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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. and I commend it to you. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . However the book “Robotics. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. is open-source.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . about . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . 1. . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . Polygon . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . 1. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . humoments . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . iscolor . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ivar . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . r2t . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. lecturers and professors are paid to do. You need to signup in order to post.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.com. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. tutors. That’s what you your teachers. and you will be suitably acknowledged.google.

pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.zip). Volume = {12}. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.html on a server for class use.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.I. The ﬁle robot.3.petercorke. Number = {4}. 1. type of organization and application.1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. The details are @article{Corke05f. and the “See also” functions to each other. Year = {2005}.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1. Author = {P. 1.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. 1. Corke}.gz) or zip format (. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Month = nov. the table of content to functions. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity.

See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. P. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.7 Acknowledgements Last.vlfeat. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. Corke.Functions such as SURF. 1994 University of British Columbia. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. pp 16–25. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. MSER. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. 1.1. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.R. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. 1. Coimbra. 12(4).the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.6.S. Vincent Lepetit. and there are hundreds of modules available. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.I. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mathworks.7. VLFeat http://www.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. November 2005. Twente. but not least.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. P ‘pixel’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. S ‘noise’. used by all subclasses. N ‘image’. Camera. S ‘centre’. T ‘color’.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘name’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. SIGMA ‘pose’. IM ‘resolution’. N ‘sensor’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane.

Camera.delete Camera object destructor C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .centre Get camera position p = C.CHAPTER 2.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.char Convert to string s = C. ﬁsheyecamera. SphericalCamera Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera.display Display value C.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.

otherwise false (0).u + b.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Camera. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera. and off if H is false (or 0).hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.v + c = 0.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.

CHAPTER 2. y. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. y. mkcube.plot.mesh(x.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.hold. Options ‘Tobj’. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. z to the image plane and plots them. z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. The matrices x. T ‘Tcam’. cylinder.T. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. uv = C. Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.plot Plot points on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Camera.clf Camera. Camera.plot(p. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. sphere. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. See also mesh.

S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.mesh.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Camera. ‘Tcam’.T. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.clf Camera. ‘fps’. T See also Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tcam’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. T ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Tobj’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. Camera.hold.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a subclass of Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy Set camera attitude C. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.y]. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.p. that is. The image is not inverted.rpy(R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. p.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2.C Camera matrix C = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. CentralCamera.

Kosecka.CHAPTER 2.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. u. S ‘centre’.and y-axes respectively. D ‘default’ ‘image’.8]) See also Camera. N ‘focal’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. optical axis is z-axis. S ‘noise’. camera at origin. IM ‘resolution’.Sastry. SIGMA ‘pose’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S. f=8mm. N ‘sensor’. p. F ‘distortion’. 2003.F. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. E = C. Springer. S. T ‘color’.E Essential matrix E = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. E = C. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. CatadioptricCamera.Soatto.177 See also CentralCamera. J. P ‘pixel’. ﬁsheyecamera. 10um pixels. Reference Y.and v-axes parallel to x. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.

Ma. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. 2003. n. J.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. S. p.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.E CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Reference Y.F Fundamental matrix F = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.H(T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. F = C.177 See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Springer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).Soatto.Kosecka.Sastry.H Homography matrix H = C. from two viewpoints. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. S.

81.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. Fua. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera. 155-166. a = C. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Feb. Moreno-Noguer.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Journal on Computer Vision.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. 2009. V. CentralCamera. vol.estpose(xyz. and P. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. Int. Lepetit. pp.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. F.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.CHAPTER 2.

normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Kosecka. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003. J. Chap 9.CHAPTER 2.Sastry. Springer. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). See also CentralCamera.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Kosecka.invE(E.Ma. “An invitation to 3D”. “Multiview Geometry”. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. translation not to scale • n. Springer. s.Sastry. s. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. s.Soatto. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.E CentralCamera. p. J. Reference Y.Soatto.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. s. “An invitation to 3D”. 2003. 259 Y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. section 5.Ma. p116.

plot epiline(f. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. C. See also Hough CentralCamera.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.H CentralCamera.T.CHAPTER 2. ‘Tcam’.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.project(p. p.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f. H = C. ‘Tobj’. one per line. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. “Multiview Geometry”. 8. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. and P. See also Camera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. F. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.visjac e(E. Rives. Reference B. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pp.plot CentralCamera. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.CHAPTER 2.b.c.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. Chaumette.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. June 1992. 313-326. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Espiau.

pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Hager & Corke. Reference B.visjac p. See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. June 1992.visjac l CentralCamera. Vol 12(5). CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). and P.b. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. IEEE Trans.visjac l(L.visjac e CentralCamera. 8. Espiau. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. pp. R&A.visjac p(uv. 313-326.visjac p polar.visjac p. CentralCamera. Oct. F. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. CentralCamera. 1996. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.c. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Chaumette. Rives.visjac p polar. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.CHAPTER 2. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Hutchinson. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vol. pp 651-670.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.

CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera. P. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac p polar(rt. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Corke.CHAPTER 2. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Louis). F. CentralCamera. Int. See also CentralCamera.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. 2009.visjac p polar. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. in Proc. pp.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I. Chaumette. (St. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). radius and theta. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. 5962-5967. Oct. CentralCamera.visjac l. Spindler. and F.

ScalePointFeature.91-110. 2004. See also isift.SIFT. vol. Nov.Lowe. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. PointFeature. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Journal on Computer Vision. D. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp.60.CHAPTER 2. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Int. See README.

plot scale(options. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. F.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match Match SIFT point features m = F.CHAPTER 2. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. C ‘alpha’. v. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature. See also isift SiftPointFeature.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. f = PointFeature(u. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. 1=opaque. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.match(f2.

extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F.support(im.support(im.support(images. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.T] = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. F. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out.

CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘name’. ﬁsheyecamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Overrides the current camera pose C.T. S ‘pose’. See also SphericalCamera.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. N ‘pixel’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. defaults in parentheses: target size . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The external view. The camera view. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Jacobian condition number. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The camera view. error norm. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. scalar for If null take actual value all points. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.CHAPTER 2.center of the target in world coords (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . error.gain.depth of points to use for Jacobian. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.01) . of 4-vector.5) target center . camera pose. image plane size and desired feature locations.the side length of the target in world units (0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.

in Proc. See also CentralCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . I. for all points.gain. error norm. pp. camera pose. Jacobian condition number. The external view.visjac p polar. Corke.5) target center .the side length of the target in world units (0. Robotics and Automation.depth of points to use for Jacobian. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. image plane size and desired feature locations. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. May 3-7 2010. P. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. scalar for If null take actual value all points. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.01) .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .center of the target in world coords (0.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .0. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.CHAPTER 2. Conf. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .visjac l. error.visjac p(pt. of 4-vector. CentralCamera.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . defaults in parentheses: target size . (Anchorage). CentralCamera. IEEE Int. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. 5550-5555.

Andreas Ess. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . No. 346–359. Luc Van Gool. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 3. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.CHAPTER 2. 110. Tinne Tuytelaars. pp. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Vol. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. v.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. ScalePointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match Match SURF point features m = F. [m.C] = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.

plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. C ‘alpha’.support(im. F.T] = F.2) SurfPointFeature. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2.support(images.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. out = F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but the support region is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. F.support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. [out. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.plot scale(options. 1=opaque. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 0=transparent (default 0.

S ‘resolution’. Video AxisWebCamera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com) web camera.com). Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’.axis. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].

close() closes the connection to the web camera. AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. See also AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.

Ninth IEEE Int. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.CHAPTER 2. f can also be a cell array. in Proc. on Computer Vision.Sivic and A. 2003. Conf. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. b = BagOfWords(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1470-1477.org).Zisserman. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. pp. Oct. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.

char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.contains Find images containing word k = B.CHAPTER 2.char BagOfWords. images. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.exemplars display exemplars of words B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. isurf BagOfWords. BagOfWords.exemplars(w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also BagOfWords.

Options ‘ncolumns’.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘maxperimage’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.remove stop Remove stop words B. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.CHAPTER 2. M ‘width’.n] = B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. subclass of Camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.

Camera CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

‘equisolid’.T. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.project(p. camera at origin.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). F ‘default’ ‘projection’. P ‘pixel’. f=8mm. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘sine’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. M ‘k’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. See also Camera. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. S ‘centre’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. T ‘Tcam’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.and v-axes parallel to x. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. K ‘maxangle’. CatadioptricCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. 10um pixels. u. N ‘focal’. ﬁsheyecamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Camera.and y-axes respectively. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. A ‘resolution’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.CHAPTER 2. optical axis is z-axis.

• FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. such as ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

char() is a compact string representation of the match object.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. f2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also PointFeature.display Display value M. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.

CHAPTER 2.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.u2.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier.v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.v2]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.outlier.

p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. These are the (u.FeatureMatch.im2}) m. These are the (u.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.p1.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() M.p2.CHAPTER 2. for example by: idisp({im1.

The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also fmatrix. 1e-4).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. See also idisp FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. m = f1.match(f2). m.ransac Apply RANSAC M. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Example f1 = isurf(im1).ransac(func. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. homography.ransac( @fmatrix.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. f2 = isurf(im2). and an error is created if this UserData is not found. ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.

The image is not inverted. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Y This camera model assumes central projection. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. v.CHAPTER 2.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.

f=8mm. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. M ‘k’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘centre’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.axes respectively. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. ‘sine’. S ‘noise’. Options ‘name’. optical axis is z-axis.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. SIGMA ‘pose’.and v-axes are parallel to x. u. N ‘sensor’.and y. P ‘pixel’. camera at origin. K ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. 10um pixels.

Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. Options ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera. T ‘Tcam’. CentralCamera.T. See also FishEyeCamera. See also Camera.

Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. A horizontal line has theta = 0. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.0) and the line. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. The voting array is 2-dimensional.CHAPTER 2. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.H). and d is the perpendicular distance between (0.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. See also LineFeature Hough. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

1). Set ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.char Convert to string s = HT. Hough. W ‘nbins’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. See also Hough. Hough.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.5) Set ht.houghThresh (default 0.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. N All edge pixels have equal weight. W ‘houghthresh’. Nrho].display Display value HT.edgeThresh (default 0. T ‘edgethresh’. Default 400 × 401.edgeThresh. else N = [Ntheta. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. T ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2.

HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot.plot Plot line features HT. H = HT. HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. The highest peak is found. then all elements in an HT.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. L = HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.lines Find lines L = HT.lines Hough. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.plot(n.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. The process is repeated for all peaks. See also Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. LineFeature Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.

rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.

strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value L. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. theta. strength. See also LineFeature. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature.char Convert to string s = L. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. one per element. LENGTH is undeﬁned.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. theta.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. Small gaps.plot() overlay the line on current plot. L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . LineFeature.plot Plot line L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).seglength(edge. See also icanny LineFeature. less than gap pixels are tolerated. l2 = L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. l2 = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.points Return points on line segments p = L.

G ‘scale’. Movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source M.com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.char Convert to string M. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis.close() closes the connection to the movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S ‘skip’.

and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. S ‘frame’. planar. Options ‘skip’. F Skip frames. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. undirected graph create an n-d.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.

neighbours(v) g.CHAPTER 2.edges(e) g.add edge(v1. v) g.clear() add vertex.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.path(v) set goal vertex.cost(e) g. Object properties (read/write) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add node(coord) g.component(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. v2) g.coord(v) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.add node(coord.plot() g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().goal(v) g.next(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.distance(v1.connectivity() g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.

v = G.add node(x. PGraph.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2. where x is D × 1.add node(x. v = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. E = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. and returns the edge id E. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. PGraph.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. Options ‘distance’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add edge(v1. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v.add edge(v1.CHAPTER 2. and returns the node id v. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.

connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.char Convert graph to string s = G. edges and components. PGraph. of node id v.closest Find closest node v = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CHAPTER 2.clear Clear the graph G. and the distance d. PGraph. PGraph. D × 1.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. [v.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.d] = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.char Convert to string s = F. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. SurfPointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. one per element. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ScalePointFeature. PointFeature.display Display value F. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.

If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match(f2.match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.CHAPTER 2. the norm of the Euclidean distance. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. [m. where 1 is perfect match.C] = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match Match point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Polygon . one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot Plot feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).CHAPTER 2. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

difference.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.CHAPTER 2. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P. so use with care. intersection.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon. union.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.mit.html and require a licence.char String representation s = P. p = Polygon(C. HEIGHT]. kirill@plume. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. Pankratov.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. http://puddle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. one column per vertex.edu.mit.

Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.char Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference Difference of polygons d = P.CHAPTER 2.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. returns coordinates of P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. See also Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Polygon. else 0.display Display polygon P.

moments(p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .moments Moments of polygon a = P. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. y1 y2].intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. each column is [x y]’. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. returns empty polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.

plot Plot polygon P. Polygon.CHAPTER 2.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot() plot the polygon.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.CHAPTER 2.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.

closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. [x. one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.char Convert to string s = R.char Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. [x.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. See also Ray3D.E] = R.E] = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.display Display value R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.c. horizontal coordinate centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0) 1 for a circle.b.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.

one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.CHAPTER 2.uc will be a list not a vector. RegionFeature.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. ymin.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also iblobs.box Return bounding box b = R. For example R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. RegionFeature.xmax.char Convert to string s = R. ymax]. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. imoments RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.th] = R.

Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. It is indicated with overlaid o. RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. R.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.and xmarkers.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.display Display value R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.char RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot centroid R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also RegionFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

plot box Plot bounding box R. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. SurfPointFeature. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. f = ScalePointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. ScalePointFeature. C ‘alpha’. See also PointFeature. strength. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. v. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. 1=opaque. F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options. v.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale Plot feature scale F. 0=transparent (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = ScalePointFeature(u.

The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. C. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. N ‘thresh’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. one per active track.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. R ‘nslots’. T ‘movie’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. options) is a new tracker object. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘radius’. See also PointFeature Tracker.

tracklengths Length of all tracks T.char Convert to string s = T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.display Display value T.char Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Tracker.

Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. G ‘scale’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.CHAPTER 2. S ‘resolution’. otherwise the result is not predictable. Movie Video. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. and their characteristics is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. AxisWebCamera.

grab() acquires an image from the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.close Close the image source V.char Convert to string V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.close() closes the connection to the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video.CHAPTER 2.

See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. right. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. the ﬁrst for left. the second for right. right. color. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi).CHAPTER 2. and the right image is cyan. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. By default the left image is red. if negative it is reduced. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a = anaglyph(left. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. If th1 is a column vector. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left.

p2) as above but p1=[x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. Endpoints must be integer. [x. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.s] = boundmatch(R1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.boundary. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. 6500). r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. p = bresenham(p1. % emission of sun plot(l. See also RegionFeature. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. If lambda is a column vector. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y1) to (x2. y1. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda.y1] and p2=[x2.y2]. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.y2).CHAPTER 2.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. [C.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.Y. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.

green and blue primaries respectively. that is. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. Options ‘n’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. [k. k = closest(a. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. R.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). R. and x is N × 3. x = circle(C.d1] = closest(a. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x.

CHAPTER 2. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. they were measured directly. The data are referred to as pilot data. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. 19000 (526. 335 of Table 1(5. As noted in footnote a on p.ac. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].d1. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. and 22500 (444.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5.ioo. while Table I(5.d2] = closest(a.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . (Table 1(5.32).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.ucl. • From Table I(5. since.16). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.5.

im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl.ac.ioo. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . out = col2im(pix. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.M).CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.uk See also cmfrgb. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.

CHAPTER 2. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.

k. mask. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.CHAPTER 2. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. @isnan. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. See also imono. im<100. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. func. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. @isnan. and returns a per-pixel logical result. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.G. out = colorize(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. [L. icolor.C] = colorkmeans(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.B). eg.

‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.C. eg. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space.CHAPTER 2. low is good. k) as above but also returns the residual R. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. XYZ = colorname(name.R] = colorkmeans(im. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. name = colorname(XYZ. L = colorkmeans(im. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre.

CHAPTER 2. s = ‘dest<-src’.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. [o1. • Color space names are case insensitive. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.txt. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. As MATLAB’s native datatype. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.i2.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. i1. s = ‘src->dest’.o2. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. or alternatively. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. colorspace(s. double data is the natural choice.o3] = colorspace(s. it can be omitted.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. Input and output images have 3 planes.

2*A.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. However. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. B = rand(400. out will also have size M × 3.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for memory and computational performance. like a colormap. Example A = rand(400. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.200). d = distance(A.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.100). • If im is an M × 3 array. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.B). Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.CHAPTER 2. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.

The result E is a matrix. tel. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. E = edgelist(im. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.(+31)20-5257524. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. seed. in matrix coordinate frame. non zero is counter-clockwise. University of Amsterdam. non-zero is an object.uva. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.3. bunschot@wins. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. not image frame.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.j). Tested: PC Matlab v5. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.y).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.

p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).S. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Oct 27. Coimbra. Author Based on fmatrix code by. See also fmatrix.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). 1998. p. I. one per line drawn. p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p1. epiline(f.CHAPTER 2.R. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. H = epiline(f. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also epiline.

it is singular. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. that is. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. Reference Hartley and Zisserman.au/.CHAPTER 2. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im.csse.uwa. • Contains a RANSAC driver. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. p2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. See also ransac. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Notes • The points must be corresponding. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. no outlier rejection is performed. page 270. c. The University of Western Australia. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. which means it can be passed to ransac(). sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. that is. epiline.edu. homography. • f is a rank 2 matrix. http://www.

y2).y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. y1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also imorph. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. ithin. x2. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. itriplepoint. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).

School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.csse. which means it can be passed to ransac(). p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.CHAPTER 2. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. See also ransac. invhomog.au/. The University of Western Australia. http://www. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. Notes • The points must be corresponding.edu.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. no outlier rejection is performed. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.

but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. See also e2h. im.offs] = homwarp(H. itrim. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. im. S ‘dimension’. ie. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. [out. D ‘size’. See also homography. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. that is tp=T*T1.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. V ‘roi’.CHAPTER 2. R ‘scale’.

features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). on Information Theory. ianimate(im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. Hu. ’nfeat’. ianimate(seq. ’gs’). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im.CHAPTER 2. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. IRE Trans. 1962. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features. 179-187. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 200). features. IT-8:pp.

The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iblobs features f = iblobs(im. YMIN YMAX].CHAPTER 2. iharris. N ‘only’. isurf. M ‘npoints’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im.

horizontal coordinate centroid. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. default 1. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. [S1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. A set pixel aspect ratio. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [A1.CHAPTER 2.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. ilabel. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0 ‘connect’. C set connectivity.0) 1 for a circle.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.

n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. S ‘th0’.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. See also isobel. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. out = iclose(im. This is an dilation followed by erosion. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Tel Aviv University. T ‘th1’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also iopen. 1996-7. se. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.

See also imono. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u] = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. iconcat(im. D ‘bgval’. C = icolor(im. [0 1 1]). [C. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Options ‘dir’.CHAPTER 2. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). colorize. The images do not have to be of the same size. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).

im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) convolves im1 with im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image.CHAPTER 2.

K ‘patch’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. CM ‘cminthresh’. E ‘suppress’. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used.CHAPTER 2. CT ‘edgegap’. N ‘detector’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The vector has zero mean and unit norm. D ‘k’. R ‘nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). D ‘sigma’. S ‘deriv’.

J. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Harris and M. with a delay of 0. C. J. T ‘distthresh’. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Proc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘dplot’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. 1988. p2. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.6. Proc. N ‘mindelta’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. with a delay of d [sec]. pp.. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. Tomasi. T ‘maxiter’.d] = icp(p1. [T.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.121-128.Noble. J. 1994. 593-593. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. See also PointFeature. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. • “Good features to track”. May 1988. p2. IEEE Computer Society. pp. vol.G. Stephens. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. pp 147-151. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.5 [sec].001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.CHAPTER 2. Manchester. Shi and C. • “Finding corners”. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Image and Vision Computing.

2.or 3-dimensional. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. See also iscale.CHAPTER 2. vol. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. s = idecimate(im.McKay. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.. m. 14. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Feb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. P. m. Intell. pp. each plane is decimated. 1992. s = idecimate(im.Besl and H. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Mach. IEEETrans. no. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. Pattern Anal. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. 239-256.

Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. C ‘xydata’.CHAPTER 2. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. negative is red. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue. Options ‘ncolors’. darker than ‘grey’.and y-axes respectively. positive is blue. If the image is zoomed. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. zero is white. If im is a cell array of images. XY ‘colormap’. zero is white color map: random values. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. negative is red. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. histogram and zooming. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. linear proﬁle. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. zero is black.

CHAPTER 2. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. icolorize. idisplabel(im. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. See also iblobs. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. labelimage. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also image. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labels. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. colormap. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. caxis.

• For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.45. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. See also itriplepoint. ithin. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.2.CHAPTER 2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. out = igamma(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.m] = igraphseg(im. min. k. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. Felzenszwalb and D. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.jpg’). min is the minimum region size (pixels).5). min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. [l.5). vol. Int. 167181. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. Journal on Computer Vision. k. [L.m] = igraphseg(im. 1500. P. Huttenlocher. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 2006. min. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im.CHAPTER 2. 0. 59. pp. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. L = igraphseg(im. Sept. k is the scale parameter. 100. See also ithresh. Example im = iread(’58060. 2004.

Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. [h.h).x] = ihist(im. [H.x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. H = ihist(im.h). ’normcdf’). plot(x. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.x] = ihist(im). options) displays the image histogram. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the image histogram as a column vector. bar(x.

y1) and bottom-right (x2. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.m. ii is a precomputed integral image. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y2. same size as im. y1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.y2). x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.CHAPTER 2. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. [L. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. [L. x1.

class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. p1.parents. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. 8). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. out = iline(im. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. p2. [L. eg. The pixels on the line are set to 1. ilabel(im.maxlabel. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.class. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.parents. each a 2-vector [X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. See also iblobs.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.maxlabel.CHAPTER 2. • This is a “low level” function. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p1. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.Y]. iproﬁle. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. otherwise it does not. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. ymin. a perfect match score is 1. ymax] relative to (x. • ZNCC matching is used.and y-offsets relative to (x. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. s] % relative to (x. H. The return value is xm=[DX. y. centred at (x.y).DY. The template in im1 is centred at (x. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. im2. -s.y) and of size s. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. and columns the vertical position.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. w2. y. x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).CHAPTER 2. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.y) and its half-width is H. im2. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.y).CC] where (DX. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. [xm. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. • Is a MEX ﬁle. s.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xmax.DY) are the x.score] = imatch(im1.

The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) = v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. f = imoments(u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.u) = u and v(v. effectively a greyscale image. effectively a binary image.v] = imeshgrid(w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. H) as above but the domain is w × H. v.CHAPTER 2. [u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. [u.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. All pixels are equally weighted. The element u(v. f = imoments(u.

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m01. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. • This function does not perform connectivity. m20. horizontal coordinate centroid.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. See also RegionFeature. Different conversion functions are supported. m02. m10. m11. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. the elements are m00. icolor. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. or its area. ilabel.

png’. The labels [L. 2004. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but m is the number of regions found. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Image and Vision Computing. m. Pajdla. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. and T. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Sept. Urban. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. ’light’). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. O. ’grey’.m] = imser(im.org). vol. [label. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. J. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. pp. se. 22. ’double’). Matas. 761767.CHAPTER 2. Chum.m] = imser(im.

Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im).ˆ2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im.CHAPTER 2.

se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. See also iclose. out = iopen(im. n. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. sides.

im2. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. ’t’. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. otherwise im2 is selected. 10. ’tblr’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 20. im1. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. p. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.CHAPTER 2.V].

p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.CHAPTER 2.uv] = iproﬁle(im. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. [p. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p1. See also bresenham.

5)). se. op. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. im > irank(im. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. se. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. idecimate. 1. out = imorph(image. 12. op.3). ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The highest rank. sigma. se(2. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. nbins. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. ones(5.2) = 0. the maximum. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. is order=1. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se). order. See also iscalespace. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. out = ipyramid(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. out = imorph(image.CHAPTER 2. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. out = ipyramid(im.

im = iread(ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. vmin vmax]. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. where R=[umin umax. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. ivar. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value.CHAPTER 2. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. See also imorph. R ‘roi’. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.

im1. m. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. homwarp. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.h1. m. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. istereo. Notes • Color images are not supported. igamma. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). imono.CHAPTER 2. [out1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im.h2] = irectify(f.out2] = irectify(f. • The resulting images may have negative disparity.out2. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. imwrite. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch. im1. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.

V ‘smooth’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. [out.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. vmin. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. angle. See also idisp. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. Options ‘outsize’.vmin vmax].vmax]. S ‘extrapval’.H] return central part of image.umax. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.

im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. Options ‘outsize’. s ‘extrapval’. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 is symmetric cropping. s>1 makes the image larger. out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s<1 makes it smaller. bias<0.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. V ‘smooth’. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. bias=0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. while bias>0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 moves the crop window down or to the right.CHAPTER 2.

s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.s] = iscalespace(im. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. in space and scale. n) as above but sigma=1.L.s] = iscalespace(im. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.CHAPTER 2. n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idecimate. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. [g. See also iscalespace. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. corresponding to each step of the sequence. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.

klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. it its third dimension is equal to three. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. else false (0). but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. ‘valid’) as above. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ilaplace. that is. ismooth.CHAPTER 2. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ishomog(T. See also isrot.

• The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www.CHAPTER 2. Lowe. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. N ‘suppress’. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. isurf. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2 (2004). • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.vlfeat. 60. Reference David G. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. pp. 91-110. See also SiftPointFeature. International Journal of Computer Vision.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • Features are returned in descending strength order.

zsad. s = isimilarity(T.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. See also imatch. @ssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. [w. @zssd. zssd. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. s is same size as im.H. sad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. [w. @ncc. ncc. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @zsad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. ssd.CHAPTER 2. and these output pixels are set to NaN. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.

those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im.CHAPTER 2. [gx. [gx. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. See also iconv.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. sigma. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. then converted back to integer. convolved.

imr. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. imr. range is the disparity search range. w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. [d.u).u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.sim] = istereo(iml. isrot(R. else false (0). which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. See also ishomog. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. ‘valid’) as above. H is the half size of the matching window. That is. H.u) means that imr(v. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.CHAPTER 2. the disparity d=d(v. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). range. icanny. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.M] for an N × M window. range. See also ksobel. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.

For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). Options ‘metric’. • sim = max(dsi. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. B. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. p.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. out = istretch(im. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. 3) See also irectify. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. p.sim.A and p. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. range.sim. imr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.CHAPTER 2. [d. imr.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. ‘ncc’. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.dsi] = istereo(iml. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).p] = istereo(iml. w. range. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.5). w. That is. [d. dx. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5 to +0.

Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Kroon (U. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Notes • Color images. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. or sequences. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. N ‘thresh’.CHAPTER 2. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. T ‘octaves’.

delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration.or columnvector. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. isift. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 3. isvec(v. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. See also ishomog. itriplepoint. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Tinne Tuytelaars. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Otherwise false (0). Andreas Ess. Vol. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. either a row. Luc Van Gool. No. 110. out = ithin(im.CHAPTER 2. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 346–359. See also hitormiss. else false (0). pp. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature.

See also homwarp. [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. Notes • Greyscale image only. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.5.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.CHAPTER 2. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. The default is 0.out2] = itrim(im1.im2. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. a lower value will include more. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .out2] = itrim(im1. ithresh(im. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. The same cropping is applied to each input image.

These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. se. se. See also iendpoint. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. op. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. ithin.

3).5). See also ivar. @max). • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel.CHAPTER 2. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. ones(5. func. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ones(3. @std). out = iwindow(image. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. se. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.

dG/dy. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. See also kgauss. klog.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. See also ones. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . dG/dx.CHAPTER 2. ktriangle. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. k = kdgauss(sigma. k = kcircle(R. kdog. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. • The vertical derivative. is k’. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.

kdgauss. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. See also kdgauss. klog. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . where sigma1 > SIGMA2.6*sigma1. kdog. k = kdog(sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kdog(sigma1. See also kgauss. k = kgauss(sigma. sigma2. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv. See also kgauss. See also ilaplace. k = klog(sigma. kdgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. and W=2 × H+1.CHAPTER 2.

options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to.C] = kmeans(x. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. it is assumed to have been completed previously. [L. Pattern Recognition Principles. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. L = kmeans(x. k.C] = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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The points are the columns of p. See also cylinder. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. s. [x. [x. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). C ‘T’.z] = mkcube(s.y. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. ‘edge’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.CHAPTER 2. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).z] = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. symmetric about the origin. Options ‘T’. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.

MPLOT(t. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. n) MPLOT(t.CHAPTER 2. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.2)).xp . That is. n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n) MPLOT(y. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. p. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. y) MPLOT(t. the sum of I(x. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.y). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. or y(:.2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y.yq . or y(:. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. npq. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. See also mpq poly.

• If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also mpq. so centroids will be still be correct. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. they are considered to be a single vertex. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq poly. upq poly.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p.

m. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in text segmentation. the height of a character. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s.s] = niblack(im. Example t = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. ssd. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. niblack. 20). The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. idisp(im >= t). Prentice-Hall. for example. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.2. [T. sad. -0. 1986.CHAPTER 2. T has the same dimensions as im. W.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. k. where W=2*w2+1. See also zncc.

CHAPTER 2.0. See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p.q)/MPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. mpq.p. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. That is UPQ(im.0).

mpq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. they are considered as a single vertex. npq. upq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also mpq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.CHAPTER 2.

Jan 1979. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Systems. otsu IEEE Trans. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). [yp. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. idisp(im >= t).CHAPTER 2. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.xp] = peak(y. [yp. N.i] = peak(y. x.

N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.CHAPTER 2. S ‘interp’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.S points. use peak2(-V). Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S points. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. use peak(-V). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.ij] = peak2(z. [zp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.

See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2(p.CHAPTER 2. See also pnmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. If p has three dimensions. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ie.

r. W. P.CHAPTER 2. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. or a set of name. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . value pairs that are passed to plot.y1. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ’LineWidth’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.y2. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. ‘size’. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ‘size’. r. ’b’). and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Examples plot_circle(c. ’g’. P. plot_circle(c. plot_circle(c. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’edgecolor’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. 1=solid. ’r’). W. PLOT BOX(x1. ‘r’. ’fillcolor’.y1) and (x2. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. x2.y2). PLOT BOX(’topleft’. 5). options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. r.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].

CHAPTER 2. c Specify color of the axes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y]. ls) ls is the standard line styles. C. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Y. If C=[X. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. current plot.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. centred at the origin. xc. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Options ‘color’. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. with Matlab line style ls.

‘printf’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. to ‘view’. ’color’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. Options ‘textcolor’. ’name’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’r’. ’r’). ’color’. options) adds point markers to a plot. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ‘framename’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. n ‘text opts’.CHAPTER 2. trplot( T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’.X = 0. fmt. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p.

alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. NOTES • The sphere is always added. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. See also plot. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. patch. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R. either a letter or 3-vector. 1=solid. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. color. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. The default is 1.CHAPTER 2. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R.

See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also plot. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plotp(p. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im.

At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.CHAPTER 2. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. [gr.gt] = radgrad(im.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.

T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x typically contains corresponding point data. [m. one column per point pair. x. d) as above but elements increment by d. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. N ‘maxDataTrials’. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. Options ‘maxTrials’. [m. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. T. T.in. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .resid] = ransac(func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.CHAPTER 2. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.in] = ransac(func. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. T. x.

resid] = EST(R. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. Comp.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.x and returns the best model out. No 6.x) condition the point data out. Mach.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. that is.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.R. Comm.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.C.x.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Boles. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta = [].out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x.s out. Assoc. Fishler and R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. [out. pp 101-113.theta] = ERR(R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.x = CONDITION(R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.A.theta to the points R. they detect a structure argument. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. If multiple models are found out. pp 381-395.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.out..theta and the subset of R.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.inlier.theta is a cell array.theta.misc element. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.theta = DECONDITION(R.theta.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.CHAPTER 2. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. Cambridge University Press. References • m. [out.misc private data (cell array) out.s sample size (1 × 1) out. that is they will produce a model.x data to work on. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. Vol 24. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/ pk See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2.csse.edu.uwa. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. If lambda is a vector.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. See also roty. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. roty. rotz. See also rotx.

then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. pitch. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. • many texts (Paul. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. See also tr2rpy.CHAPTER 2. Z axes respectively. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Y. T = rpy2tr(roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. pitch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. If roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1.

i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2t. y. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ssd.CHAPTER 2.y. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. theta) as above where xy=[x. ncc. See also zsad. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. and rotation theta in the plane.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.

Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. See also zsdd. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ncc. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Two cross-hairs are created.CHAPTER 2. sad.

tr2rt.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. ’that’. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. then R is 2 × 2. It supports options that have an assigned value. c. The software pattern is: function(a. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. varargin) opt. – If T is 3 × 3.bar = false.CHAPTER 2. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.choose = {’this’. opt. b. ’other’}. opt.foo = true.blah = []. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). then R is 3 × 3.

Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.y sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.verbose <.‘this’.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.choose <. 3 sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.N sets opt <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.foo <.select <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x.y ‘that’ sets opt.blah <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.select = {’#no’.false ‘blah’. ’#yes’}. opt = tb_optparse(opt.blah <.select <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.foo <.3 ‘blah’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. w. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. varargin).‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.x.debug <. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.choose <. N ‘setopt’. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).CHAPTER 2. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.1. varargin).arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.true sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. args) creates a test pattern image. If neither of ‘this’.

25). [s. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). args is the number of cycles. binary dot pattern. The trajectory s.sdd] = tpoly(s0. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. 50. sf. args is the number of cycles.sd. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args is the number of cycles.CHAPTER 2. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sd and sdd are n-vectors. intercept. args are theta (rad). 256. 256. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction.sd. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. binary square pattern. sf. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. square side length. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. a line.sdd] = tpoly(s0. 2). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args are pitch (distance between centres). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args is the number of cycles. dot diameter.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. Y and Z axes respectively. The 3 angles rpy=[R.P. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. rpy = tr2rpy(R. [theta.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. See also angvec2r.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Y.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.CHAPTER 2. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).

i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. • The validity of R is not checked.y. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. y. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. If T has three dimensions. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.CHAPTER 2. r2t. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. – If TR is 3 × 3. See also rt2tr. ie. See also rpy2tr.z]. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.

An historical anomaly. [c1. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). each N × 1. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. or x and y.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. [o1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. troty.

If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. f ‘label’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trprint T is the command line form of above. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.CHAPTER 2. and displays in RPY format. trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’.

(x-x0)p . the sum of I(x.y0) is the centroid.CHAPTER 2. That is. p.y). See also upq poly. tr2rpy. mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(y-y0)q where (x0. upq Central image moments m = upq(im.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also ncc. See also sad. ssd. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale).CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

CHAPTER 2. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sdd. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.