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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

However the book “Robotics. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This is extravagant on storage. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and I commend it to you. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment.

. . . about . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . .

. . . h2e . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . ismooth . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . isobel . . .

. . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . plot sphere . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . plot poly . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . tristim2cc . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . xaxis . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . .

2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.com. You need to signup in order to post. tutors. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.google. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. That’s what you your teachers.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. lecturers and professors are paid to do.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.

pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. 1. Number = {4}.3. type of organization and application. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Month = nov. 1. 1. the table of content to functions. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. The details are @article{Corke05f. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Author = {P. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.zip). and the “See also” functions to each other. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Year = {2005}.I. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.gz) or zip format (.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. 1. Corke}. The ﬁle robot. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.petercorke.1. Volume = {12}. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.html on a server for class use.

1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. P. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.7 Acknowledgements Last. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. 1. November 2005. and there are hundreds of modules available. VLFeat http://www. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.7. 1.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. Twente. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. pp 16–25.Functions such as SURF. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. Coimbra.R. 1994 University of British Columbia. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine.S. 12(4)..com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. MSER. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. Corke.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.I. Vincent Lepetit. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.vlfeat. but not least. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.1.mathworks.6.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

S ‘noise’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. used by all subclasses. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. P ‘pixel’. N ‘sensor’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. N ‘image’. IM ‘resolution’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. Camera. T ‘color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘name’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters.

Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. ﬁsheyecamera.centre Get camera position p = C. CatadioptricCamera. Camera.clf Clear the image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.display Display value C.delete Camera object destructor C.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).char Convert to string s = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. Camera.

Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. otherwise false (0). See also Camera.CHAPTER 2.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.v + c = 0.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. and off if H is false (or 0).ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.u + b. Camera.char Camera.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Camera.

plot Plot points on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.hold.mesh(x.plot(p. y.T. z. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. y.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera. y. See also mesh. uv = C. Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2.clf Camera. sphere. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Options ‘Tobj’. Camera. cylinder. The matrices x. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. T ‘Tcam’. mkcube. Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. z to the image plane and plots them. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.plot.

point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.mesh. Options ‘Tcam’.T.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Camera. ‘fps’. T ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Camera. T See also Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.hold. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.clf Camera. ‘Tcam’. Overrides the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.

the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. a subclass of Camera. C.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. The image is not inverted.rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy(R.p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. p.y].

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

S ‘noise’.Ma. S.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Springer. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.Kosecka. D ‘default’ ‘image’. p. ﬁsheyecamera. u.8]) See also Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. E = C. optical axis is z-axis.F. N ‘sensor’. IM ‘resolution’. 2003.and y-axes respectively. CatadioptricCamera. T ‘color’. N ‘focal’. camera at origin. CentralCamera. P ‘pixel’.CHAPTER 2.E Essential matrix E = C. F ‘distortion’. f=8mm. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.Soatto. J.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). Reference Y.Sastry.and v-axes parallel to x. “An invitation to 3D”.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. S ‘centre’.177 See also CentralCamera. 10um pixels.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.

from two viewpoints. Springer.E CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Kosecka. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. p.F Fundamental matrix F = C.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. S. “An invitation to 3D”. See also CentralCamera.Soatto.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. n.CHAPTER 2. S. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference Y.Sastry.177 See also CentralCamera. 2003.H(T. J.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.Ma.H Homography matrix H = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.H CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).

Lepetit.estpose(xyz. Fua. See also quiver CentralCamera. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Journal on Computer Vision. Feb. 2009.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. 81. and P. 155-166. pp.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Moreno-Noguer. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. vol. CentralCamera. F.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. V. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. a = C. Int.CHAPTER 2.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. CentralCamera.

In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. See also CentralCamera.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .invE(E. 259 Y. Springer.Soatto. section 5. J.Ma.Sastry. 2003. Chap 9. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. p. 2003.Sastry. p116. Reference Y.Ma. Springer. “Multiview Geometry”. s.CHAPTER 2.Kosecka. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). translation not to scale • n. s.E CentralCamera.Soatto. J. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. “An invitation to 3D”.Kosecka. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. s.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. “An invitation to 3D”. s.

one per line.plot epiline(f. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.project(p. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. ‘Tobj’. H = C. See also Hough CentralCamera.T.H CentralCamera. p. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. ‘Tcam’. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.plot epiline(f. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f. CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.

“A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.CHAPTER 2.plot CentralCamera.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. and P.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. 8. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Reference B.c. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. vol. 313-326. “Multiview Geometry”. See also Camera. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.b. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pp.visjac e(E. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. Espiau. June 1992. Rives. F. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . Reference Hartley & Zisserman. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Chaumette.

R&A. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.CHAPTER 2. 313-326. Oct.c. Hutchinson.visjac l(L. pp. Reference B. CentralCamera. vol. Chaumette.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Vol 12(5).visjac p(uv. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac p. CentralCamera. pp 651-670.visjac p. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Rives. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). Espiau. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. 8. June 1992. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac p polar.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera.visjac p polar. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. 1996. Hager & Corke. CentralCamera. F.b. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. and P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.

CHAPTER 2. radius and theta. P. 2009.visjac l. Louis).visjac p polar(rt. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. (St. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Spindler. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Corke. CentralCamera. I. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Oct.visjac l. Int. in Proc. Chaumette. pp. F.visjac e CentralCamera. 5962-5967.

You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. 2004.SIFT. vol. See README. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. PointFeature.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Nov. Int. Journal on Computer Vision. pp.60. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. ScalePointFeature. D. See also isift. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.91-110. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.Lowe. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.

0=transparent (default 0.match Match SIFT point features m = F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. f = PointFeature(u. 1=opaque.match(f2.CHAPTER 2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options. See also isift SiftPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. v. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. SiftPointFeature. C ‘alpha’.

w) as above but the support region is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.CHAPTER 2.support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images. [out.T] = F.support(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. out = F.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

S ‘pose’. ﬁsheyecamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera. Options ‘name’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).project(p. Options ‘Tobj’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. N ‘pixel’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. Overrides the current camera pose C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2.T.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. See also SphericalCamera.

CHAPTER 2. scalar for If null take actual value all points.01) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The camera view. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. defaults in parentheses: target size . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. error.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.5) target center .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1.depth of points to use for Jacobian.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The camera view. Jacobian condition number. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.center of the target in world coords (0.the side length of the target in world units (0. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.gain. error norm. camera pose. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. of 4-vector. The external view.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . image plane size and desired feature locations.

May 3-7 2010. P.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Conf. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.center of the target in world coords (0. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. defaults in parentheses: target size .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Jacobian condition number. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Robotics and Automation.CHAPTER 2.the side length of the target in world units (0.visjac p polar. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. See also CentralCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . CentralCamera. IEEE Int. error norm. error. CentralCamera. Corke. for all points. (Anchorage). 5550-5555.visjac p(pt.0. in Proc. I. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The external view.gain. of 4-vector. pp. scalar for If null take actual value all points. camera pose.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or a vector (N × 1) for each point.01) .5) target center . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.visjac l. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.

346–359. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Tinne Tuytelaars. No. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. pp.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Vol. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. 110. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Luc Van Gool.CHAPTER 2. 3. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.

05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.CHAPTER 2.C] = F.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. [m.match(f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. v.match(f2. Options ‘thresh’. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.

ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im.support(images. 1=opaque. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.support(images.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed.2) SurfPointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. C ‘alpha’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. [out. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.CHAPTER 2. out = F. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.T] = F.plot scale(options. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F.

com). S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S ‘resolution’. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. Video AxisWebCamera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com) web camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. G ‘scale’.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].

grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.char Convert to string A.display AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the web camera.close Close the image source A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.

b = BagOfWords(f. pp.Zisserman. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. Oct. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Ninth IEEE Int. on Computer Vision.Sivic and A.CHAPTER 2. f can also be a cell array.org). The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Conf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. in Proc. 2003. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.1470-1477.

exemplars display exemplars of words B.CHAPTER 2. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.exemplars(w. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.contains Find images containing word k = B. isurf BagOfWords. images. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.char Convert to string s = B.display Display value B.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.

isword Features from words f = B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘ncolumns’. N ‘maxperimage’.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.remove stop Remove stop words B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.n] = B. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. M ‘width’.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. BagOfWords.

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. subclass of Camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. K ‘maxangle’. ‘equisolid’. M ‘k’. N ‘focal’. 10um pixels.CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.project(p. SIGMA ‘pose’. ‘sine’. S ‘noise’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. S ‘centre’.and y-axes respectively. camera at origin. T ‘Tcam’. u. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. P ‘pixel’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ﬁsheyecamera. optical axis is z-axis.T. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. See also Camera. A ‘resolution’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. f=8mm. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Options ‘Tobj’.and v-axes parallel to x. N ‘sensor’.

p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. See also PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SurfPointFeature.

m = FeatureMatch(f1. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. f2. FeatureMatch. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.display Display value M. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. SurfPointFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char Convert to string s = M. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2.

outlier Outlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.v2]. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier.inlier. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.u2.ransac FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.v1. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

FeatureMatch. These are the (u. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. These are the (u. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p1. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot Show corresponding points M. for example by: idisp({im1.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p2.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.plot() M.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.im2}) m.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.

The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also fmatrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m = f1.ransac( @fmatrix.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. f2 = isurf(im2). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. 1e-4).match(f2).ransac Apply RANSAC M. Example f1 = isurf(im1). See also idisp FeatureMatch. homography. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).CHAPTER 2. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. m.ransac(func. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. ransac FeatureMatch.

Y This camera model assumes central projection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The image is not inverted. that is. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.CHAPTER 2. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v.

SIGMA ‘pose’. camera at origin. Options ‘name’. S ‘centre’. M ‘k’.and v-axes are parallel to x. ‘sine’.and y. S ‘noise’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. K ‘resolution’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. f=8mm. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. 10um pixels. optical axis is z-axis.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. P ‘pixel’. ‘equisolid’. N ‘sensor’.axes respectively. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. u.

For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tobj’. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. CatadioptricCamera. CentralCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.project(p. See also FishEyeCamera.CHAPTER 2. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.0) and the line. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. A horizontal line has theta = 0.H). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. The voting array is 2-dimensional.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.CHAPTER 2. See also LineFeature Hough. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.edgeThresh. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Hough.display Display value HT. Set ht. See also Hough.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Hough. T ‘suppress’.char Convert to string s = HT. N All edge pixels have equal weight.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.edgeThresh (default 0. else N = [Ntheta. Default 400 × 401.5) Set ht.1). T ‘edgethresh’.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nrho]. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.houghThresh (default 0. W ‘nbins’. W ‘houghthresh’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.

suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot(n.lines Find lines L = HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. See also Hough. H = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. L = HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.CHAPTER 2.plot. reﬁned to subpixel precision. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.lines Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. The highest peak is found. The process is repeated for all peaks. See also Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. LineFeature Hough. then all elements in an HT.plot Plot line features HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

RegionFeature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.

LineFeature. one per element.display Display value L. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. See also LineFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta. L = LineFeature(rho.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength. LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. LENGTH is undeﬁned. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. theta.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.char Convert to string s = L. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.

See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Plot line L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.plot() overlay the line on current plot. L. LineFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also icanny LineFeature. Small gaps.points Return points on line segments p = L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).seglength(edge.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.CHAPTER 2. l2 = L. l2 = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated.

Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.close() closes the connection to the movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie.close Close the image source M. Movie.axis. G ‘scale’.char Convert to string M.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘skip’. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.com).

grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F Skip frames. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. S ‘frame’. undirected graph create an n-d. planar.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.CHAPTER 2. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. Options ‘skip’.

distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().plot() g. v) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord.coord(v) g.component(v) g.edges(e) g.cost(e) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add node(coord) g.goal(v) g.add edge(v1.path(v) set goal vertex. v2) g.connectivity() g.CHAPTER 2. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.next(v) g.clear() add vertex.distance(v1.neighbours(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

PGraph. v = G. Options ‘distance’.add edge(v1. PGraph. and returns the edge id E.add node(x. v = G. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. where x is D × 1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.CHAPTER 2. E = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge(v1. v.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. and returns the node id v. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add node(x. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.

edges and components. D × 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph. PGraph. PGraph. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.clear Clear the graph G. [v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. of node id v.coord(v) return coordinate vector. and the distance d.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord Coordinate of node x = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.d] = G.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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char Convert to string s = F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. PointFeature.display Display value F. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. one per element. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature PointFeature. v. SurfPointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f = PointFeature(u.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f = PointFeature(u.

where 1 is perfect match.match Match point features m = F.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. [m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. the norm of the Euclidean distance. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Options ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char PointFeature.match(f2.C] = F.match(f2. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. F. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon .CHAPTER 2.plot Plot feature F.

edu. Polygon. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. HEIGHT]. intersection.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.html and require a licence. union.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. so use with care. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. http://puddle.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.CHAPTER 2. p = Polygon(C. Pankratov. difference.mit.area Area of polygon a = P. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.char String representation s = P. one column per vertex. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kirill@plume.mit. Polygon. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.area() is the area of the polygon.

intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).char Polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. See also Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference Difference of polygons d = P. else 0.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. returns coordinates of P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.display Display polygon P. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.

moments(p. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. y1 y2].perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. returns empty polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.CHAPTER 2.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. each column is [x y]’.

union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot Plot polygon P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot() plot the polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P.CHAPTER 2.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Polygon.

unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.CHAPTER 2. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

E] = R.char Convert to string s = R.char Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. [x. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. See also Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. [x.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Ray3D. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.display Display value R.E] = R.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.

0) 1 for a circle. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.c. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. vertical coordinate bounding box.b. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. horizontal coordinate centroid.

char Convert to string s = R. For example R.uc will be a list not a vector. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. RegionFeature. ymax].xmax. imoments RegionFeature.th] = R. See also iblobs. ymin.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.box Return bounding box b = R. one per element. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .boundary Boundary in polar form [d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.

See also RegionFeature.display Display value R. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary plot boundary R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.and xmarkers.CHAPTER 2. R. RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.char RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot Plot centroid R. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

If R is a vector then each element is plotted. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. R.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale Plot feature scale F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. 1=opaque. v.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v. C ‘alpha’. SurfPointFeature. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 0=transparent (default 0. F. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.plot scale(options. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength. See also PointFeature.

M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Options ‘radius’. N ‘thresh’. R ‘nslots’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. options) is a new tracker object. See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2. A complete history of all tracks is maintained.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. one per active track. T ‘movie’.

tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value T.char Convert to string s = T.CHAPTER 2. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Tracker.char Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.

AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. otherwise the result is not predictable.CHAPTER 2. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. and their characteristics is displayed. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Movie Video. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.

about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char Convert to string V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the camera.grab() acquires an image from the camera. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video.

d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right. the second for right. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. If th1 is a column vector. right. If disp is positive the disparity is increased.CHAPTER 2. the ﬁrst for left. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. By default the left image is red. a = anaglyph(left. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. and the right image is cyan. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. if negative it is reduced. color.

CHAPTER 2. x2. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1.y2]. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. 6500). T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. Endpoints must be integer. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.s] = boundmatch(R1. y1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. If lambda is a column vector. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. % emission of sun plot(l. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.y1] and p2=[x2.y2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.y1) to (x2. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. See also RegionFeature. p2) as above but p1=[x1. p = bresenham(p1.boundary. [x.

[C.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.Y. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.CHAPTER 2. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. that is. R. x = circle(C. R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.d1] = closest(a. green and blue primaries respectively. [k. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. k = closest(a.CHAPTER 2. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). Options ‘n’. and x is N × 3.

unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).32).16). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. they were measured directly. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. since. • From Table I(5.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.CHAPTER 2.d1. The data are referred to as pilot data. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. and 22500 (444. As noted in footnote a on p.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.ioo.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 19000 (526.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). (Table 1(5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.d2] = closest(a. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.ac.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ucl. 335 of Table 1(5.5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. while Table I(5.

im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ac. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . out = col2im(pix.M). imsize is a 2-vector (N. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.ioo. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.uk See also cmfrgb. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl.CHAPTER 2.

• Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2.g] to every pixel in the color image im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.

The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.C] = colorkmeans(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. [L. mask.B). k. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. func. and returns a per-pixel logical result. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @isnan. out = colorize(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. eg. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. See also imono. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.G. @isnan. im<100. icolor. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to.

L = colorkmeans(im. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre.CHAPTER 2. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . XYZ = colorname(name. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. name = colorname(XYZ. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.C.R] = colorkmeans(im. low is good. k) as above but also returns the residual R. eg. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.

double data is the natural choice.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. Input and output images have 3 planes. As MATLAB’s native datatype. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. or alternatively. s = ‘src->dest’.CHAPTER 2. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • Color space names are case insensitive. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.o3] = colorspace(s.i2.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. i1. [o1. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. s = ‘dest<-src’. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. it can be omitted. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .txt. colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.o2.

distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. out will also have size M × 3. B = rand(400. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. like a colormap.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. • If im is an M × 3 array.200). Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for memory and computational performance. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . d = distance(A.B). However. Example A = rand(400.100).J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).CHAPTER 2. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.2*A.

Tested: PC Matlab v5. not image frame. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam.(+31)20-5257524. tel. seed.uva. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.j).CHAPTER 2. non-zero is an object. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. E = edgelist(im. non zero is counter-clockwise. in matrix coordinate frame.y). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. University of Amsterdam. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. bunschot@wins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. The result E is a matrix. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.3.

ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p. H = epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p.S. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. 1998.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p1. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. epiline(f. See also epiline. I. Coimbra. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. Oct 27. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.R. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. one per line drawn. See also fmatrix.

that is. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. p2. See also ransac.csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. it is singular. homography.edu. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. • Contains a RANSAC driver. which means it can be passed to ransac(). The University of Western Australia. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. http://www. that is. epiline. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. c. Notes • The points must be corresponding. no outlier rejection is performed.CHAPTER 2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. • f is a rank 2 matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.uwa. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. page 270. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.au/.

Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. x2.CHAPTER 2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.y1) and (x2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also imorph. y1. itriplepoint. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. ithin.y2). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1.

School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. invhomog. See also ransac. http://www. Notes • The points must be corresponding.au/. The University of Western Australia.uwa. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which means it can be passed to ransac(). no outlier rejection is performed. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.edu. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.

offs] = homwarp(H. [out. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. See also e2h. S output image contains all the warped pixels. ie. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. See also homography. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. S ‘dimension’. im. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. itrim. D ‘size’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. im. R ‘scale’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. V ‘roi’. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is tp=T*T1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T.

features. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). on Information Theory. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. 1962. ianimate(im. ’nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. features. Hu. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. IT-8:pp. IRE Trans.CHAPTER 2. ianimate(seq. 200). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ’gs’). features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. 179-187. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid.

options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. M ‘npoints’.CHAPTER 2. isurf. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . YMIN YMAX]. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. N ‘only’. iharris.

options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. A set pixel aspect ratio.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. [S1. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0 ‘connect’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. horizontal coordinate centroid. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. C set connectivity.0) 1 for a circle. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. default 1.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. [A1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. vertical coordinate bounding box. ilabel.

See also isobel. This is an dilation followed by erosion. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is n dilations followed by n erosions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2. Tel Aviv University. 1996-7. S ‘th0’. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also iopen. T ‘th1’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se. out = iclose(im.

Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .options) concatenates images from the cell array im. D ‘bgval’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). Options ‘dir’. colorize. [0 1 1]).CHAPTER 2. See also imono.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. iconcat(im.u] = iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. C = icolor(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. [C.

im2. options) convolves im1 with im2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.CHAPTER 2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.

S ‘deriv’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘detector’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘sigma’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). D ‘k’. K ‘patch’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. R ‘nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. E ‘suppress’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. CT ‘edgegap’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector.

Stephens. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . with a delay of 0. N ‘mindelta’. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. where * denotes squared and smoothed. p2. • “Finding corners”. 593-593.CHAPTER 2. Proc. [T. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Options ‘dplot’. Proc. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. See also PointFeature. T ‘maxiter’. Image and Vision Computing. 1994. 1988. pp. IEEE Computer Society. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.d] = icp(p1. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Tomasi.6. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Shi and C.Noble.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. vol.. J.J. pp. Harris and M. p2. May 1988.121-128. T ‘distthresh’. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. with a delay of d [sec]. pp 147-151. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. • “Good features to track”.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.G. J.5 [sec]. Manchester.

P.Besl and H. Intell. Mach. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. s = idecimate(im. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.McKay. m. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. 2. IEEETrans. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. 239-256. Pattern Anal. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. each plane is decimated. 14. vol.CHAPTER 2. See also iscale. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. m. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. no.. 1992. Feb. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. s = idecimate(im.or 3-dimensional. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.

C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. C ‘xydata’. If im is a cell array of images. darker than ‘grey’.CHAPTER 2. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. negative is red. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue.and y-axes respectively. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. histogram and zooming. zero is black. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. Options ‘ncolors’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. If the image is zoomed. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. negative is red. linear proﬁle. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. XY ‘colormap’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. zero is white. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is white color map: random values. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. positive is blue. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also iblobs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. idisplabel(im. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labels. labelimage. colormap. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. icolorize. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . caxis. See also image. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labelimage.CHAPTER 2.

2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = igamma(im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.CHAPTER 2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. ithin. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.45. See also itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.

k.m] = igraphseg(im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 0. 2004. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. P. Example im = iread(’58060. Journal on Computer Vision. k. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ithresh. L = igraphseg(im. vol.CHAPTER 2. k.m] = igraphseg(im.5). [l. 1500. Huttenlocher.5).jpg’). 59. 2006. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. min. pp. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. 167181. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. k is the scale parameter. 100. Int. Felzenszwalb and D. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. min. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Sept. [L.

H = ihist(im. plot(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. bar(x.h).x] = ihist(im). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [H. ’normcdf’).h). options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.x] = ihist(im.CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. [h.

parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.y2).m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. [L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. y2. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. ii is a precomputed integral image. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.m.CHAPTER 2. x1.y1) and bottom-right (x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y1. same size as im. [L. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.

Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. [L.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. p2. eg. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. The pixels on the line are set to 1.CHAPTER 2. p1. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. ilabel(im.parents. See also iblobs. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. otherwise it does not.parents.class. iproﬁle. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. • This is a “low level” function.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.maxlabel.maxlabel. out = iline(im. each a 2-vector [X. 8). To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.Y]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. p1.

x. s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.score] = imatch(im1. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. The template in im1 is centred at (x. y.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. x. a perfect match score is 1.and y-offsets relative to (x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.y) and its half-width is H. xmax. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. ymax] relative to (x.y).CC] where (DX.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • ZNCC matching is used. The return value is xm=[DX.y) and of size s. -s. ymin.DY. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. w2. H. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. • Is a MEX ﬁle. and columns the vertical position. s] % relative to (x. im2. centred at (x. y.DY) are the x. im2. [xm. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2.y).

f = imoments(u.u) = u and v(v. [u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. The element u(v. All pixels are equally weighted.u) = v. effectively a binary image.CHAPTER 2. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. effectively a greyscale image.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. H) as above but the domain is w × H. v.

0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. ilabel. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. horizontal coordinate centroid. or its area. m20. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m11. • This function does not perform connectivity. m02. m01. the elements are m00. See also RegionFeature. Different conversion functions are supported. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2. m10. icolor. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The labels [L. Image and Vision Computing. J. ’double’). Matas. 761767. 2004. vol. and T. ’light’). 22. m. O. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions.png’. [label. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.m] = imser(im. Chum. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Sept. Urban. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. se.org). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. ’grey’.m] = imser(im. Pajdla. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. pp.

CHAPTER 2. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

out = iopen(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. sides. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an erosion followed by dilation. See also iclose.CHAPTER 2. se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. sides.

otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero.V]. im1. 10. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. p. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. ’t’. im2. ’tblr’.CHAPTER 2. 20. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. otherwise im2 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask.

See also bresenham. [p. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. p1. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u.uv] = iproﬁle(im. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.

edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. im > irank(im. 1. out = ipyramid(im. See also iscalespace. out = ipyramid(im. idecimate. hence output image had reduced dimensions.3). op. 12. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. order. se. nbins. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. ones(5. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. out = imorph(image. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. out = imorph(image.2) = 0. se(2. se. se). is order=1. op. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Works for greyscale images only. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. The highest rank. the maximum. sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image.5)). the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im.

im = iread(ﬁle. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. where R=[umin umax. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. R ‘roi’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). See also imorph. G ‘reduce’. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ivar. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image.

Notes • Color images are not supported. imono. istereo. im1. homwarp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.CHAPTER 2.h1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). • The resulting images may have negative disparity.out2] = irectify(f. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. igamma. m. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. imwrite. [out1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.out2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.h2] = irectify(f. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m. im1.

S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. V ‘smooth’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.H] return central part of image. [out. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. Options ‘outsize’. S ‘extrapval’. See also idisp.umax. angle.CHAPTER 2.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmin vmax].vmax]. vmin. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.

• Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. V ‘smooth’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. while bias>0. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s ‘extrapval’. bias<0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘outsize’.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. out = isamesize(im1. bias=0.5 is symmetric cropping. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s>1 makes the image larger. im2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. s<1 makes it smaller. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.

[g. n) as above but sigma=1. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. corresponding to each step of the sequence. idecimate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.s] = iscalespace(im. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.L. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.CHAPTER 2. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). See also iscalespace. n. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.L.s] = iscalespace(im. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. in space and scale.

isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ‘valid’) as above. ilaplace. it its third dimension is equal to three. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ismooth.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. ishomog(T. See also isrot. that is.

each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. • Features are returned in descending strength order. 2 (2004). • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. N ‘suppress’. isurf.CHAPTER 2. 60. See also SiftPointFeature. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. International Journal of Computer Vision. • ISURF is a functional equivalent.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. pp. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. Reference David G. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. 91-110. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Lowe.

[w. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. See also imatch.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. @zssd. zsad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @ncc. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [w. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.CHAPTER 2.H. im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. ncc. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. @ssd. and these output pixels are set to NaN. s = isimilarity(T. sad. zssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. ssd. s is same size as im. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. @zsad.

This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.gy] = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. [gx. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. convolved. [gx. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. See also iconv.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. sigma. then converted back to integer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.

but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. See also ishomog. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. w. That is. range. H. isrot(R. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. ‘valid’) as above. range is the disparity search range.u) means that imr(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. [d. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.CHAPTER 2.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.M] for an N × M window. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. imr. icanny. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). imr. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. See also ksobel.u). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. range.sim] = istereo(iml. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. else false (0). H is the half size of the matching window. the disparity d=d(v.

p] = istereo(iml. w. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.5 to +0. p. out = istretch(im.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. ‘ncc’.sim. dx. imr. • sim = max(dsi. range. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). Options ‘metric’.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. range.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. imr. [d. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.dsi] = istereo(iml. That is. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. 3) See also irectify.sim. p. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).A and p. w.5). • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. B.

Kroon (U. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. N ‘thresh’. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. T ‘octaves’. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. or sequences. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Notes • Color images. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained.

346–359. Andreas Ess. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Tinne Tuytelaars. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Vol. Luc Van Gool. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. isift. isvec(v. else false (0). itriplepoint.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. No. Otherwise false (0). out = ithin(im. See also hitormiss. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.CHAPTER 2. 110. See also ishomog. either a row. pp. 3.or columnvector.

When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.im2. [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. a lower value will include more. The default is 0. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.CHAPTER 2. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Greyscale image only. See also homwarp. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. ithresh(im.out2] = itrim(im1.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. The same cropping is applied to each input image.5. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.

The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. op. See also iendpoint.CHAPTER 2. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. se. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. ithin. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.

The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. hence output image had reduced dimensions. @std). @max). out = iwindow(image. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.3). ones(3. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. se.5). ones(5. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. func. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. See also ivar.

CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. kdog. is k’. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. dG/dy. dG/dx. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. ktriangle. k = kcircle(R.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. See also ones. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. klog. k = kdgauss(sigma. • The vertical derivative.

6*sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). kdog. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. By default SIGMA2 = 1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) .CHAPTER 2. klog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kgauss(sigma. See also kdgauss. kdgauss. See also kgauss. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. sigma2. klog. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.CHAPTER 2. kdog. k = klog(sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also kgauss. and W=2 × H+1. See also ilaplace. iconv.

it is assumed to have been completed previously. L = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.C] = kmeans(x. k. k.C] = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.CHAPTER 2. Pattern Recognition Principles. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. and D is the dimension.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.z] = mkcube(s. C ‘T’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The points are the columns of p. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres).z] = mkcube(s.y. ‘edge’. Options ‘T’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.CHAPTER 2. [x. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. See also cylinder. [x. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. symmetric about the origin.y. s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. p.yq . y. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. That is. n) MPLOT(y. or y(:. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. MPLOT(t.CHAPTER 2. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. the sum of I(x. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. n. y. See also mpq poly. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.xp . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.2)). {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. or y(:. n) MPLOT(t. y) MPLOT(t. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.y). npq.2)). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. npq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. they are considered to be a single vertex. p. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. so centroids will be still be correct. upq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.

CHAPTER 2. for example. where W=2*w2+1. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. idisp(im >= t). [T. sad. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. in text segmentation.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. the height of a character. 20). See also zncc. T has the same dimensions as im. niblack. Prentice-Hall.m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. 1986. k. -0. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. k. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. ssd. W. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. • A common choice of k=-0.2. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Example t = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = niblack(im.

mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.p. p. See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. That is UPQ(im. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.0.q)/MPQ(im.CHAPTER 2. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also mpq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. upq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. they are considered as a single vertex. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. npq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.CHAPTER 2. mpq.

Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. [yp. x. Jan 1979. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.CHAPTER 2. Example t = otsu(im). Systems. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.i] = peak(y. [yp. idisp(im >= t). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. pp 62-66 See also niblack.xp] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). otsu IEEE Trans. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. N. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.

Typically choose N to be odd. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V). S ‘interp’. use peak(-V). N ‘scale’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.S points.ij] = peak2(z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. [zp.

See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also pnmﬁlt. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. If p has three dimensions. plot2(p.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PLOT BOX(’topleft’. or a set of name. 5). R. plot_circle(c. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. P. ’fillcolor’.y1. ‘r’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1.CHAPTER 2. value pairs that are passed to plot. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ’r’).y1) and (x2. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. 1=solid.y2). Examples plot_circle(c. plot_circle(c. ’g’. ‘size’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. ‘size’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. PLOT BOX(x1. ’edgecolor’. r. W. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ’b’). ’LineWidth’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. P. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r.y2. W. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. x2. PLOT BOX(’centre’.

plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. Options ‘color’.Y. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. C. ls) ls is the standard line styles. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. with Matlab line style ls. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.CHAPTER 2. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. If C=[X. xc. centred at the origin. c Specify color of the axes.Y].

n Specify the name of the coordinate frame.X = 0. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’color’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. trplot( T. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. ’r’). n ‘text opts’. Options ‘textcolor’. to ‘view’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ‘printf’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’color’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’r’. ‘framename’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ’name’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fmt.CHAPTER 2. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line.

color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. NOTES • The sphere is always added. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. The default is 1. R. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. See also plot. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. color. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. 1=solid. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state.CHAPTER 2. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. R. either a letter or 3-vector. patch.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. See also plot. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also pgmﬁlt. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.

Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.gt] = radgrad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. [gr. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.CHAPTER 2. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.

d) as above but elements increment by d. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. x. x.CHAPTER 2.in] = ransac(func. [m.in. N ‘maxDataTrials’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func.resid] = ransac(func. [m. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. one column per point pair. x typically contains corresponding point data. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. x. T. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘maxTrials’. T.

resid] = EST(R. [out. that is.x and returns the best model out.x = CONDITION(R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. No 6.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta. Vol 24. Comm.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.theta and the subset of R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.x.theta. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. Assoc.theta = []. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. that is they will produce a model.x) condition the point data out.x data to work on.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. If multiple models are found out.theta] = ERR(R.C. [out. Boles.x. pp 381-395. Mach.theta to the points R.misc private data (cell array) out.inlier.A.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.misc element.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.theta is a cell array.out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.t threshold (1 × 1) R. they detect a structure argument.theta = DECONDITION(R. pp 101-113. Comp..R.out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. Fishler and R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. Cambridge University Press. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.s out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. References • m.

Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector.CHAPTER 2.au/ pk See also fmatrix.csse.edu.uwa. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.

angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also roty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. rotz. roty. See also rotx. See also rotx.

Z axes respectively. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. See also tr2rpy. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. • many texts (Paul. If roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2. Y. pitch. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1.

ssd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. r2t. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.CHAPTER 2. See also zsad.y. and rotation theta in the plane. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. y. theta) as above where xy=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.

See also zsdd. Two cross-hairs are created. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. sad. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.

choose = {’this’. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. then R is 3 × 3. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). opt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. c. The software pattern is: function(a. ’other’}. – If T is 3 × 3. opt. ’that’.foo = true.bar = false. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. It supports options that have an assigned value. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.CHAPTER 2. then R is 2 × 2. b. opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. varargin) opt.blah = []. tr2rt.

verbose <.debug <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image.foo <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. N ‘setopt’. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). 3 sets opt. x. If neither of ‘this’.CHAPTER 2.true sets opt.3 ‘blah’. w. varargin).blah <.select <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .foo <.select = {’#no’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.N sets opt <.choose <. varargin). opt = tb_optparse(opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.y sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.y ‘that’ sets opt.1. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. ’#yes’}.select <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.x.false ‘blah’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.blah <.choose <.‘this’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.

256. The trajectory s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.sd. 2).CHAPTER 2. sd and sdd are n-vectors. args is the number of cycles. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. 25). dot diameter. square side length. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args is the number of cycles. args are pitch (distance between centres). A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. 50. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. binary square pattern. 256. args are theta (rad). sf. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. sf. [s. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.sd.sdd] = tpoly(s0. intercept. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. binary dot pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). a line.

[theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R.P. See also angvec2r. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The 3 angles rpy=[R.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y and Z axes respectively.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.

z]. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.:.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. ie. See also rpy2tr. See also rt2tr. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. – If TR is 3 × 3. r2t. y.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. • The validity of R is not checked. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.CHAPTER 2. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If T has three dimensions.y.

trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. or x and y. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors.CHAPTER 2. An historical anomaly. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [c1. [o1. each N × 1.

troty.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. f ‘label’. trprint T is the command line form of above. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format.CHAPTER 2. and displays in RPY format.

the sum of I(x. tr2rpy.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. p.y0) is the centroid.(x-x0)p . tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(y-y0)q where (x0. That is. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. See also upq poly. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also ncc. ncc. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale).

CHAPTER 2. See also sdd. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

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