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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This is extravagant on storage. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. However the book “Robotics. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and I commend it to you. is open-source. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common.

. . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . Ray3D . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . closest . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colnorm . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . imono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . iscolor . . . ithin . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . peak . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . klog . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . trprint . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. You need to signup in order to post.com. and you will be suitably acknowledged.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. That’s what you your teachers.google. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox. tutors. lecturers and professors are paid to do.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Corke}.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. Author = {P. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. 1.1.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. the table of content to functions. 1. type of organization and application. Year = {2005}. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. 1. Month = nov. and the “See also” functions to each other.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a.3. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence).petercorke. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.gz) or zip format (.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. Volume = {12}.I. The ﬁle robot.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. The details are @article{Corke05f.zip). It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. 1.html on a server for class use. Number = {4}.

See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.R. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 12(4). VLFeat http://www.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. and there are hundreds of modules available. 1.mathworks. November 2005.Functions such as SURF. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.S. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. MSER. pp 16–25. but not least. Coimbra. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. Twente.7 Acknowledgements Last. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.1..7. 1994 University of British Columbia. Vincent Lepetit. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. Corke. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. 1. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.I.vlfeat. P.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.6. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

S ‘centre’.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. T ‘color’. used by all subclasses. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. Camera. IM ‘resolution’. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid.CHAPTER 2. SIGMA ‘pose’. S ‘noise’. Options ‘name’. N ‘image’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P ‘pixel’. N ‘sensor’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.

delete Camera object destructor C.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value C.clf Clear the image plane C. Camera.char Convert to string s = C. Camera. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. Camera.centre Get camera position p = C. ﬁsheyecamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).

C. Camera.CHAPTER 2. See also Camera.v + c = 0.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0). Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C. Camera.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.u + b.char Camera.ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and off if H is false (or 0). otherwise false (0).line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.

plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. y. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. mkcube.clf Camera. Options ‘Tobj’. Camera.CHAPTER 2. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. y. Camera.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C.mesh(x. Camera.T. y.plot. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation.hold.plot(p. sphere. See also mesh.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. cylinder. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. z. z to the image plane and plots them. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. T ‘Tcam’.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. uv = C. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. The matrices x.

plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure.mesh. T ‘scale’. ‘fps’. Overrides the current camera pose C.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Camera. Options ‘Tcam’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form.CHAPTER 2.hold. T See also Camera. ‘Tcam’. Camera. ‘Tobj’. Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T.clf Camera. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.

C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. p. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.p.rpy(R.rpy Set camera attitude C. that is.y]. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. The image is not inverted. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. a subclass of Camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera. also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C Camera matrix C = C.

S. N ‘sensor’.F. Springer. “An invitation to 3D”. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. CatadioptricCamera.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views.and v-axes parallel to x.Kosecka. S ‘noise’. E = C.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C.177 See also CentralCamera.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). p. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. ﬁsheyecamera. camera at origin.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Ma.CHAPTER 2. S. D ‘default’ ‘image’. f=8mm. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. optical axis is z-axis. E = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. 2003. u. 10um pixels.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SphericalCamera CentralCamera. SIGMA ‘pose’.8]) See also Camera.and y-axes respectively. T ‘color’. F ‘distortion’. J. CentralCamera.Sastry. N ‘focal’.Soatto. S ‘centre’. Reference Y. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. P ‘pixel’. IM ‘resolution’.E Essential matrix E = C.

2003. n.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.Sastry. Springer. S.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.F Fundamental matrix F = C.CHAPTER 2. F = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H CentralCamera.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.177 See also CentralCamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Kosecka. p.H Homography matrix H = C.E CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. J. “An invitation to 3D”. S. from two viewpoints.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Ma.Soatto. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H(T. Reference Y.

uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Lepetit. Moreno-Noguer. Feb. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame. pp. 2009. Int. V. a = C.CHAPTER 2. F. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. 155-166. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. See also quiver CentralCamera.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. vol.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). and P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Journal on Computer Vision.estpose(xyz.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. 81.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. Fua.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.

“An invitation to 3D”. s.Soatto. s. J. J. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). Springer. translation not to scale • n. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.Sastry. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Ma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. Chap 9. Reference Y.Kosecka.Sastry.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Multiview Geometry”.Ma.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. 2003. p.CHAPTER 2. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned.Soatto. Springer. 259 Y. See also CentralCamera. s. “An invitation to 3D”. section 5.Kosecka. 2003. p116. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.invE(E. s.E CentralCamera.

If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. CentralCamera.T.H CentralCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also Hough CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. H = C. C.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot epiline(f. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.project(p. one per line. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.CHAPTER 2. ‘Tcam’. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C.

June 1992.CHAPTER 2. and P. Rives. 8. pp.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .ray 3D ray for image point R = C.plot CentralCamera.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.b. Espiau. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a. vol.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. “Multiview Geometry”.c. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p.visjac e(E. See also Camera. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. Reference B. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Chaumette. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 313-326. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. F.

CentralCamera. IEEE Trans. F. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 1996.CHAPTER 2. pp.visjac p(uv.visjac p.visjac l(L. Hutchinson. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. Chaumette. pp 651-670.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. R&A.visjac p polar.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. June 1992. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .c. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. 8. See also CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac e CentralCamera. Oct.visjac p.b. 313-326. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Espiau. and P.visjac l CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. vol. Hager & Corke. Rives. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. Reference B. Vol 12(5). The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format.

CentralCamera. See also CentralCamera. radius and theta. F.CHAPTER 2.visjac p. Int.visjac p polar(rt. in Proc. Chaumette. P. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.visjac e CentralCamera. Oct. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. CentralCamera. 5962-5967. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. 2009. I. (St. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Corke.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. pp.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. CentralCamera. Louis).visjac l. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. and F.visjac l. Spindler.

vol. Nov.Lowe. ScalePointFeature.91-110. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. Journal on Computer Vision. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. D.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.SIFT. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. pp. See also isift. 2004. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.60. Int. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. PointFeature. See README.

If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 1=opaque.CHAPTER 2. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.match(f2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. C ‘alpha’.plot scale(options. F. SiftPointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = PointFeature(u. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2.plot scale Plot feature scale F. See also isift SiftPointFeature. 0=transparent (default 0. f = PointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. v.match Match SIFT point features m = F.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(im.support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.T] = F.support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. out = F.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support Support region of feature out = F. F. [out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Options ‘name’. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. T ‘Tcam’. Options ‘Tobj’. Overrides the current camera pose C. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. S ‘pose’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ﬁsheyecamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also SphericalCamera. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CHAPTER 2.T.project(p.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

scalar for If null take actual value all points. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.center of the target in world coords (0. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. of 4-vector. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Two windows are shown and animated: 1. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. error.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . camera pose. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . error norm. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The external view. The camera view.depth of points to use for Jacobian.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. Jacobian condition number.the side length of the target in world units (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. defaults in parentheses: target size . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2.CHAPTER 2.5) target center .gain. The camera view. image plane size and desired feature locations.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.0.01) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.

a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . error. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. for all points. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.visjac p polar.0. CentralCamera.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. image plane size and desired feature locations.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . Conf. 5550-5555.01) . Robotics and Automation. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”.the side length of the target in world units (0. I. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. in Proc. IEEE Int.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . P.visjac p(pt. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. (Anchorage). The external view. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). Corke. error norm. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac l.center of the target in world coords (0. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. May 3-7 2010. camera pose. See also CentralCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Jacobian condition number.CHAPTER 2.5) target center .depth of points to use for Jacobian. CentralCamera. of 4-vector.gain. defaults in parentheses: target size .the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp.

2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. No. Luc Van Gool. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. pp. 3. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 346–359. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Vol. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Tinne Tuytelaars. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU).u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. 110. Andreas Ess.

See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u. PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.match(f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. ScalePointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature.match Match SURF point features m = F.match(f2.C] = F.CHAPTER 2. v. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. [m.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. Options ‘thresh’. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. See also isurf SurfPointFeature.

0=transparent (default 0. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support Support region of feature out = F.plot scale(options. C ‘alpha’.support(im. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. 1=opaque. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. F. F.plot scale Plot feature scale F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.support(im. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support(images. [out.support(images.2) SurfPointFeature. out = F. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.T] = F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the support region is displayed.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

com). • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.axis.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url.com) web camera. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis. Video AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.

BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.display AxisWebCamera. See also AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.close Close the image source A. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera.

Oct. Ninth IEEE Int. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word.org).1470-1477. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. pp.CHAPTER 2. on Computer Vision.Sivic and A. f can also be a cell array.Zisserman. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat. in Proc. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. b = BagOfWords(f. 2003. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Conf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words.

Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.exemplars display exemplars of words B.CHAPTER 2.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form. images.char BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w. BagOfWords.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars(w.display Display value B. BagOfWords.char Convert to string s = B. See also BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.

w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.n] = B. M ‘width’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. BagOfWords. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. BagOfWords.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.remove stop Remove stop words B.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. N ‘maxperimage’. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords. Options ‘ncolumns’.isword Features from words f = B. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.CHAPTER 2. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Camera CatadioptricCamera. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’.

u. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. Options ‘Tobj’.project(p. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. camera at origin. See also Camera. 10um pixels. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. N ‘focal’. CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.and v-axes parallel to x.T.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. optical axis is z-axis. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. A ‘resolution’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. M ‘k’. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. ‘sine’. S ‘noise’. K ‘maxangle’. S ‘centre’. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. See also Camera. T ‘Tcam’.and y-axes respectively. f=8mm. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). P ‘pixel’. ‘equisolid’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ﬁsheyecamera. N ‘sensor’.

Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. such as ScalePointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. See also PointFeature.

CHAPTER 2.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the match object. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Convert to string s = M. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. one per element. m = FeatureMatch(f1. If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value M. See also FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature. FeatureMatch. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. f2.

v1.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. See also FeatureMatch.inlier.outlier.v2].outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.u2. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.ransac FeatureMatch.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.

p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. These are the (u. for example by: idisp({im1.p2.p FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.im2}) m.p1.p2 FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. These are the (u.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.plot Show corresponding points M.plot() M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch.p1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. See also FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.

Example f1 = isurf(im1). inliers and outliers (and their percentages).match(f2). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. See also fmatrix.ransac(func. See also idisp FeatureMatch. m. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.ransac( @fmatrix. The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. homography. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. ransac FeatureMatch. f2 = isurf(im2). m = f1.ransac Apply RANSAC M. 1e-4).

subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.CHAPTER 2. Y This camera model assumes central projection. v. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. The image is not inverted.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page.

camera at origin. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default).and y. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’. K ‘resolution’. ‘equisolid’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. u. S ‘noise’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. S ‘centre’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object.and v-axes are parallel to x.axes respectively. M ‘k’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera.CHAPTER 2. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘sine’. f=8mm. N ‘sensor’. Options ‘name’. 10um pixels. optical axis is z-axis. P ‘pixel’.

Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T.project(p. CatadioptricCamera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. See also FishEyeCamera. CentralCamera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. See also Camera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. T ‘Tcam’. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points.

Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. The voting array is 2-dimensional. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). See also LineFeature Hough. A horizontal line has theta = 0. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.CHAPTER 2.H).0) and the line. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2.

N All edge pixels have equal weight.char Convert to string s = HT. Hough. Set ht. else N = [Ntheta. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display Display value HT. See also Hough. W ‘nbins’.houghThresh (default 0. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’. T ‘suppress’. T ‘edgethresh’. W ‘houghthresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’.5) Set ht. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N.CHAPTER 2. Nrho]. Default 400 × 401. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.edgeThresh (default 0.edgeThresh.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins.1). Hough.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters.

where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.CHAPTER 2. L = HT. See also Hough.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot.lines Hough.plot(n. HT. The process is repeated for all peaks.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. HT.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. LineFeature Hough. The highest peak is found. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.plot Plot line features HT. See also Hough. H = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.lines Find lines L = HT. reﬁned to subpixel precision. then all elements in an HT.

If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. RegionFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. one per element. L = LineFeature(rho.char Convert to string s = L.display Display value L. LineFeature.CHAPTER 2.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. theta. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. See also LineFeature. strength. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(rho. theta.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. See also icanny LineFeature.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlay the line on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. LineFeature. l2 = L.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.points Return points on line segments p = L. less than gap pixels are tolerated. Small gaps.seglength(edge. L. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels).plot Plot line L. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted.CHAPTER 2. l2 = L.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.

CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .axis. Movie. S ‘skip’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.com).char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.char Convert to string M.close() closes the connection to the movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.close Close the image source M. G ‘scale’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Movie. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle.

Options ‘skip’. F Skip frames. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. undirected graph create an n-d.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’. planar.CHAPTER 2.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().coord(v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.add edge(v1.neighbours(v) g.path(v) set goal vertex. v2) g. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.connectivity() g.distance(v1.cost(e) g. v) g.add node(coord.CHAPTER 2.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .add node(coord) g. Object properties (read/write) g.next(v) g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.clear() add vertex. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.goal(v) g.plot() g.component(v) g.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. return vid add vertex and edge to v.edges(e) g.

v = G.add node(x. where x is D × 1.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add node(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v2. and returns the edge id E. E = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge(v1. v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and returns the node id v.CHAPTER 2. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. PGraph. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. v = G.add edge(v1. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. Options ‘distance’. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.

coord Coordinate of node x = G.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CHAPTER 2. PGraph.CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. PGraph. [v.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G.clear Clear the graph G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert graph to string s = G.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.closest Find closest node v = G.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. PGraph. edges and components. D × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.coord(v) return coordinate vector. and the distance d. PGraph. of node id v.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines.display Display value F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also ScalePointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F. PointFeature.CHAPTER 2.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector. SurfPointFeature. v. one per element.

the norm of the Euclidean distance. where 1 is perfect match. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.match Match point features m = F. PointFeature.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.CHAPTER 2.match(f2.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F. [m. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.C] = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘thresh’.char PointFeature.match(f2.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.

one per column Bounding box [minx maxx.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices. Polygon .plot() overlay a marker at the feature position.plot Plot feature F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F.CHAPTER 2. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.

one column per vertex. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K. difference. intersection.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. Pankratov. so use with care.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mit.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. union. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.char String representation s = P.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon. Polygon.edu. http://puddle. HEIGHT]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.mit. kirill@plume. Polygon. p = Polygon(C.html and require a licence. Polygon.area() is the area of the polygon.

Polygon.char Polygon.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.difference Difference of polygons d = P. returns coordinates of P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.CHAPTER 2. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j).display Display polygon P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. else 0. See also Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.

moments(p.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.moments Moments of polygon a = P. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. See also mpq poly Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q. y1 y2]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. each column is [x y]’. returns empty polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.

Polygon. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.plot Plot polygon P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. P.union Union of polygons i = P.CHAPTER 2.plot() plot the polygon.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.CHAPTER 2. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.

closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.CHAPTER 2. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. one per element.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.char Convert to string s = R. Ray3D. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.display Display value R.char Ray3D. [x. See also Ray3D. [x.E] = R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .E] = R. Ray3D. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.

minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.CHAPTER 2. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.0) 1 for a circle. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vertical coordinate bounding box. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box.b. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature.c.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a. horizontal coordinate centroid.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. For example R. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.uc will be a list not a vector.th] = R. RegionFeature. ymin.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid. ymax]. RegionFeature. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects.box Return bounding box b = R. See also iblobs.char Convert to string s = R. imoments RegionFeature. one per element.CHAPTER 2. RegionFeature.xmax.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.

RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.and xmarkers.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.char RegionFeature.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. R. R.plot Plot centroid R.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. It is indicated with overlaid o.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.CHAPTER 2.display Display value R.

R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale.plot box Plot bounding box R.plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R. R.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.CHAPTER 2.

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. F. v. 1=opaque. v. strength. f = ScalePointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = ScalePointFeature(u. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature. C ‘alpha’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.plot scale Plot feature scale F.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. 0=transparent (default 0.plot scale(options. f = ScalePointFeature(u. SurfPointFeature. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature.

The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. one per active track. T ‘movie’. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a new tracker object. Options ‘radius’. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. N ‘thresh’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. See also PointFeature Tracker.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. C. R ‘nslots’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.

char Convert to string s = T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.display Display value T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. Tracker. Tracker. See also Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.char Tracker.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. Movie Video. and their characteristics is displayed. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. AxisWebCamera. S ‘resolution’. otherwise the result is not predictable. G ‘scale’. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras.CHAPTER 2. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera.

Video. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.grab() acquires an image from the camera. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.close Close the image source V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video.CHAPTER 2.close() closes the connection to the camera. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Video.char Convert to string V.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . By default the left image is red. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). a = anaglyph(left. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. and the right image is cyan. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. the second for right. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. the ﬁrst for left. color. Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. if negative it is reduced. right.CHAPTER 2. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. If th1 is a column vector.

y2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. % emission of sun plot(l. If lambda is a column vector. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.y2]. x2.CHAPTER 2. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1.s] = boundmatch(R1.y1) to (x2. y1. Endpoints must be integer. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 6500). x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments. [x. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. p2) as above but p1=[x1. See also RegionFeature. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1.y1] and p2=[x2. p = bresenham(p1.boundary. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.

Y.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.CHAPTER 2.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. [C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda.

Options ‘n’. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). R. green and blue primaries respectively. [k. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). k = closest(a. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point.d1] = closest(a. R. and x is N × 3. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. x = circle(C.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C.CHAPTER 2. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3).

b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5.ioo.ucl. As noted in footnote a on p. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. 19000 (526. they were measured directly.) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. • From Table I(5. while Table I(5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). The data are referred to as pilot data. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. 335 of Table 1(5. and 22500 (444. since. (Table 1(5.d2] = closest(a. Notes • Data from http://cvrl.d1.5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.CHAPTER 2.ac. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645.16).5.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.32).44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].

If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . out = col2im(pix.ucl. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ac. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uk See also cmfrgb.ioo. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.M).CHAPTER 2. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. imsize is a 2-vector (N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.

Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2.g] to every pixel in the color image im. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M .

A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. im<100. icolor.G. mask. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. @isnan. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im.C] = colorkmeans(im. See also imono. k. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. @isnan. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. and returns a per-pixel logical result. [L. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively.B). func. out = colorize(im. eg.CHAPTER 2.

See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name.R] = colorkmeans(im. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. L = colorkmeans(im. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L.C. low is good. eg.CHAPTER 2. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. XYZ = colorname(name. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . name = colorname(XYZ. k) as above but also returns the residual R. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value.

[o1.i2. • Color space names are case insensitive. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT.CHAPTER 2. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces. colorspace(s. it can be omitted.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes.o2. Input and output images have 3 planes. s = ‘dest<-src’. double data is the natural choice. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = ‘src->dest’. i1. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. As MATLAB’s native datatype. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb.txt. or alternatively. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant.o3] = colorspace(s.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.

distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v.CHAPTER 2.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Example A = rand(400. for memory and computational performance.200). B = rand(400. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.B).2*A. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing. • If im is an M × 3 array.100). like a colormap. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. d = distance(A. The distance d is M × N and element d(I. out will also have size M × 3. However.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J).B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group.CHAPTER 2. non-zero is an object.j). University of Amsterdam. seed. in matrix coordinate frame. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten. not image frame. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. E = edgelist(im. The result E is a matrix. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise.(+31)20-5257524. tel. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.uva. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. non zero is counter-clockwise. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Tested: PC Matlab v5.y). direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. bunschot@wins.3.2 and Solaris Matlab v5.

p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i).S. 1998. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. Author Based on fmatrix code by. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. one per line drawn. p. See also epiline. See also fmatrix. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. Coimbra. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .R. Oct 27.CHAPTER 2. I. p1. H = epiline(f. p.

edu. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference Hartley and Zisserman. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1).au/.csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. c. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. page 270. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. no outlier rejection is performed. See also ransac. that is.CHAPTER 2. p2. that is. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. The University of Western Australia. http://www. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. • f is a rank 2 matrix. it is singular. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. homography. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. which means it can be passed to ransac().uwa. Notes • The points must be corresponding. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. epiline. • Contains a RANSAC driver.

y1) and (x2.CHAPTER 2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. y1. itriplepoint. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. x2. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.y2). iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. See also imorph.

csse. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.CHAPTER 2.uwa. Notes • The points must be corresponding. which means it can be passed to ransac(). no outlier rejection is performed. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. invhomog. The University of Western Australia. See also ransac.au/. http://www. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering.edu. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p.

See also e2h. that is tp=T*T1. [out. itrim.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. S output image contains all the warped pixels. R ‘scale’. im.offs] = homwarp(H. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. ie. S ‘dimension’. See also homography. V ‘roi’.CHAPTER 2. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. D ‘size’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. im. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs.

IRE Trans. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. ’nfeat’.CHAPTER 2. Hu. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features. on Information Theory. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). 200). options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 179-187. ianimate(im. IT-8:pp. features. ianimate(seq. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. ’gs’). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. 1962. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

iblobs features f = iblobs(im. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). iharris. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. YMIN YMAX]. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. M ‘npoints’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. N ‘only’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im.

The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. A set pixel aspect ratio. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.CHAPTER 2. and larger values correspond to stronger edges.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’.0) 1 for a circle. [S1.0 ‘connect’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . horizontal coordinate centroid. C set connectivity. ilabel. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. default 1. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. [A1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.

kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im.CHAPTER 2. See also iopen. S ‘th0’. T ‘th1’. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. 1996-7. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. se. out = iclose(im. See also isobel. This is an dilation followed by erosion. Tel Aviv University. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.

Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. [C.CHAPTER 2.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. C = icolor(im. Options ‘dir’. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im.u] = iconcat(im. [0 1 1]).options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). D ‘bgval’. See also imono. The images do not have to be of the same size. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . iconcat(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). colorize. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.

‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. im2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. options) convolves im1 with im2.

K ‘patch’. CM ‘cminthresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features.CHAPTER 2. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. CT ‘edgegap’. D ‘sigma’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. E ‘suppress’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). D ‘k’. R ‘nfeat’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. N ‘detector’. S ‘deriv’.

pp 147-151.6. T ‘distthresh’.CHAPTER 2. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm.d] = icp(p1. May 1988. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.Noble. with a delay of d [sec]. pp. vol. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘maxiter’. 1994. 1988. Shi and C. Proc. Manchester.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0.G. Options ‘dplot’. p2. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. J.121-128. C. See also PointFeature. Tomasi. Stephens. • “Finding corners”.. Proc. p2. 593-593. IEEE Computer Society. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. N ‘mindelta’. Harris and M. with a delay of 0. pp.J.5 [sec]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. J. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. [T. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. • “Good features to track”.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. Image and Vision Computing. where * denotes squared and smoothed. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.

idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. m. See also iscale. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. Intell. Pattern Anal. IEEETrans. m. P. no. s = idecimate(im.McKay.Besl and H. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image.or 3-dimensional. 1992. s = idecimate(im.CHAPTER 2. Mach.. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 239-256. Feb. pp. vol. each plane is decimated. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. 2. 14.

maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. zero is white. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. XY ‘colormap’. C ‘xydata’. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. positive is blue. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. histogram and zooming. If im is a cell array of images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. negative is red. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. If the image is zoomed. zero is white color map: random values. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. darker than ‘grey’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. negative is red. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. zero is black. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. positive is blue.CHAPTER 2. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. Options ‘ncolors’. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. linear proﬁle.and y-axes respectively.

labelimage. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. See also image. See also iblobs. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. idisplabel(im. icolorize. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. colormap. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. caxis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. labels. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image.CHAPTER 2. labelimage.

• For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. out = igamma(im. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1.CHAPTER 2. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. ithin. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.45. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im.2. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. See also itriplepoint. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

[l. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. L = igraphseg(im. 59.m] = igraphseg(im. 2004. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. pp.5). Int. [L. 1500. min. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found.5). 100. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions.CHAPTER 2.jpg’). k is the scale parameter. P. Felzenszwalb and D. 2006. Example im = iread(’58060. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.m] = igraphseg(im. 0. k. 167181. min is the minimum region size (pixels). See also ithresh. Journal on Computer Vision. vol. k. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Sept. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. min. Huttenlocher. k.

Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. plot(x. ’normcdf’).x] = ihist(im.h). [H. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the image histogram as a column vector. [h. H = ihist(im.x] = ihist(im). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. bar(x.CHAPTER 2.h). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. options) displays the image histogram.x] = ihist(im.

y2. [L. y1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.y2). for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region.m.y1) and bottom-right (x2. ii is a precomputed integral image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. [L. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. x1. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1.CHAPTER 2. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. same size as im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.

p2. p1. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. iproﬁle.maxlabel. See also iblobs. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.maxlabel. each a 2-vector [X.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.Y]. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham.parents. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. 8). ilabel(im. p1. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [L. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. The pixels on the line are set to 1. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. out = iline(im.class.CHAPTER 2. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8.parents. eg. • This is a “low level” function.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. otherwise it does not.

The template in im1 is centred at (x. a perfect match score is 1. im2. [xm. x. -s.DY) are the x. y.y) and its half-width is H. ymax] relative to (x. im2. • ZNCC matching is used. x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.y).y). H. See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.and y-offsets relative to (x. ymin.score] = imatch(im1.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. y. and columns the vertical position. • Is a MEX ﬁle. The return value is xm=[DX. w2. s] % relative to (x. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. xmax.CC] where (DX. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.DY.CHAPTER 2. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template.y) and of size s. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. s. centred at (x.

v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. [u.u) = u and v(v. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . effectively a greyscale image. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. H) as above but the domain is w × H.v] = imeshgrid(w.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v. The element u(v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. v. effectively a binary image. All pixels are equally weighted. f = imoments(u. [u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.u) = v.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. f = imoments(u.

horizontal coordinate centroid. m20.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m02. ilabel. or its area. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels.CHAPTER 2. m01. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. • This function does not perform connectivity. the elements are m00. m11. Different conversion functions are supported. m10. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. icolor. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. See also RegionFeature.

The labels [L.png’. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser. Image and Vision Computing. 761767. 2004. ’double’). Matas. m. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. Urban.org). Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. Pajdla. ’light’).m] = imser(im. Chum. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. [label. ’grey’. O. se.m] = imser(im. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. 22. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. pp. Sept. and T. J.CHAPTER 2. vol. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. options) as above but m is the number of regions found.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.ˆ2).CHAPTER 2. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions.

sides. out = iopen(im. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. This is an erosion followed by dilation. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. See also iclose. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. n. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . sides.CHAPTER 2. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im.

V]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im2. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ’t’. 10. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 20. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. ’tblr’. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im.CHAPTER 2. p. im1. otherwise im2 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im.

p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.uv] = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. [p.v) for the corresponding row of p. p1. p1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line.

1. sigma. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. op. The highest rank. out = ipyramid(im. the maximum. se). The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. idecimate.5)). ones(5.2) = 0. op. se(2. order. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se.CHAPTER 2. out = imorph(image. 12. is order=1. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. hence output image had reduced dimensions. im > irank(im. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. out = ipyramid(im. See also iscalespace. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.3). se. out = imorph(image. nbins. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed.

CHAPTER 2. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. G ‘reduce’. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. im = iread(ﬁle. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin vmax]. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. R ‘roi’. See also imorph. where R=[umin umax. ivar. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names.

h1. igamma.CHAPTER 2. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im1. See also FeatureMatch. im1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). m. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.h2] = irectify(f. • The resulting images may have negative disparity. imwrite. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. m. homwarp. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile.out2] = irectify(f. Notes • Color images are not supported. istereo. [out1. imono.out2. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned.

vmin vmax]. vmin.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.umax. [out. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. See also idisp. Options ‘outsize’.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.H] return central part of image. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. S ‘extrapval’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. V ‘smooth’. angle.vmax]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate.

• Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. bias=0. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 is symmetric cropping. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s<1 makes it smaller. s ‘extrapval’. Options ‘outsize’. s>1 makes the image larger.CHAPTER 2. V ‘smooth’. im2. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bias<0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. out = isamesize(im1. while bias>0.

L. in space and scale. n. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima.s] = iscalespace(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. See also iscalespace. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. n) as above but sigma=1. corresponding to each step of the sequence. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. [g. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. idecimate.L. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.s] = iscalespace(im. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence.

CHAPTER 2. ismooth. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. ‘valid’) as above. else false (0). that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. See also isrot. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. it its third dimension is equal to three. ishomog(T. ilaplace. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im.

N ‘suppress’.vlfeat. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. 60. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. isurf. See also SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. 2 (2004). Reference David G.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest.CHAPTER 2. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. 91-110. International Journal of Computer Vision. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • Features are returned in descending strength order. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. pp. Lowe.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. ssd.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. im. @zsad. [w.H. s = isimilarity(T. s is same size as im. [w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. zssd. zsad. See also imatch.CHAPTER 2. ncc. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. and these output pixels are set to NaN.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. sad. @ncc. @ssd.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. @zssd.

gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images.CHAPTER 2. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. sigma. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel. See also iconv.gy] = isobel(im. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. convolved. [gx. then converted back to integer. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. [gx.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.

u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. [d. range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. That is. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u) means that imr(v.M] for an N × M window.u). which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. w. icanny. else false (0). isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. imr. the disparity d=d(v. See also ksobel. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image.CHAPTER 2. H is the half size of the matching window. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. isrot(R. range is the disparity search range. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. See also ishomog.sim] = istereo(iml. H. imr. ‘valid’) as above.

p] = istereo(iml.sim.dsi] = istereo(iml. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0.A and p. • sim = max(dsi. [d. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’.sim. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). range. out = istretch(im. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. imr. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. [d.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. w. 3) See also irectify.5 to +0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. Options ‘metric’. B.5). imr. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. dx. That is. ‘ncc’. w. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1. range. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p.CHAPTER 2. p.

are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. Notes • Color images. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. T ‘octaves’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. or sequences. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. N ‘thresh’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Kroon (U. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0).CHAPTER 2. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold.

Luc Van Gool. itriplepoint. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. else false (0). pp. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L.CHAPTER 2. See also hitormiss. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. out = ithin(im. No. Otherwise false (0). 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. Andreas Ess. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. Vol.or columnvector. Tinne Tuytelaars. either a row. 110. 346–359. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 3. See also ishomog. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. isvec(v. isift.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration.

The same cropping is applied to each input image. See also homwarp. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.5. ithresh(im. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.CHAPTER 2.im2. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out1. The default is 0.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. Notes • Greyscale image only. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. a lower value will include more.out2] = itrim(im1.out2] = itrim(im1.

The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. ithin. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. See also iendpoint. se. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. hence output image had reduced dimensions.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. op. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.

The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. See also ivar. func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. se. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. func.5). Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . @std). se. ones(3. ones(5. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. out = iwindow(image.CHAPTER 2. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.3). @max). hence output image had reduced dimensions. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out.

iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2. kdog. • The vertical derivative. k = kcircle(R. is k’. k = kdgauss(sigma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. dG/dx. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. ktriangle. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. dG/dy. klog. See also ones.

By default SIGMA2 = 1. k = kdog(sigma1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). where sigma1 > SIGMA2. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. kdog.6*sigma1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . sigma2. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. klog.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kgauss(sigma. k = kdog(sigma1. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . kdgauss. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. klog. See also kdgauss. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed.

kdog. k = klog(sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. and W=2 × H+1. kdgauss. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. iconv. See also ilaplace. See also kgauss.CHAPTER 2.

CHAPTER 2. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Pattern Recognition Principles. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. [L. k.C] = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. Reference Tou and Gonzalez. k. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. L = kmeans(x. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to.C] = kmeans(x. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. and D is the dimension.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. [x. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points.CHAPTER 2. ‘edge’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2).y. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. [x. Options ‘T’. options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). C ‘T’. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin.y. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d. s. symmetric about the origin. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.z] = mkcube(s.z] = mkcube(s. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. See also cylinder. The points are the columns of p. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face.

the sum of I(x. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time.xp . n) MPLOT(t. p. or y(:. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds.y). upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . npq. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im.CHAPTER 2. MPLOT(t. y. That is. y. y) MPLOT(t. n) MPLOT(y. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. n.2)). See also mpq poly. or y(:. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column.yq . Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time.

The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. npq poly. p.CHAPTER 2. upq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. See also mpq. they are considered to be a single vertex. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated.

20). W. k. [T. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im.m. Prentice-Hall.s] = niblack(im. in text segmentation. T has the same dimensions as im. k. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. niblack. for example. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. -0. where W=2*w2+1. idisp(im >= t). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. 1986.CHAPTER 2. See also zncc. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. sad. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity.2. the height of a character. Example t = niblack(im. • A common choice of k=-0. ssd. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing.

p. mpq. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.q)/MPQ(im. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. That is UPQ(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.0. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.0). See also npq poly. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v.

upq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. they are considered as a single vertex. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. See also mpq poly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). mpq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. npq. so centroids will be still be correct.CHAPTER 2. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same.

otsu IEEE Trans.i] = peak(y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).CHAPTER 2. [yp. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. N. pp 62-66 See also niblack. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Systems. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. [yp. Jan 1979. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . x. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. Example t = otsu(im). idisp(im >= t).xp] = peak(y. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.

S ‘interp’. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. use peak2(-V). options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.ij] = peak2(z. [zp. N ‘scale’.S points. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’.S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/.CHAPTER 2. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. use peak(-V). Typically choose N to be odd. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z.

ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. See also pnmﬁlt. ie. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. plot2(p. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If p has three dimensions. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . P. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. or a set of name. R. value pairs that are passed to plot. plot_circle(c. ’r’). PLOT BOX(’centre’. x2. 1=solid. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. ’b’). ’fillcolor’. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. ’g’.y1. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ‘size’. plot_circle(c. ‘r’. W. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. ’edgecolor’. 5). If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. r. W. r. Examples plot_circle(c.y1) and (x2.y2). Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR.y2. P. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. ‘size’. ’LineWidth’. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. r. PLOT BOX(x1.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. c Specify color of the axes.Y]. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. current plot. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot. centred at the origin. C. xc. with Matlab line style ls. Options ‘color’. If C=[X. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.Y.CHAPTER 2. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) ls is the standard line styles.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’r’). options) adds point markers to a plot. ’color’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . to ‘view’. fmt. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ‘printf’. ’r’. trplot( T. ’name’.X = 0. ’color’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ‘framename’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. Options ‘textcolor’.CHAPTER 2. n ‘text opts’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set.

options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. 1=solid. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. See also plot. color.CHAPTER 2. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. patch. R. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. The default is 1. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. either a letter or 3-vector.

The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. plotp(p. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p.CHAPTER 2. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also pgmﬁlt. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also plot.

radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr.gt] = radgrad(im.CHAPTER 2.

options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers.resid] = ransac(func. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier.CHAPTER 2. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. d) as above but elements increment by d. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v.in. x. [m. one column per point pair.in] = ransac(func. x. Options ‘maxTrials’. T. N ‘maxDataTrials’. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T. [m. x. x typically contains corresponding point data.

x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.theta is a cell array.R.C. N point pairs (6 × N ) R. pp 381-395. [out..theta) decondition the estimated model data out.x) condition the point data out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Fishler and R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg. pp 101-113. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”. Mach.misc element.inlier.theta and the subset of R. Vol 24.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. Comp.theta.theta to the points R.s sample size (1 × 1) out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. No 6.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. Assoc.x.CHAPTER 2. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. [out.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. they detect a structure argument.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.misc private data (cell array) out.x. Boles. that is they will produce a model. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. Cambridge University Press.x and returns the best model out.theta] = ERR(R.resid] = EST(R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the . Comm.theta = []. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.out.theta. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.s out.t threshold (1 × 1) R.out. References • m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. that is. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.x data to work on.A.x = CONDITION(R. If multiple models are found out.theta = DECONDITION(R.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.

csse.edu. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www.CHAPTER 2.uwa. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. If lambda is a vector.au/ pk See also fmatrix. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.

roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.CHAPTER 2. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. See also roty. See also rotx. rotz. See also rotx.

pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. See also tr2rpy. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. pitch. If roll. Y. pitch. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . yaw.CHAPTER 2. pitch. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. T = rpy2tr(roll. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. Z axes respectively. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. • many texts (Paul.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. theta) as above where xy=[x. See also zsad. r2t. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x.y.CHAPTER 2.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. and rotation theta in the plane.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. ncc. ssd. y.

Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.CHAPTER 2. sad. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also zsdd. ncc. Two cross-hairs are created. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

tr2rt. ’other’}. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.bar = false. opt. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions.foo = true. then R is 2 × 2.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. ’that’. b. It supports options that have an assigned value. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). c. opt. then R is 3 × 3.blah = []. varargin) opt.choose = {’this’. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. – If T is 3 × 3.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. The software pattern is: function(a. opt.

’#yes’}. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt.N sets opt <. args) creates a test pattern image. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.select <.select <.choose <.true sets opt. varargin). The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.true ‘nobar’ sets opt.choose <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.blah <.debug <. x. varargin). The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w.verbose <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.x.blah <.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.foo <. N ‘setopt’. If neither of ‘this’.1. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.false ‘blah’. opt = tb_optparse(opt.3 ‘blah’. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.foo <.select = {’#no’.CHAPTER 2.y ‘that’ sets opt. 3 sets opt.‘this’.y sets opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld.

intercept. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). 2). sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. 50. binary square pattern. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. 256. sf. The trajectory s. 25). binary dot pattern.sdd] = tpoly(s0. dot diameter. args are pitch (distance between centres). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 256. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction.sd. args are theta (rad). square side length.sd. sd and sdd are n-vectors. a line. [s. args is the number of cycles. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction.CHAPTER 2. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd. sf. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args is the number of cycles. args is the number of cycles.

then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory.P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. See also angvec2r. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. Y. The 3 angles rpy=[R.Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. Y and Z axes respectively.CHAPTER 2.

T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. – If TR is 3 × 3. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.z]. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.y. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. y. r2t. See also rpy2tr. If T has three dimensions. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. ie. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. See also rt2tr. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector.CHAPTER 2. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. • The validity of R is not checked.:. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x.

trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. or x and y.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). [c1. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). An historical anomaly. The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. each N × 1. [o1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors.

See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. troty.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

trotx. trotx. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format.CHAPTER 2. and displays in RPY format. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. f ‘label’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. trprint T is the command line form of above. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tr2rpy. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. See also upq poly. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(x-x0)p .y0) is the centroid.(y-y0)q where (x0. mpq. That is. the sum of I(x. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. p.y).CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also ncc. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). See also sad. ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. ssd.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2.

sad. ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also sdd. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1.

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