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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. However the book “Robotics. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This is extravagant on storage. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. is open-source. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. and I commend it to you.

. . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . blackbody . Hough . . . . . . . 2 . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . colorkmeans . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . isvec . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

google.com. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. That’s what you your teachers. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. lecturers and professors are paid to do. tutors. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. You need to signup in order to post.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.

Year = {2005}.zip).petercorke.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Author = {P.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. 1.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.I. The details are @article{Corke05f.html on a server for class use. 1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). Volume = {12}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1. Corke}. and the “See also” functions to each other.3.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. type of organization and application. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. the table of content to functions. 1. The ﬁle robot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Month = nov.1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.gz) or zip format (.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Number = {4}. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.

S. pp 16–25. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1994 University of British Columbia.. 1. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. 1.Functions such as SURF.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. and there are hundreds of modules available.6. Vincent Lepetit.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. MSER. P. Twente.I. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.vlfeat. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.7 Acknowledgements Last. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer.7. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Coimbra. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. November 2005. VLFeat http://www. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. 12(4). RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. Corke.R. but not least.mathworks. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.1.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. used by all subclasses. T ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. IM ‘resolution’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. S ‘noise’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. N ‘sensor’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. SIGMA ‘pose’. N ‘image’. Camera. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. Options ‘name’.

SphericalCamera Camera.display Display value C.clf Clear the image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = C.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.centre Get camera position p = C. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera.delete Camera object destructor C. ﬁsheyecamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. CatadioptricCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.

See also Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2. otherwise false (0).hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.v + c = 0.u + b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.char Camera. C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.

move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. z to the image plane and plots them.clf Camera.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C.plot(p. Camera. Camera. Camera.plot. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.mesh(x. See also mesh.T. uv = C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2. y. T ‘Tcam’. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. z.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. y. cylinder. Options ‘Tobj’. The matrices x.hold. sphere. Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).plot Plot points on image plane C. y. mkcube. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them.

N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.hold.mesh. ‘Tcam’. Camera. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Options ‘Tcam’.clf Camera.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. ‘fps’. T See also Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Camera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘scale’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Overrides the current camera pose C.

CHAPTER 2. p.y]. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. a subclass of Camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. that is.rpy(R. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.C Camera matrix C = C.

N ‘focal’. S. S ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘noise’. ﬁsheyecamera. E = C. J.E Essential matrix E = C.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. SphericalCamera CentralCamera.Kosecka. S. P ‘pixel’.F. 2003.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). “An invitation to 3D”. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. f=8mm.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.and v-axes parallel to x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. Reference Y. camera at origin. F ‘distortion’. optical axis is z-axis.Sastry. CatadioptricCamera.and y-axes respectively. p. 10um pixels.Soatto. Springer. T ‘color’. E = C. N ‘sensor’.Ma. SIGMA ‘pose’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. CentralCamera. u.8]) See also Camera. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.177 See also CentralCamera. D ‘default’ ‘image’.

n.Ma.H Homography matrix H = C.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.H(T.CHAPTER 2. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). See also CentralCamera. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.H CentralCamera. p.177 See also CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. F = C.Soatto. J.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.E CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. 2003. from two viewpoints.Kosecka. Reference Y. S.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Sastry. S. Springer.

F.estpose(xyz. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. See also quiver CentralCamera. Int. vol. 81.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. V.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). 155-166. CentralCamera.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Feb. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. a = C. Lepetit.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. CentralCamera. 2009. Journal on Computer Vision. Moreno-Noguer. and P. Fua. pp.

s. 2003. J. translation not to scale • n. 259 Y.CHAPTER 2. Springer. Reference Y.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.invE(E.Kosecka.Soatto. p116. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Sastry. “An invitation to 3D”.E CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. 2003. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Soatto. s.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s. p.Kosecka.Ma. s. Springer.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. “Multiview Geometry”. See also CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. section 5.Ma. Chap 9.Sastry. J. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).

T. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. p. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f. CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. See also Hough CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot epiline(f.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. ‘Tcam’.plot epiline(f. H = C. C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). one per line.project(p. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.

d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Chaumette.visjac e(E. Rives.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. See also Camera.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. 313-326. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .b. “Multiview Geometry”.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.c. F. and P.plot CentralCamera. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.CHAPTER 2. Reference B. Espiau.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. 8. vol. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. June 1992.

and the rows are theta and rho respectively. R&A. pp 651-670.visjac l CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. 1996. See also CentralCamera.b.visjac p polar. 313-326. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. vol.visjac p. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac p.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac e CentralCamera. F. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Reference B. Hager & Corke.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Hutchinson.CHAPTER 2. June 1992. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Rives. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). IEEE Trans. Vol 12(5). pp. Chaumette.visjac l(L. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac p polar. Espiau.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. 8. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera.c. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Oct. and P. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac p(uv.

Spindler. F.visjac p.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. radius and theta. CentralCamera. I. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. P.visjac p polar(rt. 2009. Chaumette. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera. (St. in Proc.visjac e CentralCamera. Louis). The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. 5962-5967. CentralCamera.visjac l. Oct. and F. Int. CentralCamera.visjac l. pp. Corke.visjac p polar.

References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. 2004. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. See also isift. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nov.SIFT. See README. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Journal on Computer Vision. D. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. PointFeature.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.91-110. pp.Lowe.60. vol.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature.

ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F.plot scale(options. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F. v. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque. See also isift SiftPointFeature. SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

CHAPTER 2.support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(im.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. out = F. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.T] = F. [out.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘name’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ﬁsheyecamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera. See also SphericalCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T. S ‘pose’.project(p. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2.

from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.5) target center . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. defaults in parentheses: target size .2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.01) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera view.the side length of the target in world units (0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gain. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The external view.center of the target in world coords (0. camera pose.CHAPTER 2. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The camera view. error.0. error norm. Jacobian condition number. of 4-vector. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. image plane size and desired feature locations.

3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . pp.depth of points to use for Jacobian. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.5) target center .the side length of the target in world units (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The external view.visjac p(pt. (Anchorage). Conf.CHAPTER 2.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. defaults in parentheses: target size . See also CentralCamera. IEEE Int. CentralCamera. 5550-5555. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.gain. error norm. of 4-vector. image plane size and desired feature locations. P. camera pose. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).visjac l.center of the target in world coords (0. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . May 3-7 2010. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. I. CentralCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. Robotics and Automation.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . scalar for If null take actual value all points.01) . for all points. error.visjac p polar. Corke. in Proc. Jacobian condition number. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.0. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Tinne Tuytelaars. 346–359. Andreas Ess. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 3. Luc Van Gool. No. pp. 110. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Vol.

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u. Options ‘thresh’. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match Match SURF point features m = F.C] = F.match(f2. ScalePointFeature. [m.

F.support(images. 1=opaque.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed. C ‘alpha’. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out.2) SurfPointFeature. out = F.T] = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(images.plot scale Plot feature scale F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F. 0=transparent (default 0. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot scale(options.CHAPTER 2.

Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2. Video AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.com) web camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. otherwise the result is not predictable. S ‘resolution’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. G ‘scale’.axis. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com).

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.close Close the image source A. See also AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.

Ninth IEEE Int. 2003.Zisserman.CHAPTER 2.org). k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.1470-1477. Conf.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b = BagOfWords(f. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. in Proc. f can also be a cell array.Sivic and A. Oct. pp.

char Convert to string s = B.exemplars(w. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. See also BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.contains Find images containing word k = B. isurf BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2. images.display Display value B.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.

BagOfWords. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.n] = B.isword Features from words f = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop Remove stop words B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. N ‘maxperimage’. M ‘width’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.

wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.CHAPTER 2.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera CatadioptricCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

N ‘focal’. CatadioptricCamera. S ‘noise’. A ‘resolution’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. 10um pixels. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].and y-axes respectively. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tobj’. ﬁsheyecamera. ‘equisolid’. optical axis is z-axis. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. T ‘Tcam’.and v-axes parallel to x. M ‘k’. K ‘maxangle’. ‘sine’.project(p. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. N ‘sensor’. S ‘centre’. P ‘pixel’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. See also Camera. camera at origin. See also Camera. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). u.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.T. f=8mm.CHAPTER 2.

SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. such as ScalePointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.

If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also PointFeature.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. m = FeatureMatch(f1.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.display Display value M.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. one per element.char Convert to string s = M. f2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.v1. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch.outlier. FeatureMatch.u2.v2]. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.im2}) m. for example by: idisp({im1.FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. These are the (u. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. These are the (u.p2.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot() M.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.

The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Example f1 = isurf(im1). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1e-4).ransac Apply RANSAC M. f2 = isurf(im2). ransac FeatureMatch.ransac( @fmatrix.match(f2). Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. See also fmatrix. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. m.ransac(func. and an error is created if this UserData is not found. m = f1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. See also idisp FeatureMatch.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. homography.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y This camera model assumes central projection. The image is not inverted. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is.

Options ‘name’. optical axis is z-axis. K ‘resolution’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. SIGMA ‘pose’. camera at origin. S ‘centre’. N ‘sensor’. 10um pixels.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. M ‘k’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. P ‘pixel’. ‘equisolid’. f=8mm. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). S ‘noise’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.and y.and v-axes are parallel to x. ‘sine’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘default’ ‘projection’.axes respectively. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].

CentralCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.T. See also FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.project(p. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. See also Camera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.

The voting array is 2-dimensional. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. See also LineFeature Hough.CHAPTER 2. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. A horizontal line has theta = 0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.H). options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.0) and the line. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.

5) Set ht. Nrho]. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. else N = [Ntheta. Default 400 × 401.edgeThresh (default 0.char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘nbins’. T ‘suppress’. Hough.houghThresh (default 0. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh.display Display value HT. See also Hough.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. T ‘edgethresh’. N All edge pixels have equal weight. Hough. W ‘houghthresh’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.1).suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Set ht.

lines Find lines L = HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. L = HT.lines Hough.plot(n. The process is repeated for all peaks. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. H = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. See also Hough. The highest peak is found. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. reﬁned to subpixel precision.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.plot.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. then all elements in an HT.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. HT.plot Plot line features HT. LineFeature Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.

strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.char Convert to string s = L. strength.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. theta. one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(rho. LENGTH is undeﬁned. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.CHAPTER 2.display Display value L. See also LineFeature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.

less than gap pixels are tolerated.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge.plot Plot line L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.plot() overlay the line on current plot.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. Small gaps. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. l2 = L.points Return points on line segments p = L. l2 = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). L. See also icanny LineFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. LineFeature.

close Close the image source M.axis. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.com). Movie. Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘skip’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.char Convert to string M. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’. planar.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph create an n-d. F Skip frames. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.

CHAPTER 2.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.clear() add vertex.goal(v) g.component(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.next(v) g.edges(e) g.neighbours(v) g. v2) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord. v) g.connectivity() g.cost(e) g.coord(v) g.distance(v1. return vid add vertex and edge to v. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.add node(coord) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().plot() g.add edge(v1.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.

v. where x is D × 1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node(x. v = G. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. E = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. and returns the node id v.add edge(v1.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v2.CHAPTER 2. PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add node(x. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. PGraph. and returns the edge id E. v = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Options ‘distance’.add edge(v1.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PGraph. D × 1.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. [v. PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.CHAPTER 2. of node id v. PGraph. edges and components. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.char Convert graph to string s = G.coord Coordinate of node x = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.clear Clear the graph G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. See also ScalePointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. PointFeature.display Display value F. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F. SurfPointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. v. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature.

T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.CHAPTER 2.match Match point features m = F.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match(f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. where 1 is perfect match.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.char PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. the norm of the Euclidean distance.C] = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.

CHAPTER 2.plot Plot feature F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). Polygon .

http://puddle. kirill@plume.char String representation s = P.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.mit. one column per vertex. union. difference. intersection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.area() is the area of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .area Area of polygon a = P. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. p = Polygon(C. HEIGHT]. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. so use with care. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.edu. Polygon. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.html and require a licence.mit. Pankratov. Polygon.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.CHAPTER 2. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.display Display polygon P. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. Polygon.char Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. else 0.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. returns coordinates of P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Polygon. See also Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.

intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.moments(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns empty polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. Polygon. Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. y1 y2]. each column is [x y]’.moments Moments of polygon a = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.CHAPTER 2.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.

returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union Union of polygons i = P.CHAPTER 2. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Polygon.plot Plot polygon P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot() plot the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. Polygon.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. P.

CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.

If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. [x.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Ray3D. one per element.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.E] = R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Ray3D. See also Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.CHAPTER 2.display Display value R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char Convert to string s = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. Ray3D. [x.

less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.0) 1 for a circle. horizontal coordinate centroid.b. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.c. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.

boundary Boundary in polar form [d. imoments RegionFeature. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.uc will be a list not a vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iblobs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. ymax].char Convert to string s = R.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. one per element. ymin. For example R. RegionFeature.xmax.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. RegionFeature.th] = R.CHAPTER 2.box Return bounding box b = R. RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.char RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.plot Plot centroid R.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. RegionFeature.and xmarkers.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R. R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box Plot bounding box R. RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ScalePointFeature.plot scale(options. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. 0=transparent (default 0. F.CHAPTER 2. 1=opaque. C ‘alpha’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also PointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.

8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. Options ‘radius’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. options) is a new tracker object. N ‘thresh’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence.CHAPTER 2. R ‘nslots’. See also PointFeature Tracker. T ‘movie’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. C. one per active track.

Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tracker.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display Display value T.plot Show feature trajectories T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. See also Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char Tracker.

If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. and their characteristics is displayed. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable.CHAPTER 2.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera. Movie Video. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. G ‘scale’. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.

close() closes the connection to the camera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char Convert to string V. Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source V.

and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. the ﬁrst for left. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. right. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters.CHAPTER 2. If th1 is a column vector. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. right. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. color. the second for right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. a = anaglyph(left. By default the left image is red. if negative it is reduced. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the right image is cyan.

If lambda is a column vector. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y2]. Endpoints must be integer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. p = bresenham(p1.y1) to (x2. y1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. See also RegionFeature. p2) as above but p1=[x1. % emission of sun plot(l. 6500). Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. [x.s] = boundmatch(R1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.y2). T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y1] and p2=[x2.CHAPTER 2. x2. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.boundary. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.

E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].CHAPTER 2. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. [C.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.

N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. R. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. green and blue primaries respectively. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). [k. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.CHAPTER 2. that is. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = closest(a. x = circle(C. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). and x is N × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red.d1] = closest(a. R. Options ‘n’.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I).

the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.16).) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). while Table I(5. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. The data are referred to as pilot data.d1. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. they were measured directly.ucl.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 335 of Table 1(5.CHAPTER 2. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.5.5.32).ioo.ac. As noted in footnote a on p. since. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. 19000 (526.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. • From Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5.5. (Table 1(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). and 22500 (444. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.d2] = closest(a.

im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.uk See also cmfrgb. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].M). imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ucl.ioo. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.CHAPTER 2. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.g] to every pixel in the color image im.

out = colorize(im.CHAPTER 2. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. k. func.B). A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.C] = colorkmeans(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. See also imono. im<100. @isnan. icolor. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. mask. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. eg. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.G. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. [L.

• The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. XYZ = colorname(name.R] = colorkmeans(im. eg.CHAPTER 2. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.C. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . name = colorname(XYZ. low is good. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. k) as above but also returns the residual R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. L = colorkmeans(im.

double data is the natural choice. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. s = ‘dest<-src’.o2. [o1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.CHAPTER 2. Input and output images have 3 planes. As MATLAB’s native datatype. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. colorspace(s.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. or alternatively. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.txt. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. i1. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. it can be omitted.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.o3] = colorspace(s. s = ‘src->dest’. • Color space names are case insensitive.i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.

distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.B). Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. for memory and computational performance.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).100). out will also have size M × 3. B = rand(400. d = distance(A. like a colormap.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I. Example A = rand(400.200). However.2*A.CHAPTER 2.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. • If im is an M × 3 array. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.

2 and Solaris Matlab v5. non zero is counter-clockwise. seed. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.uva. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. in matrix coordinate frame. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.y).3. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. The result E is a matrix.CHAPTER 2. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Tested: PC Matlab v5. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. tel.(+31)20-5257524. bunschot@wins. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.j). not image frame. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. non-zero is an object. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. E = edgelist(im. University of Amsterdam.

epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i).R. epiline(f. Author Based on fmatrix code by. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). p. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. I. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. See also fmatrix. p1. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. p. 1998. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p.CHAPTER 2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. one per line drawn. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. H = epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Coimbra. Oct 27.S. See also epiline.

• Contains a RANSAC driver.edu. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. c. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. homography. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . no outlier rejection is performed.uwa. • f is a rank 2 matrix. See also ransac. epiline. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. it is singular. which means it can be passed to ransac(). The University of Western Australia. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1).CHAPTER 2. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. page 270. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.au/. p2.csse. that is. that is. Notes • The points must be corresponding. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma.

x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also imorph. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ithin. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). itriplepoint.y2).y1) and (x2. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. y1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.

http://www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.uwa. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Notes • The points must be corresponding. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ransac. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.edu. The University of Western Australia. which means it can be passed to ransac().csse. no outlier rejection is performed.CHAPTER 2. invhomog. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.

offs] = homwarp(H. S ‘dimension’. R ‘scale’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. im. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. See also homography. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘roi’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. that is tp=T*T1. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. itrim. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. See also e2h. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. S output image contains all the warped pixels. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. im. ie. D ‘size’.CHAPTER 2. [out. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H.

Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. ’nfeat’. 200). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 179-187. ianimate(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. on Information Theory. Hu. 1962. ’gs’). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. features. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features. ianimate(seq. IRE Trans.CHAPTER 2. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). IT-8:pp. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid.

isurf.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. N ‘only’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iblobs features f = iblobs(im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. iharris. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. YMIN YMAX]. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. M ‘npoints’.

0) 1 for a circle. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.CHAPTER 2. [S1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.0 ‘connect’. C set connectivity. ilabel. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. A set pixel aspect ratio. horizontal coordinate centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [A1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate bounding box.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. default 1.

See also iopen. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. S ‘th0’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. Tel Aviv University. out = iclose(im. See also isobel. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1996-7. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. T ‘th1’.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. se.

Options ‘dir’. C = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. See also imono. [C. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The images do not have to be of the same size. [0 1 1]).options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). iconcat(im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. D ‘bgval’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ).u] = iconcat(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. colorize. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.CHAPTER 2.

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. options) convolves im1 with im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2.CHAPTER 2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.

specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘k’. E ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. S ‘deriv’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CT ‘edgegap’. N ‘detector’. R ‘nfeat’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. D ‘sigma’. K ‘patch’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default).

001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. pp.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. J. Image and Vision Computing. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. May 1988. • “Good features to track”. with a delay of 0..5 [sec]. p2. Options ‘dplot’. pp 147-151.Noble. Proc. J. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. See also PointFeature. Stephens. C. Shi and C. [T. • “Finding corners”. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.CHAPTER 2. Harris and M. 1988. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.121-128. 593-593. Manchester. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .J. T ‘distthresh’. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. T ‘maxiter’.G.d] = icp(p1.6. with a delay of d [sec]. IEEE Computer Society. Tomasi. Proc. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. N ‘mindelta’. pp. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. p2. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. where * denotes squared and smoothed. vol. 1994. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.

Mach. 239-256. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. s = idecimate(im. m. no. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . IEEETrans. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. each plane is decimated. See also iscale. s = idecimate(im.or 3-dimensional. 2. 14. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. 1992.Besl and H. P.. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Pattern Anal. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. pp. Feb. vol.McKay. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Intell. m.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. zero is white color map: random values. C ‘xydata’. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes.CHAPTER 2. zero is white. darker than ‘grey’. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. If the image is zoomed. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. linear proﬁle. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black. negative is red. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. XY ‘colormap’. If im is a cell array of images. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. positive is blue. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. positive is blue. Options ‘ncolors’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points.and y-axes respectively. negative is red. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). histogram and zooming. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top.

icolorize. labelimage. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. See also iblobs.CHAPTER 2. idisplabel(im. colormap. See also image. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. caxis. labels. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labelimage. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1.

ithin. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. out = igamma(im. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. See also itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.45.2. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.CHAPTER 2.

100.CHAPTER 2. k. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. [l. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.m] = igraphseg(im. Felzenszwalb and D. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”.5). k. See also ithresh. min. pp. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 59.5). P. Int. k is the scale parameter. 2004. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 1500. 0. Sept. 2006.m] = igraphseg(im. 167181. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. Example im = iread(’58060. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.jpg’). vol. L = igraphseg(im. Huttenlocher. min is the minimum region size (pixels). min. [L. k. Journal on Computer Vision.

options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. ’normcdf’).h). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.x] = ihist(im. bar(x.x] = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im).CHAPTER 2. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot(x. [H. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. H = ihist(im. options) displays the image histogram. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. [h.h). Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.

y1) and bottom-right (x2. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. [L. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. same size as im. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.m. ii is a precomputed integral image. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.y2). x1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . y1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. [L. y2.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.

• The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.maxlabel. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. p2. each a 2-vector [X. iproﬁle. [L. • This is a “low level” function.maxlabel.CHAPTER 2. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. out = iline(im.Y].parents. The pixels on the line are set to 1. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. otherwise it does not.parents. ilabel(im. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. 8). p1. p1.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. eg.class. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iblobs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.

xmax. • ZNCC matching is used. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.DY) are the x. ymin. [xm. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. -s. H. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. and columns the vertical position.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y) and of size s. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. y. y. • Is a MEX ﬁle. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.CC] where (DX. x. im2. a perfect match score is 1. s. The return value is xm=[DX.y). w2. im2. x. ymax] relative to (x.y). The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.y) and its half-width is H. centred at (x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. s] % relative to (x.score] = imatch(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). • im1 and im2 must be the same size.and y-offsets relative to (x.CHAPTER 2. The template in im1 is centred at (x.DY. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.

f = imoments(u.v] = imeshgrid(w. [u. effectively a binary image. f = imoments(u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The element u(v. v. [u.u) = v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.CHAPTER 2. effectively a greyscale image. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.u) = u and v(v. H) as above but the domain is w × H.

m01. m11. m10. ilabel. m20. • This function does not perform connectivity. Different conversion functions are supported.CHAPTER 2. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. icolor. m02. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. See also RegionFeature. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the elements are m00. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. or its area. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im.

idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. vol. options) as above but m is the number of regions found.m] = imser(im. Matas. Image and Vision Computing. ’grey’.m] = imser(im. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. J. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 2004. ’light’). imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. The labels [L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Chum. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. Pajdla. Urban. O. m.org). ’double’).CHAPTER 2. pp. 22. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Sept. 761767.png’. and T. [label.

CHAPTER 2. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.ˆ2). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. This is an erosion followed by dilation.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. out = iopen(im. sides. n. se. See also iclose.

im2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 10. im1. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ’t’. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .V]. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. ’tblr’. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero.CHAPTER 2. otherwise im2 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. 20. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer.

Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also bresenham. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.CHAPTER 2. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).uv] = iproﬁle(im. p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. [p. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.

edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. im > irank(im. The highest rank. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. See also iscalespace. ones(5. 1. 12. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. sigma. se). out = ipyramid(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions.2) = 0. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. se. out = imorph(image. idecimate. is order=1. se(2. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. order. nbins. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. op. out = imorph(image.5)). Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. the maximum. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. op. out = ipyramid(im.3).

convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. R ‘roi’. where R=[umin umax. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. G ‘reduce’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ivar. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. See also imorph. im = iread(ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. vmin vmax]. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names.

CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. igamma. imwrite. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h2] = irectify(f. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. im1. [out1. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. imono. homwarp.CHAPTER 2. m. istereo. m. Notes • Color images are not supported. im1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.h1.out2. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.out2] = irectify(f.

vmax]. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. See also idisp.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘outsize’.vmin vmax]. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. vmin. S ‘extrapval’. [out.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.H] return central part of image.umax. V ‘smooth’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angle.

CHAPTER 2.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. V ‘smooth’. im2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. out = isamesize(im1. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. bias<0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. while bias>0. Options ‘outsize’. s>1 makes the image larger. s ‘extrapval’.5 is symmetric cropping. bias=0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s<1 makes it smaller. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W.

s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. See also iscalespace. idecimate. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.CHAPTER 2.s] = iscalespace(im. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.L. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . [g. n) as above but sigma=1.L. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. corresponding to each step of the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. n. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in space and scale. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.s] = iscalespace(im.

it its third dimension is equal to three. ilaplace. ‘valid’) as above. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog(T. See also isrot. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image.CHAPTER 2. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. else false (0). ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. that is. ismooth. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.

Lowe. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. pp. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. International Journal of Computer Vision. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘suppress’. See also SiftPointFeature. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. Reference David G. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 2 (2004).CHAPTER 2. 60. isurf. • Features are returned in descending strength order.vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 91-110. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.

@zsad. See also imatch.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. @ncc.H.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. @zssd. s = isimilarity(T. ssd. zssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. sad. [w. zsad. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. [w. s is same size as im. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. @ssd. im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. ncc. and these output pixels are set to NaN.

This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. See also iconv. sigma. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. convolved.gy] = isobel(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. [gx. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. [gx.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. then converted back to integer. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.

[d. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. imr. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. See also ksobel. That is. ‘valid’) as above. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.sim] = istereo(iml. isrot(R.M] for an N × M window. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. H. range. See also ishomog. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range. else false (0). or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.u) means that imr(v. H is the half size of the matching window.u). the disparity d=d(v.CHAPTER 2. range is the disparity search range. w. icanny.

Options ‘metric’.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. dx. • sim = max(dsi. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.A and p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. [d.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. imr. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. 3) See also irectify. range.p] = istereo(iml.5). w.sim. p. B. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). ‘ncc’. range.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.dsi] = istereo(iml. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.CHAPTER 2. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.sim. p. That is. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). imr. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. [d. out = istretch(im. w.5 to +0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.

The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. N ‘thresh’. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. Kroon (U. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature.CHAPTER 2. or sequences. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. T ‘octaves’. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Color images. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.

isvec(v. See also ishomog. 110.or columnvector. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Luc Van Gool. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Otherwise false (0).delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Tinne Tuytelaars. out = ithin(im. either a row. isift. 346–359. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. No. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. else false (0).CHAPTER 2. Andreas Ess. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). See also hitormiss. pp. itriplepoint. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Vol. 3.

The same cropping is applied to each input image.out2] = itrim(im1. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.out2] = itrim(im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.5. The default is 0. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.CHAPTER 2. [out1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. See also homwarp.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. ithresh(im. Notes • Greyscale image only. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. a lower value will include more. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.im2.

edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. See also iendpoint. se.CHAPTER 2. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. op. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. ithin. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im.

func. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. @std). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im.CHAPTER 2. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. ones(5. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ones(3. @max). edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im.5).3). out = iwindow(image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. See also ivar. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.

See also ones. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. ktriangle. klog. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. dG/dy. See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. k = kcircle(R. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. k = kdgauss(sigma. kdog. • The vertical derivative. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dx. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . is k’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . sigma2.CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. kdog. klog.6*sigma1. k = kdog(sigma1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kgauss(sigma. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also kdgauss. By default SIGMA2 = 1. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. klog. kdgauss. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma.

and W=2 × H+1. iconv. See also kgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.CHAPTER 2. See also ilaplace. k = klog(sigma. kdgauss. kdog. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. [L. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). it is assumed to have been completed previously. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. and D is the dimension. Pattern Recognition Principles. k.C] = kmeans(x. L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. k. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Reference Tou and Gonzalez.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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See also cylinder. s. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors.z] = mkcube(s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). C ‘T’.CHAPTER 2. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. symmetric about the origin. The points are the columns of p. ‘edge’.y. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).z] = mkcube(s. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. [x. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. Options ‘T’. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.

the sum of I(x. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. y. n.2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. MPLOT(t. n) MPLOT(t.y). n) MPLOT(y. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. npq. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. See also mpq poly. y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y) MPLOT(t. p.2)). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.yq .CHAPTER 2. or y(:. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .xp . or y(:. That is. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.

so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. upq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). npq poly. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered to be a single vertex. p. See also mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v.

ssd.m. 20). isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. k. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. See also zncc. for example. in text segmentation.CHAPTER 2. Prentice-Hall. the height of a character. idisp(im >= t). sad. where W=2*w2+1.2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. k. • A common choice of k=-0.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. -0. 1986. niblack. Example t = niblack(im. [T. W. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.s] = niblack(im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. T has the same dimensions as im.

Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. p.q)/MPQ(im.CHAPTER 2. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.0). ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. That is UPQ(im. See also npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.0. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. mpq.

so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered as a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. upq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. See also mpq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2.

T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Systems. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y.i] = peak(y.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. idisp(im >= t). Example t = otsu(im). x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.xp] = peak(y. otsu IEEE Trans. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Jan 1979. [yp. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. N. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. x. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. pp 62-66 See also niblack.

N ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. use peak(-V). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. use peak2(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. S ‘interp’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. [zp.ij] = peak2(z.S points. Typically choose N to be odd.S points. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.

plot2(p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ie. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. See also pnmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.CHAPTER 2. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p has three dimensions. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.

plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. PLOT BOX(x1. ‘size’. or a set of name. 5). YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’b’). Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. P. PLOT BOX(’topleft’.CHAPTER 2. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. 1=solid. r. ’r’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. Examples plot_circle(c. W.y2. ’edgecolor’. ’g’. r.y1) and (x2. ‘r’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. value pairs that are passed to plot. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. plot_circle(c. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. PLOT BOX(’centre’.y1.y2). x2. P. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ’LineWidth’. ’fillcolor’. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. W. plot_circle(c. R. r. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘size’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.

options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. If C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) ls is the standard line styles.Y]. current plot. Options ‘color’. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. xc.Y. with Matlab line style ls. C. centred at the origin. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. c Specify color of the axes.CHAPTER 2.

The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ’r’). options) adds point markers to a plot. ‘framename’.CHAPTER 2. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L.X = 0. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. fmt. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. Options ‘textcolor’. ‘printf’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’color’. ’name’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. trplot( T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. n ‘text opts’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. to ‘view’. ’color’. ’r’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set.

H = PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added.CHAPTER 2. 1=solid. color. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. patch. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. either a letter or 3-vector. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also plot. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. The default is 1. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. R. R. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p can be N × 2 or N × 3. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. plotp(p. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. See also pgmﬁlt. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also plot.

or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.gt] = radgrad(im.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr.

x typically contains corresponding point data. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.resid] = ransac(func.in. Options ‘maxTrials’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘maxDataTrials’. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. d) as above but elements increment by d. x. T. one column per point pair. [m. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func.in] = ransac(func. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. T. T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. x. [m.

misc element.out.theta = DECONDITION(R.out.CHAPTER 2.theta = [].x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.x and returns the best model out.R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.C. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. [out. [out.theta and the subset of R. pp 101-113.x data to work on.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.. Fishler and R.theta. pp 381-395.x.A.s sample size (1 × 1) out. Cambridge University Press. Mach. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. No 6.t threshold (1 × 1) R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.theta to the points R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Boles. Comp. Comm.misc private data (cell array) out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. Assoc.x) condition the point data out.x = CONDITION(R. Vol 24.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. References • m.theta is a cell array. that is. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. that is they will produce a model.inlier. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. they detect a structure argument.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. If multiple models are found out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.s out.theta.resid] = EST(R.x.theta] = ERR(R.

If lambda is a vector.edu. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.au/ pk See also fmatrix. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.uwa. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.csse.CHAPTER 2.

roty.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. rotz. See also roty. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rotx. rotz.

If roll. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2. Y. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. yaw. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Z axes respectively. pitch. pitch. See also tr2rpy. T = rpy2tr(roll. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. • many texts (Paul. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll.

y. ncc.y. theta) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.CHAPTER 2. See also zsad. and rotation theta in the plane. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2t.

CHAPTER 2. Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. sad. ncc. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. See also zsdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

boolean or enumeration types (string or int). rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout.CHAPTER 2. b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. then R is 2 × 2. ’that’. – If T is 3 × 3. c. opt. varargin) opt.choose = {’this’. ’other’}.foo = true. The software pattern is: function(a.blah = []. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt. It supports options that have an assigned value. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. tr2rt. then R is 3 × 3. opt.bar = false.

By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. If neither of ‘this’.1. 3 sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. args) creates a test pattern image.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.3 ‘blah’. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.debug <. x.blah <.x.select = {’#no’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.choose <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.y ‘that’ sets opt.blah <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. ’#yes’}.foo <. opt = tb_optparse(opt.select <.verbose <.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).N sets opt <. varargin).‘this’.choose <.y sets opt. w.false ‘blah’. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. varargin).foo <.true sets opt.select <.CHAPTER 2. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. N ‘setopt’.

args are pitch (distance between centres). a line. 50. 256. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. square side length. 25). sf. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s.sd. dot diameter. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args are dot pitch (distance between centres).CHAPTER 2. args is the number of cycles. intercept. The trajectory s. binary dot pattern. sf. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. 2). args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles. args are theta (rad). [s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . binary square pattern. 256.sd. sd and sdd are n-vectors.

The 3 angles rpy=[R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. [theta. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Y and Z axes respectively. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.P. Y.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. See also angvec2r.

T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. y.z]. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. See also rpy2tr. See also rt2tr. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.y. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. If T has three dimensions.:. – If TR is 3 × 3.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. ie. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.CHAPTER 2. • The validity of R is not checked. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2t.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.

Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). [c1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. or x and y. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. An historical anomaly.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). [o1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. each N × 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

troty.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.

options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. f ‘label’. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trprint T is the command line form of above. and displays in RPY format.

upq Central image moments m = upq(im. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the sum of I(x.(x-x0)p . tr2rpy. That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.CHAPTER 2.y). Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. p. See also upq poly. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.y0) is the centroid.(y-y0)q where (x0. mpq.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. See also sad.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd.

Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also sdd. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.CHAPTER 2. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.

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