTER 2. undirected graph create an n-d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. F Skip frames. planar. Options ‘skip’.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.

closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. v2) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().edges(e) g.cost(e) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.coord(v) g.connectivity() g.add node(coord. v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.CHAPTER 2. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.plot() g.component(v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add node(coord) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.neighbours(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return vid add vertex and edge to v.next(v) g.clear() add vertex.add edge(v1. Object properties (read/write) g.goal(v) g.distance(v1.

add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. and returns the edge id E. PGraph.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node(x. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge(v1. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.CHAPTER 2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v2. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. E = G. v = G. and returns the node id v.add edge(v1. where x is D × 1. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. PGraph.add node(x. v = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘distance’.

connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. and the distance d.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .coord(v) return coordinate vector.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.closest Find closest node v = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. D × 1. PGraph. PGraph. PGraph. of node id v.d] = G.clear Clear the graph G.CHAPTER 2. [v.char Convert graph to string s = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. edges and components.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. f = PointFeature(u.display Display value F. PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. v.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. one per element. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. PointFeature. SurfPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F. See also ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.char PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Options ‘thresh’. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match Match point features m = F.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. where 1 is perfect match.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. [m. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.C] = F.CHAPTER 2.

Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot feature F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. Polygon . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F.

edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. kirill@plume.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.mit. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.char String representation s = P. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.mit.area() is the area of the polygon. http://puddle. Polygon. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon.html and require a licence. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Pankratov.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. intersection. union.edu.CHAPTER 2. difference.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Polygon. one column per vertex. p = Polygon(C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. HEIGHT]. so use with care.

Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. else 0.char Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. returns coordinates of P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.difference Difference of polygons d = P.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.display Display polygon P. See also Polygon.

Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.CHAPTER 2.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. returns empty polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P.moments(p. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. y1 y2]. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. each column is [x y]’.

xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot Plot polygon P. Polygon. P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.plot() plot the polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.

intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.display Display value R. Ray3D. [x. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Ray3D.char Convert to string s = R. [x.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.E] = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. one per element.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.CHAPTER 2. See also Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.

If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. horizontal coordinate centroid.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.0) 1 for a circle. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.c. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

xmax. See also iblobs. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. ymin.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. one per element.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.th] = R. ymax].boundary Boundary in polar form [d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.char Convert to string s = R.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. RegionFeature. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.CHAPTER 2. For example R.uc will be a list not a vector.box Return bounding box b = R.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot Plot centroid R.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display Display value R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers. It is indicated with overlaid o. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. R.char RegionFeature. RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also RegionFeature. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.

CHAPTER 2.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R. RegionFeature.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.plot box Plot bounding box R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ScalePointFeature. v. f = ScalePointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength. 0=transparent (default 0. See also PointFeature. 1=opaque. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. C ‘alpha’. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale Plot feature scale F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. N ‘thresh’. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. R ‘nslots’. Options ‘radius’. A complete history of all tracks is maintained.CHAPTER 2. one per active track. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. T ‘movie’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. See also PointFeature Tracker. C. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. options) is a new tracker object.

CHAPTER 2.plot Show feature trajectories T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. See also Tracker.display Display value T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. Tracker.char Convert to string s = T. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

and their characteristics is displayed. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’. otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. AxisWebCamera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Movie Video. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.

Video.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the camera.grab() acquires an image from the camera.close Close the image source V.

a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If disp is positive the disparity is increased. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. right. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. right. By default the left image is red. the ﬁrst for left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). if negative it is reduced. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. If th1 is a column vector. color. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. and the right image is cyan. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi).CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. y1.boundary. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. p = bresenham(p1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. x2.s] = boundmatch(R1.y2]. Endpoints must be integer. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. If lambda is a column vector. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. % emission of sun plot(l. p2) as above but p1=[x1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. See also RegionFeature.y1) to (x2.CHAPTER 2. 6500).y2). r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.y1] and p2=[x2. [x.

See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Y.CHAPTER 2. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. [C.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.

circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. k = closest(a. [k. Options ‘n’. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x = circle(C. R. R. green and blue primaries respectively. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).d1] = closest(a. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). and x is N × 3.CHAPTER 2. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. that is.

3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.ioo. As noted in footnote a on p.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). 19000 (526. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. since.d1. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). they were measured directly. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. while Table I(5.d2] = closest(a. 335 of Table 1(5. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ucl.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.CHAPTER 2.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). and 22500 (444.ac.5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .16). The data are referred to as pilot data. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.5.5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. • From Table I(5.32). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. (Table 1(5.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.M).ac. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].CHAPTER 2. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ioo. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ucl. out = col2im(pix. imsize is a 2-vector (N.uk See also cmfrgb.

• Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.

[0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.CHAPTER 2. im<100. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eg. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. func. and returns a per-pixel logical result.C] = colorkmeans(im. @isnan. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. See also imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im.G. @isnan. out = colorize(im. mask.B). The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. icolor. [L. k. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.

Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.R] = colorkmeans(im. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. XYZ = colorname(name. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eg. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. L = colorkmeans(im. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.CHAPTER 2. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. k) as above but also returns the residual R. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. low is good. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. name = colorname(XYZ.C. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.

i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels.o2.CHAPTER 2. i1.txt. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. colorspace(s. s = ‘src->dest’. s = ‘dest<-src’. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. it can be omitted. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. or alternatively. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . As MATLAB’s native datatype. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. double data is the natural choice. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Color space names are case insensitive. [o1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.i2.o3] = colorspace(s.

for memory and computational performance. B = rand(400. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. out will also have size M × 3.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).200). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Example A = rand(400. • If im is an M × 3 array. However.100). Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.2*A.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. d = distance(A. like a colormap.B).CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. Tested: PC Matlab v5. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.j). direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.(+31)20-5257524.CHAPTER 2. University of Amsterdam. tel.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. bunschot@wins. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. seed. not image frame. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. in matrix coordinate frame. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. E = edgelist(im. The result E is a matrix. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.uva.y). • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. non-zero is an object. non zero is counter-clockwise. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.

See also fmatrix. I. p. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.CHAPTER 2. one per line drawn. epiline(f. See also epiline.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.R.S. Oct 27. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Coimbra. Author Based on fmatrix code by. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = epiline(f. 1998. p. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p1.

• f is a rank 2 matrix. epiline. page 270. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The University of Western Australia. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.uwa. c. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. that is. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. http://www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.CHAPTER 2. p2. • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/. which means it can be passed to ransac(). homography. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. See also ransac. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.csse.edu. it is singular. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. Notes • The points must be corresponding. no outlier rejection is performed.

y2). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. x2. y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. itriplepoint. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.y1) and (x2. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. ithin. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also imorph. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1.CHAPTER 2.

which means it can be passed to ransac(). School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. invhomog. http://www. See also ransac. no outlier rejection is performed. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.edu.csse.uwa. The University of Western Australia. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. Notes • The points must be corresponding. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.au/. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.CHAPTER 2.

S ‘dimension’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. that is tp=T*T1. itrim. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.offs] = homwarp(H. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. [out.CHAPTER 2. ie. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. See also homography. im.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. V ‘roi’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. R ‘scale’. im. S output image contains all the warped pixels. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. D ‘size’. See also e2h.

Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). on Information Theory. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. 200). features. Hu. ianimate(seq. IRE Trans. ianimate(im. IT-8:pp. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. ’nfeat’. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’gs’). features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects.CHAPTER 2. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features. 1962. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. 179-187. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im.

isurf.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. M ‘npoints’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. N ‘only’. iharris. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). YMIN YMAX]. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

horizontal coordinate centroid.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. [S1.0) 1 for a circle. vertical coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. default 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. C set connectivity. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.CHAPTER 2. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.0 ‘connect’. ilabel. [A1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

that is n dilations followed by n erosions. T ‘th1’. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.CHAPTER 2.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. See also iopen.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. S ‘th0’. Tel Aviv University. This is an dilation followed by erosion. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. 1996-7. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. See also isobel. out = iclose(im.

value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). colorize. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [C. Options ‘dir’. D ‘bgval’. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. C = icolor(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. iconcat(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. See also imono. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. [0 1 1]). The images do not have to be of the same size.u] = iconcat(im.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. options) convolves im1 with im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.

• The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. E ‘suppress’. D ‘k’. D ‘sigma’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. R ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. CT ‘edgegap’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘detector’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). K ‘patch’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. CM ‘cminthresh’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. S ‘deriv’.

with a delay of 0. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. pp 147-151.6. Proc.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. 1988. Image and Vision Computing.CHAPTER 2. pp. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Harris and M. Proc. with a delay of d [sec]. T ‘distthresh’. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.. See also PointFeature. 593-593. J. Tomasi. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. T ‘maxiter’. May 1988.G. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. J. vol. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.5 [sec]. 1994. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. • “Finding corners”. p2. • “Good features to track”. Stephens. p2. Manchester. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Options ‘dplot’. IEEE Computer Society.121-128. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. C. N ‘mindelta’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.d] = icp(p1.Noble. Shi and C. [T.J.

The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. P. each plane is decimated. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 1992. 14. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. pp. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.CHAPTER 2.. no.McKay. m. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. IEEETrans. Intell. vol. s = idecimate(im.Besl and H. Pattern Anal. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. 239-256. 2. s = idecimate(im. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. m. See also iscale.or 3-dimensional. Feb. Mach. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.

maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. positive is blue. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If im is a cell array of images. XY ‘colormap’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. darker than ‘grey’. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. zero is white color map: random values. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. Options ‘ncolors’. histogram and zooming. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. linear proﬁle. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view.and y-axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. If the image is zoomed. positive is blue. negative is red. zero is white. negative is red. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). C ‘xydata’. zero is black. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned.

The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. labelimage. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. See also iblobs. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage. colormap. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. icolorize. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. See also image. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labels.CHAPTER 2. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . caxis. idisplabel(im. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1.

‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded).CHAPTER 2. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All pixels are raised to the power gamma. out = igamma(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.45. ithin. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. See also itriplepoint.

k. See also ithresh. Huttenlocher. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 167181.5).m] = igraphseg(im. Felzenszwalb and D. k. min. [l. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. Journal on Computer Vision. 1500. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. k.5). Sept. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Int. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. P. 2006. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.m] = igraphseg(im. 0. Example im = iread(’58060. pp. min. vol. L = igraphseg(im. 100. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k is the scale parameter. 2004.CHAPTER 2.jpg’). 59. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. [L.

options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. options) displays the image histogram. plot(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. [h. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. H = ihist(im. bar(x. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H.CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im.h). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.

x1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.CHAPTER 2. [L. [L. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.m. y2. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.y2). ii is a precomputed integral image. y1. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.y1) and bottom-right (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. same size as im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

otherwise it does not. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. p1. p2.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.maxlabel.parents. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. eg. iproﬁle. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. 8).class. See also iblobs. The pixels on the line are set to 1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. • This is a “low level” function. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. p1. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. [L. ilabel(im.parents.Y].edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.maxlabel.CHAPTER 2. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. out = iline(im. each a 2-vector [X.

y).CHAPTER 2.y) and its half-width is H. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. x. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. and columns the vertical position.y).0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. xmax. • Is a MEX ﬁle. im2. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. ymax] relative to (x.DY) are the x. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. x. y. y. a perfect match score is 1.y) and of size s. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. centred at (x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. s] % relative to (x.CC] where (DX.DY. H.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.and y-offsets relative to (x. ymin. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. The return value is xm=[DX. s. w2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.score] = imatch(im1. im2. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The template in im1 is centred at (x. • ZNCC matching is used. -s. [xm.

H) as above but the domain is w × H.u) = u and v(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. All pixels are equally weighted. [u. effectively a greyscale image. f = imoments(u.u) = v. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(w. [u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. The element u(v. v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. • This function does not perform connectivity. icolor. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid. m02. ilabel. m10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. See also RegionFeature. or its area. m20. Different conversion functions are supported. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. the elements are m00. m11. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m01.

m] = imser(im.m] = imser(im. 22. Chum. The labels [L. [label. 2004. Matas. vol.png’. part of VLFeat (vlfeat.org). Urban. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. and T. 761767. Sept. m. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’light’). ’grey’. J. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Image and Vision Computing. Pajdla. O. pp. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. se. ’double’).CHAPTER 2. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.

ˆ2). Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.

n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. See also iclose. se. out = iopen(im. n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. sides. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. This is an erosion followed by dilation. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.

255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ’t’. im2. otherwise im2 is selected. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ’tblr’. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.V]. 10. p. im1.CHAPTER 2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 20.

See also bresenham. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1.uv] = iproﬁle(im. [p. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).CHAPTER 2.v) for the corresponding row of p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.

the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. The highest rank. idecimate. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. im > irank(im.CHAPTER 2. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. ones(5. is order=1. se. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. out = imorph(image. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the maximum.2) = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. 12. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. 1. op. se). order. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. nbins. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. out = imorph(image. se(2. op. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. out = ipyramid(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3). se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. out = ipyramid(im.5)). sigma. See also iscalespace. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed.

iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. See also imorph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. ivar. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path.CHAPTER 2. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. where R=[umin umax. im = iread(ﬁle. R ‘roi’. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. vmin vmax]. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. G ‘reduce’.

See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. imono. istereo. homwarp. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im1. m. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. m. [out1.h1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. igamma.out2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The resulting images may have negative disparity. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. im1.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. imwrite.out2] = irectify(f.h2] = irectify(f. Notes • Color images are not supported.

same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.H] return central part of image. V ‘smooth’.vmax]. angle.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. vmin. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. [out.CHAPTER 2. See also idisp. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.vmin vmax].umax. S ‘extrapval’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. Options ‘outsize’.

V ‘smooth’. bias<0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.CHAPTER 2. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s ‘extrapval’. bias=0.5 is symmetric cropping. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. im2.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s>1 makes the image larger. s<1 makes it smaller. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. Options ‘outsize’. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. while bias>0. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = isamesize(im1.

n) as above but sigma=1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).L.L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.CHAPTER 2. n. See also iscalespace. in space and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.s] = iscalespace(im. [g.s] = iscalespace(im. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. corresponding to each step of the sequence. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. idecimate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.

that is. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. else false (0). ilaplace.CHAPTER 2. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. it its third dimension is equal to three. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. See also isrot. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ismooth.

CHAPTER 2. 2 (2004).org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. See also SiftPointFeature. 91-110. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.vlfeat. 60. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. N ‘suppress’. Lowe. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. pp. • Features are returned in descending strength order. Reference David G. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. isurf. International Journal of Computer Vision.

sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. ssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. zssd. [w. @zssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. [w. @zsad. ncc. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. s = isimilarity(T. @ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im.CHAPTER 2. im. See also imatch.H. and these output pixels are set to NaN.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. zsad. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. s is same size as im. @ssd.

sigma. See also iconv. [gx. [gx.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.CHAPTER 2. convolved.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.gy] = isobel(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then converted back to integer.

which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.u). ‘valid’) as above. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. H. range. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.CHAPTER 2.u) means that imr(v. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. H is the half size of the matching window. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. range is the disparity search range. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). [d. isrot(R. imr. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icanny.M] for an N × M window. w. See also ishomog. range. That is. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. imr.sim] = istereo(iml. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. See also ksobel. the disparity d=d(v.

p.sim. w.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.p] = istereo(iml. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). [d. 3) See also irectify. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [d. w. range. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. Options ‘metric’. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. p. imr. range.sim. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. ‘ncc’. out = istretch(im. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).5). • sim = max(dsi.CHAPTER 2. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.dsi] = istereo(iml. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.A and p. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.5 to +0. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. B. dx. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. imr. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. That is.

T ‘octaves’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Kroon (U. Notes • Color images. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. N ‘thresh’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. or sequences. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained.

else false (0).CHAPTER 2. Vol. itriplepoint. out = ithin(im. Luc Van Gool. Otherwise false (0). See also hitormiss. isvec(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. See also ishomog. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. 110.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. either a row. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. No. 3. pp. isift. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector.or columnvector.

out2] = itrim(im1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. The default is 0.CHAPTER 2.im2. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5. ithresh(im. [out1. a lower value will include more.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. Notes • Greyscale image only. The same cropping is applied to each input image.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. See also homwarp.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.

se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op. ithin. See also iendpoint. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.CHAPTER 2. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled.

3). iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. ones(3. out = iwindow(image. ones(5.CHAPTER 2. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.5). hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. se. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. @std). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. se. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. @max). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. See also ivar. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. func. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.

iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kcircle(R. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. k = kdgauss(sigma. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. is k’. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. See also kgauss. ktriangle. dG/dx.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. klog. kdog. See also ones.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. dG/dy. • The vertical derivative.

By default SIGMA2 = 1. See also kdgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. See also kgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. klog. k = kgauss(sigma. klog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. sigma2.6*sigma1.CHAPTER 2. kdog. k = kdog(sigma1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .KGAUSS(SIGMA2). kdgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

kdgauss. See also ilaplace. and W=2 × H+1. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. kdog.CHAPTER 2. k = klog(sigma. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.

The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k.C] = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. it is assumed to have been completed previously. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.C] = kmeans(x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. and D is the dimension. [L. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Pattern Recognition Principles. k. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. L = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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Options ‘T’. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. C ‘T’. See also cylinder.z] = mkcube(s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. ‘edge’. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.z] = mkcube(s. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. [x. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. The points are the columns of p. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.y.CHAPTER 2. symmetric about the origin. [x.y. s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.

Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.y). That is. or y(:. npq. See also mpq poly.2)). n) MPLOT(y. y) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. y. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.CHAPTER 2. MPLOT(t.yq . MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.xp . y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. or y(:. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. p. n) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. the sum of I(x. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. See also mpq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. so centroids will be still be correct. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. they are considered to be a single vertex. npq poly. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. upq poly.

1986.s] = niblack(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. k. 20). • A common choice of k=-0. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = niblack(im. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. the height of a character. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. sad. where W=2*w2+1.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. -0. ssd. [T. W. T has the same dimensions as im. for example. See also zncc. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.CHAPTER 2.m. in text segmentation. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented.2. Prentice-Hall. niblack. idisp(im >= t). k.

Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also npq poly. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.q)/MPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.p. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. mpq.0).CHAPTER 2.0. That is UPQ(im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered as a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. npq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. upq. See also mpq poly. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. mpq.

[yp. Jan 1979. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. idisp(im >= t). [yp.CHAPTER 2. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). Example t = otsu(im). pp 62-66 See also niblack. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.i] = peak(y.xp] = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. N. otsu IEEE Trans. x. Systems.

options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. S ‘interp’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.ij] = peak2(z.S points. use peak(-V).S points. Typically choose N to be odd. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. [zp. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.CHAPTER 2.

ie. plot2(p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. If p has three dimensions. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. See also pnmﬁlt. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. plot_circle(c. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. r. ‘size’. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ‘size’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. Examples plot_circle(c. r. W. ’edgecolor’. R. ‘r’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C.CHAPTER 2. or a set of name. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. plot_circle(c. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ’fillcolor’.y1. value pairs that are passed to plot. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. r. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’r’). W. P. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. 1=solid. PLOT BOX(’centre’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y1) and (x2. ’LineWidth’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls.y2. ’b’).y2). ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ’g’. PLOT BOX(x1. 5). ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. x2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].

c Specify color of the axes.CHAPTER 2.Y]. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. xc. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. C. with Matlab line style ls. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. centred at the origin.Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. current plot. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. Options ‘color’. If C=[X. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) ls is the standard line styles.

’r’). ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. n ‘text opts’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate.X = 0. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’name’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘framename’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’r’. ’color’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. options) adds point markers to a plot. fmt.CHAPTER 2. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ’color’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. Options ‘textcolor’. to ‘view’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ‘printf’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. trplot( T. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L.

options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R. R. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. The default is 1. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. See also plot. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. either a letter or 3-vector. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. NOTES • The sphere is always added. color. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. patch. 1=solid.CHAPTER 2. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.

pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. See also pgmﬁlt. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. See also plot. plotp(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.gt] = radgrad(im. [gr.

N ‘maxDataTrials’. T. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. T. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. x. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. one column per point pair.resid] = ransac(func.CHAPTER 2. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. x. [m. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. T. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.in. x typically contains corresponding point data. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.in] = ransac(func.

that is they will produce a model. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. Comm. Vol 24. Mach.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x) condition the point data out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. pp 101-113. No 6.misc element. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.theta and the subset of R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. pp 381-395.theta = [].theta) decondition the estimated model data out.theta. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta is a cell array. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Cambridge University Press. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.misc private data (cell array) out. [out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. Assoc. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .theta] = ERR(R.s out.R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.inlier.A.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.C.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.x and returns the best model out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.out.resid] = EST(R.CHAPTER 2. [out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.theta to the points R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.theta = DECONDITION(R.x.x. Fishler and R. Boles.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. that is.x = CONDITION(R. Comp. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta.x data to work on. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . If multiple models are found out.. References • m. they detect a structure argument.

CHAPTER 2.uwa.au/ pk See also fmatrix. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.csse.edu. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. See also rotx. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. rotz. See also roty. roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. See also tr2rpy. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. yaw. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. If roll. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Z axes respectively. pitch. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll.CHAPTER 2. • many texts (Paul.

theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. y. and rotation theta in the plane. ssd. theta) as above where xy=[x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. See also zsad. r2t. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ncc. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.CHAPTER 2. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.

i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. ncc. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Two cross-hairs are created.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. See also zsdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows.

rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. tr2rt.CHAPTER 2.blah = []. opt. opt.foo = true. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.bar = false. It supports options that have an assigned value. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. ’other’}. c. – If T is 3 × 3. ’that’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. The software pattern is: function(a. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose = {’this’. b. then R is 3 × 3. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. varargin) opt. then R is 2 × 2. opt.

3 sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.true sets opt.choose <.false ‘blah’. opt = tb_optparse(opt.N sets opt <.3 ‘blah’.select <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. x. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.blah <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. varargin). S ‘showopt’ sets opt.choose <.‘this’. varargin).debug <.select <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.1.y sets opt.foo <. If neither of ‘this’. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.blah <.CHAPTER 2.foo <.x. N ‘setopt’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.verbose <. ’#yes’}. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).y ‘that’ sets opt. w.select = {’#no’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. args) creates a test pattern image.

256. 25). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). square side length. binary dot pattern. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sf. a line. dot diameter.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 256. The trajectory s. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. intercept. sd and sdd are n-vectors. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles.CHAPTER 2. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are pitch (distance between centres).sd.sd. 50. args are theta (rad). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. [s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. sf. 2). args is the number of cycles. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. binary square pattern.

X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. See also angvec2r.CHAPTER 2. Y. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y and Z axes respectively.P. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. [theta. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The 3 angles rpy=[R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.

CHAPTER 2. ie. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. r2t. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. See also rpy2tr. • The validity of R is not checked. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. See also rt2tr. If T has three dimensions. – If TR is 3 × 3. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.z].y.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.:. y.

out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).CHAPTER 2. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. or x and y. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. each N × 1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [c1. [o1. An historical anomaly. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.

trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trprint T is the command line form of above. and displays in RPY format. trotx. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. f ‘label’. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. mpq. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2rpy. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. p. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.y).y0) is the centroid.(y-y0)q where (x0.(x-x0)p . See also upq poly. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. the sum of I(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.CHAPTER 2. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also ncc. ssd. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. sad. See also sad.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.

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