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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. is open-source. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. However the book “Robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This is extravagant on storage. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. and I commend it to you.

. . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . .6. 1. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . iint . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . roty . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . numcols . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

tutors. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.com. That’s what you your teachers. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen.google. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. You need to signup in order to post. lecturers and professors are paid to do.

The details are @article{Corke05f. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.html on a server for class use. type of organization and application. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .petercorke.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.gz) or zip format (. 1.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. The ﬁle robot. 1. Month = nov. Corke}. 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. and the “See also” functions to each other. the table of content to functions. Year = {2005}. Number = {4}. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.zip). A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Volume = {12}. 1.1. Author = {P.I.3.

and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. Corke.6. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.7 Acknowledgements Last. 1994 University of British Columbia. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Twente. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.vlfeat.7. VLFeat http://www. P.mathworks.1. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. Vincent Lepetit. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .I. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. 12(4). 1. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. MSER.. pp 16–25. and there are hundreds of modules available. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. 1. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. November 2005.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. but not least. Coimbra.Functions such as SURF.R. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.S.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

• The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. S ‘centre’. Options ‘name’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’. T ‘color’.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’. P ‘pixel’. N ‘image’. used by all subclasses. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. Camera. IM ‘resolution’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.char Convert to string s = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value C. CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. SphericalCamera Camera.CHAPTER 2. Camera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.centre Get camera position p = C.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera.

C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. and off if H is false (or 0).u + b. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. Camera.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).v + c = 0.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.char Camera.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. See also Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. otherwise false (0).ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.

sphere. z to the image plane and plots them.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. uv = C.CHAPTER 2.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. mkcube. Camera.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). T ‘Tcam’. Camera. See also mesh. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. y. Camera.plot.hold. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. The matrices x. z.plot Plot points on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.clf Camera.mesh(x. y. Camera.T.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Options ‘Tobj’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. cylinder.plot(p. y.

T ‘scale’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. T See also Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Camera.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. Camera.clf Camera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. ‘Tobj’. ‘fps’.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.hold. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.CHAPTER 2.T.mesh. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘Tcam’. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. p. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.rpy Set camera attitude C. a subclass of Camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy(R.y].p.CHAPTER 2. The image is not inverted. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C Camera matrix C = C.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

“An invitation to 3D”. T ‘color’. SIGMA ‘pose’.Soatto. f=8mm. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). N ‘focal’. F ‘distortion’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Kosecka. D ‘default’ ‘image’. 2003.CHAPTER 2.and y-axes respectively.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. S ‘centre’.8]) See also Camera.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P ‘pixel’. S. camera at origin. Springer. E = C.177 See also CentralCamera. N ‘sensor’. E = C. CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. S.F. CatadioptricCamera. Reference Y. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.Sastry.E Essential matrix E = C. S ‘noise’. J. ﬁsheyecamera. IM ‘resolution’. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. 10um pixels.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. u.and v-axes parallel to x.Ma. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. optical axis is z-axis.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Springer.Soatto.H CentralCamera. 2003.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.H(T. “An invitation to 3D”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. See also CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.Sastry.F Fundamental matrix F = C.177 See also CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.Ma. F = C.E CentralCamera.Kosecka. Reference Y. p.H Homography matrix H = C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. S.CHAPTER 2.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. S. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. J. from two viewpoints. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).

81. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Feb.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. CentralCamera. See also quiver CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision. V. F. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Moreno-Noguer.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 155-166.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Fua.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Lepetit. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. and P.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. 2009.CHAPTER 2. a = C. Int. pp. vol.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. CentralCamera.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).estpose(xyz.

invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). 2003. translation not to scale • n.Sastry.CHAPTER 2.Kosecka. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. Springer.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ma.invE(E. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. p116. “Multiview Geometry”. Reference Y. See also CentralCamera.Kosecka. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.Sastry. p.Soatto. section 5. “An invitation to 3D”. 2003. s.Ma. Springer. 259 Y. “An invitation to 3D”.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Soatto. s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. J. s. Chap 9.E CentralCamera. J. s. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.

Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. p.H CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera. C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.project(p.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. See also Hough CentralCamera. H = C.T. one per line.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.CHAPTER 2. ‘Tcam’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot epiline(f. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.

Reference Hartley & Zisserman.b. and P. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. See also Camera.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. “Multiview Geometry”. Chaumette. 313-326.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Reference B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. pp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.visjac e(E.c.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Rives. 8. F. June 1992. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. vol.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. Espiau.plot CentralCamera.

Hutchinson. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Espiau. Chaumette. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. R&A. 1996. Hager & Corke. pp. Rives. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.visjac l(L. F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. 313-326.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.c.visjac p(uv. vol. IEEE Trans. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Oct.visjac p. Vol 12(5). “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. pp 651-670.visjac e CentralCamera. June 1992.visjac p polar.visjac l CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.b.visjac p. 8. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. and P. Reference B.

and F. Oct. CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. radius and theta. Corke.visjac p polar(rt. pp.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac e CentralCamera. F. Louis).CHAPTER 2.visjac l. Int. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. P. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. (St. I.visjac p. Chaumette. in Proc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. CentralCamera. 2009. Spindler. 5962-5967.visjac p polar.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.91-110. 2004. Int.SIFT. Journal on Computer Vision. See also isift. vol. ScalePointFeature.60. PointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. D. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nov. See README.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. pp. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.Lowe. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.CHAPTER 2.

Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. See also isift SiftPointFeature.match Match SIFT point features m = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 1=opaque.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘alpha’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 0=transparent (default 0.match(f2. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. F.

w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. [out. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.T] = F.support(images.CHAPTER 2. out = F.support(im.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F. F.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

T. ﬁsheyecamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. CentralCamera.project(p.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘name’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). See also SphericalCamera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. Options ‘Tobj’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. S ‘pose’. N ‘pixel’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.CHAPTER 2. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

camera pose.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.5) target center . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. Jacobian condition number.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .01) . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .center of the target in world coords (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The camera view. The camera view. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.gain. The external view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .the side length of the target in world units (0.depth of points to use for Jacobian. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.0. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. defaults in parentheses: target size . error norm. error. image plane size and desired feature locations. of 4-vector.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.

Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. of 4-vector.depth of points to use for Jacobian.visjac p polar.center of the target in world coords (0.visjac l.0. defaults in parentheses: target size . IEEE Int. camera pose. The external view.the side length of the target in world units (0.visjac p(pt.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . I. Conf.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . 5550-5555. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .gain. in Proc. for all points. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. CentralCamera.01) .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations. pp. error. Robotics and Automation. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).5) target center . error norm.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. May 3-7 2010. Jacobian condition number. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. See also CentralCamera. (Anchorage). P.

346–359. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Tinne Tuytelaars. Vol. Andreas Ess. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). pp. 3. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Luc Van Gool.CHAPTER 2. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 110.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. No. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.

Options ‘thresh’. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. [m. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to [].match(f2.CHAPTER 2.C] = F. v. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match(f2.match Match SURF point features m = F. f = PointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.

C ‘alpha’. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the support region is displayed. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. out = F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. [out.support(im.support(images.2) SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot scale(options. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. F.T] = F. 1=opaque.support(im. F.support Support region of feature out = F. 0=transparent (default 0.

Video AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. G ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2.axis.axis.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.com) web camera. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.

See also AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.char Convert to string A. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera.close Close the image source A.display AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. Oct.CHAPTER 2.Sivic and A. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. Ninth IEEE Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.Zisserman.org). on Computer Vision. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. pp. f can also be a cell array. 2003. in Proc.1470-1477. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. b = BagOfWords(f. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Conf.

BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. isurf BagOfWords. images.contains Find images containing word k = B.char Convert to string s = B.exemplars(w.exemplars display exemplars of words B. BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.display Display value B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.char BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.

BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’. M ‘width’. BagOfWords.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.CHAPTER 2. N ‘maxperimage’.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. BagOfWords. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.n] = B. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B.remove stop Remove stop words B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.

wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Camera CatadioptricCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ﬁsheyecamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. A ‘resolution’. 10um pixels. SIGMA ‘pose’. camera at origin. N ‘sensor’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. N ‘focal’.and v-axes parallel to x. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. ‘sine’.T. CatadioptricCamera.project(p. K ‘maxangle’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. u. ‘equisolid’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. f=8mm. M ‘k’. S ‘centre’. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. See also Camera. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.and y-axes respectively. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. S ‘noise’. T ‘Tcam’.

Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. such as ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. f2. See also PointFeature. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M.display Display value M.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element.

inlier Inlier features m2 = M.v1. FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier.u2.v2]. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.outlier.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.CHAPTER 2.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

p1.p FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p FeatureMatch.p2.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. for example by: idisp({im1. These are the (u.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also FeatureMatch.plot() M.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot Show corresponding points M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. These are the (u.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1.im2}) m. See also FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.

m = f1.ransac(func. Example f1 = isurf(im1). and an error is created if this UserData is not found.CHAPTER 2.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. 1e-4). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.ransac Apply RANSAC M. See also fmatrix.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. homography.match(f2). inliers and outliers (and their percentages). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. See also idisp FeatureMatch. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. ransac FeatureMatch. m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ransac( @fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. f2 = isurf(im2).

FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. that is. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Y This camera model assumes central projection.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. The image is not inverted.CHAPTER 2.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.

f=8mm.and y. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. ‘sine’.CHAPTER 2. 10um pixels. N ‘sensor’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘equisolid’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘name’.and v-axes are parallel to x. SIGMA ‘pose’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. M ‘k’. u. S ‘centre’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. K ‘resolution’. camera at origin.axes respectively. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). optical axis is z-axis. P ‘pixel’. S ‘noise’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object.

For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.T. See also FishEyeCamera. T ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project(p. CatadioptricCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera.

options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. See also LineFeature Hough. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A horizontal line has theta = 0. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. The voting array is 2-dimensional. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.H).Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line.CHAPTER 2.

T ‘suppress’.5) Set ht. T ‘edgethresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.CHAPTER 2. N All edge pixels have equal weight.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edgeThresh (default 0.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.display Display value HT. W ‘nbins’. Set ht. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Nrho]. else N = [Ntheta.houghThresh (default 0.edgeThresh. Hough.1).char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘houghthresh’.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Default 400 × 401. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also Hough. Hough.

suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. L = HT.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot line features HT. LineFeature Hough. The highest peak is found. reﬁned to subpixel precision. HT.plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. The process is repeated for all peaks.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.plot(n. See also Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.CHAPTER 2. HT. then all elements in an HT.lines Find lines L = HT.lines Hough.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. H = HT.

CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.char Convert to string s = L. LENGTH is undeﬁned. LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. strength. See also LineFeature. theta. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value L. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . theta. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. L = LineFeature(rho.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. one per element.

plot() overlay the line on current plot. l2 = L. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. See also icanny LineFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. l2 = L.CHAPTER 2. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).plot Plot line L.seglength(edge. less than gap pixels are tolerated. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line. LineFeature. Small gaps. L.points Return points on line segments p = L.

S ‘skip’.com).char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.axis.char Convert to string M.close() closes the connection to the movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source M. Movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. G ‘scale’.

CHAPTER 2. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. planar. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph create an n-d. F Skip frames. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. Options ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.goal(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.plot() g.neighbours(v) g.connectivity() g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.edges(e) g.component(v) g.add node(coord.coord(v) g.clear() add vertex. Object properties (read/write) g.add node(coord) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.CHAPTER 2. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.add edge(v1. v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.cost(e) g. v2) g.next(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex.distance(v1.

add edge(v1.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. PGraph. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v2. v. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. and returns the edge id E. PGraph.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.CHAPTER 2. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. v = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge(v1.add node(x. and returns the node id v. Options ‘distance’. where x is D × 1. E = G. v = G.add node(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.

clear Clear the graph G. PGraph.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.d] = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord Coordinate of node x = G.CHAPTER 2. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . edges and components.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. D × 1.char Convert graph to string s = G. [v. of node id v. and the distance d. PGraph.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.closest Find closest node v = G. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.char Convert to string s = F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value F.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. one per element. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. f = PointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

match Match point features m = F.CHAPTER 2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance.match(f2. PointFeature. where 1 is perfect match.match(f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. [m.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.char PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = F.

one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. F.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot feature F. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). Polygon .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.

edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.char String representation s = P. http://puddle.edu. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Polygon. intersection. difference. one column per vertex. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .area Area of polygon a = P.html and require a licence.mit. Polygon. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Pankratov.area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon. p = Polygon(C. so use with care.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. union.mit. kirill@plume.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. HEIGHT].CHAPTER 2. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. Polygon.

Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.char Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Polygon. returns coordinates of P.display Display polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.difference Difference of polygons d = P. See also Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. else 0.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.

y1 y2].intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.CHAPTER 2.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. each column is [x y]’. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns empty polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. Polygon.moments(p.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon.

union Union of polygons i = P. Polygon. P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.plot() plot the polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.plot Plot polygon P.

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = R. one per element.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.CHAPTER 2.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.char Ray3D.display Display value R. See also Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.E] = R. Ray3D. [x.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. [x.char Convert to string s = R. Ray3D.

Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.b. vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.c. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle.

box Return bounding box b = R.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. one per element. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. ymax].box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. RegionFeature. imoments RegionFeature. RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.th] = R. See also iblobs.char Convert to string s = R.xmax. ymin. For example R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.CHAPTER 2.uc will be a list not a vector.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.

It is indicated with overlaid o. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary plot boundary R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.and xmarkers.char RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.CHAPTER 2. R. R. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.display Display value R. See also RegionFeature. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. R.plot box Plot bounding box R. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. F. strength. v. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’. ScalePointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.plot scale(options. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. 0=transparent (default 0. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. 1=opaque. v.

C. one per active track. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Options ‘radius’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. See also PointFeature Tracker.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. T ‘movie’. R ‘nslots’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.CHAPTER 2. N ‘thresh’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. options) is a new tracker object. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.

char Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.plot Show feature trajectories T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value T. Tracker.CHAPTER 2. See also Tracker. Tracker.

Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.CHAPTER 2. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. and their characteristics is displayed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. Movie Video.

char Convert to string V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Video.close Close the image source V.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the camera.grab() acquires an image from the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.

The result is in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and the right image is cyan. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. right. the second for right. By default the left image is red. right. the ﬁrst for left. a = anaglyph(left. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors.CHAPTER 2. color. if negative it is reduced. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased. If th1 is a column vector. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1.

[x. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. p2) as above but p1=[x1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. Endpoints must be integer. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. x2. If lambda is a column vector. % emission of sun plot(l. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda.s] = boundmatch(R1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y1] and p2=[x2. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. See also RegionFeature.y2]. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. 6500). p = bresenham(p1.CHAPTER 2.boundary.y1) to (x2. y1.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.Y.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. [C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.CHAPTER 2.

green and blue primaries respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. x = circle(C. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that is. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. and x is N × 3. R.d1] = closest(a. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. k = closest(a. Options ‘n’. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. [k.CHAPTER 2.

19000 (526.d1. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). they were measured directly.ioo. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). As noted in footnote a on p.16). b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.d2] = closest(a. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.5.ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. The data are referred to as pilot data. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.32). • From Table I(5. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. 335 of Table 1(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).ac. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.5. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. while Table I(5. (Table 1(5.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.5.5. and 22500 (444. since.

uk See also cmfrgb. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = col2im(pix. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.CHAPTER 2. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ac. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.M).ucl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize.

colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.g] to every pixel in the color image im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences.CHAPTER 2. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.

G.CHAPTER 2. See also imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. [L. icolor. func. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im<100. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. eg. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im.B). Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. out = colorize(im. k. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. @isnan. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. mask. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. @isnan.C] = colorkmeans(im.

C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.CHAPTER 2. low is good. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.R] = colorkmeans(im.C. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. eg. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. k) as above but also returns the residual R. XYZ = colorname(name. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. name = colorname(XYZ. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. L = colorkmeans(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. [o1. double data is the natural choice. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. s = ‘dest<-src’. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. it can be omitted. i1. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Color space names are case insensitive. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . As MATLAB’s native datatype. colorspace(s.i2. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. or alternatively. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.o2.o3] = colorspace(s.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. s = ‘src->dest’. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.CHAPTER 2. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.txt.

100). colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.200). out will also have size M × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.2*A.B). like a colormap. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.CHAPTER 2. • If im is an M × 3 array. for memory and computational performance. B = rand(400. d = distance(A. Example A = rand(400. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . However.

each row is one edge point coordinate (x.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.3. in matrix coordinate frame. seed. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. non zero is counter-clockwise. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. E = edgelist(im. not image frame. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. The result E is a matrix.y).2 and Solaris Matlab v5. tel. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im.j). non-zero is an object. University of Amsterdam.(+31)20-5257524. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Tested: PC Matlab v5. bunschot@wins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.uva. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background.

p. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. Coimbra. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f.S. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Oct 27. I. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. p.R. Author Based on fmatrix code by. See also fmatrix. epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p1.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. H = epiline(f. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. See also epiline. 1998. one per line drawn. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).

that is. The University of Western Australia. • Contains a RANSAC driver.CHAPTER 2. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel.uwa. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. See also ransac. it is singular. http://www. which means it can be passed to ransac(). homography. • f is a rank 2 matrix. epiline. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k is (2W+1) x (2W+1).edu. p2. page 270. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. c. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. that is. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi.csse. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.au/. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. no outlier rejection is performed. Notes • The points must be corresponding.

iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. itriplepoint. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. x2. y1.y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. ithin.CHAPTER 2. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.y2). See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imorph.

csse. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.au/. See also ransac. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. no outlier rejection is performed.edu. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. invhomog. Notes • The points must be corresponding.CHAPTER 2. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. which means it can be passed to ransac(). Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. http://www.uwa.

H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines.CHAPTER 2. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. that is tp=T*T1. See also homography. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. im.offs] = homwarp(H. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. S output image contains all the warped pixels. itrim. S ‘dimension’. [out. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. D ‘size’. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. ie. R ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. V ‘roi’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. See also e2h.

CHAPTER 2. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ianimate(seq. 1962. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. ianimate(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. ’nfeat’. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). IT-8:pp. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. on Information Theory. IRE Trans. features. ’gs’). See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 179-187. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. 200). features. Hu.

I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. YMIN YMAX]. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. N ‘only’. M ‘npoints’. iharris.CHAPTER 2. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. isurf. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ).

horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. ilabel. default 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.0 ‘connect’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate bounding box. [A1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. A set pixel aspect ratio. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.0) 1 for a circle. C set connectivity. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. [S1.CHAPTER 2.

se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0.CHAPTER 2. out = iclose(im. See also isobel. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. 1996-7. T ‘th1’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. See also iopen. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. This is an dilation followed by erosion. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Tel Aviv University. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. S ‘th0’.

Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.u] = iconcat(im.options) concatenates images from the cell array im.CHAPTER 2. colorize. Options ‘dir’. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). iconcat(im. [C. C = icolor(im. [0 1 1]). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. D ‘bgval’. See also imono. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The images do not have to be of the same size. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.

options) convolves im1 with im2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane.CHAPTER 2. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.

N ‘detector’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. K ‘patch’. E ‘suppress’. S ‘deriv’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. R ‘nfeat’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘k’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CM ‘cminthresh’.CHAPTER 2. D ‘sigma’. CT ‘edgegap’.

J. May 1988. p2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. where * denotes squared and smoothed. Image and Vision Computing. J. with a delay of 0. pp. T ‘maxiter’.121-128. J. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. pp. • “Finding corners”.6. C. 1994. Manchester. Harris and M. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. 593-593. • “Good features to track”. See also PointFeature. [T. Shi and C. N ‘mindelta’. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. T ‘distthresh’. Options ‘dplot’.G.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. with a delay of d [sec]. 1988.CHAPTER 2. Proc. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. pp 147-151. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Proc.5 [sec]. Tomasi. Stephens. vol. IEEE Computer Society.d] = icp(p1.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.. p2. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.Noble. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”.

Besl and H. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. each plane is decimated. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. no. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 14. P. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Feb. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. s = idecimate(im. See also iscale. Mach.or 3-dimensional. IEEETrans. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. 239-256. 1992. 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. pp. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”.McKay. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. Pattern Anal. Intell. m. vol. m.CHAPTER 2. s = idecimate(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. XY ‘colormap’. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. If im is a cell array of images. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top.CHAPTER 2. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. Options ‘ncolors’. negative is red. histogram and zooming. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. C ‘xydata’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. If the image is zoomed. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. negative is red. positive is blue. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally).and y-axes respectively. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. linear proﬁle. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. zero is black. positive is blue. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. darker than ‘grey’. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. zero is white. zero is white color map: random values. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view.

Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. icolorize. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labelimage. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. See also image. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. caxis. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. idisplabel(im. labels. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map.CHAPTER 2. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. colormap. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. See also iblobs.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. out = igamma(im. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). ithin.CHAPTER 2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.45. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. See also itriplepoint. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1.

k. Int. 2006. 59. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1500. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. Sept. vol. Example im = iread(’58060.5). [L. 0. Journal on Computer Vision.m] = igraphseg(im. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. k is the scale parameter. k. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. k. [l. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). pp.5).jpg’). and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. 2004. Felzenszwalb and D. 167181. Huttenlocher.m] = igraphseg(im. P. min.CHAPTER 2. min. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. L = igraphseg(im. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. 100. See also ithresh.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im. [H.x] = ihist(im. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.h). [h. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. plot(x. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.h). H = ihist(im. bar(x. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) displays the image histogram.

y2). [L. y1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. x1.y1) and bottom-right (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. [L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. same size as im.m. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. y2. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.CHAPTER 2. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. ii is a precomputed integral image. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.

Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. [L.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. 8). The pixels on the line are set to 1. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.parents. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p1. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ilabel(im.class.parents. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. each a 2-vector [X. iproﬁle. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. eg.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. • This is a “low level” function. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. otherwise it does not. See also iblobs. p2.maxlabel.Y]. out = iline(im.maxlabel.

• im1 and im2 must be the same size. y. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.y) and of size s. w2. The template in im1 is centred at (x.DY) are the x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. xmax. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. ymax] relative to (x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). x.DY. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. • ZNCC matching is used. -s. x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. s] % relative to (x. im2. y. H. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y) and its half-width is H. • Is a MEX ﬁle. [xm.CHAPTER 2.CC] where (DX. im2. ymin. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. centred at (x.score] = imatch(im1.y). a perfect match score is 1. s. The return value is xm=[DX. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.y). and columns the vertical position.and y-offsets relative to (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.

v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. All pixels are equally weighted. [u. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. effectively a greyscale image. [u.u) = u and v(v. f = imoments(u.u) = v.CHAPTER 2.v] = imeshgrid(w. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. H) as above but the domain is w × H. f = imoments(u. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. effectively a binary image.

options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m01. or its area. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. m20. icolor. m11. See also RegionFeature. horizontal coordinate centroid. m10.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. Different conversion functions are supported. ilabel. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. m02. the elements are m00. • This function does not perform connectivity. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels.

pp. The labels [L. and T. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. 2004. ’light’). O. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. 761767. Urban. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. m.m] = imser(im.org). vol. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se.png’.m] = imser(im. se. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Pajdla. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. Chum.CHAPTER 2. ’double’). by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Matas. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Sept. ’grey’. Image and Vision Computing. [label. 22. J.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.ˆ2). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.

se. n. See also iclose.CHAPTER 2. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. This is an erosion followed by dilation. sides. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se.

255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. otherwise im2 is selected. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. im2.CHAPTER 2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. 20. ’tblr’.V]. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 10. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. ’t’. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. im1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

v) for the corresponding row of p. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. [p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p1. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.uv] = iproﬁle(im.CHAPTER 2. See also bresenham. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line.

the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. se(2. out = imorph(image. se). n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. 1. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. se. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. out = ipyramid(im.CHAPTER 2.5)). out = ipyramid(im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. se. idecimate. im > irank(im. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. The highest rank. nbins. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. See also iscalespace. op. out = imorph(image. ones(5. 12. the maximum.3). The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. sigma. is order=1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2) = 0. order. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. op.

CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. See also imorph. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. ivar. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. G ‘reduce’. vmin vmax]. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. im = iread(ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. R ‘roi’. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. where R=[umin umax. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence.

• The resulting images may have negative disparity.CHAPTER 2. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.out2] = irectify(f.h2] = irectify(f. istereo. homwarp. imono. m. See also FeatureMatch. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. Notes • Color images are not supported. [out1. imwrite. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. igamma. im1. m.out2. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.h1. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.

V ‘smooth’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.H] return central part of image.CHAPTER 2. vmin. S ‘extrapval’. angle. See also idisp.vmax]. [out. Options ‘outsize’. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.umax.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.vmin vmax].

V ‘smooth’. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.CHAPTER 2. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s>1 makes the image larger. im2. bias<0. bias=0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. while bias>0. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. Options ‘outsize’. s ‘extrapval’.5 is symmetric cropping.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. out = isamesize(im1. s<1 makes it smaller.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. corresponding to each step of the sequence.L. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). in space and scale. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. idecimate. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. n. n) as above but sigma=1.CHAPTER 2. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. See also iscalespace. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.s] = iscalespace(im. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. [g. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .s] = iscalespace(im.L.

‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. See also isrot. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ismooth. else false (0). ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. that is. it its third dimension is equal to three. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ilaplace.

• ISURF is a functional equivalent.CHAPTER 2. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. International Journal of Computer Vision. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. 60. Lowe. N ‘suppress’. isurf. See also SiftPointFeature. 2 (2004).org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference David G. pp.vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • Features are returned in descending strength order. 91-110. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.

d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. zsad. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. See also imatch. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. s = isimilarity(T. @zssd.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. @ssd. sad. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. [w. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score.H. @zsad. @ncc. ncc. im. s is same size as im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. and these output pixels are set to NaN. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one.CHAPTER 2. [w. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. zssd. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.

CHAPTER 2.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. convolved. sigma. [gx. then converted back to integer. See also iconv. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.gy] = isobel(im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.sim] = istereo(iml. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. That is. See also ishomog. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) means that imr(v. w. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. else false (0). icanny. range. H is the half size of the matching window. range. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. range is the disparity search range.M] for an N × M window.u). imr. ‘valid’) as above.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. isrot(R. [d. H.CHAPTER 2. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. the disparity d=d(v. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. See also ksobel. imr. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml.

3) See also irectify.sim. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). w.p] = istereo(iml. B. ‘ncc’.5). p. • sim = max(dsi. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. p. w.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. [d. [d. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.CHAPTER 2. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. range. Options ‘metric’. imr. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.A and p. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. range.dsi] = istereo(iml. out = istretch(im. imr.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. dx.sim. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.5 to +0. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. That is. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.

• The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im.CHAPTER 2. N ‘thresh’. Notes • Color images. T ‘octaves’. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. or sequences. Kroon (U. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).

delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Luc Van Gool. isift. 3. See also hitormiss. No. Andreas Ess. either a row. isvec(v. out = ithin(im. itriplepoint. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. 110. else false (0). iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 346–359.or columnvector. Vol. pp. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. See also ishomog. Tinne Tuytelaars.CHAPTER 2. Otherwise false (0).

a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. ithresh(im. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. Notes • Greyscale image only. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. a lower value will include more.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.5.im2. See also homwarp. The same cropping is applied to each input image. The default is 0.CHAPTER 2. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. ithin. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.CHAPTER 2. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. op. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. se. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. See also iendpoint.

3).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. out = iwindow(image. hence output image had reduced dimensions.5). se. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. ones(3. ones(5. @max). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. se. func. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. See also ivar. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. @std).

k = kdgauss(sigma. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. See also ones. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. See also kgauss. dG/dy. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdog. dG/dx. • The vertical derivative. is k’. k = kcircle(R.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. ktriangle. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. kdog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.6*sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. klog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kgauss(sigma. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. By default SIGMA2 = 1. sigma2. See also kdgauss. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1.CHAPTER 2. k = kdog(sigma1. See also kgauss. klog.

iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. and W=2 × H+1. k = klog(sigma. See also ilaplace. kdog.CHAPTER 2. iconv. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also kgauss. kdgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.

L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. L = kmeans(x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points.C] = kmeans(x. [L. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). Pattern Recognition Principles.CHAPTER 2. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C] = kmeans(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. k. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. it is assumed to have been completed previously. k. and D is the dimension.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. [x.y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . symmetric about the origin. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).CHAPTER 2. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. ‘edge’. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. C ‘T’. The points are the columns of p. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. Options ‘T’. See also cylinder.y. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.z] = mkcube(s. s. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. [x.

or y(:. npq. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. or y(:. n) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(t. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. y. See also mpq poly.2)). y) MPLOT(t. y. n) MPLOT(t.2)). n. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time.CHAPTER 2. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. the sum of I(x. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.yq . labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.xp .y). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.

• If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p. npq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also mpq. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. they are considered to be a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. upq poly.

1986. Example t = niblack(im. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. sad.2. • A common choice of k=-0.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. niblack. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. k. where W=2*w2+1. Prentice-Hall. for example. k. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. ssd. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. [T. -0. idisp(im >= t). Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. 20).s] = niblack(im.CHAPTER 2. T has the same dimensions as im. the height of a character.m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. W. See also zncc. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. in text segmentation.

0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq poly.p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.0. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.q)/MPQ(im. That is UPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.CHAPTER 2. mpq. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.

See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. See also mpq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. upq. they are considered as a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). mpq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. npq.CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.xp] = peak(y. N. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. idisp(im >= t). Example t = otsu(im). otsu IEEE Trans. x. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Systems.CHAPTER 2.i] = peak(y. Jan 1979. [yp. [yp.

Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. N ‘scale’. [zp.ij] = peak2(z. use peak2(-V).S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. N ‘scale’.S points. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. S ‘interp’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. use peak(-V). • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned.CHAPTER 2. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.

Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. If p has three dimensions.CHAPTER 2. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. See also pnmﬁlt. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. ie. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plot2(p. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format.

P. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. r.y2.y1) and (x2.CHAPTER 2. or a set of name. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ‘r’. Examples plot_circle(c. r. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. r. W. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.y1. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. P. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ’edgecolor’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’b’). ’fillcolor’. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’g’. W. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. 1=solid. 5). Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.y2). If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. plot_circle(c. ‘size’. value pairs that are passed to plot. x2. ’LineWidth’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. PLOT BOX(x1. plot_circle(c. ’r’). PLOT BOX(’centre’. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X.

xc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. C.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘color’. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . c Specify color of the axes. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. centred at the origin. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) ls is the standard line styles. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Y].Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. If C=[X.Y. with Matlab line style ls. current plot. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T.

to ‘view’. fmt. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. n ‘text opts’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L.X = 0. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘framename’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. options) adds point markers to a plot. ’r’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. trplot( T. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’color’. ‘printf’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’name’.CHAPTER 2. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’color’. ’r’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. Options ‘textcolor’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. The default is 1. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. color. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired.CHAPTER 2. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. R. patch. R. 1=solid. See also plot. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. NOTES • The sphere is always added. either a letter or 3-vector. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C.

See also plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. See also pgmﬁlt. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. plotp(p.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. [gr.CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.gt] = radgrad(im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.

ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. T. x.CHAPTER 2. x. one column per point pair. T.resid] = ransac(func. [m. d) as above but elements increment by d. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.in. Options ‘maxTrials’. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. N ‘maxDataTrials’.in] = ransac(func. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. T. x typically contains corresponding point data. [m.

out.x.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.out.theta and the subset of R. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. [out. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. pp 101-113.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.x. pp 381-395. If multiple models are found out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. Assoc.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.x data to work on.x) condition the point data out. Fishler and R.x = CONDITION(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.R.t threshold (1 × 1) R. that is they will produce a model.theta. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.s out. Comm. they detect a structure argument.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.misc element.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. Comp.. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.misc private data (cell array) out.theta = DECONDITION(R. Boles. Cambridge University Press. No 6.theta] = ERR(R.theta to the points R.theta is a cell array. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.s sample size (1 × 1) out.inlier. References • m. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Mach.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.theta = [].valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.A.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. that is.resid] = EST(R. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. Vol 24. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.CHAPTER 2. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.x and returns the best model out. [out.C.theta.

If lambda is a vector.edu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uwa.csse.CHAPTER 2. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.au/ pk See also fmatrix.

roty. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. See also roty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. • many texts (Paul. yaw. See also tr2rpy. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. Z axes respectively.CHAPTER 2. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. pitch. If roll. pitch. pitch. T = rpy2tr(roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. Y.

ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. and rotation theta in the plane. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. See also zsad. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. r2t. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x.y. theta) as above where xy=[x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

ncc. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Two cross-hairs are created. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.CHAPTER 2. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsdd.

The software pattern is: function(a. then R is 3 × 3. tr2rt.foo = true. varargin) opt.bar = false. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. b. opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. opt. c.choose = {’this’.CHAPTER 2. ’that’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then R is 2 × 2. It supports options that have an assigned value. opt. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t.blah = []. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. – If T is 3 × 3. ’other’}.

x. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).true ‘nobar’ sets opt.choose <.false ‘blah’. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.blah <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.select <. If neither of ‘this’.3 ‘blah’. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.blah <.select <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. N ‘setopt’. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.verbose <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.foo <. 3 sets opt.foo <.y sets opt. varargin).true sets opt.1. varargin).choose <. opt = tb_optparse(opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. w.N sets opt <.‘this’. args) creates a test pattern image.debug <.CHAPTER 2.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. ’#yes’}.select = {’#no’.x.

Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.sd.CHAPTER 2. args is the number of cycles. 2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. dot diameter. 25). Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sf. binary dot pattern. a line. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 256. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. intercept. args is the number of cycles. sd and sdd are n-vectors. 256. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args are pitch (distance between centres). square side length. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. 50. binary square pattern. The trajectory s.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sd. sf. args is the number of cycles. [s. args are theta (rad).

P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.CHAPTER 2. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. [theta. See also angvec2r.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. rpy = tr2rpy(R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. Y and Z axes respectively.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. The 3 angles rpy=[R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Y. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.

p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. r2t. y.:. See also rt2tr.y. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. – If TR is 3 × 3. • The validity of R is not checked. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. ie. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.CHAPTER 2. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p.z]. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. See also rpy2tr. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If T has three dimensions.

out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. An historical anomaly.CHAPTER 2. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. each N × 1. [c1. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). If tri is RGB then cc is rg. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. [o1. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. or x and y.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’.CHAPTER 2. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

(default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and displays in RPY format. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotx. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. trotx. trprint T is the command line form of above. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. f ‘label’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

See also upq poly. the sum of I(x. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. p.(x-x0)p . tr2rpy.y).y0) is the centroid. That is.(y-y0)q where (x0. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. mpq.CHAPTER 2. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). See also sad. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1.CHAPTER 2. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. See also ncc.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sdd. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. ncc. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

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