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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. is open-source. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. However the book “Robotics. This is extravagant on storage. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and I commend it to you. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual.

. . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 1. . . PGraph . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . 1. CentralCamera . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . iconcat . . e2h . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . isamesize . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . ismooth . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . iread . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

no matter how urgent or important they might be to you. tutors.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1.com. That’s what you your teachers.google. You need to signup in order to post.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. lecturers and professors are paid to do. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. and you will be suitably acknowledged.

6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Corke}.3. 1.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. Volume = {12}.1. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).html on a server for class use. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1. Author = {P.gz) or zip format (.I. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot. Number = {4}. 1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.petercorke. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1. Year = {2005}. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. the table of content to functions. The details are @article{Corke05f. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.zip). The ﬁle robot.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. type of organization and application.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. and the “See also” functions to each other. Month = nov.

Corke. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.7 Acknowledgements Last. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. P. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. MSER.1. Twente.S. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 1. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. and there are hundreds of modules available. Vincent Lepetit. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. VLFeat http://www..com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. but not least. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. pp 16–25. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.vlfeat. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.Functions such as SURF.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. 1994 University of British Columbia.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB.7. 12(4). INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.I.R. November 2005.6. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. Coimbra.mathworks. 1. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. Options ‘name’. S ‘centre’. N ‘sensor’. S ‘noise’. SIGMA ‘pose’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.CHAPTER 2. P ‘pixel’. N ‘image’. Camera. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. used by all subclasses.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. IM ‘resolution’. T ‘color’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object.

CatadioptricCamera. Camera.delete Camera object destructor C.display Display value C. Camera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera Camera.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = C.centre Get camera position p = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. ﬁsheyecamera.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.

Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. See also Camera.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).v + c = 0.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.u + b.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.char Camera. otherwise false (0).ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. Camera. and off if H is false (or 0). C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘Tobj’. Camera. y.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.clf Camera. The matrices x. sphere. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Camera. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. See also mesh.hold. Camera. y.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. uv = C. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.mesh(x.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).plot.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.plot Plot points on image plane C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. z. y. mkcube.T. Camera. z to the image plane and plots them. T ‘Tcam’. cylinder. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x.CHAPTER 2.plot(p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘Tobj’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Camera. ‘Tcam’.mesh. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.CHAPTER 2. T See also Camera. T ‘scale’.T. Camera.hold.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. Camera. Overrides the current camera pose C. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘fps’.clf Camera.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y].rpy Set camera attitude C. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.p.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. a subclass of Camera. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.CHAPTER 2. that is. C. The image is not inverted.rpy(R.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

• Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C Camera matrix C = C. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera.

and y-axes respectively.E Essential matrix E = C. P ‘pixel’.F.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. F ‘distortion’. 10um pixels. Springer. 2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. E = C.Soatto. S. T ‘color’. S ‘centre’. D ‘default’ ‘image’.CHAPTER 2. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. p. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. camera at origin.and v-axes parallel to x.Sastry.Kosecka. IM ‘resolution’. CatadioptricCamera. ﬁsheyecamera. J. N ‘sensor’. Reference Y.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). optical axis is z-axis.Ma. u.8]) See also Camera. CentralCamera. SIGMA ‘pose’. f=8mm. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. S.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.177 See also CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. E = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. p.CHAPTER 2. Springer. S.Sastry.H CentralCamera. F = C.Kosecka. J. 2003.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. “An invitation to 3D”.H Homography matrix H = C.Ma. Reference Y.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. n.Soatto.F Fundamental matrix F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H(T.177 See also CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. from two viewpoints. S.E CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.

2009. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.estpose(xyz.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. F.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. V. Feb.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Int. CentralCamera. See also quiver CentralCamera. CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 81. pp. and P. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Fua.CHAPTER 2. Moreno-Noguer. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. a = C. 155-166.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Journal on Computer Vision. vol.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. Lepetit.

“An invitation to 3D”. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. 2003.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. “An invitation to 3D”. section 5. Springer. s.Sastry.Kosecka.Soatto. Springer. 2003.invE(E.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Kosecka. translation not to scale • n. “Multiview Geometry”.Ma. s. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2.Ma. J. J. Reference Y. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. 259 Y. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2. p116.Soatto. s.Sastry. Chap 9. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.E CentralCamera. p. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.

p.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.H CentralCamera. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot epiline(f.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. H = C. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot epiline(f. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2.T. one per line. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). C. See also Hough CentralCamera. ‘Tobj’. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. CentralCamera.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. ‘Tcam’. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot epiline(f.project(p. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.

313-326. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. See also Camera. F. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. 8. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 . one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Chaumette. and P. June 1992.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. pp.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Espiau.c.b. Rives.plot CentralCamera. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Reference B. vol.CHAPTER 2.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0.visjac e(E.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Multiview Geometry”.

1996. Hutchinson. 313-326.visjac p polar. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. CentralCamera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Chaumette. Hager & Corke. Oct.visjac p polar. pp.c. R&A. IEEE Trans. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). vol. CentralCamera.visjac p. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Espiau. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.b. F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. See also CentralCamera.visjac p.visjac p(uv. and P. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.visjac l(L. pp 651-670. CentralCamera.visjac l CentralCamera. 8. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points.CHAPTER 2. Vol 12(5). Reference B. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. June 1992.visjac e CentralCamera. Rives. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.

See also CentralCamera. 2009.CHAPTER 2.visjac e CentralCamera. CentralCamera. and F. CentralCamera. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac l. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. I. Chaumette. P.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). (St. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p. 5962-5967.visjac p polar. in Proc. Int. CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point.visjac p polar(rt. radius and theta. pp.visjac l. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. Spindler.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Corke. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Oct. Louis).

Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. Nov.91-110.CHAPTER 2.60. 2004. pp. Journal on Computer Vision. See also isift. Int. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. See README.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. PointFeature. vol. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.Lowe. D. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize.SIFT. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ScalePointFeature.

match Match SIFT point features m = F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. 0=transparent (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. SiftPointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. v.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. C ‘alpha’. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. 1=opaque. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.match(f2.CHAPTER 2.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.plot scale Plot feature scale F.plot scale(options. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = PointFeature(u. See also isift SiftPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.

support(images.support(im.support Support region of feature out = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.T] = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. [out. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. F. out = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

project(p. N ‘pixel’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. T ‘Tcam’. ﬁsheyecamera.project Project world points to image plane pt = C.T. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).CHAPTER 2. S ‘pose’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. See also SphericalCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. CentralCamera. Overrides the current camera pose C. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. Options ‘name’.

params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.CHAPTER 2. camera pose.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.0.gain.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. The external view. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera view.01) . image plane size and desired feature locations. scalar for If null take actual value all points.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth .5) target center . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.the side length of the target in world units (0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera view.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. error norm. error. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .depth of points to use for Jacobian. of 4-vector. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. Jacobian condition number. defaults in parentheses: target size .center of the target in world coords (0. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.

The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . Robotics and Automation.gain. The external view. error norm. of 4-vector.5) target center . camera pose. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Conf. defaults in parentheses: target size . Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. (Anchorage). May 3-7 2010. I.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .center of the target in world coords (0. See also CentralCamera.visjac p polar. error. Jacobian condition number. in Proc.CHAPTER 2. P. image plane size and desired feature locations. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.01) . IEEE Int.visjac l.0.visjac p(pt. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. pp. CentralCamera. for all points. scalar for If null take actual value all points. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. Corke. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .the side length of the target in world units (0.depth of points to use for Jacobian. 5550-5555. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).

CHAPTER 2.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Luc Van Gool. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. pp. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. 346–359. No. Tinne Tuytelaars. 110. 3. Vol. Andreas Ess.

options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. f = PointFeature(u. v. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. Options ‘thresh’. ScalePointFeature.match(f2. [m.match(f2.C] = F.

C ‘alpha’. 1=opaque. [out.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. w) as above but the support region is displayed. F. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.plot scale(options. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.support Support region of feature out = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.support(images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(im. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale Plot feature scale F. out = F.support(images.2) SurfPointFeature. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.T] = F.

Obtain an image of size S=[W H].com). G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. Video AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. otherwise the result is not predictable.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.com) web camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis.

CHAPTER 2.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. AxisWebCamera.display AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A. See also AxisWebCamera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.close() closes the connection to the web camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.char Convert to string A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

1470-1477. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Conf. 2003. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.Zisserman. f can also be a cell array. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”.Sivic and A. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.CHAPTER 2. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. in Proc.org). on Computer Vision. b = BagOfWords(f. Ninth IEEE Int. Oct. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. pp.

images.exemplars display exemplars of words B.contains Find images containing word k = B.char BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.CHAPTER 2.char Convert to string s = B. See also BagOfWords.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf BagOfWords.display Display value B. BagOfWords.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. BagOfWords.exemplars(w.

Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. BagOfWords. M ‘width’.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images. BagOfWords.n] = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag.isword Features from words f = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.remove stop Remove stop words B.CHAPTER 2. N ‘maxperimage’.

The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.

Camera CatadioptricCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

F ‘default’ ‘projection’.and y-axes respectively. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.T. S ‘noise’. CatadioptricCamera. optical axis is z-axis. K ‘maxangle’. See also Camera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. T ‘Tcam’. ‘equisolid’.project(p. S ‘centre’. u. See also Camera. SIGMA ‘pose’. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. f=8mm.CHAPTER 2. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.and v-axes parallel to x. Options ‘Tobj’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. camera at origin.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). ﬁsheyecamera. A ‘resolution’. ‘sine’. M ‘k’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. P ‘pixel’. 10um pixels. N ‘sensor’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. N ‘focal’.

SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SurfPointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. such as ScalePointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the match object. m = FeatureMatch(f1. FeatureMatch. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.display Display value M. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. f2. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. See also PointFeature. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.char Convert to string s = M. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.CHAPTER 2.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. See also FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.

u2.v2].p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.v1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .outlier. FeatureMatch.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.CHAPTER 2.

p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.p1.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.im2}) m. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.plot() M. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. These are the (u. See also FeatureMatch.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. These are the (u.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. for example by: idisp({im1.p2.plot Show corresponding points M.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.p FeatureMatch.

See also fmatrix. f2 = isurf(im2). See also idisp FeatureMatch.ransac( @fmatrix. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. homography.ransac(func. Example f1 = isurf(im1). ransac FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. m. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.match(f2). m = f1. inliers and outliers (and their percentages).ransac Apply RANSAC M.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. 1e-4).

The image is not inverted.CHAPTER 2. v.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. Y This camera model assumes central projection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. that is. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.

optical axis is z-axis. N ‘sensor’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. u. Options ‘name’. S ‘noise’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. 10um pixels.and v-axes are parallel to x. ‘equisolid’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). f=8mm. S ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2.axes respectively. camera at origin.and y. P ‘pixel’. M ‘k’. K ‘resolution’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. SIGMA ‘pose’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘sine’.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘Tcam’.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. See also Camera.project(p.T. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also FishEyeCamera. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. CatadioptricCamera.

Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. A horizontal line has theta = 0. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. See also LineFeature Hough. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).CHAPTER 2. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.0) and the line.H). Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. The voting array is 2-dimensional.

suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Default 400 × 401. T ‘edgethresh’.edgeThresh.CHAPTER 2. else N = [Ntheta.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. See also Hough.houghThresh (default 0.5) Set ht. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. Hough. Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.edgeThresh (default 0. Hough. T ‘suppress’. N All edge pixels have equal weight. W ‘houghthresh’.char Convert to string s = HT.1). Nrho]. W ‘nbins’.display Display value HT. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.

See also Hough.lines Hough.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough. reﬁned to subpixel precision.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects. The process is repeated for all peaks. HT.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.plot(n.plot. L = HT. then all elements in an HT. LineFeature Hough. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. The highest peak is found.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .houghThresh times the maximum vote value.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.plot Plot line features HT.lines Find lines L = HT. HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. H = HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.

PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. RegionFeature. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.

theta.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. strength. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. L = LineFeature(rho.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . LineFeature. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LENGTH is undeﬁned.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.char Convert to string s = L. L = LineFeature(rho. one per element. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. theta.display Display value L. See also LineFeature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines.

plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. L. LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature.seglength(edge. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).plot() overlay the line on current plot. l2 = L. Small gaps.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.CHAPTER 2.plot Plot line L. less than gap pixels are tolerated.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length.points Return points on line segments p = L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.

com). options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. Movie.char Convert to string M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. G ‘scale’.close Close the image source M.axis. S ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. planar. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. Options ‘skip’.CHAPTER 2. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. undirected graph create an n-d. S ‘frame’. F Skip frames.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.

component(v) g. Object properties (read/write) g.clear() add vertex.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .connectivity() g.next(v) g.add node(coord. v2) g.path(v) set goal vertex. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.neighbours(v) g.CHAPTER 2.coord(v) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.plot() g.goal(v) g.add node(coord) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.add edge(v1.cost(e) g.edges(e) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.distance(v1. v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().

add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. v = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add node(x.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add edge(v1.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. PGraph. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge(v1. Options ‘distance’.add node(x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v = G. and returns the node id v. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. where x is D × 1. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. E = G.CHAPTER 2. and returns the edge id E.add node Add a node to the graph v = G. v2. v. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions. PGraph.

[v.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. D × 1.closest Find closest node v = G.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.CHAPTER 2.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. edges and components. PGraph. PGraph. PGraph.d] = G. of node id v.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.char Convert graph to string s = G.coord(v) return coordinate vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and the distance d.clear Clear the graph G.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. f = PointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.char Convert to string s = F. PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also ScalePointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. one per element.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.display Display value F. v.

If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. the norm of the Euclidean distance.match Match point features m = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.char PointFeature.C] = F.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.match(f2. where 1 is perfect match.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .match(f2. Options ‘thresh’. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. [m.

miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot feature F. F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon .

char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form.mit. so use with care. p = Polygon(C. union. Polygon.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.area Area of polygon a = P.edu. HEIGHT].CHAPTER 2. Polygon. difference. Polygon. one column per vertex. Pankratov. kirill@plume.area() is the area of the polygon. intersection.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.html and require a licence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. Polygon.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.char String representation s = P. http://puddle.mit.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P.

Polygon. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false.display Display polygon P.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.difference Difference of polygons d = P. Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). else 0.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. See also Polygon. returns coordinates of P.char Polygon.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

y1 y2]. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. See also mpq poly Polygon.CHAPTER 2. Polygon. each column is [x y]’. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.moments Moments of polygon a = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon.moments(p.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. returns empty polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.plot() plot the polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.CHAPTER 2.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. Polygon. Polygon. P.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot Plot polygon P. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.union Union of polygons i = P.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.CHAPTER 2. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. [x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.display Display value R.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.CHAPTER 2.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.E] = R.char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. one per element.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Ray3D. See also Ray3D.char Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.E] = R. [x.

d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.0) 1 for a circle. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.c. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.b.

RegionFeature. one per element. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.char Convert to string s = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.uc will be a list not a vector. For example R. RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ymax]. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. ymin.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. imoments RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.CHAPTER 2.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.xmax. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.th] = R.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.box Return bounding box b = R. See also iblobs.

display Display value R.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. See also RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . RegionFeature.and xmarkers. R.plot boundary plot boundary R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char RegionFeature.plot Plot centroid R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. R.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

1=opaque.plot scale(options.plot scale Plot feature scale F. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. F. v. C ‘alpha’. See also PointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. 0=transparent (default 0. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.CHAPTER 2. strength. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. SurfPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. ScalePointFeature. v. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

one per active track.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. C. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. N ‘thresh’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. See also PointFeature Tracker. R ‘nslots’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. options) is a new tracker object. Options ‘radius’. T ‘movie’.

display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Convert to string s = T.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.CHAPTER 2.plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker. See also Tracker.char Tracker.display Display value T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot. Tracker.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.

Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. G ‘scale’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Movie Video. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. and their characteristics is displayed. AxisWebCamera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.char Convert to string V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.close Close the image source V.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires an image from the camera.

th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. By default the left image is red. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). The result is in the interval [-pi pi). right.CHAPTER 2. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. and the right image is cyan. color. If th1 is a column vector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. right. if negative it is reduced. a = anaglyph(left. the ﬁrst for left. the second for right. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].s] = boundmatch(R1. % emission of sun plot(l. p2) as above but p1=[x1. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. [x. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. 6500). xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.y2). Endpoints must be integer. If lambda is a column vector.y1] and p2=[x2.CHAPTER 2.y1) to (x2. y1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. See also RegionFeature.boundary. x2. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p = bresenham(p1. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y2]. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other.

The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. [C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Y.CHAPTER 2. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.

Options ‘n’.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. k = closest(a.d1] = closest(a. R. x = circle(C. [k. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. that is. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. green and blue primaries respectively. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. and x is N × 3. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. R.

E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. since. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda.5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. while Table I(5.ucl. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k.d2] = closest(a.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.CHAPTER 2. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). and 22500 (444.d1. • From Table I(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. (Table 1(5.32). 335 of Table 1(5.16). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.ioo.5. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. The data are referred to as pilot data.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955).ac. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. 19000 (526. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point. they were measured directly.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . As noted in footnote a on p.

ioo. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imsize is a 2-vector (N. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ucl. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].M). imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl. out = col2im(pix.ac.uk See also cmfrgb.CHAPTER 2.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity.CHAPTER 2. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .g] to every pixel in the color image im.

B). eg. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. See also imono. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes.CHAPTER 2. func. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. im<100. [L. out = colorize(im. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. icolor. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .G. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. @isnan. k. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. @isnan. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. mask. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I.

C. k) as above but also returns the residual R. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. L = colorkmeans(im.R] = colorkmeans(im. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.CHAPTER 2. XYZ = colorname(name. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. eg. low is good. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. name = colorname(XYZ. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.

• Color space names are case insensitive. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination.i2. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.CHAPTER 2. double data is the natural choice. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. s = ‘src->dest’.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. [o1. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. Input and output images have 3 planes.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. As MATLAB’s native datatype. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.o2.o3] = colorspace(s. i1. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .txt. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. or alternatively. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. colorspace(s. it can be omitted. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. s = ‘dest<-src’.

The distance d is M × N and element d(I.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.CHAPTER 2. distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.2*A. • If im is an M × 3 array. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .B). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.100). B = rand(400.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).200). However. like a colormap. d = distance(A. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Example A = rand(400. out will also have size M × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. for memory and computational performance.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist.3. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. The result E is a matrix. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. seed. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.(+31)20-5257524. non zero is counter-clockwise.uva. bunschot@wins.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.y). See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.j). Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. non-zero is an object. not image frame. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Tested: PC Matlab v5. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. E = edgelist(im.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tel.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. University of Amsterdam. in matrix coordinate frame. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis.

p. I. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. See also fmatrix. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. See also epiline. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.R. Author Based on fmatrix code by.CHAPTER 2. Coimbra. 1998.S. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Oct 27. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i). H = epiline(f. one per line drawn. p1. p. epiline(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f.

Reference Hartley and Zisserman. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w.uwa. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .au/. page 270. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. • Contains a RANSAC driver. epiline. c. it is singular. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. that is. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac().csse. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. The University of Western Australia.CHAPTER 2. p2. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. no outlier rejection is performed. http://www. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. • f is a rank 2 matrix. See also ransac. homography. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.edu.

y1) and (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0.y2). See also imorph. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ithin. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se. x2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y1. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. itriplepoint.

• The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. invhomog.au/.edu. no outlier rejection is performed. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The University of Western Australia.uwa. Notes • The points must be corresponding.CHAPTER 2.csse. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. which means it can be passed to ransac(). See also ransac. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T.

but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .offs] = homwarp(H. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. V ‘roi’. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. See also homography. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. [out. S ‘dimension’. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. ie. S output image contains all the warped pixels. D ‘size’. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. im. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. itrim.CHAPTER 2. See also e2h. im. R ‘scale’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. that is tp=T*T1.

options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. ’nfeat’. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. features. 1962. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). ianimate(seq. IT-8:pp. Hu. 200). ianimate(im. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. 179-187. IRE Trans. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects.CHAPTER 2. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. on Information Theory. features. ’gs’).

YMIN YMAX]. isurf. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. M ‘npoints’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. iharris. N ‘only’. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2.

The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C set connectivity. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. ilabel.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. [A1. A set pixel aspect ratio. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.0 ‘connect’. default 1.0) 1 for a circle. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. horizontal coordinate centroid. [S1. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.

See also isobel. See also iopen. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. 1996-7. This is an dilation followed by erosion.CHAPTER 2.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. se. S ‘th0’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. out = iclose(im. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘th1’. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. Tel Aviv University.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay.

D ‘bgval’.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [0 1 1]). C = icolor(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.u] = iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). [C. The images do not have to be of the same size. colorize. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also imono. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. Options ‘dir’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.

Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. im2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. options) convolves im1 with im2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.CHAPTER 2.

CT ‘edgegap’. N ‘detector’. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. E ‘suppress’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. R ‘nfeat’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default).CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. K ‘patch’. D ‘sigma’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. D ‘k’. S ‘deriv’. CM ‘cminthresh’.

G. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. [T. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. with a delay of 0. Tomasi.d] = icp(p1.Noble. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. J. vol. with a delay of d [sec].J. pp. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Manchester. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. Proc. Harris and M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. p2. 1988. IEEE Computer Society. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. May 1988. T ‘maxiter’.. where * denotes squared and smoothed. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. 593-593. T ‘distthresh’.121-128. Options ‘dplot’. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.5 [sec]. pp 147-151. Proc. C. N ‘mindelta’. Shi and C. 1994. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. • “Finding corners”. p2. Stephens. Image and Vision Computing. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. See also PointFeature. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. J. pp.6.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • “Good features to track”.

each plane is decimated. 1992. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Feb. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Intell. IEEETrans.Besl and H. pp. 239-256. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. Pattern Anal. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. no. vol.McKay. s = idecimate(im. s = idecimate(im. P. Mach. m. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation.CHAPTER 2. m.or 3-dimensional. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. See also iscale. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 14. 2.

good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. positive is blue. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. darker than ‘grey’. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. C ‘xydata’. negative is red. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. XY ‘colormap’. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. negative is red. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points.CHAPTER 2. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. Options ‘ncolors’. zero is white color map: random values. If im is a cell array of images. positive is blue. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zero is black. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im.and y-axes respectively. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is white. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. linear proﬁle. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. histogram and zooming. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. If the image is zoomed.

im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. See also image. labels. colormap. See also iblobs. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. labelimage. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labelimage. caxis. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. icolorize. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. idisplabel(im. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator.CHAPTER 2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im.45. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. ithin. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.2. See also itriplepoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). out = igamma(im. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. All pixels are raised to the power gamma.

59. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. P. Example im = iread(’58060.5).5). vol. Journal on Computer Vision.m] = igraphseg(im. 2004. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Felzenszwalb and D. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. min is the minimum region size (pixels). Huttenlocher. 167181. Int.m] = igraphseg(im. 2006. See also ithresh. L = igraphseg(im. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .jpg’). k. Sept. 0. [L. k.CHAPTER 2. 100. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. min. k is the scale parameter. pp. [l. 1500. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. k. min.

[h. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.CHAPTER 2. For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. bar(x.x] = ihist(im. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot(x. H = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). options) displays the image histogram. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h.x] = ihist(im. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. ’normcdf’). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.h). Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. [H.h).

The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. y1.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value.CHAPTER 2. Region labels are in the range 1 to M.m.y2). same size as im.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. y2. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L. ii is a precomputed integral image. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. x1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.y1) and bottom-right (x2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. [L. [L.

• The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.maxlabel. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise it does not.parents.parents.maxlabel. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. eg. p1.Y]. p2. • This is a “low level” function. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p1. each a 2-vector [X.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. The pixels on the line are set to 1. out = iline(im. ilabel(im. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. 8). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.class. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. iproﬁle. [L.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. See also iblobs. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.

score] = imatch(im1. a perfect match score is 1.DY. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. ymin. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. ymax] relative to (x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .and y-offsets relative to (x. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. w2. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. xmax.y) and its half-width is H.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. [xm. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. The template in im1 is centred at (x.DY) are the x. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region.y). H. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.CC] where (DX. -s. x. The return value is xm=[DX. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ).y) and of size s. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. im2. and columns the vertical position. • Is a MEX ﬁle.y). centred at (x.CHAPTER 2. y. s] % relative to (x. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. x. im2. s. • ZNCC matching is used.

All pixels are equally weighted. f = imoments(u.u) = u and v(v.u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.CHAPTER 2. The element u(v. effectively a greyscale image. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. [u.v] = imeshgrid(w. H) as above but the domain is w × H. [u. effectively a binary image. v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = imoments(u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w.

imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m02. • This function does not perform connectivity.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. icolor. ilabel. See also RegionFeature. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m01. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. the elements are m00.CHAPTER 2. m11. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Different conversion functions are supported. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. m10. or its area. m20. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im.

’grey’. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. ’double’). options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. J. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . O. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. ’light’).CHAPTER 2. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. Sept. 2004. Matas.org). L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.png’. vol. and T. The labels [L. Image and Vision Computing. Urban. 22. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Pajdla. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Chum. [label. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2.m] = imser(im. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. 761767. m. pp. se.m] = imser(im.

Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.ˆ2).CHAPTER 2. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.

sides. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. sides. See also iclose. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. out = iopen(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im.

’t’. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 20. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. im1. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. ’tblr’. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. otherwise im2 is selected. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.V]. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. im2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. p. 10. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask.

uv] = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.v) for the corresponding row of p.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p1. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p1. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. [p. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1).

ones(5. out = imorph(image. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. se(2. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The highest rank.2) = 0. is order=1. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. out = ipyramid(im. sigma. 1. out = ipyramid(im. the maximum. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. hence output image had reduced dimensions. idecimate. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. nbins. op. 12.3). order. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. out = imorph(image. im > irank(im. op.CHAPTER 2. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. See also iscalespace.5)). edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. se).

Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. ivar. where R=[umin umax. R ‘roi’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. im = iread(ﬁle. See also imorph. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. vmin vmax]. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. G ‘reduce’.

f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im1.out2. Notes • Color images are not supported. igamma. homwarp.out2] = irectify(f. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.h2] = irectify(f. istereo. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. [out1. See also FeatureMatch. m.CHAPTER 2. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1.h1. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. imwrite. im1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. imono.

umax. S ‘extrapval’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . angle. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. [out. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’.H] return central part of image. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. vmin. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.vmax].vmin vmax]. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’. See also idisp.

im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. while bias>0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s<1 makes it smaller. s>1 makes the image larger. out = isamesize(im1.5 is symmetric cropping.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s ‘extrapval’. Options ‘outsize’. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. bias=0.CHAPTER 2. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . V ‘smooth’. bias<0. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.

The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma.CHAPTER 2. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L.s] = iscalespace(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .L. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.L. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. n. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). n) as above but sigma=1.s] = iscalespace(im. corresponding to each step of the sequence. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. in space and scale. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). idecimate. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. See also iscalespace. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. [g.

ishomog(T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ‘valid’) as above. that is.CHAPTER 2. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. else false (0). ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. See also isrot. it its third dimension is equal to three. ismooth. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ilaplace.

R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only.CHAPTER 2. International Journal of Computer Vision. 60. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. See also SiftPointFeature. • Features are returned in descending strength order. Reference David G. pp. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. isurf. N ‘suppress’. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. Lowe.vlfeat. 91-110. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. 2 (2004).

See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. and these output pixels are set to NaN. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. @zssd. zsad. s = isimilarity(T. zssd. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @zsad. @ncc.H. ncc.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. [w. @ssd. im.CHAPTER 2. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. ssd. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. See also imatch. sad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. s is same size as im.

convolved. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [gx. See also iconv. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. then converted back to integer. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat.gy] = isobel(im. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.CHAPTER 2.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. [gx. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. sigma.

which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. range. isrot(R.u) means that imr(v. icanny. H is the half size of the matching window.sim] = istereo(iml. ‘valid’) as above. See also ksobel. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr.M] for an N × M window. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr. [d. imr. See also ishomog.CHAPTER 2. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. the disparity d=d(v.u). That is. else false (0). H. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). range. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. range is the disparity search range. w.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.

[d.A and p. ‘ncc’. 3) See also irectify. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. That is. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. Options ‘metric’. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. p. range.dsi] = istereo(iml. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.sim.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect).B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. B. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.p] = istereo(iml. • sim = max(dsi. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. dx.sim. out = istretch(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . range. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1.5 to +0. w. imr. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. p. imr. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. w.5). [d.

• Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D.CHAPTER 2. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. T ‘octaves’. N ‘thresh’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. or sequences. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Color images. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. Kroon (U. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’.

Otherwise false (0). pp. No. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.or columnvector. 110.CHAPTER 2. out = ithin(im. Andreas Ess. See also hitormiss. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 346–359. Luc Van Gool. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. See also ishomog. Tinne Tuytelaars. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. either a row.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. itriplepoint. Vol. else false (0). isift. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. isvec(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. 3.

ithresh(im. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. Notes • Greyscale image only.out2] = itrim(im1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values.CHAPTER 2.5.out2] = itrim(im1. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. a lower value will include more. See also homwarp. The same cropping is applied to each input image.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. The default is 0. [out1.im2.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. See also iendpoint. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. op. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. se. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im.

@std). edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. ones(3. out = iwindow(image. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. @max). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.5).CHAPTER 2. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. ones(5. See also ivar. func. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.3). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. se. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. se.

klog. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • This kernel is an effective edge detector. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. See also ones. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. kdog.CHAPTER 2. dG/dy. k = kdgauss(sigma. ktriangle.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. k = kcircle(R. See also kgauss. dG/dx. • The vertical derivative. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. is k’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one.

KGAUSS(SIGMA2). Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. By default SIGMA2 = 1. klog. k = kdog(sigma1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly.CHAPTER 2. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. sigma2. See also kgauss. See also kdgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . kdgauss. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. kdog. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. klog.6*sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. k = kgauss(sigma.

kdgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient.CHAPTER 2. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconv. and W=2 × H+1. See also ilaplace. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also kgauss. kdog. k = klog(sigma.

and D is the dimension. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. L = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.C] = kmeans(x. Pattern Recognition Principles.CHAPTER 2. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k. k. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. [L. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k).C] = kmeans(x. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. it is assumed to have been completed previously.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.y. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.CHAPTER 2. [x. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. The points are the columns of p.z] = mkcube(s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. s. Options ‘T’. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. C ‘T’.z] = mkcube(s. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). symmetric about the origin. ‘edge’. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. See also cylinder. [x.y.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. y. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. That is. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. or y(:. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.xp . upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.2)). Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. MPLOT(t. y.y).CHAPTER 2. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. y) MPLOT(t. n. npq. the sum of I(x.yq . or y(:. See also mpq poly. n) MPLOT(y. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.2)). p. n) MPLOT(t. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots.

Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. they are considered to be a single vertex.CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. npq poly. upq poly. See also mpq. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. p.

Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. W. the height of a character. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. [T. ssd. sad. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Example t = niblack(im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. -0. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. k. 1986. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. for example. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.2.s] = niblack(im. where W=2*w2+1. See also zncc.m.CHAPTER 2. T has the same dimensions as im. idisp(im >= t). in text segmentation. k. 20). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. niblack.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Prentice-Hall. • A common choice of k=-0.

That is UPQ(im.q)/MPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. mpq. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0.CHAPTER 2.0). p.p. p. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. upq. npq. mpq. they are considered as a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). so centroids will be still be correct. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. See also mpq poly.

Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. idisp(im >= t). Example t = otsu(im).CHAPTER 2. Systems. [yp. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.i] = peak(y. x. otsu IEEE Trans. [yp. Jan 1979. N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y.xp] = peak(y.

N ‘scale’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. use peak(-V). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. N ‘scale’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. Typically choose N to be odd. use peak2(-V). S ‘interp’. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.CHAPTER 2. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.ij] = peak2(z. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.S points. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. [zp.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also pnmﬁlt. plot2(p. If p has three dimensions. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick.CHAPTER 2. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. ie. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. r. ‘r’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. 5). r. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. ’r’). plot_circle(c. x2. or a set of name. ’b’). Examples plot_circle(c. plot_circle(c. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R.y2). ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. 1=solid. PLOT BOX(x1. W. P. value pairs that are passed to plot. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. R. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ’g’. ‘size’. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. W. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1.CHAPTER 2. r. ’edgecolor’. ‘size’. ’LineWidth’. ’fillcolor’. PLOT BOX(’centre’. P.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior.y1. PLOT BOX(’topleft’.y1) and (x2.y2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Y]. ls) ls is the standard line styles.CHAPTER 2. centred at the origin. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) as above but centred at C=[X.Y. with Matlab line style ls. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. If C=[X.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. c Specify color of the axes. Options ‘color’. current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. xc. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. C.

‘framename’. ’r’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’r’). ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’color’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines.X = 0. to ‘view’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. trplot( T. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ‘printf’. ’color’. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. options) adds point markers to a plot. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. w ‘arrow’ ’length’.CHAPTER 2. n ‘text opts’. fmt. ’name’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘textcolor’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L.

H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. patch. NOTES • The sphere is always added. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. The default is 1. 1=solid.CHAPTER 2. See also plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. color. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. either a letter or 3-vector. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R.

pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.CHAPTER 2. See also plot. See also pgmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. plotp(p. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.

Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. [gr.gt] = radgrad(im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im.

d) as above but elements increment by d. x. T. x. T. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set.CHAPTER 2. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. N ‘maxDataTrials’. x typically contains corresponding point data.in. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. x. [m. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.resid] = ransac(func.in] = ransac(func. T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. [m. one column per point pair. Options ‘maxTrials’. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

theta is a cell array.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. they detect a structure argument. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta and the subset of R.CHAPTER 2.inlier. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. Boles. [out. If multiple models are found out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.s out.x) condition the point data out.C.theta = DECONDITION(R. Mach.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.x.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out..cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. that is. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.A.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. References • m.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out. Assoc.resid] = EST(R. pp 381-395.R.x = CONDITION(R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta to the points R.out.x data to work on.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. Fishler and R. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta = []. No 6. that is they will produce a model. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.misc element.out.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate.theta.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .theta] = ERR(R. pp 101-113. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. Cambridge University Press.s sample size (1 × 1) out. [out. Comm. Vol 24. Comp.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.t threshold (1 × 1) R.theta.x and returns the best model out.x.misc private data (cell array) out.

Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.au/ pk See also fmatrix. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. If lambda is a vector.edu.csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uwa. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. rotz. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also roty. See also rotx. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. roty.

yaw. If roll. Z axes respectively. • many texts (Paul. T = rpy2tr(roll. Y. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X.CHAPTER 2. pitch. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch. See also tr2rpy. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r.CHAPTER 2. See also zsad.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ssd. r2t. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. theta) as above where xy=[x.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and rotation theta in the plane. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. y. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. ncc. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x.

Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. ncc.CHAPTER 2. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. sad. Two cross-hairs are created. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also zsdd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. opt. b.CHAPTER 2.blah = []. opt. It supports options that have an assigned value. boolean or enumeration types (string or int).choose = {’this’.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.foo = true.bar = false. c. The software pattern is: function(a. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. tr2rt. – If T is 3 × 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. ’other’}. then R is 3 × 3. ’that’. then R is 2 × 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin) opt. opt. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.

choose <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. ’#yes’}.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. w. opt = tb_optparse(opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.debug <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. varargin).select = {’#no’.choose <.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.blah <.false ‘blah’.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. x.select <.true sets opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).y ‘that’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. If neither of ‘this’.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. N ‘setopt’. S ‘showopt’ sets opt. args) creates a test pattern image.y sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.select <.foo <. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt.foo <.blah <.verbose <.N sets opt <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared. varargin).1.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.‘this’.3 ‘blah’. 3 sets opt.x. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.CHAPTER 2.

a line. binary square pattern. square side length. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. args is the number of cycles. args are pitch (distance between centres). args is the number of cycles. 256. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . args are theta (rad). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. [s. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). args is the number of cycles. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. 256.sd. sf.sd.sdd] = tpoly(s0. intercept. The trajectory s. 2). sd and sdd are n-vectors. 25).sdd] = tpoly(s0. sf. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. 50. args is the number of cycles. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. dot diameter. binary dot pattern.

v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. rpy = tr2rpy(R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.CHAPTER 2. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. The 3 angles rpy=[R. Y and Z axes respectively. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. [theta. Y.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X.P.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. See also angvec2r.

y. See also rpy2tr. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. ie.CHAPTER 2. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. r2t.y. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.z].:. • The validity of R is not checked.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. If T has three dimensions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. – If TR is 3 × 3.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. See also rt2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.

CHAPTER 2.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). or x and y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). An historical anomaly. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. [c1. [o1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. each N × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). If tri is RGB then cc is rg.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. f ‘label’. and displays in RPY format. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. trotx. trprint T is the command line form of above.CHAPTER 2.

See also upq poly. mpq. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. p.(x-x0)p . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul.y0) is the centroid.(y-y0)q where (x0. the sum of I(x. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. That is. tr2rpy. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.CHAPTER 2.y).

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. ssd.CHAPTER 2. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also sad. See also ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.

i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. sad.CHAPTER 2. See also sdd. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. ncc.

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