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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. is open-source. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This is extravagant on storage. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. and I commend it to you. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. However the book “Robotics. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control.

. Ray3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .6. . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . CentralCamera . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video . . . Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . icp . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . idecimate . . . . . . diff2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . col2im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . iclose . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . . . . ivar . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . iwindow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . roty . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . rotz . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t2r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . trotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . transl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lecturers and professors are paid to do. You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.google.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand. You need to signup in order to post. and you will be suitably acknowledged.com. tutors. That’s what you your teachers. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.

Corke}. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.zip). 1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites. The ﬁle robot.petercorke.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. and the “See also” functions to each other.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. 1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox. the table of content to functions. Volume = {12}.3. Month = nov. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo.html on a server for class use.1. INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish. Year = {2005}. The details are @article{Corke05f. Number = {4}. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (.gz) or zip format (. 1. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision.I. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). 1. Author = {P. type of organization and application.

Corke.6. and there are hundreds of modules available. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. November 2005.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. VLFeat http://www. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle. 1. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details.. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed.7. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.R. Twente.7 Acknowledgements Last.I. but not least. 1. P.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code. 12(4). graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.mathworks. Vincent Lepetit.vlfeat.Functions such as SURF. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix. Coimbra. INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .1. pp 16–25.S. 1994 University of British Columbia. MSER.

Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes.

used by all subclasses. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘noise’. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. N ‘sensor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. Options ‘name’. T ‘color’. S ‘centre’. N ‘image’. IM ‘resolution’. SIGMA ‘pose’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class.CHAPTER 2. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. P ‘pixel’. Camera.

centre Get camera position p = C. Camera.char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters. CatadioptricCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.char Convert to string s = C.display Display value C. Camera. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1).clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane.clf Clear the image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.CHAPTER 2. Camera. ﬁsheyecamera.delete Camera object destructor C.

Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also Camera.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode. and off if H is false (or 0). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C. Camera.v + c = 0. C.ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.char Camera.u + b. otherwise false (0).ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C. Camera.CHAPTER 2.

mkcube. Camera. Camera.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C.hold. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. z.clf Camera. The matrices x. Camera.mesh(x. cylinder. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot(p. y. Options ‘Tobj’.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. T ‘Tcam’. Camera.plot Plot points on image plane C. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. y. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. uv = C.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ). z to the image plane and plots them. sphere.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. See also mesh.T. y.plot.

S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.hold. Camera.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘Tcam’. T See also Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Camera.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. Camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C. T ‘scale’.mesh.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C. ‘Tobj’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. ‘Tcam’.clf Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.T. ‘fps’.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object. Overrides the current camera pose C.

that is. The image is not inverted. v Y This camera model assumes central projection. p.rpy Set camera attitude C.y]. C. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.p. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.rpy(R. a subclass of Camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix.CHAPTER 2. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C Camera matrix C = C. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C() is the 3×4 camera matrix.

Soatto. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.CHAPTER 2. p.F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. E = C.Sastry. ﬁsheyecamera.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.E Essential matrix E = C.and y-axes respectively.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view). IM ‘resolution’. Springer.177 See also CentralCamera.and v-axes parallel to x. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. S ‘noise’. f=8mm. u. Reference Y. F ‘distortion’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’. camera at origin. S ‘centre’. “An invitation to 3D”. SIGMA ‘pose’. optical axis is z-axis. N ‘focal’. J. N ‘sensor’. S.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.F. T ‘color’.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. E = C.Ma. 2003. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0. CentralCamera. 10um pixels. P ‘pixel’.Kosecka. D ‘default’ ‘image’. S. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.8]) See also Camera.

J. p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 2003. S.Soatto. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d.Ma.Kosecka. S.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. Reference Y. F = C.F Fundamental matrix F = C. See also CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera.Sastry.H Homography matrix H = C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views.H CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).H(T.CHAPTER 2. Springer. from two viewpoints.E CentralCamera. n.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C. “An invitation to 3D”.

81. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. See also quiver CentralCamera. and P.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Fua. pp. 2009. Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates.estpose(xyz. vol. 155-166.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion. Feb. Moreno-Noguer. V. Lepetit. F.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1).fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. CentralCamera. a = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Journal on Computer Vision.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C. CentralCamera. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. Int.

p116.Soatto. 2003. Chap 9. “An invitation to 3D”. s.Kosecka. s. Reference Y. p. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Soatto. 2003. s.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C.Ma. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. J.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . “An invitation to 3D”.Kosecka. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. 259 Y. Springer.E CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”.Sastry. translation not to scale • n.CHAPTER 2. section 5.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4). J. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. s.invE(E. Springer. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Sastry.Ma. See also CentralCamera.

Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. ‘Tobj’. p.T.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. H = C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. See also Hough CentralCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ).plot epiline(f.project(p. CentralCamera. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .project Project world points to image plane uv = C.CHAPTER 2. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. one per line.H CentralCamera. ‘Tcam’. C.plot epiline(f.plot epiline(f. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.

d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. 313-326.visjac e(E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects.visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Reference B. and P. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. Chaumette. June 1992.c.plot CentralCamera. Reference Hartley & Zisserman.ray 3D ray for image point R = C. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Rives. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.CHAPTER 2. “Multiview Geometry”.b. pp. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Espiau. See also Camera. vol. F. 8. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity.

The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Rives. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. Espiau. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ).visjac p(uv. CentralCamera. vol. Reference B. Hutchinson. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. and P.visjac e CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”.visjac l CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. pp 651-670. See also CentralCamera. Hager & Corke.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. F. Vol 12(5). IEEE Trans.CHAPTER 2. Oct. 313-326.visjac p polar. 8. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.b.visjac p polar.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.c. June 1992. CentralCamera.visjac l(L. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ). pp. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. Chaumette. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. 1996. R&A.visjac p.

Corke. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. Oct. I. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS). 5962-5967. F. (St. radius and theta.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. 2009. Int. CentralCamera. and F. Louis). Chaumette.visjac e CentralCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form.CHAPTER 2.visjac p.visjac p polar. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac l. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. in Proc. Spindler.visjac l. CentralCamera.visjac p polar(rt. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. CentralCamera. P. See also CentralCamera. pp.

See README. vol. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. PointFeature. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. See also isift. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F.SIFT. Journal on Computer Vision.60.91-110. Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. ScalePointFeature. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Nov.Lowe. pp.CHAPTER 2. D. 2004.

1=opaque. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. f = PointFeature(u. v.match Match SIFT point features m = F. See also isift SiftPointFeature.match(f2. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. C ‘alpha’. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. 0=transparent (default 0.CHAPTER 2.plot scale(options.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. f = PointFeature(u.

CHAPTER 2. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support(images. out = F.support(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. F. [out.support Support region of feature out = F.T] = F. w) as above but the support region is displayed. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation.support(im. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.

• SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object.

Overrides the current camera pose C. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera. S ‘pose’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. ﬁsheyecamera.project(p. CentralCamera. N ‘pixel’.T.CHAPTER 2.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. See also SphericalCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. Options ‘name’. T ‘Tcam’.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera.

params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . error. image plane size and desired feature locations.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.CHAPTER 2.5) target center . Jacobian condition number. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.01) . of 4-vector.0. camera pose. scalar for If null take actual value all points. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. error norm. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . The camera view. The camera view.the side length of the target in world units (0. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. The external view.gain. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. defaults in parentheses: target size .sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.center of the target in world coords (0.depth of points to use for Jacobian. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.

Robotics and Automation. See also CentralCamera.CHAPTER 2. CentralCamera. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.the side length of the target in world units (0. error. defaults in parentheses: target size . showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.gain. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. CentralCamera. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. Conf.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . or a vector (N × 1) for each point.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . IEEE Int. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.5) target center .visjac l. The external view.center of the target in world coords (0. error norm. P.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .0. for all points.depth of points to use for Jacobian.01) . in Proc. May 3-7 2010. image plane size and desired feature locations.visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude). I. 5550-5555. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. (Anchorage). of 4-vector. Corke. camera pose. Jacobian condition number. scalar for If null take actual value all points.visjac p(pt.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac p polar. pp. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.

pp. Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. Tinne Tuytelaars. Vol. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. Andreas Ess. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. No. 346–359. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 110.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate.CHAPTER 2. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay. 3. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Luc Van Gool. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F.

strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. [m.match Match SURF point features m = F.match(f2. PointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. ScalePointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf.C] = F. f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2.match(f2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. v.

plot scale(options. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.support(im. 1=opaque. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F. C ‘alpha’. [out. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. 0=transparent (default 0. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’.support(images. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.2) SurfPointFeature. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.plot scale Plot feature scale F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. w) as above but the support region is displayed.T] = F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. out = F. F.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.support(im. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward.support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F.support Support region of feature out = F.CHAPTER 2.

• The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. Video AxisWebCamera.com). options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www.axis.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . G ‘scale’. S ‘resolution’. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.com) web camera. otherwise the result is not predictable. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource.axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.

grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. See also AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’.close() closes the connection to the web camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.char Convert to string A.display AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.

pp. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. in Proc.Zisserman. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.org). 2003.Sivic and A. f can also be a cell array. See also PointFeature BagOfWords. b = BagOfWords(f. b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2.CHAPTER 2.1470-1477. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. on Computer Vision. Ninth IEEE Int. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Conf. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J. Oct.

display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.exemplars display exemplars of words B.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w. See also BagOfWords. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon. images.contains Find images containing word k = B.exemplars(w. BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . isurf BagOfWords.CHAPTER 2.display Display value B. BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char Convert to string s = B.char BagOfWords.

remove stop Remove stop words B. All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. M ‘width’.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word.isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w. N ‘maxperimage’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords.n] = B.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. Options ‘ncolumns’.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.CHAPTER 2.

Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag. subclass of Camera. Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Camera CatadioptricCamera.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera.

and y-axes respectively. ‘equisolid’. optical axis is z-axis. A ‘resolution’. f=8mm. S ‘centre’.T.project(p. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. camera at origin. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. N ‘sensor’. See also Camera. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.CHAPTER 2. CatadioptricCamera. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane. See also Camera. K ‘maxangle’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. ‘sine’. 10um pixels. M ‘k’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. ﬁsheyecamera. N ‘focal’. T ‘Tcam’. SIGMA ‘pose’. u. S ‘noise’.and v-axes parallel to x. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. P ‘pixel’. Options ‘Tobj’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’.

Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature. SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. such as ScalePointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SurfPointFeature. See also PointFeature. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points.

If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. See also PointFeature. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. See also FeatureMatch. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. m = FeatureMatch(f1.char Convert to string s = M. one per element. f2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept.display Display value M. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FeatureMatch.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char() is a compact string representation of the match object.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1.

Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.u2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.outlier Outlier features m2 = M.inlier. FeatureMatch.v1.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. See also FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.outlier.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.v2].ransac FeatureMatch.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .FeatureMatch.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p2.plot() M.CHAPTER 2. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.p1.p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch. for example by: idisp({im1.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M. See also FeatureMatch.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch.p2 FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch.plot Show corresponding points M. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. These are the (u.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.im2}) m.

inliers and outliers (and their percentages). ransac FeatureMatch. options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.ransac(func.match(f2). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . m = f1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure. See also fmatrix. homography. Example f1 = isurf(im1). The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. f2 = isurf(im2).show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches.ransac( @fmatrix. 1e-4). m.ransac Apply RANSAC M.CHAPTER 2.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M. See also idisp FeatureMatch. and an error is created if this UserData is not found.

v.CHAPTER 2.subset Subset of matches m2 = M.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M. Y This camera model assumes central projection. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . that is. The image is not inverted. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f.

SIGMA ‘pose’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). 10um pixels. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f=8mm. S ‘centre’.axes respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. ‘equisolid’. S ‘noise’. M ‘k’. camera at origin. ‘sine’.CHAPTER 2. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H].FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. K ‘resolution’. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. optical axis is z-axis. u. P ‘pixel’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Options ‘name’. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024.and v-axes are parallel to x.and y. N ‘sensor’.

CHAPTER 2. See also Camera.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. See also FishEyeCamera. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. CentralCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . CatadioptricCamera. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane.project(p.plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T ‘Tcam’.T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane. Options ‘Tobj’. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.

The voting array is 2-dimensional. A horizontal line has theta = 0. See also LineFeature Hough.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d). By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .H). a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis.0) and the line.CHAPTER 2. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented. and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps.

W ‘houghthresh’.1). T ‘edgethresh’. Hough. Default 400 × 401.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.houghThresh (default 0. T ‘suppress’. else N = [Ntheta. N All edge pixels have equal weight. if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. Nrho]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. See also Hough.5) Set ht.display Display value HT. Hough.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.edgeThresh (default 0. The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht. Set ht.char Convert to string s = HT. W ‘nbins’.edgeThresh.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2.

HT. The process is repeated for all peaks. L = HT. LineFeature Hough.plot Plot line features HT.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. See also Hough.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.lines Hough.plot. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. See also Hough. The highest peak is found. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT.lines Find lines L = HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima. reﬁned to subpixel precision.CHAPTER 2. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes. H = HT. HT.show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line. then all elements in an HT.plot(n. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.

RegionFeature. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature. If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. Note • LineFeature is a reference object.CHAPTER 2.

L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2. theta. theta. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. See also LineFeature. LineFeature.CHAPTER 2. L = LineFeature(rho. strength. L = LineFeature(rho.display Display value L. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters.char Convert to string s = L.char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. LineFeature.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . one per element. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties. LENGTH is undeﬁned. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.

plot() overlay the line on current plot. less than gap pixels are tolerated.CHAPTER 2.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot line L.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.seglength(edge.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. l2 = L. LineFeature. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. L. See also icanny LineFeature. l2 = L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). Small gaps. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.points Return points on line segments p = L.

close Close the image source M.CHAPTER 2. options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie. S ‘skip’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close() closes the connection to the movie. G ‘scale’. Movie. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.axis.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form.com).char Convert to string M.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Movie.

undirected graph create an n-d. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. F Skip frames. vid • edges are represented by integer ids.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. S ‘frame’.CHAPTER 2. Options ‘skip’. PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. planar.

path(v) set goal vertex.connectivity() g.component(v) g.next(v) g.distance(v1.cost(e) g.coord(v) g.distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g.goal(v) g.CHAPTER 2. v2) g.plot() g.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Object properties (read/write) g. v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.add edge(v1.neighbours(v) g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.clear() add vertex.add node(coord.add node(coord) g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. v) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.edges(e) g.

add node(x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. E = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi. v2. v.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.add edge(v1. v = G.CHAPTER 2. where x is D × 1. v = G.add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add node(x. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. PGraph.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.add edge(v1. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. and returns the node id v. Options ‘distance’. PGraph. and returns the edge id E. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.

D × 1. PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G.CHAPTER 2.closest Find closest node v = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.d] = G. [v.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord Coordinate of node x = G.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. of node id v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges.clear Clear the graph G. and the distance d.coord(v) return coordinate vector. PGraph. edges and components.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices. PGraph.char Convert graph to string s = G. PGraph.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ScalePointFeature. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.display Display value F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. PointFeature. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. one per element. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.CHAPTER 2. f = PointFeature(u. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u.char Convert to string s = F.

[m. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. PointFeature. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.C] = F. the norm of the Euclidean distance.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1. Options ‘thresh’.match Match point features m = F.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F.match(f2.char PointFeature. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. where 1 is perfect match. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.CHAPTER 2.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.match(f2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If F is a vector then each element is plotted. Polygon .General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices).CHAPTER 2.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. F.plot Plot feature F. one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

Pankratov.char String representation s = P. HEIGHT]. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.area() is the area of the polygon. Polygon.html and require a licence.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v.area Area of polygon a = P. http://puddle.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mit. Polygon.CHAPTER 2. union.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. one column per vertex. p = Polygon(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside.edu/ glenn/kirill/saga. difference. kirill@plume. intersection.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. so use with care.mit. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.edu. Polygon. Polygon.

See also Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. else 0.inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.CHAPTER 2.display Display polygon P. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. returns coordinates of P. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.difference Difference of polygons d = P.char Polygon.

Polygon.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P.moments(p.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.moments Moments of polygon a = P.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. y1 y2]. each column is [x y]’.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. returns empty polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. See also mpq poly Polygon. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P.perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.

Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter.union Union of polygons i = P.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot. Polygon. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.plot() plot the polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. P.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.plot Plot polygon P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d.CHAPTER 2. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D.

[x. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. Ray3D.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value.display Display value R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D. See also Ray3D.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p. one per element. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = R. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. [x.E] = R. Ray3D.CHAPTER 2.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon.E] = R.char Ray3D.

horizontal coordinate centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.0) 1 for a circle. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.b. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box.CHAPTER 2. vertical coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.c.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object. ymin.RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. For example R. RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively.boundary Boundary in polar form [d.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.CHAPTER 2.th] = R. See also iblobs.xmax. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . imoments RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. RegionFeature. ymax].box Return bounding box b = R.char Convert to string s = R.uc will be a list not a vector. one per element. RegionFeature.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.

and xmarkers. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. It is indicated with overlaid o. R.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot boundary plot boundary R.plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. See also RegionFeature. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot Plot centroid R. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.char RegionFeature. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value R.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. R.

plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature.plot box Plot bounding box R. R.CHAPTER 2. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot. R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. v. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. C ‘alpha’.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . F. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options. f = ScalePointFeature(u. f = ScalePointFeature(u. 0=transparent (default 0. See also PointFeature. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. strength. SurfPointFeature.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v. 1=opaque. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.

T ‘movie’. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. See also PointFeature Tracker. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. options) is a new tracker object. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. N ‘thresh’. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. one per active track. Options ‘radius’. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im.CHAPTER 2.8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. R ‘nslots’. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. C. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature.

char Convert to string s = T. See also Tracker.display Display value T.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.tracklengths Length of all tracks T. Tracker.CHAPTER 2.char Tracker. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Show feature trajectories T. Tracker.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’.CHAPTER 2. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. otherwise the result is not predictable. and their characteristics is displayed. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera.Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. G ‘scale’. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’. Movie Video. AxisWebCamera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .grab() acquires an image from the camera.close() closes the connection to the camera. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form.char Convert to string V. Video. Video.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V.CHAPTER 2.close Close the image source V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.

Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). the second for right. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors.CHAPTER 2. right. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. The result is in the interval [-pi pi). th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. if negative it is reduced. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. By default the left image is red. a = anaglyph(left. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. color. and the right image is cyan. If th1 is a column vector. the ﬁrst for left. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. p = bresenham(p1. p2) as above but p1=[x1. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. If lambda is a column vector. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2. See also RegionFeature. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1.s] = boundmatch(R1.y2]. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l.y1) to (x2. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K].boundary.y1] and p2=[x2.CHAPTER 2. y1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [x. 6500). % emission of sun plot(l. Endpoints must be integer. Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.y2). then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. x2. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9.

The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.Y.Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U.V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points. [C. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels].CHAPTER 2. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X.

N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red.y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R. Options ‘n’. x = circle(C. C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. R. [k. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). that is. and x is N × 3. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B). k = closest(a. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. green and blue primaries respectively. R.d1] = closest(a.CHAPTER 2.

they were measured directly.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). Notes • Data from http://cvrl.5.5. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.5. since.CHAPTER 2. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. As noted in footnote a on p.16).ac. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. (Table 1(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda.5. 335 of Table 1(5.d2] = closest(a. The data are referred to as pilot data. while Table I(5. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. and 22500 (444.32).d1. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). 19000 (526.ioo.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps. • From Table I(5. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].ucl. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data). E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].

If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda. imsize is a 2-vector (N. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .uk See also cmfrgb.ucl.ioo. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. out = col2im(pix.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].M). ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.ac.

g] to every pixel in the color image im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im.CHAPTER 2.

icolor. [L. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. func. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mask. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.G. @isnan. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. k. See also imono. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. @isnan.B).CHAPTER 2. [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im.C] = colorkmeans(im. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. eg. and returns a per-pixel logical result. im<100. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. low is good. k) as above but also returns the residual R. eg. name = colorname(XYZ. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. XYZ = colorname(name. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required. L = colorkmeans(im.C.CHAPTER 2. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value.R] = colorkmeans(im. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming.

601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. s = ‘dest<-src’. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. i1.o3] = colorspace(s. • Color space names are case insensitive. s = ‘src->dest’. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. double data is the natural choice. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. Input and output images have 3 planes. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT.txt.o2. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. it can be omitted.i2. colorspace(s. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.CHAPTER 2. As MATLAB’s native datatype. [o1. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. or alternatively.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255.

colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The distance d is M × N and element d(I.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. • If im is an M × 3 array.B). for memory and computational performance. d = distance(A.CHAPTER 2. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 . like a colormap.200). distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace.b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. Example A = rand(400.100). out will also have size M × 3.2*A. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. However. B = rand(400.

tel.3. The result E is a matrix.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999.j). Tested: PC Matlab v5. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i. • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.y). • seed must be a point on the edge of the region.CHAPTER 2. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. E = edgelist(im.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. University of Amsterdam. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. not image frame.uva. each row is one edge point coordinate (x. non-zero is an object. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . in matrix coordinate frame. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background. bunschot@wins. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. seed. non zero is counter-clockwise.(+31)20-5257524.

See also epiline. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). Author Based on fmatrix code by. epiline(f. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles.R. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins.CHAPTER 2. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. one per line drawn. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i).S. p1. Oct 27. H = epiline(f. Coimbra. 1998. See also fmatrix. p. I.

page 270. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ransac. which means it can be passed to ransac(). ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. that is. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma.CHAPTER 2. epiline. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). c.edu. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. no outlier rejection is performed. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. that is. Notes • The points must be corresponding. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. homography.au/. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. • f is a rank 2 matrix.csse. it is singular.uwa. The University of Western Australia. • Contains a RANSAC driver. http://www. p2.

itriplepoint. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im.y1) and (x2. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y2). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. ithin. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. See also imorph. x2. y1. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN).

• The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver.edu. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. The University of Western Australia. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. invhomog. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. See also ransac. which means it can be passed to ransac(). • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. http://www. Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi.uwa. no outlier rejection is performed.csse. Notes • The points must be corresponding. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1.au/.

S output image contains all the warped pixels. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs.CHAPTER 2. im. itrim.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. V ‘roi’. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. R ‘scale’. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. im. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. [out. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘dimension’.offs] = homwarp(H. ie. that is tp=T*T1. See also homography. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. See also e2h. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. D ‘size’.

ianimate(im. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). IT-8:pp. 1962. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ’gs’). on Information Theory. The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. Hu. IRE Trans.CHAPTER 2. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 200). features. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 179-187. ’nfeat’. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. ianimate(seq.

options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. M ‘npoints’. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. isurf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX. iharris. YMIN YMAX]. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ). F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. N ‘only’.

ilabel.0 ‘connect’. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. C set connectivity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. default 1. A set pixel aspect ratio.CHAPTER 2. [A1.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. [S1. horizontal coordinate centroid. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E.A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. vertical coordinate bounding box. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’.0) 1 for a circle.

1996-7. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. This is an dilation followed by erosion. See also iopen. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. out = iclose(im. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. T ‘th1’. See also isobel.CHAPTER 2. se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘th0’.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. that is n dilations followed by n erosions. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. Tel Aviv University.

[C.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. D ‘bgval’. [0 1 1]). iconcat(im. See also imono. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp. colorize. The images do not have to be of the same size. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). Options ‘dir’. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im).u] = iconcat(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. C = icolor(im. color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im.

resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. options) convolves im1 with im2. im2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1.CHAPTER 2. See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character.

specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. S ‘deriv’. D ‘sigma’. E ‘suppress’. D ‘k’. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. CT ‘edgegap’. CM ‘cminthresh’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used.CHAPTER 2. N ‘detector’. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). K ‘patch’. R ‘nfeat’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned.

limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. Harris and M. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’. with a delay of d [sec]. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. N ‘mindelta’. Proc.Noble. pp. 1994.6.G. pp 147-151. Tomasi. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Image and Vision Computing. Options ‘dplot’. May 1988.5 [sec]. pp. See also PointFeature.J. T ‘distthresh’. Proc. Shi and C. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. where * denotes squared and smoothed.. • “Finding corners”.121-128. T ‘maxiter’. p2. vol. p2. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. • “Good features to track”. [T. 1988. IEEE Computer Society.CHAPTER 2. C. Stephens. 593-593. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. J. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence.d] = icp(p1. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. J. Manchester. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1. with a delay of 0.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.

Notes • If the image has multiple planes. 2. P. m. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. vol. See also iscale. no. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. IEEETrans.CHAPTER 2. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . 239-256. Feb. s = idecimate(im. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.McKay.Besl and H. Intell. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2.. []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. each plane is decimated. Mach. m.or 3-dimensional. s = idecimate(im. 1992. Pattern Anal. 14. pp.

positive is blue. Options ‘ncolors’. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. If im is a cell array of images. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward. zero is black. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). negative is red. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. zero is white. darker than ‘grey’. maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed.and y-axes respectively. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. C ‘xydata’. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide.CHAPTER 2. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . linear proﬁle. negative is red. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. zero is white color map: random values. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. XY ‘colormap’. If the image is zoomed. histogram and zooming.

which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. labelimage. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image. colormap. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also image. labelimage. caxis. See also iblobs. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. idisplabel(im. labels. and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im.CHAPTER 2. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. icolorize.

45. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2.CHAPTER 2. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes. ithin. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. out = igamma(im. See also itriplepoint. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.2.

sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 0. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. k. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Example im = iread(’58060. 1500.CHAPTER 2. Journal on Computer Vision. Sept. 2004. min.m] = igraphseg(im.5). P.m] = igraphseg(im. 100. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pp. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. 59. 2006. min. k is the scale parameter. [l. 167181. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im.5). vol. L = igraphseg(im. Int. [L. k. Huttenlocher. Felzenszwalb and D. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. min is the minimum region size (pixels). k.jpg’). See also ithresh.

h). plot(x. [H. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. options) displays the image histogram. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. bar(x. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. H = ihist(im. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [h. ’normcdf’).CHAPTER 2. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.x] = ihist(im).x] = ihist(im.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255. y2.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ii is a precomputed integral image. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. y1. x1. A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region.parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information.y1) and bottom-right (x2. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.CHAPTER 2. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. same size as im.y2). for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. [L. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. [L.m.

eg. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. each a 2-vector [X.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region.class. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .parents. ilabel(im. The pixels on the line are set to 1. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. • This is a “low level” function. 8).CHAPTER 2. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. p1.maxlabel. out = iline(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. See also iblobs.parents. p2.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image. otherwise it does not. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. iproﬁle. p1.Y]. • The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default.maxlabel. [L.

See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1.y) and of size s.and y-offsets relative to (x.y). im2. • Is a MEX ﬁle. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. and columns the vertical position.CC] where (DX. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence.DY. centred at (x. H. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin. The template in im1 is centred at (x.score] = imatch(im1. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. -s. y.y). y.CHAPTER 2.y) and its half-width is H. ymin.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. im2. ymax] relative to (x. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested. [xm. s] % relative to (x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). The return value is xm=[DX. x.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a perfect match score is 1. w2. xmax. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s. x. • ZNCC matching is used. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. s. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows.DY) are the x.

[u. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. f = imoments(u. effectively a binary image. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image. effectively a greyscale image. f = imoments(u. v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u. H) as above but the domain is w × H.u) = v. [u. All pixels are equally weighted.v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. The element u(v.u) = u and v(v.v] = imeshgrid(w. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.CHAPTER 2. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im.

0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2.CHAPTER 2. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. horizontal coordinate centroid. or its area. imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im. m10. See also RegionFeature. Different conversion functions are supported. m11. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m20. ilabel. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icolor. m01. m02. • This function does not perform connectivity. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. the elements are m00. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst.

m. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.m] = imser(im. Matas.m] = imser(im. O. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. [label. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. ’grey’. Chum.CHAPTER 2. 22.png’. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. se. and T. Pajdla. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. 2004. Sept. Urban. Image and Vision Computing. ’light’). vol. 761767.org). The labels [L. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. J. ’double’). pp.

• Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform. Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im.CHAPTER 2. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im.ˆ2). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. that is n erosions followed by n dilations. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times.CHAPTER 2. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. See also iclose. sides. out = iopen(im. n. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se.

CHAPTER 2. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U. otherwise im2 is selected. 20. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. im2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. im1. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. p.V]. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. ’t’. ’tblr’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. 10.

out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). p1.v) for the corresponding row of p. v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.uv] = iproﬁle(im. See also bresenham. iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. [p.CHAPTER 2. p1.

out = ipyramid(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. im > irank(im. is order=1. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. out = imorph(image. idecimate. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . order. out = ipyramid(im. se(2. out = imorph(image.CHAPTER 2. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3. op. se. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im. se. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. the maximum. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. 1. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. hence output image had reduced dimensions. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. 12. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. ones(5. See also iscalespace.3). Notes • Works for greyscale images only.2) = 0. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value.5)). se). nbins. op. sigma. The highest rank.

See also imorph. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). where R=[umin umax. G ‘reduce’. ivar. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . vmin vmax]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image.CHAPTER 2. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. R ‘roi’. im = iread(ﬁle.

• The resulting images may have negative disparity. m. k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2.h1. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im1. Notes • Color images are not supported. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.out2. homwarp. istereo. m. igamma. imwrite. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively. imono. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [out1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. im1. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. See also FeatureMatch.CHAPTER 2.out2] = irectify(f.h2] = irectify(f.

angle. [out.vmin vmax]. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. See also idisp. vmin. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im.CHAPTER 2. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im.vmax].umax. Options ‘outsize’. V ‘smooth’. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. S ‘extrapval’.H] return central part of image.R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin.R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax.

out = isamesize(im1. im2.CHAPTER 2. s<1 makes it smaller. s ‘extrapval’. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. bias=0. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image. V ‘smooth’.5 is symmetric cropping. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped.5 moves the crop window down or to the right. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. while bias>0. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1. Options ‘outsize’. s>1 makes the image larger.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. bias<0.

n. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. idecimate. See also iscalespace.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L. in space and scale. At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 . irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ).s] = iscalespace(im. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.s] = iscalespace(im.L. g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. corresponding to each step of the sequence. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g.L. [g. n) as above but sigma=1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image.

ishomog(T. else false (0). it its third dimension is equal to three. ilaplace. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. that is. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. See also isrot. ‘valid’) as above. ismooth. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax.CHAPTER 2. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. 2 (2004). icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also SiftPointFeature.CHAPTER 2. N ‘suppress’. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. • Features are returned in descending strength order. 60. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Lowe. pp. International Journal of Computer Vision. Reference David G. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. 91-110. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. isurf.vlfeat.

zssd. @ssd. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. ssd. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma. and these output pixels are set to NaN. zsad. @zssd. ncc. See also imatch. [w. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. @zsad.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s = isimilarity(T. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. im. sad. [w. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im.CHAPTER 2.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w.H. the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. s is same size as im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @ncc.

gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.CHAPTER 2. convolved.dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. sigma.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. then converted back to integer. [gx. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. See also iconv. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only.gy] = isobel(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. [gx.

range is the disparity search range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N.sim] = istereo(iml.CHAPTER 2. imr. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. range. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. imr. icanny. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the disparity d=d(v. See also ishomog. That is. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). H is the half size of the matching window. isrot(R.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v.u). ‘valid’) as above. H. iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range.u) means that imr(v. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. See also ksobel. else false (0). [d. range.M] for an N × M window. w.

w. • sim = max(dsi. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. That is. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. ‘ncc’. imr.5).max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. B. [d. dx. out = istretch(im. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w. p.sim. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation.5 to +0.A and p. imr.sim. 3) See also irectify. [d. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default).p] = istereo(iml. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. p.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. range.dsi] = istereo(iml. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. Options ‘metric’. range.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T ‘octaves’. Notes • Color images. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D.CHAPTER 2. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature. N ‘thresh’. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. Kroon (U. • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. or sequences. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’.

isift. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. 110.CHAPTER 2.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Andreas Ess. No. Tinne Tuytelaars.or columnvector. Vol. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. out = ithin(im. See also ishomog. Luc Van Gool. Otherwise false (0). 346–359. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. isvec(v. 2008 See also SurfPointFeature. See also hitormiss. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). pp. 3. itriplepoint. either a row. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. else false (0).

Notes • Greyscale image only. The same cropping is applied to each input image. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping. [out1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each.CHAPTER 2. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. ithresh(im. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.out2] = itrim(im1.im2. The default is 0. It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. See also homwarp. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. a lower value will include more.out2] = itrim(im1.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively.5. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1.

the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ithin. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed.CHAPTER 2. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. hence output image had reduced dimensions. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. se. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. op. Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. See also iendpoint. se. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border.

the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. ones(3. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func.CHAPTER 2. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im. ones(5. hence output image had reduced dimensions. See also ivar. se. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. func.3). The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. out = iwindow(image. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . se.5). The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. @max). @std). func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im.

H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. dG/dx.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. klog. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. See also ones. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ktriangle. • This kernel is an effective edge detector. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. k = kdgauss(sigma. kdog. • The vertical derivative. is k’. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. dG/dy. k = kcircle(R.

H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed.CHAPTER 2. See also kdgauss. kdgauss. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. klog.6*sigma1. klog. See also kgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. k = kdog(sigma1.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). By default SIGMA2 = 1. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. sigma2. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. kdog. k = kgauss(sigma. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. See also ilaplace. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. See also kgauss. kdog. k = klog(sigma. iconv.CHAPTER 2. kdgauss. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma. and W=2 × H+1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. Pattern Recognition Principles. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. it is assumed to have been completed previously. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed.C] = kmeans(x. [L.C] = kmeans(x. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x. L = kmeans(x. k. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). k. pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and D is the dimension.CHAPTER 2. Reference Tou and Gonzalez.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.z] = mkcube(s. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). [x. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. symmetric about the origin. ‘edge’. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube. Options ‘T’. The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points.z] = mkcube(s. s. See also cylinder. The points are the columns of p. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. C ‘T’. [x.y.y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s.

n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y. See also mpq poly. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows.xp . MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y.2)). Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. y. n) MPLOT(t. the sum of I(x. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im. npq. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .yq . y) MPLOT(t. n) MPLOT(y. or y(:.2)). labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. or y(:.y).CHAPTER 2. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. MPLOT(t. mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. That is.

upq poly. they are considered to be a single vertex. i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p. npq poly. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. so centroids will be still be correct. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v.CHAPTER 2. See also mpq.

• w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. 1986. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. Example t = niblack(im. the height of a character. -0. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im. k.m. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. idisp(im >= t).s] = niblack(im. ssd. in text segmentation. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . W. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. where W=2*w2+1. T has the same dimensions as im.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. [T. niblack. • A common choice of k=-0.CHAPTER 2. sad. See also zncc. 20). Prentice-Hall. k. for example.2.

q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.q)/MPQ(im. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. p. mpq. That is UPQ(im.0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also npq poly. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. p. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.0.p.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. upq. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. npq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. mpq. See also mpq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered as a single vertex. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale.CHAPTER 2.

T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. N. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y.xp] = peak(y. otsu IEEE Trans. x. Example t = otsu(im). [yp. Jan 1979.CHAPTER 2. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1). ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. pp 62-66 See also niblack. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor. [yp. Systems. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates.i] = peak(y. idisp(im >= t).

use peak(-V).CHAPTER 2. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima.S points. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned. N ‘scale’. See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z.ij] = peak2(z. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’.S points. use peak2(-V). options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/. Typically choose N to be odd. N ‘scale’. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. [zp. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. S ‘interp’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.

If p has three dimensions. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image.CHAPTER 2. ie. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. plot2(p. See also pnmﬁlt. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p.

value pairs that are passed to plot. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ’r’).y2). YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. W. ‘size’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. R.CHAPTER 2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. 5).Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].y2. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. plot_circle(c.y1. PLOT BOX(x1. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. W. ’LineWidth’. x2. P. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’edgecolor’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b.y1) and (x2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Examples plot_circle(c. r. 1=solid. ‘size’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. ’g’. plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(’centre’. ‘r’. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ’b’). or a set of name. P. r. ’fillcolor’. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. r. Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge.

centred at the origin. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. Options ‘color’. ls) ls is the standard line styles. xc.Y].Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.CHAPTER 2.Y. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . current plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. c Specify color of the axes. with Matlab line style ls. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. C. If C=[X. PLOT ELLIPSE(a.

n ‘text opts’. Options ‘textcolor’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. options) adds point markers to a plot. trplot( T. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame.CHAPTER 2. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. ‘printf’. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. ’color’. to ‘view’. ’name’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. ’r’. ’color’. fmt. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. ‘framename’. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. ’r’).X = 0. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font.

The default is 1. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C.CHAPTER 2. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. See also plot. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. R. color. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. either a letter or 3-vector. R. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. patch. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. NOTES • The sphere is always added. R. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. 1=solid. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque.

ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format.CHAPTER 2. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used. See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plotp(p. plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. See also plot.

[gr. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions.CHAPTER 2. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.gt] = radgrad(im.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.

resid] = ransac(func. one column per point pair. x typically contains corresponding point data. [m.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. x. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. N ‘maxDataTrials’. T. x. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set.in] = ransac(func. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. T. T.in. [m. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. x. d) as above but elements increment by d. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. Options ‘maxTrials’.

theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R.x data to work on.t threshold (1 × 1) R. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.C.x.s out.misc private data (cell array) out.. [out.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .x and returns the best model out.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out.resid] = EST(R. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once. Cambridge University Press.s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models.CHAPTER 2.inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. Mach. pp 101-113.misc element. References • m. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .out.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. pp 381-395.theta and the subset of R. Fishler and R.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R.A. Vol 24. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta is a cell array.x.theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out. that is they will produce a model. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.R.theta = [].x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R. Comp. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.x) condition the point data out.theta to the points R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.x = CONDITION(R. Comm.theta. they detect a structure argument.x that best supports (most inliers) that model. Boles. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman.theta = DECONDITION(R. that is. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC.theta. [out. Assoc.inlier.out. No 6.s sample size (1 × 1) out. If multiple models are found out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.theta] = ERR(R.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.

See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu.uwa.CHAPTER 2. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse.au/ pk See also fmatrix. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye. If lambda is a vector. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda.

angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. See also roty. See also rotx. roty. rotz. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . rotz. See also rotx.CHAPTER 2.

t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. If roll. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. Z axes respectively. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. • many texts (Paul. T = rpy2tr(roll. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll.CHAPTER 2. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. pitch. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. pitch. See also tr2rpy. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . yaw. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. Y.

y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1.y.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. r2t. ncc. and rotation theta in the plane.CHAPTER 2.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. y. theta) as above where xy=[x. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. See also zsad. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y.

R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also zsdd. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. sad. Two cross-hairs are created. ncc. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1.CHAPTER 2.

opt. then R is 3 × 3. The software pattern is: function(a. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. ’other’}.foo = true. opt. opt. tr2rt.blah = []. It supports options that have an assigned value. c. varargin) opt. – If T is 3 × 3. b. then R is 2 × 2.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt.CHAPTER 2. ’that’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4.bar = false. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .choose = {’this’.

If neither of ‘this’.false ‘blah’.verbose <.3 ‘blah’.foo <. S ‘showopt’ sets opt.blah <.choose <.select = {’#no’.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.‘this’. 3 sets opt. If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1).2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.select <. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt.blah <. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . varargin). ’#yes’}.x. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt. x.y sets opt.y ‘that’ sets opt. opt = tb_optparse(opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.N sets opt <. args) creates a test pattern image.CHAPTER 2.choose <. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. N ‘setopt’. varargin).1.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt.select <. w.debug <.true sets opt. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.foo <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names.

50.sd. 256. args is the number of cycles. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. binary dot pattern. The trajectory s. 256. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction.sd. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. sf. 25). args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0. args is the number of cycles. square side length. sf. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. args are theta (rad). T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. binary square pattern. intercept. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp.CHAPTER 2. Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd.sdd] = tpoly(s0. [s. sd and sdd are n-vectors. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. args are pitch (distance between centres). a line. 2). args are dot pitch (distance between centres). dot diameter. args is the number of cycles.

The 3 angles rpy=[R. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI). then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. Y.P.CHAPTER 2. See also angvec2r. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions).Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. Y and Z axes respectively. [theta. rpy = tr2rpy(R.

4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX.CHAPTER 2. then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1.:. y. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R. • The validity of R is not checked. – If TR is 3 × 3. If T has three dimensions.z]. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. See also rpy2tr.y. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. r2t. See also rt2tr. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. ie. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). or x and y. trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. An historical anomaly. [c1. if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. each N × 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence. If tri is RGB then cc is rg.CHAPTER 2. [o1. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3).o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2).C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors.

troty. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx.CHAPTER 2. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis.

Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T. f ‘label’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotx. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. trotx. and displays in RPY format. trprint T is the command line form of above. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis.CHAPTER 2.

the sum of I(x.y). That is. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. p. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im. tr2rpy.CHAPTER 2. See also upq poly.y0) is the centroid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.(x-x0)p .(y-y0)q where (x0. mpq.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. sad. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset.CHAPTER 2. See also ncc. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. See also sad. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ssd. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity.

a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. sad. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ncc.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. See also sdd.