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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This is extravagant on storage. and I commend it to you. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . is open-source. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. However the book “Robotics.

. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . 1. . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . ihist . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . iint . icolor . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . ianimate .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . iroi . . iscalespace . R . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . rotx . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . mlabel . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . rluminos . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . .

au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tutors.com.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.google. That’s what you your teachers. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and you will be suitably acknowledged. lecturers and professors are paid to do.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. You need to signup in order to post.

It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. and the “See also” functions to each other. type of organization and application. the table of content to functions.gz) or zip format (.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁle robot. Author = {P.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.3. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.I. Corke}.zip). The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. The details are @article{Corke05f. 1. 1. Volume = {12}.html on a server for class use. Month = nov.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.petercorke.1. Year = {2005}. 1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Number = {4}.

but not least. Coimbra. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. Twente.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.vlfeat.6. Vincent Lepetit.I. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. P.R. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. 1994 University of British Columbia. 1.7. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. pp 16–25. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.7 Acknowledgements Last.mathworks. VLFeat http://www.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. and there are hundreds of modules available. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. Corke. November 2005.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. 12(4). 1.Functions such as SURF.S.1. MSER. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

used by all subclasses. Camera. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. S ‘centre’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. N ‘image’. T ‘color’. S ‘noise’. IM ‘resolution’. SIGMA ‘pose’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.CHAPTER 2.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. P ‘pixel’. Options ‘name’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned.

delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.char Convert to string s = C. Camera. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.display Display value C.delete Camera object destructor C.clf Clear the image plane C.centre Get camera position p = C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.

and off if H is false (or 0).hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).v + c = 0. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.u + b.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. otherwise false (0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.char Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Camera. Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. See also Camera.CHAPTER 2. Camera.

y. Camera.plot(p. cylinder.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.T. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. The matrices x.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. uv = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. T ‘Tcam’.mesh(x.hold. Options ‘Tobj’. mkcube. Camera. Camera. sphere. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. z to the image plane and plots them. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot Plot points on image plane C. z. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. y. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. y. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. See also mesh.clf Camera.CHAPTER 2.plot.

S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.hold.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Options ‘Tcam’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.mesh. Camera. ‘Tobj’. T See also Camera. ‘fps’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.clf Camera. Camera. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. ‘Tcam’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Overrides the current camera pose C.T. Camera. T ‘scale’.

p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. a subclass of Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. p.rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(R.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.y]. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. that is.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C Camera matrix C = C. CentralCamera.

ﬁsheyecamera. N ‘focal’. “An invitation to 3D”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. N ‘sensor’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .177 See also CentralCamera. camera at origin. E = C. F ‘distortion’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S ‘centre’.Ma. Reference Y. optical axis is z-axis. 10um pixels. S. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.Sastry.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. S ‘noise’.and y-axes respectively.E Essential matrix E = C.Kosecka.8]) See also Camera.Soatto.CHAPTER 2. J.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). CatadioptricCamera. P ‘pixel’. D ‘default’ ‘image’. SIGMA ‘pose’.F. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. f=8mm. p. CentralCamera. IM ‘resolution’. u.and v-axes parallel to x.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S. 2003. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. T ‘color’. Springer. E = C.

F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).Soatto. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. n.H CentralCamera.Kosecka.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. from two viewpoints. S.177 See also CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.CHAPTER 2. S. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.E CentralCamera. Springer. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.H(T. F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Sastry. Reference Y. 2003.F Fundamental matrix F = C.H Homography matrix H = C.Ma. See also CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. J. “An invitation to 3D”. p.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.

Int. 2009. F.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. V. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. See also quiver CentralCamera. a = C. vol.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Lepetit. Fua. Journal on Computer Vision.estpose(xyz.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. 81. Feb.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. 155-166. pp. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.CHAPTER 2.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). CentralCamera. Moreno-Noguer. and P. CentralCamera.

“An invitation to 3D”. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.CHAPTER 2. 2003. p116.Soatto.Sastry. See also CentralCamera. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). section 5.Ma. “Multiview Geometry”. Springer. J. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. s.Sastry. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. p. “An invitation to 3D”.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. 259 Y.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003.E CentralCamera. Springer.Kosecka. Chap 9.invE(E.Kosecka. translation not to scale • n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. s. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. Reference Y.Ma. s. J.Soatto.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.

C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. p.T.project(p. ‘Tobj’. ‘Tcam’. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. one per line.plot epiline(f.H CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = C.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Hough CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f.

visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b. Chaumette. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . 313-326. and P. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.plot CentralCamera.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. vol. 8. See also Camera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Espiau. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pp. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. June 1992. F. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.CHAPTER 2. Reference B.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.c. Rives. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. “Multiview Geometry”. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.visjac e(E.

Reference B. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac l(L. Oct.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac p. Hager & Corke. F. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p(uv. Chaumette. 8.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. pp. vol. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac p. CentralCamera. Hutchinson. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. IEEE Trans.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1996. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. and P. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.b. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). CentralCamera. Vol 12(5).c.visjac p polar. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a.CHAPTER 2. Espiau. June 1992.visjac e CentralCamera. R&A. Rives. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac p polar. 313-326.visjac l CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. pp 651-670.

visjac p polar(rt. Louis). Chaumette. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. F. 5962-5967.visjac l.visjac e CentralCamera. P. Int. See also CentralCamera.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p. 2009. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. in Proc. pp. (St. CentralCamera. radius and theta. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. I. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Spindler. and F.visjac p polar. Oct. Corke. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also isift. See README. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.CHAPTER 2. pp.60. 2004.Lowe.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. D. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. ScalePointFeature. Nov.SIFT. Journal on Computer Vision.91-110. PointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Int. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also isift SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.plot scale(options.match(f2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = PointFeature(u. v. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. C ‘alpha’.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 0=transparent (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u. 1=opaque. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

F.support(images.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. [out.T] = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(im.support(im. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support Support region of feature out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

T. N ‘pixel’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Options ‘Tobj’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ﬁsheyecamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. S ‘pose’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. CentralCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.project(p. Options ‘name’. See also SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).CHAPTER 2. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The external view. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.01) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.depth of points to use for Jacobian. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. defaults in parentheses: target size . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. image plane size and desired feature locations. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Jacobian condition number. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .5) target center . scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera view.0.gain. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. camera pose. The camera view.center of the target in world coords (0.CHAPTER 2.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.the side length of the target in world units (0. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. error norm. of 4-vector.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error.

camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .visjac p(pt.depth of points to use for Jacobian. CentralCamera. IEEE Int. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.CHAPTER 2. error norm. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Robotics and Automation. (Anchorage). May 3-7 2010.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . for all points.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. 5550-5555. Corke.01) . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . defaults in parentheses: target size .center of the target in world coords (0. of 4-vector. P. The external view.the side length of the target in world units (0. Jacobian condition number. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.5) target center . See also CentralCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations.visjac p polar.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . in Proc. I. Conf.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pp.visjac l. or a vector (N × 1) for each point.0. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. error. camera pose. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. CentralCamera.gain. scalar for If null take actual value all points.

• SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Tinne Tuytelaars.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 110. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Luc Van Gool. 3.CHAPTER 2. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). pp. Vol. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. No. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Andreas Ess. 346–359.

See also isurf SurfPointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ScalePointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2.CHAPTER 2.C] = F. [m. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u.match Match SURF point features m = F. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match(f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u.

w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images. out = F. 1=opaque.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2. F. C ‘alpha’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support(im.plot scale(options. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.2) SurfPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. [out.support(images.T] = F. F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Video AxisWebCamera. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. G ‘scale’.axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com).axis. otherwise the result is not predictable.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com) web camera. S ‘resolution’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].CHAPTER 2.

char Convert to string A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.display AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the web camera.

2003. Oct. Ninth IEEE Int. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.1470-1477. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.Zisserman. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. b = BagOfWords(f. Conf.org). on Computer Vision. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. f can also be a cell array. in Proc.Sivic and A.CHAPTER 2.

exemplars(w. images. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. isurf BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords. BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars display exemplars of words B.display Display value B. BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.CHAPTER 2. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.

wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.n] = B. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. N ‘maxperimage’.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.remove stop Remove stop words B. Options ‘ncolumns’. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. M ‘width’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.

CHAPTER 2.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera.

camera at origin.project(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. See also Camera. ‘sine’. ‘equisolid’. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’.CHAPTER 2. 10um pixels. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. T ‘Tcam’. u. M ‘k’. Options ‘Tobj’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.and v-axes parallel to x.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and y-axes respectively. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). optical axis is z-axis. A ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. f=8mm. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S ‘centre’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. CatadioptricCamera. K ‘maxangle’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. N ‘sensor’. See also Camera. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ﬁsheyecamera. N ‘focal’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.T. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane.

See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. such as ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. SurfPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also FeatureMatch. See also PointFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.display Display value M. f2.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.char Convert to string s = M. FeatureMatch.

FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.v2].outlier Outlier features m2 = M.inlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u2.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.v1.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.outlier. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.

p1.p2 FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p FeatureMatch. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. for example by: idisp({im1.FeatureMatch.p2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot() M. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .im2}) m. See also FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.FeatureMatch.p1.

and an error is created if this UserData is not found. homography. Example f1 = isurf(im1).CHAPTER 2.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. See also idisp FeatureMatch. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).match(f2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. 1e-4). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m. See also fmatrix. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. m = f1. f2 = isurf(im2).ransac( @fmatrix.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function.ransac Apply RANSAC M. ransac FeatureMatch.ransac(func.

The image is not inverted. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.CHAPTER 2. v.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. Y This camera model assumes central projection. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

u. ‘sine’.axes respectively. N ‘sensor’.and v-axes are parallel to x. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis. 10um pixels. K ‘resolution’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. f=8mm. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. S ‘centre’. camera at origin. S ‘noise’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. M ‘k’. Options ‘name’.CHAPTER 2. ‘equisolid’.

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Options ‘Tobj’. See also Camera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. T ‘Tcam’. CatadioptricCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. See also FishEyeCamera.project(p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.T.

Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.0) and the line.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. The voting array is 2-dimensional. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.H). A horizontal line has theta = 0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also LineFeature Hough.

edgeThresh (default 0. Hough. T ‘suppress’. W ‘houghthresh’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edgeThresh. Nrho].5) Set ht. else N = [Ntheta.CHAPTER 2.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.houghThresh (default 0. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. T ‘edgethresh’. Hough. W ‘nbins’.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Convert to string s = HT. Default 400 × 401. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. N All edge pixels have equal weight.display Display value HT. See also Hough. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Set ht.1).

HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot(n. See also Hough.plot. The highest peak is found. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough.CHAPTER 2. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. H = HT. HT. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot Plot line features HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then all elements in an HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. L = HT.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.lines Find lines L = HT.lines Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. LineFeature Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.

hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.display Display value L. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L = LineFeature(rho. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta. See also LineFeature. LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength. one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = L. L = LineFeature(rho. theta.

points Return points on line segments p = L. L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. LineFeature.seglength(edge. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).plot Plot line L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Small gaps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature. less than gap pixels are tolerated. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay the line on current plot.CHAPTER 2.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L. l2 = L.

S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.CHAPTER 2. Movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.char Convert to string M. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.close() closes the connection to the movie.axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’. Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘skip’.com).close Close the image source M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

F Skip frames. undirected graph create an n-d. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Options ‘skip’. planar. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘frame’. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.

return vid add vertex and edge to v.goal(v) g.add edge(v1.distance(v1.edges(e) g. v) g.add node(coord.clear() add vertex. v2) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.plot() g.component(v) g.coord(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.path(v) set goal vertex.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().neighbours(v) g.next(v) g.connectivity() g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.cost(e) g.

PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x. E = G. Options ‘distance’.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add edge(v1. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge(v1.add node(x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v = G. v = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. and returns the node id v. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. PGraph. where x is D × 1.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and returns the edge id E.CHAPTER 2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.char Convert graph to string s = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G.clear Clear the graph G. PGraph.d] = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. of node id v. [v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.CHAPTER 2. D × 1. edges and components.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. one per element. PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. PointFeature.display Display value F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SurfPointFeature.char Convert to string s = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.

options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.C] = F. [m. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.CHAPTER 2.char PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match Match point features m = F. PointFeature.match(f2. where 1 is perfect match. the norm of the Euclidean distance.match(f2.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.CHAPTER 2. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot Plot feature F. Polygon . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.

Pankratov. union. kirill@plume. http://puddle. Polygon. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon. one column per vertex.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. HEIGHT]. Polygon. so use with care. intersection.CHAPTER 2. p = Polygon(C.mit.html and require a licence.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.char String representation s = P. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. difference.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.area Area of polygon a = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Polygon.mit.

difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. See also Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.CHAPTER 2. returns coordinates of P.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Polygon.display Display polygon P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.char Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. else 0.

perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns empty polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. each column is [x y]’. Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. y1 y2].intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.moments(p.

P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P. Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.plot() plot the polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.CHAPTER 2. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.

intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Ray3D.E] = R. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Ray3D.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value R.char Convert to string s = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. See also Ray3D. [x. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.E] = R.char Ray3D.

d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. vertical coordinate bounding box.b. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.0) 1 for a circle.c. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2.

These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. ymin.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. RegionFeature.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. RegionFeature. RegionFeature. ymax].xmax.th] = R. one per element.CHAPTER 2.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. See also iblobs.box Return bounding box b = R.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. imoments RegionFeature. For example R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.uc will be a list not a vector.

RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot Plot centroid R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.and xmarkers. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary plot boundary R. R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. R.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.char RegionFeature.

plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box Plot bounding box R.

SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. See also PointFeature. F. ScalePointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = ScalePointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. C ‘alpha’. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0. strength. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. SurfPointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. 1=opaque. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale Plot feature scale F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature Tracker. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. R ‘nslots’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. options) is a new tracker object. one per active track. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘radius’. C. T ‘movie’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. N ‘thresh’.

char Convert to string s = T.CHAPTER 2. Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. See also Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tracker.char Tracker.display Display value T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.

options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. and their characteristics is displayed. Movie Video. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. AxisWebCamera. otherwise the result is not predictable. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close Close the image source V.grab() acquires an image from the camera.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string V. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.

color. If th1 is a column vector. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. and the right image is cyan. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). the ﬁrst for left. By default the left image is red. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. right. a = anaglyph(left. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. if negative it is reduced. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the second for right. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view.CHAPTER 2.

s] = boundmatch(R1.y2).y1] and p2=[x2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y1) to (x2. 6500). T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.boundary. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. % emission of sun plot(l. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. Endpoints must be integer. If lambda is a column vector.y2]. p = bresenham(p1. p2) as above but p1=[x1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. [x. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. y1. See also RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. x2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.

d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. [C. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.CHAPTER 2. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. R. green and blue primaries respectively. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [k. and x is N × 3. k = closest(a. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. Options ‘n’.d1] = closest(a. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.CHAPTER 2. x = circle(C. that is.

335 of Table 1(5.32). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. since.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 19000 (526.16). and 22500 (444. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).ioo.CHAPTER 2.5. • From Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. while Table I(5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. (Table 1(5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.d2] = closest(a. As noted in footnote a on p.ac. The data are referred to as pilot data. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).5.d1.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.ucl. they were measured directly.

ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.M).uk See also cmfrgb. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ucl.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ac. out = col2im(pix. imsize is a 2-vector (N. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .g] to every pixel in the color image im. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.

out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.C] = colorkmeans(im.G. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. eg. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. func. icolor. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. [L. im<100. @isnan. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.B). and returns a per-pixel logical result. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. See also imono. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. @isnan. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. mask.

Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. low is good.CHAPTER 2. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.C. XYZ = colorname(name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. eg.R] = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(XYZ. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. L = colorkmeans(im. k) as above but also returns the residual R. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space.

im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.txt. i1. colorspace(s. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.o2.o3] = colorspace(s. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. As MATLAB’s native datatype. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. it can be omitted. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. [o1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Input and output images have 3 planes.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. double data is the natural choice. • Color space names are case insensitive. or alternatively. s = ‘src->dest’.CHAPTER 2. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.i2.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.

The distance d is M × N and element d(I. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . like a colormap. for memory and computational performance.200). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. • If im is an M × 3 array.100). out will also have size M × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. d = distance(A.2*A. Example A = rand(400.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). However.CHAPTER 2. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. B = rand(400.B). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.

nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.j). direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. tel. seed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(+31)20-5257524.uva.CHAPTER 2. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. non-zero is an object.3. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. E = edgelist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. in matrix coordinate frame. University of Amsterdam. non zero is counter-clockwise. Tested: PC Matlab v5. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.y). The result E is a matrix. not image frame. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. bunschot@wins. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.

j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. I.R. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p1. epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Oct 27.CHAPTER 2.S. p. See also fmatrix. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. one per line drawn. Coimbra. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. 1998. See also epiline. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. H = epiline(f.

epiline. page 270. See also ransac. • Contains a RANSAC driver. The University of Western Australia. that is.CHAPTER 2.au/. • f is a rank 2 matrix.uwa. which means it can be passed to ransac().edu. it is singular. Notes • The points must be corresponding. no outlier rejection is performed. that is. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p2.csse. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. http://www. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. homography. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.

y1) and (x2. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. ithin. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).y2). x2.CHAPTER 2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. itriplepoint. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. See also imorph. y1.

http://www. See also ransac. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.uwa. no outlier rejection is performed. invhomog. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia.edu. which means it can be passed to ransac(). fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.CHAPTER 2.au/.csse. Notes • The points must be corresponding. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. itrim. ie.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. S output image contains all the warped pixels. [out. See also e2h. R ‘scale’. See also homography. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W.offs] = homwarp(H. that is tp=T*T1. im. D ‘size’. V ‘roi’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. S ‘dimension’. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1.

features. Hu. on Information Theory. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. ’nfeat’. 179-187. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. features. ianimate(im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 200). features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. ianimate(seq. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. IT-8:pp. 1962. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. IRE Trans.CHAPTER 2. ’gs’).

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. YMIN YMAX]. M ‘npoints’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. N ‘only’. isurf. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ).

default 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [S1.CHAPTER 2. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. A set pixel aspect ratio. ilabel. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.0) 1 for a circle. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. [A1.0 ‘connect’. vertical coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. horizontal coordinate centroid.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. C set connectivity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.

1996-7. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. T ‘th1’. S ‘th0’. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also isobel. See also iopen.CHAPTER 2.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. Tel Aviv University. se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. See also imono. [0 1 1]). D ‘bgval’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.u] = iconcat(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. C = icolor(im. Options ‘dir’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).options) concatenates images from the cell array im.CHAPTER 2. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. The images do not have to be of the same size. iconcat(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. [C. colorize.

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. options) convolves im1 with im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.CHAPTER 2.

The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CT ‘edgegap’. K ‘patch’. D ‘sigma’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). E ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. N ‘detector’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. S ‘deriv’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘k’. R ‘nfeat’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector.

pp. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. C. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. 1988. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Proc. where * denotes squared and smoothed. [T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Options ‘dplot’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. with a delay of 0. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. p2. pp. vol.6. 1994. Tomasi. 593-593.5 [sec]. with a delay of d [sec]. p2. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. See also PointFeature. pp 147-151.121-128. • “Good features to track”. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.J. Shi and C. J. T ‘maxiter’.G. May 1988. J. Manchester. IEEE Computer Society.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. • “Finding corners”. Harris and M. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Proc. Stephens. N ‘mindelta’. Image and Vision Computing. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.d] = icp(p1.Noble. T ‘distthresh’..

Pattern Anal. no.. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. See also iscale. 2.or 3-dimensional. each plane is decimated.McKay.Besl and H. 14.CHAPTER 2. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. P. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. vol. Feb. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. Mach. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. s = idecimate(im. 239-256. Intell. m. 1992. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. s = idecimate(im. IEEETrans. m. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. pp. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im.

If the image is zoomed. If im is a cell array of images. zero is black. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. zero is white. zero is white color map: random values. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. XY ‘colormap’. histogram and zooming. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. negative is red. darker than ‘grey’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. linear proﬁle. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. positive is blue. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. negative is red. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. positive is blue. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. C ‘xydata’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points.CHAPTER 2.and y-axes respectively. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. Options ‘ncolors’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x.

bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. caxis. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. idisplabel(im. labelimage. See also image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labels. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. icolorize. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colormap. labelimage. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. See also iblobs.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.45. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin.2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). out = igamma(im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. See also itriplepoint.

167181. Felzenszwalb and D. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”.5). 2004.CHAPTER 2. Huttenlocher. Sept.jpg’). imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 59. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. k is the scale parameter. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. 1500. [l. Journal on Computer Vision. Int. pp. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. P. k. Example im = iread(’58060.m] = igraphseg(im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). L = igraphseg(im. 2006. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. min. 0. k.m] = igraphseg(im. vol.5). min. See also ithresh. [L. 100. k.

Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) displays the image histogram. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. [H.x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. plot(x. bar(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h).h). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. ’normcdf’). For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [h.

x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. [L. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. y1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.y2). y2. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. ii is a precomputed integral image. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.y1) and bottom-right (x2. x1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. [L. same size as im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.

out = iline(im.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.CHAPTER 2. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. iproﬁle. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. p1. eg. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. 8).Y].edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. See also iblobs. [L. p2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. each a 2-vector [X. p1. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The pixels on the line are set to 1.class. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. ilabel(im.maxlabel. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. • This is a “low level” function.parents.parents. otherwise it does not. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.maxlabel.

CC] where (DX.y) and its half-width is H.y). x. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. centred at (x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). w2.DY) are the x. im2. ymax] relative to (x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. im2.and y-offsets relative to (x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. and columns the vertical position. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.CHAPTER 2. y. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. a perfect match score is 1. x. xmax.y) and of size s. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. • Is a MEX ﬁle. y.score] = imatch(im1. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. ymin. The return value is xm=[DX. s] % relative to (x. • ZNCC matching is used. [xm. The template in im1 is centred at (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.y). -s.DY. H.

H) as above but the domain is w × H. The element u(v. [u. All pixels are equally weighted. v.u) = v. f = imoments(u. [u.v] = imeshgrid(w. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . effectively a greyscale image. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].u) = u and v(v.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. effectively a binary image.

m02. m10. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst.CHAPTER 2. icolor. m01. the elements are m00. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. m20.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Different conversion functions are supported. • This function does not perform connectivity. or its area. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ilabel. m11. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. See also RegionFeature.

The labels [L. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pajdla. Image and Vision Computing. part of VLFeat (vlfeat.CHAPTER 2. Sept. ’light’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. 761767. O.m] = imser(im. Matas. vol. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. se. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Urban. ’grey’. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. m. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. 2004. [label. ’double’). and T. pp.org).m] = imser(im. Chum. J.png’. 22.

• Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.ˆ2).

n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. sides. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v.CHAPTER 2. se. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. See also iclose. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. out = iopen(im. sides. This is an erosion followed by dilation. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.

10. ’tblr’. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise im2 is selected. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 20. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. ’t’. im2. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. im1.V].CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p.

CHAPTER 2.v) for the corresponding row of p. p1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. [p.uv] = iproﬁle(im.

The highest rank. se). 12. See also iscalespace. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. out = imorph(image. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. out = ipyramid(im. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. is order=1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. sigma.CHAPTER 2. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. out = ipyramid(im. the maximum. 1. order. op. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. im > irank(im. se.3).2) = 0. idecimate. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. ones(5. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. out = imorph(image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. nbins.5)). hence output image had reduced dimensions. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. se(2. se. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. op.

Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. vmin vmax]. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. im = iread(ﬁle. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. G ‘reduce’. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. where R=[umin umax. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. ivar. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). See also imorph. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. R ‘roi’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.

imwrite. imono. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. im1. m. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. Notes • Color images are not supported. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. [out1. homwarp. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. istereo. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. See also FeatureMatch. im1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.out2] = irectify(f. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).out2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. igamma. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.h2] = irectify(f.CHAPTER 2.h1.

vmax].vmin vmax]. vmin.umax. See also idisp. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. V ‘smooth’.H] return central part of image. S ‘extrapval’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.CHAPTER 2. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. angle.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. Options ‘outsize’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. [out. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.

• Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. while bias>0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.5 is symmetric cropping. bias<0. Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’. s ‘extrapval’. im2.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.CHAPTER 2. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s>1 makes the image larger. bias=0. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s<1 makes it smaller. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.

corresponding to each step of the sequence. idecimate.L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. in space and scale. See also iscalespace.s] = iscalespace(im.CHAPTER 2. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. [g. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).s] = iscalespace(im. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. n. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .L. n) as above but sigma=1. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.

The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. See also isrot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ilaplace. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ismooth. else false (0). ‘valid’) as above.CHAPTER 2. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ishomog(T. it its third dimension is equal to three. that is. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.

• ISURF is a functional equivalent. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.CHAPTER 2. See also SiftPointFeature. 2 (2004). • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . International Journal of Computer Vision. pp. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. Reference David G. 91-110.vlfeat. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. isurf. 60. N ‘suppress’. Lowe.

H. sad. zssd. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. @zsad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. and these output pixels are set to NaN.CHAPTER 2. @ncc. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. [w. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [w. @zssd. zsad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. See also imatch. s = isimilarity(T. im. @ssd. ncc. ssd. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. s is same size as im.

[gx. convolved. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. then converted back to integer. [gx. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. See also iconv. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.gy] = isobel(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. sigma.

options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.M] for an N × M window. else false (0). options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. See also ksobel. the disparity d=d(v.sim] = istereo(iml. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ‘valid’) as above. [d. range. That is.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. See also ishomog. range is the disparity search range.CHAPTER 2.u) means that imr(v. H is the half size of the matching window. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. icanny. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. isrot(R. imr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. range.u). imr. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. w.

out = istretch(im. [d. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. dx. w. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).5). options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. • sim = max(dsi.sim. Options ‘metric’. p. imr. range.p] = istereo(iml. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. 3) See also irectify. ‘ncc’.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).5 to +0. [d. imr. w.A and p. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. range.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. That is. B.sim. p.dsi] = istereo(iml. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.

T ‘octaves’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. Notes • Color images.CHAPTER 2. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. N ‘thresh’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Kroon (U. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. or sequences. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time.

“SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). No. itriplepoint. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Vol. Tinne Tuytelaars. else false (0). isvec(v. either a row. See also ishomog. 110. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature.or columnvector. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Andreas Ess. See also hitormiss. 346–359. out = ithin(im. Luc Van Gool. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Otherwise false (0). 3.CHAPTER 2. pp. isift. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.

5.out2] = itrim(im1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. ithresh(im. See also homwarp. The same cropping is applied to each input image. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. Notes • Greyscale image only.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. [out1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. a lower value will include more.im2. The default is 0. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.CHAPTER 2.

hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. op. ithin. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. See also iendpoint. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.CHAPTER 2. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point.

3). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.5). See also ivar. out = iwindow(image. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. @max). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. ones(5. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. se. func. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. se. @std). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank.

See also kgauss. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. • The vertical derivative. k = kcircle(R. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. See also ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. kdog. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. is k’. klog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. dG/dx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dy. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ktriangle.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed.

iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kgauss(sigma.6*sigma1. See also kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. By default SIGMA2 = 1. sigma2. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. See also kgauss. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. klog. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. kdog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation.

and W=2 × H+1. See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = klog(sigma. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. kdgauss. kdog. iconv. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.CHAPTER 2. k.C] = kmeans(x. L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Pattern Recognition Principles. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. k. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and D is the dimension. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s.CHAPTER 2. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. The points are the columns of p.y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). ‘edge’. C ‘T’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. symmetric about the origin. Options ‘T’. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. By default the grid lies in the XY plane.z] = mkcube(s. s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.y. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. See also cylinder.

n) MPLOT(t. p.yq . That is. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n. y. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. or y(:. y. the sum of I(x. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2)). MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.xp . y) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n) MPLOT(y.2)). npq. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. or y(:. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. MPLOT(t. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.y).

so centroids will be still be correct. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. p. See also mpq. they are considered to be a single vertex. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. npq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. upq poly. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.CHAPTER 2.

2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. in text segmentation. idisp(im >= t). sad. for example. [T.m. Example t = niblack(im. W. k. the height of a character. ssd.2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Prentice-Hall. -0.s] = niblack(im. where W=2*w2+1. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. 20). niblack. 1986. See also zncc. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.CHAPTER 2. T has the same dimensions as im. k. • A common choice of k=-0.

upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is UPQ(im.0.CHAPTER 2. See also npq poly. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.q)/MPQ(im.0).p. p. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

upq.CHAPTER 2. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. they are considered as a single vertex. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. so centroids will be still be correct. mpq. See also mpq poly.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. [yp. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. pp 62-66 See also niblack. idisp(im >= t). Systems.i] = peak(y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Jan 1979. N. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. otsu IEEE Trans.xp] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im). Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.CHAPTER 2. x.

S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. use peak(-V). [zp. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.S points. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. use peak2(-V).ij] = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. S ‘interp’. N ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. Typically choose N to be odd. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.

See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also pnmﬁlt. If p has three dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ie. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plot2(p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.CHAPTER 2. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot.

P. r. 1=solid.y2. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ’r’). If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.CHAPTER 2. ’b’). options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.y2). ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. W. W. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ‘size’. r. Examples plot_circle(c. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’g’. P. value pairs that are passed to plot.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. or a set of name. ‘r’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ’LineWidth’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. 5). Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’fillcolor’. R. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.y1. plot_circle(c. plot_circle(c.y1) and (x2. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. r. PLOT BOX(x1. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. PLOT BOX(’centre’. x2. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ’edgecolor’. ‘size’.

If C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.Y]. centred at the origin. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . current plot.CHAPTER 2. C. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. c Specify color of the axes. ls) ls is the standard line styles. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. with Matlab line style ls. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Options ‘color’.Y. xc.

l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’r’). ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’color’. trplot( T. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. fmt. options) adds point markers to a plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’r’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines.CHAPTER 2.X = 0. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ‘printf’. Options ‘textcolor’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ‘framename’. n ‘text opts’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ’name’. to ‘view’. ’color’.

H = PLOT SPHERE(C. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. color. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. patch. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R. See also plot. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. The default is 1. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. either a letter or 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=solid. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p.CHAPTER 2.

which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. plotp(p. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.CHAPTER 2. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also pgmﬁlt. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.gt] = radgrad(im. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.CHAPTER 2. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.

if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. d) as above but elements increment by d. N ‘maxDataTrials’. T. [m. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. Options ‘maxTrials’. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.in] = ransac(func. x. T. [m. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated.resid] = ransac(func. x. one column per point pair. T.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x typically contains corresponding point data.in. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.

pp 381-395. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. If multiple models are found out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out..valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.A.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.misc element.CHAPTER 2. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x and returns the best model out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta] = ERR(R.s out.theta.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. Mach.out.R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta is a cell array.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.theta and the subset of R. Comp.C. that is. No 6.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.theta.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. Vol 24. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.x data to work on.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. they detect a structure argument. References • m.x = CONDITION(R.theta = []. Assoc. that is they will produce a model. Boles. Cambridge University Press.out.theta to the points R. [out.x) condition the point data out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. [out. Fishler and R. pp 101-113.x. Comm.t threshold (1 × 1) R.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . N point pairs (6 × N ) R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.resid] = EST(R.x.inlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.theta = DECONDITION(R.misc private data (cell array) out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.

See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix.csse.CHAPTER 2.edu. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. If lambda is a vector. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.uwa. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.

See also rotx. See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2. roty. rotz. rotz.

where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. See also tr2rpy. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. pitch. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Z axes respectively. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. T = rpy2tr(roll. • many texts (Paul. yaw. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1.CHAPTER 2. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. If roll.

theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. y. ssd.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ncc. and rotation theta in the plane. theta) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. See also zsad. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.y. r2t.

Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. ncc. Two cross-hairs are created. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsdd. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. sad. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. – If T is 3 × 3. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.foo = true.choose = {’this’. then R is 2 × 2.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. The software pattern is: function(a. tr2rt.bar = false. opt. ’that’. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. c. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). then R is 3 × 3. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. opt. varargin) opt. It supports options that have an assigned value.blah = []. ’other’}. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. opt. b.

which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.select <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .select = {’#no’. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.debug <. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’.choose <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.blah <. varargin).‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.false ‘blah’.N sets opt <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. If neither of ‘this’. varargin).y ‘that’ sets opt. 3 sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image. w.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.‘this’. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.blah <.true sets opt.x. N ‘setopt’.foo <.foo <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. ’#yes’}.verbose <.select <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.y sets opt. x. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.CHAPTER 2. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.1.choose <. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.

A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sf. args are theta (rad). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction.sd. sf. binary dot pattern. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. square side length. 50. 256. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. binary square pattern. 25). a line. args is the number of cycles. dot diameter. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args is the number of cycles. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sd and sdd are n-vectors. 256. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. intercept. args is the number of cycles. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. 2). args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args are pitch (distance between centres). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). [s.sd.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Y. Y and Z axes respectively. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.CHAPTER 2. See also angvec2r.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. The 3 angles rpy=[R. rpy = tr2rpy(R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R.

y. – If TR is 3 × 3. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. If T has three dimensions. See also rpy2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. r2t.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. ie. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.:. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. • The validity of R is not checked. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. y. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. See also rt2tr. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.z].

See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. each N × 1. An historical anomaly. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). [c1. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. [o1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). or x and y.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trprint T is the command line form of above. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’.CHAPTER 2. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotx. f ‘label’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line.

tr2rpy. the sum of I(x.CHAPTER 2. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.y0) is the centroid.(x-x0)p . q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. p. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(y-y0)q where (x0. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. That is. See also upq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. mpq.y).

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). sad. ssd. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1.

See also sdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc.

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