Licence Toolbox home page Discussion group

LGPL http://www.petercorke.com/vision http://groups.google.com.au/group/robotics-tool-box

Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface
This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,
Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the field this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and figures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and finally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,
Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1
Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reflecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image file reading and writing, acquisition, display, filtering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufficiently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a firewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, filtering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-files that implement functions and classes, and mex-files for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-files to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for firewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efficiency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

is open-source. This is extravagant on storage. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and figures in the manual. though this is much less significant today than it was in the past. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. nearly 400 figures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. and I commend it to you. However the book “Robotics. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This toolbox predates IPT by many years. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-files and may need to be compiled for the particular platform.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . .6. .2 Support . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research .Contents Introduction . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . icorner . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . iconv . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iprofile . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . ransac . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmfilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . mpq . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . ksobel . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . medfilt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . tr2rpy . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . usefig . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . unit . . . . . .

google.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. and you will be suitably acknowledged.com. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . lecturers and professors are paid to do. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you find it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. tutors.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.1 • x New features: • x Bugfixes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. That’s what you your teachers. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deficiencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. You need to signup in order to post. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.

and the “See also” functions to each other.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Corke}. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.gz) or zip format (. type of organization and application. Author = {P.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.html on a server for class use. Month = nov. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.I. Year = {2005}. 1.1. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the first two pages (cover and licence).com The files are available in either gzipped tar format (. Volume = {12}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.petercorke.zip). the table of content to functions. The details are @article{Corke05f. Number = {4}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3. 1.5 Use in teaching This is definitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. 1. The file robot. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.

graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX file use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. 1994 University of British Columbia. Coimbra.vlfeat. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.6.1. and there are hundreds of modules available. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. 1. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. See the file CONTRIB for details.R.S.7 Acknowledgements Last. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 12(4).the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodified. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION file. Vincent Lepetit.Functions such as SURF. November 2005. VLFeat http://www.. Corke. Twente. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. pp 16–25. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.7. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. P.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. but not least.I.mathworks.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. 1. MSER.

Methods plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control figure hold for image plane window test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

Options ‘name’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. IM ‘resolution’. P ‘pixel’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. T ‘color’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. SIGMA ‘pose’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method defined. Camera. The ‘image’ option paints the specified image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. S ‘centre’.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. used by all subclasses. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. N ‘sensor’. N ‘image’. S ‘noise’. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.

centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).centre Get camera position p = C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Camera. SphericalCamera Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.display Display value C. CatadioptricCamera. Camera.char Convert to string s = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Camera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.delete Camera object destructor C.delete() destroys all figures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.clf Clear the image plane C. fisheyecamera.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. otherwise false (0).hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are defined by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.v + c = 0.figure() is the handle of the figure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane. Camera.figure Return figure handle H = C.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. See also Camera. C. and off if H is false (or 0).u + b. Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).char Camera.

If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. options) projects a 3D shape defined by the matrices x. sphere. z to the image plane and plots them. Options ‘Tobj’.plot. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mesh(x. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices define 3D points. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.plot(p. y.clf Camera. cylinder.CHAPTER 2. See also mesh. uv = C. mkcube. Camera. Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.hold.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. T ‘Tcam’. y.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. z. The matrices x. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C.

N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are defined by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. Camera. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clf Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current figure. T ‘scale’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.CHAPTER 2. T See also Camera.hold. ‘Tobj’. ‘Tcam’.T. Camera. Options ‘Tcam’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Overrides the current camera pose C.mesh. ‘fps’. Camera.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.

The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. that is. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.y]. y) sets the camera attitude to the specified roll-pitch-yaw angles.rpy Set camera attitude C.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.p. C. The image is not inverted. a subclass of Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(R. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline flowfield visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix field of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical flow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

C Camera matrix C = C. CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.CHAPTER 2. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and v-axes parallel to x.Soatto.and y-axes respectively.F. J. S ‘noise’. Reference Y. “An invitation to 3D”. E = C. CatadioptricCamera.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (first view) and C2 (second view). D ‘distortion-bouguet’.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. optical axis is z-axis.8]) See also Camera.E Essential matrix E = C. The first view is from the current camera pose C. CentralCamera. u.CHAPTER 2. T ‘color’. D ‘default’ ‘image’.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . fisheyecamera. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. N ‘sensor’.Sastry.Kosecka. S ‘centre’. F ‘distortion’.Ma. P ‘pixel’. SIGMA ‘pose’. IM ‘resolution’.177 See also CentralCamera. 2003. S. S.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. N ‘focal’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. E = C. 10um pixels. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. p. f=8mm. camera at origin.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. Springer.

2003. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.H CentralCamera. F = C.H Homography matrix H = C. Reference Y. n.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. S.CHAPTER 2. “An invitation to 3D”.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. Springer.Kosecka. J. See also CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.Ma.Sastry.E CentralCamera.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. S.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (first view) and C2 (second view).K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. The first view is from the current camera pose C. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. The first view is from the current camera pose C. from two viewpoints.F Fundamental matrix F = C.H(T.Soatto. p.

81. Int. vol. Journal on Computer Vision. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. and P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Feb. pp. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. a = C. 155-166. Fua. F.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. V.CHAPTER 2. Moreno-Noguer. 2009.estpose(xyz. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. Lepetit. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object defined by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C.fov Camera field-of-view angles.flowfield Optical flow C.fov() are the field of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions.flowfield(v) displays the optical flow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).

See also CentralCamera. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. s. J. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. s. p116.Sastry. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. 2003. Springer.Ma.invE(E. s.Kosecka.Kosecka. “An invitation to 3D”. section 5. p.Sastry.Soatto. Springer. Chap 9. Reference Y. 2003.CHAPTER 2.E CentralCamera. translation not to scale • n. J. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. “Multiview Geometry”. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). “An invitation to 3D”.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ma.Soatto. 259 Y.

p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. one per line. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). CentralCamera.H CentralCamera.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.CHAPTER 2.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot epiline(f. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. H = C. p. ‘Tcam’. See also Hough CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.project(p.

IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.plot CentralCamera. Rives. 313-326. vol. Reference B. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. and P.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . 8. See also Camera. June 1992.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.c.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pp. F.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.b.CHAPTER 2. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. one for each point defined by the columns of p. “Multiview Geometry”. Espiau. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.visjac e(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Chaumette. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

pp 651-670.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. Hutchinson. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.b. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.visjac p.visjac p(uv. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac e CentralCamera. Hager & Corke. vol. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). and P. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera. 8.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. IEEE Trans. Espiau. CentralCamera.visjac p. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). 1996. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p polar.CHAPTER 2. Rives. Reference B. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. R&A. Vol 12(5). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.c. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. See also CentralCamera. Chaumette.visjac l CentralCamera. 313-326. June 1992. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l(L. F. Oct.

I. 2009. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. in Proc.CHAPTER 2. F. Oct. P. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera. and F. CentralCamera. 5962-5967. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features.visjac p. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Int.visjac l. radius and theta.visjac p polar(rt. Louis).visjac l. CentralCamera. pp. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. (St. Corke. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. Chaumette. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.visjac e CentralCamera. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). Spindler. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.

Journal on Computer Vision. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.Lowe. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. pp. Nov. PointFeature. 2004. See README. Int. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. See also isift.91-110.CHAPTER 2. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.60. ScalePointFeature.SIFT. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. D.

SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale Plot feature scale F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. F. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates.match Match SIFT point features m = F.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. v. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. strength) as above but with specified strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. 1=opaque. C ‘alpha’. See also isift SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support Support region of feature out = F.support(im.support(images. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. w) as above but the support region is displayed. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.support(images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.T] = F. out = F.support(im. [out.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

fisheyecamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. Overrides the current camera pose C.T. Options ‘name’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project(p.CHAPTER 2.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T ‘Tcam’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. N ‘pixel’. See also SphericalCamera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. S ‘pose’.

sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . image plane size and desired feature locations. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. scalar for If null take actual value all points. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.depth of points to use for Jacobian. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera.5) target center .center of the target in world coords (0.gain. camera pose. The camera view.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . Jacobian condition number.01) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The camera view. error norm. error.CHAPTER 2. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. defaults in parentheses: target size . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. of 4-vector. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.the side length of the target in world units (0.0. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. The external view.

scalar for If null take actual value all points.5) target center .3) niter eterm lambda ci depth .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . Corke. error norm.gain. of 4-vector.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . IEEE Int. pp.the side length of the target in world units (0. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). May 3-7 2010.visjac p(pt. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.depth of points to use for Jacobian. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2. P. The external view. camera pose. image plane size and desired feature locations. in Proc.visjac l.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar.CHAPTER 2. Jacobian condition number. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. error. Robotics and Automation. CentralCamera. (Anchorage).center of the target in world coords (0.01) .0. 5550-5555. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. See also CentralCamera. for all points. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Conf. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. I. defaults in parentheses: target size . The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar.

3. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Luc Van Gool. 346–359. Vol.CHAPTER 2. Tinne Tuytelaars. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 110. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. pp. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Andreas Ess. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. No. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.

v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. Options ‘thresh’. strength) as above but with specified strength. f = PointFeature(u. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. v. f = PointFeature(u.C] = F. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. ScalePointFeature.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.CHAPTER 2.match(f2. [m. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.match Match SURF point features m = F. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.

support Support region of feature out = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.CHAPTER 2. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. F. 0=transparent (default 0.support(images.support(im.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F.T] = F. C ‘alpha’. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F.2) SurfPointFeature. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(images. out = F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support(im. 1=opaque. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.

Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.axis. • The specified ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. S ‘resolution’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. G ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video AxisWebCamera. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.CHAPTER 2.com).com) web camera. otherwise the result is not predictable.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A. Notes • Some web cameras have a fixed picture taking interval.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. See also AxisWebCamera. AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.char Convert to string A.close() closes the connection to the web camera.display AxisWebCamera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.

b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters specified The number of stop words specified The number of images in the bag Reference J. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.org). b = BagOfWords(f. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in Proc. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. pp. Conf.Sivic and A.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. on Computer Vision. Oct. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. f can also be a cell array. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. 2003.1470-1477. Ninth IEEE Int.CHAPTER 2.Zisserman.

char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.CHAPTER 2.exemplars display exemplars of words B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = B. BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords. BagOfWords.char BagOfWords. images. isurf BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.exemplars(w. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words specified by the vector w.contains Find images containing word k = B.display Display value B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.

If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. M ‘width’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.remove stop Remove stop words B.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.n] = B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. N ‘maxperimage’. BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B.

subclass of Camera.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity. Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the first call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Camera CatadioptricCamera.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

CHAPTER 2. SIGMA ‘pose’. fisheyecamera. ‘equisolid’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. S ‘noise’. u. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S ‘centre’. See also Camera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sine’. P ‘pixel’. optical axis is z-axis. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CatadioptricCamera. A ‘resolution’. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). T ‘Tcam’. N ‘focal’. K ‘maxangle’.and y-axes respectively. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. camera at origin. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. 10um pixels.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. See also Camera. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. M ‘k’.T. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.and v-axes parallel to x. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. f=8mm. N ‘sensor’.project(p.

Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. See also PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. such as ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. SurfPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.

Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. See also PointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. f2. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Convert to string s = M.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value M. SurfPointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. one per element. m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.

inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run. See also FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier.v2].v1. FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.u2.outlier.ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.CHAPTER 2.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.

FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. These are the (u. These are the (u. for example by: idisp({im1.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2. FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.im2}) m.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current figure.p FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.CHAPTER 2.plot() M.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p1.FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. The figure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.

Example f1 = isurf(im1). See also fmatrix. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. f2 = isurf(im2). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to fit the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.match(f2). homography. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the figure. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. m = f1. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. 1e-4). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and an error is created if this UserData is not found. ransac FeatureMatch.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac Apply RANSAC M.CHAPTER 2.ransac( @fmatrix. m.ransac(func.

Y This camera model assumes central projection.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. v.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.CHAPTER 2. The image is not inverted. that is. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a fisheye lense projection camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf figure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test figure hold for image plane clear image plane figure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with specified parameters. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . camera at origin. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘sine’. P ‘pixel’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.FishEyeCamera Create fisheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a fisheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. S ‘centre’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. ‘equisolid’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. N ‘sensor’. optical axis is z-axis.and y.and v-axes are parallel to x. f=8mm. SIGMA ‘pose’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. M ‘k’. Options ‘name’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. S ‘noise’. 10um pixels. K ‘resolution’. u.axes respectively. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).CHAPTER 2.

See also FishEyeCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tobj’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not specified it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally fills the square image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CentralCamera.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for finding lines in an image using a voting scheme.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project(p. T ‘Tcam’. See also Camera.

Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E.0) and the line.CHAPTER 2. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). The voting array is 2-dimensional.H). For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. See also LineFeature Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. A horizontal line has theta = 0.

5) Set ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. N All edge pixels have equal weight.houghThresh (default 0.CHAPTER 2.edgeThresh (default 0. Hough.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. W ‘houghthresh’. Hough.edgeThresh. See also Hough.char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘nbins’. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. T ‘suppress’.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. else N = [Ntheta.1). Set ht.display Display value HT. Default 400 × 401. Nrho]. T ‘edgethresh’. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.

lines Hough. HT. See also Hough. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The highest peak is found. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.lines Find lines L = HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value. then all elements in an HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot(n. The process is repeated for all peaks. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.plot Plot line features HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current figure. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. L = HT. LineFeature Hough. H = HT. See also Hough.CHAPTER 2.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. refined to subpixel precision.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current figure.plot.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.

Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. RegionFeature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.

L = LineFeature(rho. LineFeature. strength) is a line feature object with the specified properties.CHAPTER 2. theta. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. length) is a line feature object with the specified properties. theta.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. strength.char Convert to string s = L.display Display value L. L = LineFeature(rho. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. LENGTH is undefined. LineFeature. See also LineFeature.

See also icanny LineFeature.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels. l2 = L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identifies lines but cannot determine their length. less than gap pixels are tolerated.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.seglength(edge. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.CHAPTER 2. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).plot Plot line L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L. LineFeature.plot() overlay the line on current plot. L.points Return points on line segments p = L. Small gaps. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

close Close the image source M.close() closes the connection to the movie.com). options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie file file. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(file.char Convert to string M. Movie.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Movie. G ‘scale’.axis. S ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie file A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

F Skip frames.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be specified. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.CHAPTER 2. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. S ‘frame’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . undirected graph create an n-d.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. planar.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M.

v2) g.distance(v1.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.component(v) g.add edge(v1.connectivity() g.clear() add vertex. Object properties (read/write) g.path(v) set goal vertex.add node(coord.add node(coord) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.next(v) g. v) g.goal(v) g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .cost(e) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.CHAPTER 2.neighbours(v) g.plot() g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.coord(v) g.edges(e) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow flies g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.

PGraph. and returns the edge id E. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d.add node(x. Options ‘distance’. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.add node(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. v2. v = G.add edge(v1. PGraph. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E = G.add edge(v1. v. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. where x is D × 1. and returns the node id v. v = G.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph. D × 1.char Convert graph to string s = G. and the distance d. PGraph. of node id v.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph.coord(v) return coordinate vector.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.clear Clear the graph G.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. [v. PGraph. edges and components.coord Coordinate of node x = G.closest Find closest node v = G.d] = G. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost
Cost of edge
C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display
Display state of the graph
G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also
PGraph.char

PGraph.distance
Distance between nodes
d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances
distance to all nodes
d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

67

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.edges
Find edges given vertex
E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal
Set goal node
G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also
PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours
Neighbours of a node
n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next
Find next node toward goal
v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also
PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

68

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.path
Find path to goal node
p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously specified goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also
PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick
Graphically select a node
v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also
PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot
Plot the graph
G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current figure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options
‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

69

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.showComponent
t
G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex
Highlight a vertex
G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices
Find vertices given edge
v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that define edge E.

PointFeature
PointCorner feature object
A superclass for image corner features.

Methods
plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

70

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

SiftPointFeature PointFeature. PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.display Display value F.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. SurfPointFeature. See also ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. PointFeature. v. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. f = PointFeature(u. strength) as above but with specified strength. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. one per element. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F.

CHAPTER 2.match Match point features m = F. [m.C] = F.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance. where 1 is perfect match. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.match(f2.match(f2.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. PointFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.char PointFeature.

one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Polygon .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot Plot feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char String representation s = P.html and require a licence. p = Polygon(C. one column per vertex. HEIGHT].Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. difference. Polygon.mit. kirill@plume. Polygon.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.mit.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.edu. Polygon. union.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Pankratov.area() is the area of the polygon. http://puddle. Polygon.area Area of polygon a = P. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH. so use with care.CHAPTER 2. intersection. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.

difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. See also Polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. else 0.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. returns coordinates of P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.char Polygon.display Display polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. each column is [x y]’. returns empty polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .moments Moments of polygon a = P.CHAPTER 2.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Polygon.moments(p.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. See also mpq poly Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. y1 y2].

clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot Plot polygon P. P. Polygon. Polygon.union Union of polygons i = P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.

Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.CHAPTER 2. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. defined by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object defined by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

E] = R. See also Ray3D.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. [x.char Ray3D.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. one per element.E] = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.char Convert to string s = R. [x. Ray3D.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.display Display value R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.CHAPTER 2.

maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.c.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.CHAPTER 2.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. horizontal coordinate centroid. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.0) 1 for a circle. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.b. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.

char Convert to string s = R. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. See also iblobs. RegionFeature.uc will be a list not a vector.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.CHAPTER 2. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. imoments RegionFeature. one per element. RegionFeature. For example R. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. ymax].xmax. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.th] = R.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. ymin.box Return bounding box b = R.

char RegionFeature. R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers.CHAPTER 2. It is indicated with overlaid o. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. See also RegionFeature. R.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.plot boundary plot boundary R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.

If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

1=opaque. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. v. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. strength) as above but with specified strength.plot scale(options. f = ScalePointFeature(u. ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with specified coordinates. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F.CHAPTER 2. v. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. See also PointFeature. scale) as above but with specified feature scale. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. strength. C ‘alpha’. F.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = ScalePointFeature(u.

options) is a new tracker object.CHAPTER 2. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. R ‘nslots’. C. one per active track. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. T ‘movie’. Options ‘radius’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identifier of the track. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identifier and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. N ‘thresh’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential filenames. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. See also PointFeature Tracker. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures.

Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = T. See also Tracker.display Display value T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Tracker.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.

Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Options ‘uint8’ ‘float’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. AxisWebCamera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera specified by the string camera. S ‘resolution’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. and their characteristics is displayed. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with float pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. otherwise the result is not predictable. Movie Video. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. • The specified ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. G ‘scale’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source V. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. Video.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.char Convert to string V.grab() acquires an image from the camera.

and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or field of view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. and the right image is cyan. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. By default the left image is red. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left.CHAPTER 2. if negative it is reduced. color. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). If th1 is a column vector. a = anaglyph(left. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. the second for right. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). right. the first for left. right. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle.

Endpoints must be integer. y1. e) boundmatch Match boundary profiles x = boundmatch(R1. [x. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one profile with respect to the other. 6500).y1) to (x2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].y1] and p2=[x2.y2).s] = boundmatch(R1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. p = bresenham(p1. p2) as above but p1=[x1.y2]. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.boundary. x2. If lambda is a column vector. See also RegionFeature. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . r2) is the correlation of the two boundary profiles R1 and r2.CHAPTER 2. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. % emission of sun plot(l.

The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.Y. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. [C. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.CHAPTER 2. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR filter fitted. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

CHAPTER 2. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Define CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. [k. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows define the coordinates [x. green and blue primaries respectively. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. x = circle(C. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. Options ‘n’. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.d1] = closest(a. that is. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. and x is N × 3. k = closest(a. R.

(Table 1(5.ioo.16). but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs. since. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. while Table I(5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. Notes • Is a MEX file.ucl. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.d2] = closest(a.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. they were measured directly. 19000 (526. As noted in footnote a on p. 335 of Table 1(5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum defined by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. and 22500 (444.5. The data are referred to as pilot data.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d1.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.5.ac.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).32).5. • From Table I(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.CHAPTER 2.

Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].M). out = col2im(pix.uk See also cmfrgb.ucl. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im.ioo.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix.ac. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum defined by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W .

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.CHAPTER 2. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r.g] to every pixel in the color image im. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. The color is specified as a 3-vector (R. eg.G. im<100. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a specified color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. See also imono. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.B). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [L. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.CHAPTER 2. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. out = colorize(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. @isnan. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. func. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.C] = colorkmeans(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. @isnan. k. mask. icolor. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im.

k) as above but also returns the residual R. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color specified by the string name.R] = colorkmeans(im. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.CHAPTER 2. low is good. eg. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the first three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are defined by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. name = colorname(XYZ. XYZ = colorname(name. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color specified by the string name.C. L = colorkmeans(im. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. • The residual is an indication of quality of fit. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. double data is the natural choice. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. im) as above but specifies separate output channels or planes. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.i3) as above but specifies separate input channels. i1. Input and output images have 3 planes. • Color space names are case insensitive.txt. s = ‘src->dest’. [o1. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. it can be omitted.i2. colorspace(s. or alternatively.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. As MATLAB’s native datatype. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. s = ‘dest<-src’.CHAPTER 2. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.o3] = colorspace(s.o2. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which specifies the source and destination color spaces.

like a colormap. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . d = distance(A.CHAPTER 2. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.100). colorspace will first cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. Example A = rand(400.200).J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). • If im is an M × 3 array. out will also have size M × 3.B). B = rand(400. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively.2*A. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. However. for memory and computational performance.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.3. but the direction of edge following is specified. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. non zero is counter-clockwise. The result E is a matrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.(+31)20-5257524. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. University of Amsterdam. not image frame. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.CHAPTER 2. Tested: PC Matlab v5. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. bunschot@wins. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. non-zero is an object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uva. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. in matrix coordinate frame. • The seed point is always the first element of the returned edgelist.y). Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. tel. seed. E = edgelist(im.j).

S. Points are specified by the columns of p. p. p. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1998. p1. I. epiline(f. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. one per line drawn.CHAPTER 2. See also epiline. Oct 27. Author Based on fmatrix code by. Coimbra. H = epiline(f. p) draws epipolar lines in current figure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3).R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. See also fmatrix. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2.

School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. p2. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. epiline.edu.csse. • Contains a RANSAC driver. homography. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’.au/. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. The University of Western Australia. c. it is singular. If w is not specified it defaults to 2*sigma. See also ransac. page 270. • f is a rank 2 matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • The points must be corresponding.uwa. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. which means it can be passed to ransac(). no outlier rejection is performed. that is. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. http://www.

y2). Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. See also imorph. itriplepoint. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x2. y1.y1) and (x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. ithin.CHAPTER 2. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. no outlier rejection is performed. http://www.uwa. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . which means it can be passed to ransac(). See also ransac. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object.csse.au/. Notes • The points must be corresponding. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.CHAPTER 2. The University of Western Australia. invhomog.edu.

itrim. S ‘dimension’. D ‘size’. im. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. [out. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘roi’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. S output image contains all the warped pixels.offs] = homwarp(H. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as defined by the first two dimensions. im. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the specified ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. that is tp=T*T1.CHAPTER 2. ie. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. R ‘scale’. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. See also homography. See also e2h.

The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. IT-8:pp. IRE Trans. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 179-187. ’nfeat’. features. 1962. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ianimate(seq. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. features. ’gs’). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. 200). Hu. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). ianimate(im. on Information Theory.

iblobs features f = iblobs(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.CHAPTER 2. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). isurf. N ‘only’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. YMIN YMAX]. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. iharris. M ‘npoints’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’.

The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im.CHAPTER 2.0) 1 for a circle. ilabel.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. default 1. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. C set connectivity. vertical coordinate bounding box. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. [A1. A set pixel aspect ratio. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. [S1. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0 ‘connect’.

Tel Aviv University. 1996-7. se. See also iopen.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also isobel. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. This is an dilation followed by erosion. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. out = iclose(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. S ‘th0’. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. T ‘th1’.

Options ‘dir’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. D ‘bgval’.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. colorize. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be specified. [0 1 1]). [C. See also imono.CHAPTER 2.u] = iconcat(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. C = icolor(im. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justified • In horizontal mode all images are top justified See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. im2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to first character. options) convolves im1 with im2.

• If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R ‘nfeat’. S ‘deriv’. E ‘suppress’. K ‘patch’. CM ‘cminthresh’. D ‘sigma’. CT ‘edgegap’. N ‘detector’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. D ‘k’. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features.

• “Finding corners”. See also PointFeature. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Harris and M. C. p2. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. vol. with a delay of 0.6.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. IEEE Computer Society. pp 147-151. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. J. where * denotes squared and smoothed. pp.d] = icp(p1.CHAPTER 2. Proc. with a delay of d [sec].121-128. • The descriptor is a vector of float types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Shi and C. May 1988.5 [sec]. Manchester. Stephens. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.G. Proc. • “Good features to track”. T ‘distthresh’. Options ‘dplot’.Noble. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. N ‘mindelta’. Image and Vision Computing. pp. 1994.. 593-593. [T. 1988. T ‘maxiter’. J. Tomasi.J. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1.

2.Besl and H. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. See also iscale. 14. s = idecimate(im.. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 1992. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Mach. Pattern Anal. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .or 3-dimensional.CHAPTER 2. m. pp. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. m. each plane is decimated. vol. no. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.McKay. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. 239-256. Intell. IEEETrans. P. Feb. s = idecimate(im.

linear profile. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. XY ‘colormap’. The image is displayed in a figure with a toolbar across the top. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. positive is blue. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. negative is red. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. histogram and zooming.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘ncolors’. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which defines the zoomed view. highlights fine structure color map: greyscale unsigned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. C ‘xydata’.and y-axes respectively. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘flatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that specifies the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is black. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The “line” button allows two points to be specified and a new figure displays intensity along a line between those points. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new figure. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. negative is red. they are first concatenated (horizontally). darker than ‘grey’. zero is white color map: random values. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. positive is blue. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to file F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make figure very wide. zero is white. If the image is zoomed. If im is a cell array of images.

colormap. See also image. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. See also iblobs. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a specific class. idisplabel(im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is specified by bg in the range 0 to 1. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. icolorize. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. labels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the first and last element of the color map. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. caxis. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. labelimage. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. labelimage.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. ithin. out = igamma(im. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value.45. See also itriplepoint.2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.CHAPTER 2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.

L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 167181. P. 2004. Example im = iread(’58060. 0. pp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. Felzenszwalb and D. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im.m] = igraphseg(im. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. vol. k. 2006.jpg’). sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. [L. min is the minimum region size (pixels). min. Notes • Is a MEX file Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. Sept. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 59. k.5). See also ithresh.CHAPTER 2.5). Int. L = igraphseg(im. k is the scale parameter. min.m] = igraphseg(im. 1500. idisp(im) Reference “Efficient graph-based image segmentation”. Huttenlocher. Journal on Computer Vision. k. [l. 100. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0.

[h.h). ’normcdf’).CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. plot(x.x] = ihist(im). options) is the image histogram as a column vector. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a floating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For floating point images all NaN and Inf values are first removed.x] = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane.h). • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. [H. options) displays the image histogram. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. bar(x.

where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.y1) and bottom-right (x2. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.m. ii is a precomputed integral image.CHAPTER 2. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. same size as im. [L. y1.y2). The floating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. [L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Region labels are in the range 1 to M.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region defined by its top-left (x1. x1. y2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.

p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.maxlabel. otherwise it does not. p1.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. 8). Notes • Is a MEX file. p1. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v.parents. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.maxlabel. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .class. p2. iprofile.Y]. ilabel(im.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. out = iline(im. each a 2-vector [X. See also iblobs.parents. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. [L.CHAPTER 2. The pixels on the line are set to 1. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. • This is a “low level” function. eg. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im.

and y-offsets relative to (x. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y). s. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. im2. [xm.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. and columns the vertical position. ymax] relative to (x. The return value is xm=[DX.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Is a MEX file. • im1 and im2 must be the same size.y) and its half-width is H. xmax. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. ymin. s] % relative to (x.DY) are the x.DY. im2. • ZNCC matching is used. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. y. x.y). -s. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.CC] where (DX. x. The template in im1 is centred at (x. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y) and of size s. w2.CHAPTER 2. y. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. a perfect match score is 1. centred at (x. H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).score] = imatch(im1.

v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.v] = imeshgrid(w. f = imoments(u. [u. f = imoments(u.u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.u) = u and v(v. All pixels are equally weighted. H) as above but the domain is w × H. effectively a greyscale image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v. effectively a binary image. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. [u. The element u(v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H].CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.

• This function does not perform connectivity. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Different conversion functions are supported. horizontal coordinate centroid. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m02.CHAPTER 2. m11. See also RegionFeature. m10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. icolor. m20. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. or its area. m01.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ilabel. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used first. the elements are m00. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels.

Chum. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX file Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. ’grey’. 2004. se. vol. 22. Image and Vision Computing. ’light’). O. and T.m] = imser(im.png’. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. 761767. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Pajdla.org). [label. J. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.CHAPTER 2. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.m] = imser(im. The labels [L. Matas. m. Urban. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. pp. ’double’). Sept.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.ˆ2). igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image.

n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.CHAPTER 2. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. n. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as specified by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. sides. This is an erosion followed by dilation. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also iclose. se. sides. out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v.

im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 10. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ’tblr’. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im.CHAPTER 2.V]. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ’t’. im2. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. otherwise im2 is selected. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. 20. im1. p.

See also bresenham. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to find points along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.CHAPTER 2. [p.uv] = iprofile(im. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iprofile Extract pixels along a line v = iprofile(im. p1. p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. order. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . op. sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. out = ipyramid(im. se). op.5)). 1. se. idecimate. out = imorph(image. im > irank(im. ones(5. se. See also iscalespace. hence output image had reduced dimensions. 12. nbins. The highest rank. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.CHAPTER 2. se(2. is order=1. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be specified. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. se) is a rank filtered version of im. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. out = imorph(image. the maximum. out = ipyramid(im. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median filter: irank(im. ismooth irank Rank filter out = irank(im.2) = 0. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled.3). 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma.

R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision floating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. iwindow iread Read image from file im = iread() presents a file selection GUI from which the user can select an image file which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. where R=[umin umax. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. See also imorph. R ‘roi’. options) reads the specified file and returns a matrix. ivar. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. return an image with double precision floating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. im = iread(file. Wildcards are allowed in file names. If multiple files match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. G ‘reduce’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX file. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin vmax].CHAPTER 2. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. im1. homwarp. igamma.h2] = irectify(f. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW).out2. im1. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. m. imwrite. m. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. im2) is a rectified pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. Notes • Color images are not supported.CHAPTER 2.h1. imono. See also FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. [out1. istereo.out2] = irectify(f.

options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. Options ‘outsize’. See also idisp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.vmax]. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S ‘extrapval’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. angle. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. [out.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.vmin vmax]. V ‘smooth’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.H] return central part of image. vmin.umax.

See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s<1 makes it smaller.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. bias<0. while bias>0. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. bias=0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 is symmetric cropping. im2. V ‘smooth’. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im.CHAPTER 2.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. Options ‘outsize’. s>1 makes the image larger. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is defined with respect to a z-axis into the image. s ‘extrapval’. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. See also iscalespace. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . idecimate. n.L. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [g. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). n) as above but sigma=1. in space and scale. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.s] = iscalespace(im.L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales.s] = iscalespace(im.CHAPTER 2. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. corresponding to each step of the sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. The first step in the sequence is the original image. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians.

‘valid’) as above. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ismooth. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ilaplace. that is. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. else false (0). klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. See also isrot.CHAPTER 2. it its third dimension is equal to three. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. ishomog(T.

60. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. pp. 91-110. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • ISURF is a functional equivalent.CHAPTER 2. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .vlfeat. See also SiftPointFeature. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • Wraps a MEX file from www. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. 2 (2004). International Journal of Computer Vision. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • Features are returned in descending strength order. isurf. Lowe. N ‘suppress’. Reference David G.

d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. @zsad.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. and these output pixels are set to NaN. • The ZNCC function is a MEX file and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. [w. s is same size as im. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. im. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. sad.H. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. zsad.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. ssd. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. ncc. @ssd. zssd. s = isimilarity(T. @zssd. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. See also imatch. [w. metric) as above but the similarity metric is specified by the function metric which can be any of @sad. @ncc.CHAPTER 2. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

[gx. See also iconv. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. convolved. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gx. sigma. then converted back to integer. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image.gy] = isobel(im. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to float.

icanny. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. the disparity d=d(v. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). imr. See also ksobel. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. range.u).CHAPTER 2. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. [d.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. H is the half size of the matching window. else false (0). ‘valid’) as above. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. range. range is the disparity search range. imr. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. H. That is. w.u) means that imr(v. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.M] for an N × M window. isrot(R. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ishomog.sim] = istereo(iml. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX.

[d. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.sim. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. w. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. [d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B. range. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). 3) See also irectify.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.5). imr. That is. M ‘interp’ string that specifies the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). ‘ncc’. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.5 to +0.p] = istereo(iml.sim. p.dsi] = istereo(iml. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. dx. range.A and p. • sim = max(dsi. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefficients. p. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. imr. Options ‘metric’.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. w. out = istretch(im.CHAPTER 2. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A.

Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. T ‘octaves’. N ‘thresh’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature.CHAPTER 2. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. • Wraps an M-file implementation of OpenSurf by D. are first converted to greyscale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. or sequences. Twente) or a MEX-file OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Notes • Color images. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. Kroon (U.

isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 346–359. either a row. Tinne Tuytelaars. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. See also ishomog. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). isvec(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. isift. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. Andreas Ess. See also hitormiss.CHAPTER 2. 3.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. itriplepoint.or columnvector. 110. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Vol. Otherwise false (0). Luc Van Gool. else false (0). pp. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. No. out = ithin(im.

5. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. Notes • Greyscale image only. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. a lower value will include more.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. It assumes that the undefined pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.im2. • For a floating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.out2] = itrim(im1. See also homwarp.CHAPTER 2. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. ithresh(im. When images are rectified or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. The default is 0.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. The same cropping is applied to each input image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold.out2] = itrim(im1. [out1.

se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. op.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. op) is an image where each output pixel is the specified statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. See also iendpoint. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX file. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. ithin. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.

See also ivar. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. @std). ones(5. func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the specified function handle func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. ones(3. hence output image had reduced dimensions. Notes • Is a MEX file. The neighbourhood is defined by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. out = iwindow(image. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.5).3). irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @max). the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. se. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.

kdog. • The vertical derivative. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. k = kdgauss(sigma. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. is k’. ktriangle. See also kgauss. dG/dx. dG/dy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. klog. H) as above but the half-width is explictly specified.CHAPTER 2.s) as above but s is explicitly specified. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. See also ones. k = kcircle(R.

kdog. k = kdog(sigma1. klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k = kgauss(sigma. See also kdgauss. By default SIGMA2 = 1.6*sigma1. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. See also kgauss. kdgauss. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is specified directly. sigma2. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efficient approximation. H) as above but the half-width H is specified. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. klog.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). H) as above but the kernel half-width is specified.

zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. k = klog(sigma.CHAPTER 2. See also ilaplace. kdog. See also kgauss. kdgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is specified. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. and W=2 × H+1.

C] = kmeans(x. Pattern Recognition Principles. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference Tou and Gonzalez.C] = kmeans(x. and D is the dimension. [L.CHAPTER 2. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. it is assumed to have been completed previously. k. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. L = kmeans(x.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also
isobel

ktriangle
Triangular kernel
k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples
>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also
kcircle

lambda2rg
RGB chromaticity coordinates
rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the specific wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 151

R

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also
cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy
= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for
illumination at the specific wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also
cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum
Load spectrum data
s = loadspectrum(lambda, filename) is spectral data (N × D) from file filename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] specified in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, filename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes
• The file is assumed to have its first column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 152

R

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

luminos
Photopic luminosity function
p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also
rluminos

maxfilt
maximum filter
MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum filter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medfilt, minfilt pic 6/93

medfilt1
Median filter
y = medfilt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median filter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes
• A median filter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing filters.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 153

R

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

s.z] = mkcube(s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. See also cylinder. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that define a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.y. [x. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points.z] = mkcube(s.CHAPTER 2. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. [x. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. symmetric about the origin. options) is a mesh that defines the edges of a cube. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that define the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. The points are the columns of p. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘T’.y. Options ‘T’. ‘edge’.

n) MPLOT(t. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is first data column. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.2)). or y(:.2)). MPLOT(t.xp . the sum of I(x. See also mpq poly.yq . or y(:. y. n) MPLOT(y. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. That is. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p. npq.y). labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. y) MPLOT(t. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is first data column. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and first column is time.CHAPTER 2. y. Subplots are labelled as per the data fields.

upq poly. See also mpq. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in figure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . they are considered to be a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. • If the first and last point in the list are the same.CHAPTER 2. npq poly. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

2. sad. in text segmentation. 20). W. ssd.m.CHAPTER 2. k. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. for example. niblack. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. the height of a character. 1986. -0. Notes • This is an efficient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. • A common choice of k=-0. where W=2*w2+1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. idisp(im >= t). Example t = niblack(im.s] = niblack(im. k. T has the same dimensions as im. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. See also zncc. Prentice-Hall. [T.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.CHAPTER 2. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. That is UPQ(im. See also npq poly.p.0). p. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.q)/MPQ(im.0. p.

so centroids will be still be correct. upq. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. npq. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. mpq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. they are considered as a single vertex. • If the first and last point in the list are the same.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq poly.

xp] = peak(y. x.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Systems. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. N. Jan 1979. [yp. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.i] = peak(y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. otsu IEEE Trans. idisp(im >= t). Example t = otsu(im). Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).

N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. • The interp options fits points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To find minima. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.S points. use peak2(-V). options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. use peak(-V).CHAPTER 2.ij] = peak2(z. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To find minima. N ‘scale’. • The interp options fits points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.S points. Typically choose N to be odd. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. N ‘scale’. [zp. S ‘interp’.

ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. ie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix filter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. If p has three dimensions. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2(p. See also pnmfilt.CHAPTER 2. sub2ind pgmfilt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmfilt(im.

1=solid.CHAPTER 2. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. value pairs that are passed to plot. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. x2.y1. r. ’r’). 5). PLOT BOX(’topleft’. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ’LineWidth’.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. W. PLOT BOX(x1.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. r. W. plot_circle(c. Matlab color spec transparency of the filled circle: 0=transparent. ls) draws a box defined by b=[XL XR.y2). ’b’). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ‘r’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ‘g:’) for a non-filled circle. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ’g’. r. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘fillcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. PLOT BOX(’centre’. P. P. ‘size’. ’edgecolor’. plot_circle(c. Examples plot_circle(c. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. or a set of name.y1) and (x2. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ‘size’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ’fillcolor’.y2. R.

ls) as above but centred at C=[X. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) ls is the standard line styles. xc. If C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. Options ‘color’. centred at the origin.Y]. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. C. ls) draws an ellipse defined by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. current plot. with Matlab line style ls.Y.CHAPTER 2. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. c Specify color of the axes. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . to ‘view’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. fmt. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. n ‘text opts’. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. ls) draws a line in the current figure L. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. ’color’. ’r’.X = 0. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. ‘framename’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line.CHAPTER 2. ’color’. Options ‘textcolor’. ‘printf’. ’r’). trplot( T. ’name’. Matlab line specification ls can be set. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. options) adds point markers to a plot. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L.

• The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. color) add spheres to the current figure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . NOTES • The sphere is always added. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot.CHAPTER 2. 1=solid. R. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. either a letter or 3-vector. See also plot. R. R. alpha) as above but alpha specifies the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of figure hold state. The default is 1. patch. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. options ‘fill’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. Matlab color spec transparency of the filled circle: 0=transparent. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. options) plot a polygon defined by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. color.

plot2 pnmfilt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmfilt(im. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also pgmfilt. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix filter program and returns its output as an image. plotp(p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.CHAPTER 2. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format.

gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.gt] = radgrad(im.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. centre) as above but the centre of the image is specified as centre=[X. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.

ransac classifies Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best fit the model described by the function func and the parameter m. d) as above but elements increment by d. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T. N ‘maxDataTrials’.in] = ransac(func. options) as above but returns the final residual of applying func to the inlier set. x typically contains corresponding point data. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T is a threshold on how well a point fits the estimated. one column per point pair.CHAPTER 2. T. x. x. [m.in. x. if the fit residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.resid] = ransac(func. T. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly fits data x to the model represented by the function func. Options ‘maxTrials’. [m.

inlier.misc private data (cell array) out. Mach. Vol 24.theta] = ERR(R. Fishler and R.CHAPTER 2. pp 381-395.resid] = EST(R.theta is a cell array.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. If this function cannot fit a model then out. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta to the points R. No 6.A. Boles.resid model fit residual (1 × 1) The values of R.x. If multiple models are found out. that is.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x = CONDITION(R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x) condition the point data out.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R..R.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out.misc element. Assoc.x.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.t threshold (1 × 1) R. Cambridge University Press.theta) decondition the estimated model data out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . References • m. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.out.theta. [out. For efficiency the data is conditioned once.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Comp.theta = DECONDITION(R.theta.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. Comm. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. pp 101-113. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out.C.x) returns the best fit model and residual for the subset of points R.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. they detect a structure argument.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.x and returns the best model out. that is they will produce a model. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta and the subset of R. [out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.theta = [].s out.out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.x data to work on.

au/ pk See also fmatrix. If lambda is a vector. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.edu.uwa.CHAPTER 2. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2. See also rotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty. See also rotx. rotz. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . roty. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.

Y. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. If roll. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the specified roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. See also tr2rpy. T = rpy2tr(roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Z axes respectively. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. • many texts (Paul.CHAPTER 2. pitch. pitch. yaw. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch.

tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. theta) as above where xy=[x. and rotation theta in the plane. y. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.y.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. See also zsad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. r2t.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. ncc.

sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. Two cross-hairs are created.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. See also zsdd. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1.

foo = true. c. opt. opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). ’that’.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. varargin) opt. opt.bar = false. then R is 3 × 3. It supports options that have an assigned value.CHAPTER 2. b.choose = {’this’. then R is 2 × 2. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. The software pattern is: function(a. ’other’}. tr2rt. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. – If T is 3 × 3.blah = []. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

N sets opt <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are specified then opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a field. x. varargin).select = {’#no’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are specified then opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.1.choose <.foo <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a field of opt an error is declared.CHAPTER 2.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. varargin). w.choose <.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.select <. args) creates a test pattern image. The image is specified by the string type and one or two (type specific) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).‘this’. The return structure is automatically populated with fields: verbose and debug. If neither of ‘this’.y ‘that’ sets opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the field names.3 ‘blah’.blah <. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. opt = tb_optparse(opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. ’#yes’}. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.verbose <. 3 sets opt.y sets opt.foo <.debug <.blah <.select <.x. The allowable options are specified by the names of the fields in the structure opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.false ‘blah’.true sets opt. N ‘setopt’.

args are dot pitch (distance between centres). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 50. [s.sdd] = tpoly(s0. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. args is the number of cycles. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction.sd. args is the number of cycles. 256. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. square side length. args is the number of cycles. sd and sdd are n-vectors.CHAPTER 2. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. dot diameter. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args are pitch (distance between centres). 25). The trajectory s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. binary dot pattern.sd. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sf. T) as above but specifies the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. a line. 256. intercept. args are theta (rad). 2). sf. binary square pattern.

See also angvec2r. [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Y and Z axes respectively. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Notes • If no output arguments are specified the result is displayed. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T.P.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.CHAPTER 2.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. The 3 angles rpy=[R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.

z]. ie. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.y. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.CHAPTER 2. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. – If TR is 3 × 3. y.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. r2t. See also rt2tr. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul.:. If T has three dimensions. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also rpy2tr. • The validity of R is not checked.

The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. or x and y. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. [c1. [o1.CHAPTER 2. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). An historical anomaly.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. each N × 1.

Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . troty. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent finite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2.

l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. f ‘label’. trotx. trprint T is the command line form of above. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. trotx. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. and displays in RPY format. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz.

tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(y-y0)q where (x0. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the sum of I(x.y). mpq. That is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2rpy. p.CHAPTER 2.y0) is the centroid. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero.(x-x0)p . Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. See also upq poly.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly
Central polygon moments
m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes
• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the first and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also
upq, mpq poly, npq poly

usefig
a named figure or create a new figure
usefig(’Foo’) make figure ‘Foo’ the current figure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = usefig(’Foo’) as above, but returns the figure handle

vex
Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector
v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 185

R

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes
• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also
skew

xaxis
X-axis scaling
xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace
Display spectral locus
xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes
• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 186

R

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also
rg addticks

yaxis
Y-axis scaling
yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross
Zero-crossing detector
iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes
• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also
ilog

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 187

R

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. ncc. See also sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also ncc. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to affine changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). ssd. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. sad.CHAPTER 2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.

isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. sad. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. See also sdd. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful