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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. is open-source. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This is extravagant on storage. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and I commend it to you. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. However the book “Robotics. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . 1. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . angdiff . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . .

. . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . imser . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . iscalespace . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . ktriangle . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . .

no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.google. That’s what you your teachers. tutors.com. You need to signup in order to post.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. and you will be suitably acknowledged. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.

I. Month = nov.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www.gz) or zip format (. 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1.petercorke. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.html on a server for class use. 1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. Author = {P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Volume = {12}. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. The ﬁle robot.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. 1.3. type of organization and application. Corke}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. The details are @article{Corke05f. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.zip). Number = {4}.1. Year = {2005}. the table of content to functions.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. and the “See also” functions to each other.

RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.S. 1. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book.. Twente.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Coimbra. MSER. P. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. 1. Corke.R. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 12(4). and there are hundreds of modules available. VLFeat http://www. pp 16–25.7.vlfeat. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.Functions such as SURF.6.mathworks. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .I. 1994 University of British Columbia. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. November 2005. Vincent Lepetit.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.1. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I.7 Acknowledgements Last. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. but not least.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. Options ‘name’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. used by all subclasses. N ‘sensor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. IM ‘resolution’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘image’. P ‘pixel’. T ‘color’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. S ‘noise’. Camera.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. S ‘centre’. SIGMA ‘pose’.

display Display value C. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera. SphericalCamera Camera.char Convert to string s = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). CatadioptricCamera. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.centre Get camera position p = C.clf Clear the image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.

hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.u + b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a. C.v + c = 0. Camera. Camera.CHAPTER 2.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. otherwise false (0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and off if H is false (or 0).char Camera.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. See also Camera.

The matrices x.plot Plot points on image plane C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. sphere.T.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also mesh. mkcube. y. cylinder.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. z. T ‘Tcam’.plot(p.clf Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points.hold. z to the image plane and plots them. Camera. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. uv = C. y. Camera.CHAPTER 2.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. y.plot.mesh(x.

T See also Camera. Camera. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.hold. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. ‘Tcam’.T.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Overrides the current camera pose C.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.clf Camera. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Tobj’.CHAPTER 2. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Options ‘Tcam’. T ‘scale’. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. ‘fps’.mesh.

The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The image is not inverted.rpy Set camera attitude C.CHAPTER 2.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.y]. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. a subclass of Camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. p. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.p.rpy(R. C. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.C Camera matrix C = C.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

camera at origin.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. N ‘focal’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. f=8mm. u.CHAPTER 2. optical axis is z-axis. E = C. CentralCamera.Sastry. Springer. E = C. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. F ‘distortion’.177 See also CentralCamera.8]) See also Camera.Soatto. p. SIGMA ‘pose’.Kosecka. N ‘sensor’. CatadioptricCamera. S ‘centre’.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).Ma. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. 10um pixels. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. ﬁsheyecamera. S ‘noise’.and v-axes parallel to x. S. T ‘color’. P ‘pixel’.and y-axes respectively.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘default’ ‘image’. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”.F.E Essential matrix E = C. IM ‘resolution’. S.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. J. 2003. Reference Y.

See also CentralCamera.Ma. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H Homography matrix H = C. J.H CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. from two viewpoints.Soatto.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).177 See also CentralCamera. S.F Fundamental matrix F = C.Sastry.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Kosecka. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. n.H(T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. 2003. “An invitation to 3D”.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C.E CentralCamera. F = C. S.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. p. Reference Y.

81. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. pp. F.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. and P. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Feb.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. CentralCamera.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.estpose(xyz. V. Moreno-Noguer.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also quiver CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. 2009. 155-166. Fua. Lepetit. Int.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). vol. a = C. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. 2003.Soatto. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. s. Springer. See also CentralCamera. s. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). s. p116. 259 Y. “An invitation to 3D”. “An invitation to 3D”.Ma. Chap 9. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Kosecka. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. section 5. 2003.Ma. J. J.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Springer. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Sastry.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Kosecka. s.CHAPTER 2.E CentralCamera.Soatto. Reference Y. “Multiview Geometry”. translation not to scale • n. p.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane.invE(E.Sastry.

plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. C. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot epiline(f. p.T.project(p.CHAPTER 2.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. one per line. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. See also Hough CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. ‘Tobj’. H = C.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.H CentralCamera.

ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. vol. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. pp. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.ray 3D ray for image point R = C.plot CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. See also Camera. Rives. Espiau. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .b.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.c. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”.visjac e(E. and P.CHAPTER 2. 8. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. “Multiview Geometry”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. 313-326. Chaumette. Reference B. F. June 1992. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar. See also CentralCamera.visjac e CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera. 8.b. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. June 1992. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. pp. Reference B. Vol 12(5). Rives. vol.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera. IEEE Trans.CHAPTER 2. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). pp 651-670. R&A. Chaumette. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. Hutchinson.visjac p polar. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Oct.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac p. 1996.c. F. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. and P. Espiau.visjac p(uv. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. 313-326. Hager & Corke.visjac l(L. CentralCamera.

Chaumette.visjac e CentralCamera. Spindler. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Int. I. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”.visjac l. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Corke. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt. 5962-5967. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. pp. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CentralCamera. CentralCamera. P.CHAPTER 2. Louis).visjac p. F. in Proc. radius and theta. CentralCamera.visjac l. Oct.visjac p polar. and F. (St. 2009. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.

91-110. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. pp. PointFeature. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. Journal on Computer Vision. D. ScalePointFeature.Lowe.SIFT. See also isift. 2004.60.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Int. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. See README.CHAPTER 2. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. Nov. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.

f = PointFeature(u.match Match SIFT point features m = F. v. See also isift SiftPointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. 1=opaque.CHAPTER 2.plot scale Plot feature scale F.plot scale(options. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. C ‘alpha’. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. F.match(f2. 0=transparent (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im. w) as above but the support region is displayed. [out. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. out = F.support(im.CHAPTER 2.support(images. F.T] = F.support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.

CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T ‘Tcam’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. See also SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. N ‘pixel’. S ‘pose’. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Overrides the current camera pose C.T. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Options ‘Tobj’. ﬁsheyecamera.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Options ‘name’.project(p.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.

error. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera view.the side length of the target in world units (0. image plane size and desired feature locations.CHAPTER 2.5) target center . error norm. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.depth of points to use for Jacobian.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. of 4-vector. The camera view.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.center of the target in world coords (0. scalar for If null take actual value all points. defaults in parentheses: target size . The external view.01) .camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.gain.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . camera pose.0.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Jacobian condition number.

in Proc.CHAPTER 2.center of the target in world coords (0.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . IEEE Int. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).01) . CentralCamera. Corke. of 4-vector.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . I. P.visjac p(pt.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. defaults in parentheses: target size .visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Robotics and Automation. Jacobian condition number. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. for all points. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. camera pose. pp.visjac l. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Conf. May 3-7 2010. CentralCamera. The external view. (Anchorage).0. error norm. image plane size and desired feature locations. See also CentralCamera.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac p polar. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. scalar for If null take actual value all points. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. error. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .5) target center . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.gain. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. 5550-5555.the side length of the target in world units (0.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 346–359. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. pp.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 3. No. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Andreas Ess. Luc Van Gool. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Tinne Tuytelaars. Vol.CHAPTER 2. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 110. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.

See also isurf SurfPointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match Match SURF point features m = F. ScalePointFeature. v.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2.C] = F.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. [m. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. Options ‘thresh’.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match(f2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. C ‘alpha’.support(im.CHAPTER 2.support(im.plot scale Plot feature scale F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support Support region of feature out = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. out = F. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. 0=transparent (default 0. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 1=opaque. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images.2) SurfPointFeature. [out. F.plot scale(options. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T] = F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.support(images. w) as above but the support region is displayed.

axis. otherwise the result is not predictable. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis. S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of.com) web camera.com). Obtain an image of size S=[W H].AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Video AxisWebCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. G ‘scale’.

Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. See also AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.display AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.close() closes the connection to the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.

Conf. Ninth IEEE Int. 2003.1470-1477.Zisserman. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. Oct. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. pp. f can also be a cell array. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.Sivic and A.CHAPTER 2. on Computer Vision. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. in Proc.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.org). b = BagOfWords(f.

display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.display Display value B. BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. images.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.exemplars display exemplars of words B. See also BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. BagOfWords.exemplars(w. isurf BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.char BagOfWords.

wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.n] = B. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.isword Features from words f = B. N ‘maxperimage’. Options ‘ncolumns’. BagOfWords.remove stop Remove stop words B. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.CHAPTER 2. M ‘width’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive.

subclass of Camera. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

CHAPTER 2.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T ‘Tcam’. P ‘pixel’. ‘sine’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project(p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. A ‘resolution’.CHAPTER 2. 10um pixels. Options ‘Tobj’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). SIGMA ‘pose’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and v-axes parallel to x. camera at origin. K ‘maxangle’. u. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H].and y-axes respectively. N ‘sensor’. See also Camera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.T. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. N ‘focal’. f=8mm.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. optical axis is z-axis. ﬁsheyecamera. M ‘k’. S ‘noise’. ‘equisolid’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. See also Camera. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.

p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also PointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. such as ScalePointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.

See also PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. one per element.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. f2. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also FeatureMatch.display Display value M.char Convert to string s = M.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FeatureMatch.inlier. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.ransac FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch.u2.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.CHAPTER 2.outlier. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.v2].ransac FeatureMatch.v1.

FeatureMatch. These are the (u. for example by: idisp({im1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. See also FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot Show corresponding points M.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.CHAPTER 2.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p1. These are the (u.im2}) m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.p FeatureMatch.p2.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot() M. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p FeatureMatch.

m. Example f1 = isurf(im1). inliers and outliers (and their percentages). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f2 = isurf(im2). ransac FeatureMatch.ransac(func. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.match(f2). m = f1. See also fmatrix. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. 1e-4). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.CHAPTER 2. See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac( @fmatrix. homography.ransac Apply RANSAC M.

Y This camera model assumes central projection. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. v. The image is not inverted. that is. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.CHAPTER 2.

FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Options ‘name’. ‘equisolid’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. 10um pixels. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.and y. S ‘noise’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. M ‘k’.CHAPTER 2.and v-axes are parallel to x. f=8mm. SIGMA ‘pose’. P ‘pixel’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. u.axes respectively. S ‘centre’. camera at origin. N ‘sensor’. K ‘resolution’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). optical axis is z-axis. ‘sine’.

For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. See also FishEyeCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera.T. CatadioptricCamera. See also Camera. Options ‘Tobj’.project(p.CHAPTER 2.

Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.0) and the line. See also LineFeature Hough.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.CHAPTER 2.H). with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. The voting array is 2-dimensional. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. A horizontal line has theta = 0.

display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Set ht.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.edgeThresh.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.5) Set ht. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.houghThresh (default 0. W ‘nbins’.1). Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. N All edge pixels have equal weight. W ‘houghthresh’. Hough. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. T ‘suppress’. Hough. See also Hough. T ‘edgethresh’.edgeThresh (default 0.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.display Display value HT. Nrho]. else N = [Ntheta. Default 400 × 401.char Convert to string s = HT.

plot Plot line features HT. H = HT. HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. reﬁned to subpixel precision.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. HT. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot(n. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.lines Find lines L = HT.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. then all elements in an HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. See also Hough. The highest peak is found.lines Hough. LineFeature Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. See also Hough.plot. L = HT.

RegionFeature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.

strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. L = LineFeature(rho.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. one per element. See also LineFeature. LineFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LineFeature. theta. strength. LENGTH is undeﬁned. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.display Display value L. L = LineFeature(rho.char Convert to string s = L.

CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. l2 = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.plot Plot line L. L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot() overlay the line on current plot. Small gaps.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .points Return points on line segments p = L. See also icanny LineFeature. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. l2 = L. LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength(edge.

Movie. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the movie.close Close the image source M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. Movie.com). S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.CHAPTER 2. S ‘skip’. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.axis.

vid • edges are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph create an n-d. F Skip frames. planar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP.

Object properties (read/write) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. v2) g.add node(coord) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.coord(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.next(v) g.distance(v1.connectivity() g.plot() g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.component(v) g.CHAPTER 2.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.clear() add vertex.add node(coord. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.cost(e) g. v) g.add edge(v1.goal(v) g.neighbours(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex. return vid add vertex and edge to v.edges(e) g.

v = G.CHAPTER 2. E = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add node(x.add edge(v1. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v2. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. PGraph.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x. Options ‘distance’. and returns the edge id E.add edge(v1. and returns the node id v. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. where x is D × 1. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. PGraph. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node(x. v = G. v.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

coord Coordinate of node x = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . edges and components. PGraph.clear Clear the graph G.d] = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. of node id v.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.CHAPTER 2.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. and the distance d. D × 1. PGraph. PGraph.closest Find closest node v = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. [v.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.char Convert graph to string s = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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v. one per element.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. See also ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SiftPointFeature PointFeature.display Display value F. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = F. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.C] = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.match(f2. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. Options ‘thresh’. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. [m.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char PointFeature. where 1 is perfect match. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance. PointFeature.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.match Match point features m = F.match(f2. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.

Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. Polygon .CHAPTER 2. F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot feature F. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

mit. intersection. Polygon.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. HEIGHT]. union. kirill@plume. one column per vertex.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.char String representation s = P. so use with care. p = Polygon(C.html and require a licence.area Area of polygon a = P. http://puddle. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.edu.CHAPTER 2.area() is the area of the polygon. Pankratov. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. difference. Polygon.mit. Polygon. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.

difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.char Polygon. else 0.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. See also Polygon.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).difference Difference of polygons d = P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . returns coordinates of P.display Display polygon P. Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.CHAPTER 2.

moments(p. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. each column is [x y]’. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.moments Moments of polygon a = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns empty polygon.CHAPTER 2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. y1 y2].perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.

Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot() plot the polygon.CHAPTER 2. P.plot Plot polygon P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union Union of polygons i = P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.

CHAPTER 2. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.

E] = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Ray3D. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. [x.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.char Convert to string s = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.CHAPTER 2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.E] = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. Ray3D.display Display value R. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.char Ray3D. Ray3D. [x.

vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .c. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.0) 1 for a circle.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.b.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

uc will be a list not a vector. See also iblobs. For example R. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. one per element. ymin. RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.CHAPTER 2. imoments RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. ymax]. RegionFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.char Convert to string s = R.xmax. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.th] = R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.box Return bounding box b = R.

RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.and xmarkers. See also RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.char RegionFeature.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.plot Plot centroid R. It is indicated with overlaid o. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.plot boundary plot boundary R.display Display value R. R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.

plot box Plot bounding box R. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.

SurfPointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. See also PointFeature. C ‘alpha’.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.plot scale(options. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v. F. strength. ScalePointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. f = ScalePointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. v.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 1=opaque. 0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

C. options) is a new tracker object. R ‘nslots’.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘movie’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. Options ‘radius’. one per active track. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. N ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.

display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Tracker. Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.display Display value T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Convert to string s = T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char Tracker. See also Tracker.

• The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.CHAPTER 2. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. S ‘resolution’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. G ‘scale’.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. and their characteristics is displayed. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Movie Video. otherwise the result is not predictable. AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char Convert to string V.close Close the image source V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() acquires an image from the camera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. Video.

Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. By default the left image is red. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. color. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. a = anaglyph(left. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. right. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). If disp is positive the disparity is increased. right. the second for right. the ﬁrst for left. if negative it is reduced. If th1 is a column vector. and the right image is cyan. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left.

If lambda is a column vector. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. % emission of sun plot(l.y1] and p2=[x2. p = bresenham(p1. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Endpoints must be integer.y1) to (x2.CHAPTER 2.s] = boundmatch(R1. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.y2]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.y2). x2. p2) as above but p1=[x1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. y1. [x. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. 6500). See also RegionFeature.boundary. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].

E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.Y. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. [C. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.CHAPTER 2.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.

but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). and x is N × 3.d1] = closest(a. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. Options ‘n’.CHAPTER 2. that is. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. k = closest(a. x = circle(C. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. [k. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). R. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . green and blue primaries respectively.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.ac. The data are referred to as pilot data. while Table I(5.ioo.16). As noted in footnote a on p. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.d1. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.d2] = closest(a. (Table 1(5. • From Table I(5.5. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.CHAPTER 2. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).32). since.5. 19000 (526. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). and 22500 (444.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 335 of Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.5. they were measured directly. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].

im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ac. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl.M). imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .uk See also cmfrgb. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ioo. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.CHAPTER 2. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. out = col2im(pix.

• Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.g] to every pixel in the color image im.CHAPTER 2.

[0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. out = colorize(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. [L. @isnan. im<100. mask. eg. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.G.CHAPTER 2. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.B). k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. and returns a per-pixel logical result.C] = colorkmeans(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. k. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. @isnan. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. icolor. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. See also imono. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . func.

Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. name = colorname(XYZ. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.CHAPTER 2. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. L = colorkmeans(im. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. k) as above but also returns the residual R. low is good. eg.C. XYZ = colorname(name. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.R] = colorkmeans(im. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard.

double data is the natural choice.o3] = colorspace(s. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. colorspace(s.CHAPTER 2. • Color space names are case insensitive. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. s = ‘dest<-src’. [o1.i2.o2. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. As MATLAB’s native datatype.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. s = ‘src->dest’.txt. i1. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. it can be omitted. or alternatively.

• If im is an M × 3 array.2*A.CHAPTER 2. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.B).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . like a colormap. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. out will also have size M × 3. Example A = rand(400. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. d = distance(A.100). Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.200). for memory and computational performance. B = rand(400. However. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).

2 and Solaris Matlab v5.y).CHAPTER 2. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.3. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.j). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. bunschot@wins. not image frame. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. in matrix coordinate frame. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. E = edgelist(im. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. non-zero is an object. seed. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. University of Amsterdam. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.uva. tel. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. The result E is a matrix.(+31)20-5257524. non zero is counter-clockwise. Tested: PC Matlab v5.

epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). one per line drawn.R. See also fmatrix.CHAPTER 2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Coimbra. H = epiline(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i.S. I. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. See also epiline. 1998. Oct 27.

Reference Hartley and Zisserman. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. http://www. it is singular. • f is a rank 2 matrix. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. page 270. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. homography. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. c.edu.uwa. that is. epiline. which means it can be passed to ransac().au/. that is. See also ransac. p2.csse. no outlier rejection is performed. • Contains a RANSAC driver. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. Notes • The points must be corresponding. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The University of Western Australia.CHAPTER 2.

se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.y2). itriplepoint. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).y1) and (x2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. y1. See also imorph.CHAPTER 2. x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. ithin.

See also ransac. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. no outlier rejection is performed. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. invhomog. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.au/. The University of Western Australia. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2.uwa. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.csse.edu. which means it can be passed to ransac(). http://www. Notes • The points must be corresponding.

T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. that is tp=T*T1. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. S output image contains all the warped pixels.offs] = homwarp(H. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. ie. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. im. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. S ‘dimension’.CHAPTER 2. R ‘scale’. im. See also homography. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. V ‘roi’. See also e2h. D ‘size’. itrim. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’.

Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K.CHAPTER 2. ’nfeat’. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. 200). Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). on Information Theory. ianimate(im. ’gs’). Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Hu. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 179-187. 1962. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. IRE Trans. IT-8:pp. features. features. ianimate(seq. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im.

options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. M ‘npoints’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iblobs features f = iblobs(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. isurf. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. YMIN YMAX]. N ‘only’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. iharris.

C set connectivity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. horizontal coordinate centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. [S1. default 1. [A1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.CHAPTER 2.0 ‘connect’. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. A set pixel aspect ratio. ilabel. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.0) 1 for a circle. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature.

This is an dilation followed by erosion. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. T ‘th1’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also isobel. See also iopen. out = iclose(im.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one.CHAPTER 2. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. Tel Aviv University. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. S ‘th0’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. 1996-7. se.

Options ‘dir’. C = icolor(im. [C. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). The images do not have to be of the same size. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.CHAPTER 2.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. See also imono. [0 1 1]).options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u] = iconcat(im. colorize. D ‘bgval’. iconcat(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.

Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. options) convolves im1 with im2. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes.

The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. K ‘patch’. N ‘detector’. D ‘sigma’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. CT ‘edgegap’. R ‘nfeat’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CM ‘cminthresh’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. S ‘deriv’. E ‘suppress’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. D ‘k’.

G. Proc.CHAPTER 2. p2. with a delay of 0. May 1988. 1994.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Manchester. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. vol. where * denotes squared and smoothed.d] = icp(p1. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Options ‘dplot’. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. 1988. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. 593-593. Tomasi.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. Shi and C. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. p2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp 147-151.6.J. T ‘maxiter’. C. Proc. with a delay of d [sec]. N ‘mindelta’. J.5 [sec]. Image and Vision Computing. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. pp.Noble. pp. Harris and M. J. Stephens.121-128. • “Good features to track”. See also PointFeature. [T. T ‘distthresh’. • “Finding corners”. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. IEEE Computer Society.

pp. 1992.CHAPTER 2. Pattern Anal. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.McKay. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. 239-256.. vol. m. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Intell. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . no. IEEETrans. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. each plane is decimated. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.or 3-dimensional. 2. Mach. Feb. m. s = idecimate(im. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging.Besl and H. 14. See also iscale. P. s = idecimate(im. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. If im is a cell array of images. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. histogram and zooming. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view.CHAPTER 2. negative is red. positive is blue. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. If the image is zoomed. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. Options ‘ncolors’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. C ‘xydata’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. zero is white. zero is black. zero is white color map: random values. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. positive is blue. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. darker than ‘grey’. XY ‘colormap’.and y-axes respectively. negative is red. linear proﬁle. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x.

which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. icolorize. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class.CHAPTER 2. colormap. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. idisplabel(im. labelimage. See also iblobs. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. labels. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. See also image. caxis. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labelimage. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1.

CHAPTER 2. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. out = igamma(im. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.45. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. See also itriplepoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. ithin. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.2.

Int. Huttenlocher. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. 59. 2004. k is the scale parameter. 1500. 0. P. [l.5). sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. vol. L = igraphseg(im. pp. Sept. k. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”.5). Journal on Computer Vision. See also ithresh. min.jpg’). Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb.m] = igraphseg(im. k. 167181. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.m] = igraphseg(im.CHAPTER 2. 2006. 100. min. Felzenszwalb and D. [L. Example im = iread(’58060.

[H. options) displays the image histogram. options) is the image histogram as a column vector.h).x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.x] = ihist(im). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. bar(x. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot(x.h).CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. [h. ’normcdf’).

m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.y1) and bottom-right (x2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. ii is a precomputed integral image. y2. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. y1.CHAPTER 2. x1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. [L. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. same size as im. [L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.m. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.y2). The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1.

• The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.CHAPTER 2. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. p2.maxlabel. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. 8). • This is a “low level” function. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .parents. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. otherwise it does not.Y].maxlabel.parents. eg. iproﬁle. See also iblobs. out = iline(im. The pixels on the line are set to 1. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. ilabel(im. [L.class. p1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. each a 2-vector [X. p1.

See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. y. The return value is xm=[DX. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. im2. y.y) and of size s. • ZNCC matching is used. centred at (x. a perfect match score is 1. The template in im1 is centred at (x.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).DY) are the x. x.y).score] = imatch(im1. s] % relative to (x. and columns the vertical position.y).and y-offsets relative to (x. ymax] relative to (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. xmax. • Is a MEX ﬁle. [xm. H.CC] where (DX. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.CHAPTER 2. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. -s. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. im2. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. w2. x.y) and its half-width is H. ymin.DY. s.

effectively a greyscale image.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].CHAPTER 2. f = imoments(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.u) = v. H) as above but the domain is w × H. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [u.u) = u and v(v. All pixels are equally weighted. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. effectively a binary image. v.v] = imeshgrid(w.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. [u. f = imoments(u. The element u(v.

vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. • This function does not perform connectivity. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. See also RegionFeature. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. or its area. m20. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m11.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. the elements are m00. Different conversion functions are supported. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. icolor. m10. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m01.CHAPTER 2. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m02. ilabel.

761767. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Pajdla.m] = imser(im. Sept. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. vol. and T. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. 2004.org).CHAPTER 2. J.png’. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Image and Vision Computing. se. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. ’light’).m] = imser(im. Matas. Chum. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. 22. [label. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. The labels [L. ’double’). O. Urban. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. m. ’grey’. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .ˆ2). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. See also iclose. sides. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is an erosion followed by dilation. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. sides. se. out = iopen(im.

V]. 10. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ’tblr’. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 20. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. ’t’.CHAPTER 2. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. otherwise im2 is selected. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. im2. im1. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.

v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) for the corresponding row of p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. See also bresenham.CHAPTER 2. [p. p1. p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1.uv] = iproﬁle(im. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).

out = ipyramid(im. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. order. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op. is order=1.3). se). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. nbins. 1. the maximum. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. se. out = imorph(image. out = imorph(image. op. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. se(2. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma.2) = 0. im > irank(im. ones(5. se. idecimate. out = ipyramid(im. sigma.5)). hence output image had reduced dimensions. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. The highest rank. See also iscalespace. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size.CHAPTER 2. 12. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im.

im = iread(ﬁle. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. See also imorph. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. R ‘roi’. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. ivar. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. G ‘reduce’. where R=[umin umax. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256).

path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.h1.CHAPTER 2. im1. m. imwrite. [out1. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). See also FeatureMatch. m. homwarp. Notes • Color images are not supported. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im1.out2] = irectify(f. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.h2] = irectify(f. istereo. igamma. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images.out2. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. imono.

R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.CHAPTER 2. See also idisp. [out. S ‘extrapval’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.vmax]. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.H] return central part of image. Options ‘outsize’. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. angle. vmin.vmin vmax]. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. V ‘smooth’. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.umax.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.

im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. s ‘extrapval’. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. while bias>0.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. V ‘smooth’.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. bias<0.5 is symmetric cropping. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. Options ‘outsize’.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.CHAPTER 2. s<1 makes it smaller. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s>1 makes the image larger. bias=0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). corresponding to each step of the sequence. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. [g. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. in space and scale.L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. idecimate. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . n) as above but sigma=1.L. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).s] = iscalespace(im. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence.s] = iscalespace(im. See also iscalespace. n.

ismooth. it its third dimension is equal to three. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. See also isrot. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. else false (0). ‘valid’) as above. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. that is.CHAPTER 2. ilaplace. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog(T.

“Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.vlfeat. 60. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. International Journal of Computer Vision. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. pp. 91-110. Reference David G. See also SiftPointFeature. • Features are returned in descending strength order.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. N ‘suppress’.CHAPTER 2. isurf. 2 (2004). im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Lowe. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.

@zsad. s is same size as im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. and these output pixels are set to NaN. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. ncc. @ssd. @zssd. zsad. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. [w. [w. zssd. s = isimilarity(T. @ncc. sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. See also imatch.H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. ssd.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im.

• Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. then converted back to integer. [gx. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. sigma. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. See also iconv. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.gy] = isobel(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gx. convolved.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.

d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. imr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. imr. isrot(R. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. range. icanny.u). else false (0). H. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. range is the disparity search range. the disparity d=d(v. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). See also ishomog. ‘valid’) as above. w.CHAPTER 2. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. H is the half size of the matching window.sim] = istereo(iml. See also ksobel.M] for an N × M window. [d.u) means that imr(v. range. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . That is.

p] = istereo(iml. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imr. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.5 to +0. dx.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. out = istretch(im. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients.sim. range. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).dsi] = istereo(iml. ‘ncc’. imr.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. range. [d. w. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). p. p. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. • sim = max(dsi. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. w. That is. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.CHAPTER 2.A and p. B. Options ‘metric’.sim. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. 3) See also irectify. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. [d. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.5).

Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. T ‘octaves’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. or sequences. Kroon (U. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature.CHAPTER 2. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Notes • Color images. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. N ‘thresh’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. See also ishomog. Vol. Andreas Ess. Otherwise false (0). See also hitormiss. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. itriplepoint. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tinne Tuytelaars. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. out = ithin(im. pp. else false (0).CHAPTER 2. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Luc Van Gool. either a row.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. 346–359.or columnvector. 3. isvec(v. isift. No. 110.

0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.5. Notes • Greyscale image only. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. The same cropping is applied to each input image.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. a lower value will include more.out2] = itrim(im1. The default is 0. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. [out1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. See also homwarp.out2] = itrim(im1. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. ithresh(im.

The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op. ithin. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. se. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. See also iendpoint. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled.

iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. se. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. ones(5. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. out = iwindow(image. ones(3. hence output image had reduced dimensions. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im.3). @max). @std). See also ivar. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.5). func.CHAPTER 2.

imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. See also ones.CHAPTER 2.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. • The vertical derivative. dG/dy. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. klog. k = kcircle(R. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. ktriangle. See also kgauss. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kdgauss(sigma. is k’. dG/dx. kdog. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.

k = kdog(sigma1. klog. sigma2. klog.6*sigma1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. k = kdog(sigma1. See also kdgauss.CHAPTER 2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. kdgauss. See also kgauss. By default SIGMA2 = 1. kdog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. k = kgauss(sigma.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. where sigma1 > SIGMA2.

kdog. and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv. k = klog(sigma.

L = kmeans(x.C] = kmeans(x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). it is assumed to have been completed previously. k. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I.C] = kmeans(x. k.CHAPTER 2. Pattern Recognition Principles. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [L. and D is the dimension. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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CHAPTER 2. [x. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. [x.y. symmetric about the origin. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. See also cylinder.z] = mkcube(s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. Options ‘T’. C ‘T’. ‘edge’. The points are the columns of p.z] = mkcube(s. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.y.

upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.2)). the sum of I(x. p. That is. y) MPLOT(t. or y(:.2)). See also mpq poly. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. or y(:. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.yq . n) MPLOT(y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. npq. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.CHAPTER 2. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.y). n. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.xp . n) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(t.

npq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. p. See also mpq. they are considered to be a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. so centroids will be still be correct. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. upq poly. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity.

k. idisp(im >= t).m. -0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. See also zncc. [T. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. ssd. 1986.s] = niblack(im. 20). in text segmentation. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. Example t = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. k. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. where W=2*w2+1.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. niblack.2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the height of a character. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. Prentice-Hall. W. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. T has the same dimensions as im. sad. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. for example. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.CHAPTER 2.

p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im.CHAPTER 2.p. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.0. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. See also npq poly.q)/MPQ(im. That is UPQ(im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. mpq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.0).

upq. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. they are considered as a single vertex. mpq.CHAPTER 2. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also mpq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y.CHAPTER 2. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.i] = peak(y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T.xp] = peak(y. Systems. [yp. x. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Example t = otsu(im). Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. idisp(im >= t). otsu IEEE Trans. [yp. Jan 1979. N.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. N ‘scale’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. use peak2(-V). S ‘interp’.S points.CHAPTER 2. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. [zp. Typically choose N to be odd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. use peak(-V). N ‘scale’.ij] = peak2(z.

CHAPTER 2. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. plot2(p. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. See also pnmﬁlt. ie. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. If p has three dimensions. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak.

’fillcolor’. ’LineWidth’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. W. R. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’b’).y1) and (x2. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. P. or a set of name. r. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. 5). Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ‘size’.CHAPTER 2. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ‘r’. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. r. PLOT BOX(’centre’. Examples plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.y2. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1.y2). 1=solid. PLOT BOX(x1. ’edgecolor’. W. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ’g’. x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ‘size’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. plot_circle(c. plot_circle(c. r. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.y1. ’r’). P. value pairs that are passed to plot.

CHAPTER 2. c Specify color of the axes. Options ‘color’. centred at the origin. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. current plot. ls) ls is the standard line styles.Y. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. C. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z.Y]. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. If C=[X. with Matlab line style ls. xc. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. to ‘view’. ’name’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. fmt. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. Options ‘textcolor’. ’color’. ‘framename’. ’r’.CHAPTER 2. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font.X = 0. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. trplot( T. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ‘printf’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’r’). options) adds point markers to a plot. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. n ‘text opts’. ’color’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’.

Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. either a letter or 3-vector. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = PLOT SPHERE(C. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. patch. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. color. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. R. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. The default is 1. 1=solid.CHAPTER 2. R. See also plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. NOTES • The sphere is always added. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R.

By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. See also pgmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.

Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. [gr.

T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set.resid] = ransac(func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. [m. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘maxDataTrials’.in] = ransac(func. d) as above but elements increment by d. one column per point pair. x typically contains corresponding point data. x. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. T. T.CHAPTER 2. x. Options ‘maxTrials’. [m. T.in. x.

A. [out. Assoc. they detect a structure argument.theta.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. that is. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.theta = DECONDITION(R. pp 101-113. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.R. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .out. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.s sample size (1 × 1) out. No 6.misc private data (cell array) out.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.CHAPTER 2. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.theta to the points R.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.inlier.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.s out.x data to work on. Fishler and R.theta.t threshold (1 × 1) R.resid] = EST(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. If multiple models are found out. Cambridge University Press. References • m. pp 381-395. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.x) condition the point data out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. that is they will produce a model.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.theta = [].theta is a cell array. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. Vol 24.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. Boles.theta] = ERR(R.theta and the subset of R.x.misc element.x = CONDITION(R. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. Comm. [out.x and returns the best model out. Comp.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. Mach. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .C.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.out.x. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.

csse. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.au/ pk See also fmatrix.edu.

See also rotx. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. roty. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2. See also roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz.

then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.CHAPTER 2. • many texts (Paul. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. pitch. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. T = rpy2tr(roll. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. pitch. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Z axes respectively. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. If roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. yaw. Y. See also tr2rpy.

r2t.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.CHAPTER 2. ncc. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd.y. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. theta) as above where xy=[x. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also zsad. and rotation theta in the plane. y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. ncc. See also zsdd. sad. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Two cross-hairs are created.

args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. b.CHAPTER 2.foo = true. opt. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. ’other’}. then R is 2 × 2. ’that’. c. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. tr2rt. The software pattern is: function(a.blah = [].choose = {’this’. then R is 3 × 3. – If T is 3 × 3. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).bar = false. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. opt. It supports options that have an assigned value. varargin) opt.

varargin).‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt.3 ‘blah’.1. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. ’#yes’}. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. opt = tb_optparse(opt. 3 sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.blah <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .select = {’#no’.choose <.N sets opt <.foo <. varargin).y sets opt.true sets opt. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.foo <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.blah <.select <. N ‘setopt’. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).‘this’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.debug <.false ‘blah’. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.x. args) creates a test pattern image. If neither of ‘this’. x.CHAPTER 2.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.y ‘that’ sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.select <. w.verbose <. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.choose <.

256.sd. sd and sdd are n-vectors. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. [s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. a line. dot diameter. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. sf. 50.sdd] = tpoly(s0. binary square pattern.sd. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. square side length. intercept. 25). Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. The trajectory s. binary dot pattern. sf. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 2). A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. 256.CHAPTER 2. args is the number of cycles. args are pitch (distance between centres).sdd] = tpoly(s0. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args are theta (rad). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args is the number of cycles. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd.

See also angvec2r. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Y and Z axes respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. The 3 angles rpy=[R. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T.P. Y.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.

See also rt2tr. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1.:. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. ie. • The validity of R is not checked. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. r2t. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.z]. If T has three dimensions.CHAPTER 2. – If TR is 3 × 3. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.y. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. See also rpy2tr.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t.

out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. An historical anomaly.CHAPTER 2. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). [o1. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. [c1. or x and y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. each N × 1.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. troty. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. f ‘label’. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx.CHAPTER 2. trotx. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. and displays in RPY format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trprint T is the command line form of above.

That is. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. p. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.CHAPTER 2.y0) is the centroid.y).(y-y0)q where (x0. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also upq poly. the sum of I(x. tr2rpy.(x-x0)p . mpq.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. See also ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. sad.CHAPTER 2. See also sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns.

i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. See also sdd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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