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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

and I commend it to you. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. is open-source. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. However the book “Robotics. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This is extravagant on storage.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . about . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . PGraph . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . camcald . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . distance . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . .

ipad . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . kdog . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . im2col . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . plot box . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . skew . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . .

I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. and you will be suitably acknowledged. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tutors. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. That’s what you your teachers.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.google. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You need to signup in order to post.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.com.

A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Month = nov.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. 1. 1.zip).petercorke. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.1.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Year = {2005}.3. the table of content to functions. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. and the “See also” functions to each other. 1.I.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Author = {P.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. The ﬁle robot. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).gz) or zip format (. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Volume = {12}. Corke}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Number = {4}. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. The details are @article{Corke05f.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. type of organization and application. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.html on a server for class use. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.

this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. 1. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. and there are hundreds of modules available. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Vincent Lepetit. Coimbra.7 Acknowledgements Last. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.R.mathworks. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. 1994 University of British Columbia.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .7. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. Twente. MSER. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.S.Functions such as SURF.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. 12(4). which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.1.6. but not least. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.. pp 16–25. Corke.I.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.vlfeat.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. VLFeat http://www. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. 1. November 2005. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

• The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. Camera. IM ‘resolution’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. N ‘sensor’. N ‘image’. T ‘color’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. used by all subclasses.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. S ‘centre’. S ‘noise’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. P ‘pixel’. Options ‘name’.

char Convert to string s = C. CatadioptricCamera.delete Camera object destructor C. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. SphericalCamera Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.centre Get camera position p = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera.CHAPTER 2.display Display value C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.clf Clear the image plane C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera.

u + b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. and off if H is false (or 0).line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. See also Camera. otherwise false (0).char Camera. C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.CHAPTER 2. Camera.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.v + c = 0.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

y. uv = C.clf Camera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Options ‘Tobj’. y. See also mesh. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. cylinder. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.hold. y.CHAPTER 2.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. sphere.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.plot.T. Camera. z. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.mesh(x. mkcube.plot Plot points on image plane C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Camera. z to the image plane and plots them.plot(p. The matrices x. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera. T ‘Tcam’.

plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.mesh. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Overrides the current camera pose C. ‘fps’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera. T ‘scale’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Camera. T See also Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tcam’.clf Camera.hold. ‘Tobj’. ‘Tcam’.T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. a subclass of Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v Y This camera model assumes central projection. that is.CHAPTER 2. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. p.p.y]. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. The image is not inverted. C. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

CentralCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C Camera matrix C = C.

2003.F.Kosecka. CentralCamera.E Essential matrix E = C. SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘distortion’. E = C. 10um pixels. u. Reference Y. P ‘pixel’. N ‘sensor’. IM ‘resolution’. optical axis is z-axis.Ma. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. J. T ‘color’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.Soatto. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’. “An invitation to 3D”.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.and v-axes parallel to x. Springer. p. ﬁsheyecamera.8]) See also Camera.177 See also CentralCamera. f=8mm. S ‘centre’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).and y-axes respectively.Sastry. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. D ‘default’ ‘image’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. camera at origin.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. CatadioptricCamera. S. S. E = C.

F = C. n. See also CentralCamera.H(T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry. S. from two viewpoints.CHAPTER 2. Springer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.E CentralCamera.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.F Fundamental matrix F = C. J.177 See also CentralCamera. S.Ma. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H Homography matrix H = C. 2003.Kosecka.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. Reference Y. p.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).H CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Soatto.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.

Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. 2009.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Fua. F. See also quiver CentralCamera. pp. Lepetit. 155-166. Int.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. vol. Feb.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Moreno-Noguer.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. V.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision. and P. a = C. 81.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.estpose(xyz.

s. “An invitation to 3D”.Sastry.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Soatto. “Multiview Geometry”. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s.Soatto.CHAPTER 2. Springer. 259 Y.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . J. See also CentralCamera. section 5.Kosecka.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.invE(E. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma. s. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.E CentralCamera. Springer. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. Reference Y.Kosecka. 2003. 2003. J. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. s. translation not to scale • n.Sastry. p116. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Ma. Chap 9.

p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.plot epiline(f.project(p. one per line. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T.H CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. See also Hough CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. H = C. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. C. CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).

ray 3D ray for image point R = C.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. 313-326. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .visjac e(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. and P. “Multiview Geometry”. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Espiau. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. pp. June 1992. Reference B.plot CentralCamera. Rives. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.c. vol. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. F. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 8.b.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Chaumette.

vol. R&A. CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Rives. CentralCamera. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). and P. pp 651-670. June 1992.CHAPTER 2.visjac p(uv.visjac p polar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. 8. CentralCamera. Hutchinson.c. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac e CentralCamera. Reference B. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 1996.visjac p.visjac p.visjac p polar. IEEE Trans. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Espiau. 313-326. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pp.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Vol 12(5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Hager & Corke.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.b. Oct. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. F. Chaumette.visjac l(L. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.

in Proc. Chaumette. Oct. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac e CentralCamera. (St. Louis). The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p. P.visjac l. See also CentralCamera. radius and theta. 5962-5967. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Spindler. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. I. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. and F. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l. pp.visjac p polar(rt. 2009. Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. F.visjac p polar. Corke.

91-110. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Journal on Computer Vision.CHAPTER 2. Nov. See also isift. vol. ScalePointFeature.SIFT. pp. 2004. See README.60. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. PointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. D. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.Lowe.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Int. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 1=opaque. f = PointFeature(u. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isift SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options. v. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. C ‘alpha’.match(f2.match Match SIFT point features m = F. F.

extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images.support(im. out = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(images. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.CHAPTER 2.support(im. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.T] = F.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

N ‘pixel’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tobj’.project(p. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. CentralCamera. Options ‘name’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. See also SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘pose’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.

0. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. error. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. The camera view. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.5) target center . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Jacobian condition number.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. error norm.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. scalar for If null take actual value all points. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The external view.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .01) . of 4-vector.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .CHAPTER 2. camera pose.center of the target in world coords (0. image plane size and desired feature locations. The camera view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.depth of points to use for Jacobian.the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. defaults in parentheses: target size .gain.

CentralCamera. (Anchorage). I. of 4-vector. See also CentralCamera.depth of points to use for Jacobian. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. defaults in parentheses: target size .3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .gain. Corke.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. error norm. May 3-7 2010. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. CentralCamera. P. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . 5550-5555.visjac p polar.01) . scalar for If null take actual value all points. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l.center of the target in world coords (0. pp. Robotics and Automation. for all points. Conf. camera pose. IEEE Int. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. error.0. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.visjac p(pt. Jacobian condition number.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.CHAPTER 2.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . image plane size and desired feature locations. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. in Proc.5) target center .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.the side length of the target in world units (0. The external view.

• SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Vol. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. pp. No. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).CHAPTER 2. 346–359. 3. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Luc Van Gool. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Tinne Tuytelaars. 110. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess.

options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. [m. Options ‘thresh’. ScalePointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2.match Match SURF point features m = F. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.C] = F. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1=opaque. F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images.CHAPTER 2.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.T] = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.support(im. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(images. 0=transparent (default 0. out = F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. [out.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F.2) SurfPointFeature.

axis.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.CHAPTER 2. Video AxisWebCamera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. otherwise the result is not predictable. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’.axis. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com) web camera.com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

display AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.CHAPTER 2.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.char Convert to string A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.

Zisserman. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003. f can also be a cell array. pp. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.org). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Ninth IEEE Int.Sivic and A.1470-1477. in Proc. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. on Computer Vision. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Conf. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. b = BagOfWords(f. Oct.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f.CHAPTER 2. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.

BagOfWords. BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.display Display value B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . images. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars display exemplars of words B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. See also BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.exemplars(w.char Convert to string s = B.char BagOfWords.

isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . M ‘width’.remove stop Remove stop words B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.n] = B. Options ‘ncolumns’.isword Features from words f = B.CHAPTER 2.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords. BagOfWords. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. BagOfWords. N ‘maxperimage’. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.

Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. subclass of Camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.

CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera.

SIGMA ‘pose’.T. ‘sine’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].CHAPTER 2. A ‘resolution’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f=8mm. See also Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.and v-axes parallel to x. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘equisolid’. ﬁsheyecamera. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Options ‘Tobj’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.project(p. N ‘sensor’. M ‘k’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). optical axis is z-axis. 10um pixels. N ‘focal’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. u.and y-axes respectively. S ‘centre’. See also Camera. S ‘noise’. T ‘Tcam’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. camera at origin. K ‘maxangle’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. CatadioptricCamera.

• FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. such as ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.

Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. one per element. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value M.char Convert to string s = M. FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. f2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the match object.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.u2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier.v2].outlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.CHAPTER 2.

FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.im2}) m. FeatureMatch.p1.p2. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.p FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. for example by: idisp({im1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. These are the (u. See also FeatureMatch.p1.p FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.plot() M.

match(f2).show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. f2 = isurf(im2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.ransac Apply RANSAC M.ransac( @fmatrix. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also idisp FeatureMatch. m = f1. homography. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. 1e-4). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m. See also fmatrix.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. ransac FeatureMatch. Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac(func.CHAPTER 2. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.

X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Y This camera model assumes central projection. v. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.

‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘noise’. S ‘centre’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Options ‘name’. P ‘pixel’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].and y. M ‘k’. ‘sine’.CHAPTER 2. 10um pixels. optical axis is z-axis. u. SIGMA ‘pose’. K ‘resolution’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. f=8mm. N ‘sensor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘equisolid’.axes respectively. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera at origin.and v-axes are parallel to x.

CentralCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.T.project(p. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. See also FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. CatadioptricCamera. T ‘Tcam’.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

0) and the line.H). Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). A horizontal line has theta = 0. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.CHAPTER 2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. The voting array is 2-dimensional. See also LineFeature Hough.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.

if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Nrho].5) Set ht. See also Hough.houghThresh (default 0.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value HT. Hough.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.CHAPTER 2. W ‘houghthresh’.edgeThresh. W ‘nbins’. T ‘edgethresh’. else N = [Ntheta. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. N All edge pixels have equal weight. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0.char Convert to string s = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Hough. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Default 400 × 401. Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. T ‘suppress’.1).

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. HT. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. then all elements in an HT.lines Find lines L = HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also Hough.plot.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. See also Hough.plot(n. H = HT. LineFeature Hough.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. HT. L = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot Plot line features HT. The process is repeated for all peaks.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.lines Hough.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. The highest peak is found.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.

char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature. one per element. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. See also LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = L. L = LineFeature(rho. LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. theta.display Display value L. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. strength. theta. L = LineFeature(rho. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.

Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. l2 = L. LineFeature.points Return points on line segments p = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength(edge. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). L.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the line on current plot. l2 = L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot Plot line L. See also icanny LineFeature. Small gaps.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. S ‘skip’. Movie. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com).close() closes the connection to the movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.axis.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.char Convert to string M. Movie.close Close the image source M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.

PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Options ‘skip’. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. planar.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. F Skip frames.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. undirected graph create an n-d. S ‘frame’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.

pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.cost(e) g.distance(v1. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. v) g.connectivity() g.neighbours(v) g.plot() g.clear() add vertex. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().path(v) set goal vertex.CHAPTER 2.add node(coord) g.goal(v) g.edges(e) g. v2) g.next(v) g. Object properties (read/write) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.add node(coord.component(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.add edge(v1.coord(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.

v2. v = G. and returns the node id v.add edge(v1. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. where x is D × 1. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.CHAPTER 2.add node(x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add edge(v1. PGraph.add node(x. Options ‘distance’. E = G. and returns the edge id E. v. v = G. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.

D × 1.CHAPTER 2. of node id v.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d] = G. PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G. [v.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.clear Clear the graph G. edges and components.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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See also ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature.display Display value F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. v. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F. PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. SurfPointFeature.

distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = F.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.match(f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. [m. where 1 is perfect match.CHAPTER 2.match Match point features m = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. Options ‘thresh’. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. the norm of the Euclidean distance.char PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. PointFeature.match(f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.

plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.CHAPTER 2. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot feature F. Polygon .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.mit.html and require a licence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P.char String representation s = P. Polygon. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.edu. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. intersection.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.mit. one column per vertex. so use with care. HEIGHT]. http://puddle. difference. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. kirill@plume.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. p = Polygon(C.CHAPTER 2. union. Polygon. Pankratov.

inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.difference Difference of polygons d = P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. else 0.display Display polygon P.char Polygon.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon. returns coordinates of P.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. See also Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

returns empty polygon.moments(p.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P.CHAPTER 2. each column is [x y]’. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. y1 y2]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.

Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot Plot polygon P. Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union Union of polygons i = P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.char Convert to string s = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. [x. Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.E] = R.display Display value R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. [x.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.E] = R.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. one per element.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.char Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.CHAPTER 2.

c. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.0) 1 for a circle. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. vertical coordinate bounding box.b. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.CHAPTER 2. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.

If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. For example R.th] = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. ymax]. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.box Return bounding box b = R.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. one per element. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.uc will be a list not a vector. ymin. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .xmax.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. See also iblobs. RegionFeature.char Convert to string s = R.

display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.plot boundary plot boundary R. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot Plot centroid R.char RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. See also RegionFeature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display Display value R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box Plot bounding box R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. R.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. F.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also PointFeature. 1=opaque. v.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. C ‘alpha’. ScalePointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0. SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

CHAPTER 2. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. R ‘nslots’. C. one per active track. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. See also PointFeature Tracker. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. T ‘movie’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Options ‘radius’. N ‘thresh’. options) is a new tracker object. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.

tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Tracker. See also Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .tracklengths Length of all tracks T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Convert to string s = T.char Tracker.display Display value T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.

S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. otherwise the result is not predictable. S ‘resolution’. AxisWebCamera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Movie Video.CHAPTER 2. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. and their characteristics is displayed. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

close Close the image source V.close() closes the connection to the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string V. Video. Video.

and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. if negative it is reduced. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. By default the left image is red. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If disp is positive the disparity is increased. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. right. If th1 is a column vector. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. the ﬁrst for left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. the second for right. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. a = anaglyph(left. and the right image is cyan. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. color. right.CHAPTER 2.

e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. x2.s] = boundmatch(R1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. Endpoints must be integer. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y1) to (x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.CHAPTER 2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y2). p = bresenham(p1. [x. % emission of sun plot(l.y2].boundary. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. y1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. 6500). xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. If lambda is a column vector. p2) as above but p1=[x1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y1] and p2=[x2.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Y.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. [C.

circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. and x is N × 3.d1] = closest(a. [k. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). green and blue primaries respectively. that is. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. R. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). Options ‘n’.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red.CHAPTER 2. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. x = circle(C. k = closest(a.

335 of Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. • From Table I(5.d2] = closest(a. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. and 22500 (444. 19000 (526.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.ioo.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).32).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ac. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.5.5. since. (Table 1(5. they were measured directly. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.5.d1.5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. while Table I(5. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). As noted in footnote a on p.16).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.

xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N.uk See also cmfrgb.CHAPTER 2. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ucl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.ac.ioo. out = col2im(pix.M). imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.

d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.CHAPTER 2. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .g] to every pixel in the color image im.

ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. im<100. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.G.C] = colorkmeans(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. See also imono. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. @isnan. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. @isnan. k. [L. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. mask. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. out = colorize(im.B).CHAPTER 2. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. eg. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. and returns a per-pixel logical result. icolor. func.

eg. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.R] = colorkmeans(im. XYZ = colorname(name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. k) as above but also returns the residual R.C. name = colorname(XYZ. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. L = colorkmeans(im. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. low is good. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre.CHAPTER 2. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.

• Color space names are case insensitive.CHAPTER 2.o2. or alternatively. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. s = ‘dest<-src’. [o1.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. Input and output images have 3 planes. it can be omitted. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. s = ‘src->dest’.i2. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. colorspace(s.txt.o3] = colorspace(s. As MATLAB’s native datatype. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. double data is the natural choice. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.

200). The distance d is M × N and element d(I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. d = distance(A. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.2*A. However.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.B). like a colormap.CHAPTER 2. for memory and computational performance. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. B = rand(400.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).100). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. Example A = rand(400. • If im is an M × 3 array. out will also have size M × 3.

Tested: PC Matlab v5.CHAPTER 2. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. seed. not image frame. non zero is counter-clockwise. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. tel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.y). Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .(+31)20-5257524. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. University of Amsterdam. in matrix coordinate frame. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. The result E is a matrix.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.3. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. bunschot@wins. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.uva. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.j).nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. E = edgelist(im. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. non-zero is an object.

CHAPTER 2.R. Oct 27. See also epiline. I. H = epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. See also fmatrix. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p1. Author Based on fmatrix code by. one per line drawn. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. 1998. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.S. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. Coimbra. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.

csse. homography. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im.au/. that is. no outlier rejection is performed. c. epiline. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.edu. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac(). that is.CHAPTER 2. it is singular. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. p2.uwa. The University of Western Australia. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). See also ransac. page 270. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. http://www. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • Contains a RANSAC driver. • f is a rank 2 matrix.

Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0.CHAPTER 2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). x2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. itriplepoint. See also imorph. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y1) and (x2. ithin. y1. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.y2).

uwa. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.edu. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The points must be corresponding. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. The University of Western Australia.CHAPTER 2. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.au/. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.csse. See also ransac. http://www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac(). invhomog. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. no outlier rejection is performed.

If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. See also homography. D ‘size’. im.offs] = homwarp(H. V ‘roi’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. itrim. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. im. ie. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. S ‘dimension’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. R ‘scale’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. that is tp=T*T1. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also e2h. S output image contains all the warped pixels. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. [out.

179-187. Hu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. ianimate(im. features. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ’gs’). ’nfeat’. ianimate(seq. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 1962.CHAPTER 2. IT-8:pp. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 200). IRE Trans. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. on Information Theory.

idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). YMIN YMAX]. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.CHAPTER 2. N ‘only’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. M ‘npoints’. iharris. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. isurf.

options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. [S1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. default 1.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. ilabel. vertical coordinate bounding box. C set connectivity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. horizontal coordinate centroid. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.0) 1 for a circle. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.0 ‘connect’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio. [A1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘th0’. See also isobel. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. 1996-7. T ‘th1’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. out = iclose(im. Tel Aviv University. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also iopen. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. se. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0.

D ‘bgval’. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colorize.u] = iconcat(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. See also imono. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. [0 1 1]).CHAPTER 2. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).options) concatenates images from the cell array im. Options ‘dir’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). [C. C = icolor(im.

and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. options) convolves im1 with im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2.

specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. R ‘nfeat’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. K ‘patch’.CHAPTER 2. CT ‘edgegap’. S ‘deriv’. N ‘detector’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. D ‘sigma’. D ‘k’. E ‘suppress’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CM ‘cminthresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 1988.. 593-593. pp 147-151. pp.6. T ‘distthresh’. Image and Vision Computing. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. See also PointFeature.5 [sec]. Harris and M.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. with a delay of 0. Shi and C. C.121-128. • “Finding corners”. May 1988.d] = icp(p1. • “Good features to track”. 1994.Noble. Stephens. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. vol.G. J. [T. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. J. N ‘mindelta’. p2.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with a delay of d [sec]. Tomasi. T ‘maxiter’.J. Proc. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. IEEE Computer Society. p2. where * denotes squared and smoothed. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Proc. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Options ‘dplot’. Manchester.

sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.Besl and H. Feb. 239-256.. s = idecimate(im.McKay. 2. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Mach. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. See also iscale. Pattern Anal. P. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.CHAPTER 2. no. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. m. IEEETrans. s = idecimate(im. pp. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. each plane is decimated. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 14. m. Intell. 1992.or 3-dimensional. vol. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. linear proﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. positive is blue. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. XY ‘colormap’. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. histogram and zooming. If the image is zoomed. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is white color map: random values. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’.and y-axes respectively. zero is black. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. negative is red. darker than ‘grey’. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. Options ‘ncolors’. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. C ‘xydata’. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value.CHAPTER 2. zero is white. positive is blue. negative is red. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. If im is a cell array of images.

im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. See also iblobs. labels. labelimage.CHAPTER 2. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. See also image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. icolorize. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colormap. idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. caxis.

See also itriplepoint. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.2.45. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. ithin. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.CHAPTER 2. out = igamma(im. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

jpg’). See also ithresh. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. L = igraphseg(im. Int. [l. Example im = iread(’58060. Sept. k. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. [L.m] = igraphseg(im. vol. 2004. Felzenszwalb and D. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 59.5). 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im.m] = igraphseg(im. 100. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. min. 2006. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.5). k is the scale parameter. 167181. 1500. min. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. k. pp. min is the minimum region size (pixels). k. Journal on Computer Vision. Huttenlocher.CHAPTER 2.

[H. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im).x] = ihist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. H = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. plot(x. bar(x.x] = ihist(im.h). options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h). ’normcdf’). [h.

See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. y2. [L. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. [L. x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.y2). for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. same size as im. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. ii is a precomputed integral image. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.y1) and bottom-right (x2.m.

The pixels on the line are set to 1. otherwise it does not. • This is a “low level” function. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. IBLOBS is a higher level interface.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. p2. eg. p1. each a 2-vector [X.Y].parents. out = iline(im. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.maxlabel.maxlabel. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. iproﬁle.CHAPTER 2. See also iblobs. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.parents. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.class. ilabel(im. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. 8). If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p1.

DY) are the x. a perfect match score is 1. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. • Is a MEX ﬁle.score] = imatch(im1. • ZNCC matching is used. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. im2.DY.y) and of size s. y. The return value is xm=[DX. H. w2. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. -s.y). The template in im1 is centred at (x. centred at (x. s] % relative to (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. ymax] relative to (x. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. and columns the vertical position. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. [xm.y) and its half-width is H.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). ymin. x. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.CC] where (DX. y.and y-offsets relative to (x. im2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.y). s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.CHAPTER 2. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. xmax. x. s.

w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. H) as above but the domain is w × H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.u) = u and v(v. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. f = imoments(u. All pixels are equally weighted. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . effectively a greyscale image. f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.v] = imeshgrid(w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. [u. [u.u) = v. The element u(v. v.CHAPTER 2.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. effectively a binary image.

or its area.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. m10. icolor. See also RegionFeature. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. horizontal coordinate centroid. ilabel. • This function does not perform connectivity. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. Different conversion functions are supported. the elements are m00. m11. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m01. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m20. m02.

op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. J. Image and Vision Computing. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. ’grey’. 2004.org). Urban. The labels [L. se. Matas. ’double’). m. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . O.CHAPTER 2.png’. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.m] = imser(im. 22. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Pajdla. 761767.m] = imser(im. and T. Sept. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. vol. [label. pp. ’light’). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Chum.

CHAPTER 2. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ˆ2). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. This is an erosion followed by dilation. out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. se. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. See also iclose.CHAPTER 2. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. sides. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n. sides. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.

If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. p. im1. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise im2 is selected.V]. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. im2. ’tblr’. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im.CHAPTER 2. 20. 10. ’t’.

Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uv] = iproﬁle(im.v) for the corresponding row of p. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).CHAPTER 2. See also bresenham. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. p1. [p. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.

sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. se(2. out = ipyramid(im. 1. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op. 12. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. the maximum. out = imorph(image.5)).3). n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. See also iscalespace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = imorph(image. sigma. idecimate. ones(5. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. nbins. se. im > irank(im. out = ipyramid(im. op. is order=1. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. order. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se. Notes • Works for greyscale images only.2) = 0. se). The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. The highest rank.

im = iread(ﬁle. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. vmin vmax]. R ‘roi’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image.CHAPTER 2. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ivar. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. where R=[umin umax. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). G ‘reduce’. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. See also imorph. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path.

im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. igamma. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. istereo. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. imwrite. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m.CHAPTER 2. [out1. See also FeatureMatch. m.h1.out2. Notes • Color images are not supported. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. im1.h2] = irectify(f. imono. homwarp.out2] = irectify(f.

See also idisp.H] return central part of image. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. [out. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.umax. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. V ‘smooth’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S ‘extrapval’. angle. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.vmin vmax]. vmin. Options ‘outsize’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.vmax].R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.

bias<0. s>1 makes the image larger. Options ‘outsize’. im2.CHAPTER 2. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s<1 makes it smaller.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias=0. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. out = isamesize(im1. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s.5 is symmetric cropping. V ‘smooth’. while bias>0. s ‘extrapval’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.s] = iscalespace(im.L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. n) as above but sigma=1. [g. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .L. n. in space and scale. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . corresponding to each step of the sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.CHAPTER 2. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. See also iscalespace. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. idecimate. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.

it its third dimension is equal to three. See also isrot. ilaplace. ismooth. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ishomog(T. that is. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image.CHAPTER 2. ‘valid’) as above.

91-110. 60. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. pp. Reference David G. Lowe. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • ISURF is a functional equivalent. isurf. 2 (2004). • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. See also SiftPointFeature.vlfeat. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www.CHAPTER 2. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. International Journal of Computer Vision. • Features are returned in descending strength order. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. N ‘suppress’.

@ncc. [w. [w.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. s = isimilarity(T. ssd. s is same size as im.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. zsad. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. and these output pixels are set to NaN. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. sad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imatch. im. zssd.H.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ncc. @zsad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. @ssd. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. @zssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.

kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. then converted back to integer.CHAPTER 2.gy] = isobel(im. convolved.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. sigma. See also iconv. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. [gx. [gx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.

or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. icanny. See also ishomog. the disparity d=d(v. [d. imr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. isrot(R. imr. H. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.sim] = istereo(iml. range. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.u). ‘valid’) as above. w. That is. range. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. else false (0). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.u) means that imr(v.M] for an N × M window. range is the disparity search range. H is the half size of the matching window. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. See also ksobel. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.

The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. imr. ‘ncc’.p] = istereo(iml. [d.sim.CHAPTER 2.5). • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. • sim = max(dsi. dx. That is. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.sim. p.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.5 to +0.dsi] = istereo(iml. range. B. w. range. w. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imr. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. p. 3) See also irectify. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. [d. Options ‘metric’. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.A and p. out = istretch(im. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).

Notes • Color images. Kroon (U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. or sequences. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘thresh’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. T ‘octaves’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).

either a row. Tinne Tuytelaars. 3.or columnvector. pp. else false (0). Luc Van Gool. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. Andreas Ess. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Otherwise false (0). 346–359. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Vol. isift. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 110. See also hitormiss. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. itriplepoint. No. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im.CHAPTER 2. See also ishomog. out = ithin(im. isvec(v.

ithresh(im.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. Notes • Greyscale image only.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.CHAPTER 2.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. The default is 0. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.im2. The same cropping is applied to each input image. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a lower value will include more.out2] = itrim(im1. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.5. [out1. See also homwarp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.

The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton.CHAPTER 2. op. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. See also iendpoint. ithin. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. se. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point.

@std). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. se. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. See also ivar. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ones(5. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im.3).5).CHAPTER 2. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. @max). out = iwindow(image. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. se. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. func. ones(3. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.

• This kernel is an effective edge detector. dG/dy. kdog. • The vertical derivative. is k’. See also ones. k = kdgauss(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dx. klog. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. k = kcircle(R.CHAPTER 2.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. ktriangle. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. See also kgauss. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones.

kdog. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). k = kdog(sigma1.CHAPTER 2.6*sigma1. kdgauss. klog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . See also kgauss. By default SIGMA2 = 1. See also kdgauss. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kgauss(sigma. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kdog(sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. sigma2.

iconv. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. k = klog(sigma. See also ilaplace. kdog. and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.

C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. L = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Pattern Recognition Principles. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to.C] = kmeans(x. k.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. [L. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. and D is the dimension.CHAPTER 2. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. k.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. symmetric about the origin.z] = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. s. C ‘T’. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.y.y. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). ‘edge’. See also cylinder. Options ‘T’.CHAPTER 2. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. [x. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). [x. The points are the columns of p. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . allowing the plane to be translated or rotated.

p.2)). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. y. MPLOT(t. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.2)). labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n) MPLOT(t. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. npq. y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.y). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. That is. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .xp . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. n) MPLOT(y.yq . the sum of I(x. or y(:.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly. or y(:. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y) MPLOT(t.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. upq poly. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. See also mpq.CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. npq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex.

for example. ssd. W.CHAPTER 2. 20). k. where W=2*w2+1. k. See also zncc.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. 1986. in text segmentation. idisp(im >= t). • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. sad.2. the height of a character. T has the same dimensions as im.m. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = niblack(im. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. niblack. [T.s] = niblack(im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. Prentice-Hall. -0.

CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. See also npq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. That is UPQ(im. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.0).p. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. mpq. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p.0.q)/MPQ(im.

See also mpq poly. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq. they are considered as a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). npq. mpq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.

x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .xp] = peak(y. Systems. idisp(im >= t). T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. x.i] = peak(y. [yp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. pp 62-66 See also niblack.CHAPTER 2. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. [yp. Example t = otsu(im). N. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Jan 1979. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). otsu IEEE Trans. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y.

Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’.S points. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. [zp.ij] = peak2(z. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . use peak(-V).S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V). See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Typically choose N to be odd. N ‘scale’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plot2(p. If p has three dimensions. See also pnmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. ie. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.CHAPTER 2. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot.

’b’). plot_circle(c. ’r’).Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’g’. value pairs that are passed to plot.y1) and (x2. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. 5). Examples plot_circle(c. P. PLOT BOX(x1. ’LineWidth’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. or a set of name. r. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. 1=solid. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ‘size’. plot_circle(c. ’edgecolor’. ‘size’. r. P. r. W. W.y2. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ‘r’. PLOT BOX(’centre’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. R. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ’fillcolor’.y2).CHAPTER 2. x2.y1. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.

xc. Options ‘color’. C. centred at the origin. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.Y]. c Specify color of the axes. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a.Y.CHAPTER 2. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. with Matlab line style ls. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. current plot. If C=[X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles.

l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L.X = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. n ‘text opts’. ’color’. options) adds point markers to a plot. trplot( T. ‘printf’. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ’name’. ’color’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. Options ‘textcolor’. ’r’.CHAPTER 2. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. to ‘view’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. fmt. ’r’). v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ‘framename’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font.

Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. 1=solid. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec.CHAPTER 2. either a letter or 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = PLOT SPHERE(C. See also plot. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R. NOTES • The sphere is always added. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. The default is 1. color. R. patch.

See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plotp(p.CHAPTER 2. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also plot. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. [gr.CHAPTER 2.gt] = radgrad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.

T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. [m. x. T.in] = ransac(func. one column per point pair. Options ‘maxTrials’. x typically contains corresponding point data. x. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. T. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. [m.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. d) as above but elements increment by d. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. N ‘maxDataTrials’.in. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m.resid] = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

x that best supports (most inliers) that model. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. that is. No 6. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.x) condition the point data out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.C. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. pp 381-395.. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. [out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.out. Comm. Cambridge University Press.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.debug display what’s going on (logical) R. Boles. [out. If multiple models are found out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.x. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Mach.x and returns the best model out.A.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.theta = [].theta] = ERR(R.s out. that is they will produce a model.resid] = EST(R.theta = DECONDITION(R. Fishler and R.R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.theta and the subset of R.misc element.theta.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.theta.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.x = CONDITION(R.x.theta is a cell array.inlier.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. Comp.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.CHAPTER 2. they detect a structure argument.out. pp 101-113. Vol 24.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta to the points R. References • m.x data to work on.misc private data (cell array) out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. Assoc.

Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.edu. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .csse.au/ pk See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.uwa. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also roty. roty. rotz. See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx.

If roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. pitch. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. Z axes respectively. pitch. T = rpy2tr(roll. yaw. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. • many texts (Paul. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2. See also tr2rpy. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Y.

theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.y. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. ssd. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. and rotation theta in the plane. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. r2t. theta) as above where xy=[x. See also zsad. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.

See also zsdd. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Two cross-hairs are created. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ncc. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

boolean or enumeration types (string or int). The software pattern is: function(a. then R is 2 × 2.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. – If T is 3 × 3.foo = true. b. opt.choose = {’this’. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t.bar = false. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. It supports options that have an assigned value.blah = []. varargin) opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rt. opt.CHAPTER 2. ’that’. ’other’}. then R is 3 × 3. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. c. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.

CHAPTER 2. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.verbose <. varargin). w. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.foo <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.y sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.y ‘that’ sets opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.select <.false ‘blah’.select <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.1. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt.debug <.choose <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. x. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.3 ‘blah’. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. 3 sets opt.true sets opt.foo <. args) creates a test pattern image.blah <. N ‘setopt’. varargin). If neither of ‘this’.select = {’#no’.blah <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.‘this’.choose <.x.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. ’#yes’}.N sets opt <.

T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. 256. 50.sd. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. sd and sdd are n-vectors. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. [s. binary dot pattern. intercept. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. args is the number of cycles.sd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sdd] = tpoly(s0. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. a line. 2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sf. 25). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. dot diameter.CHAPTER 2. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args is the number of cycles. sf. square side length. binary square pattern. args are theta (rad). args are pitch (distance between centres). The trajectory s. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 256.

rpy = tr2rpy(R. See also angvec2r.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y. Y and Z axes respectively. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. The 3 angles rpy=[R.P. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.

– If TR is 3 × 3. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. ie. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.CHAPTER 2. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. See also rt2tr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. y. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.:. r2t.z]. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. • The validity of R is not checked. If T has three dimensions.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. See also rpy2tr.

See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). or x and y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [c1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [o1.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. An historical anomaly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. each N × 1.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ).

trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. troty.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.CHAPTER 2. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotx. and displays in RPY format. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trprint T is the command line form of above. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. f ‘label’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx.

Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.y). See also upq poly. the sum of I(x.(y-y0)q where (x0. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. p.(x-x0)p . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. mpq. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.y0) is the centroid. tr2rpy. That is.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. See also ncc. ssd. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sad.

See also sdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.

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