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Copyright c 2011 Peter Corke peter.i.corke@gmail.com September 2011 http://www.petercorke.com

Preface

This, the third release of the Toolbox, represents a decade of development. The last release was in 2005 and this version captures a large number of changes over that period but with extensive work over the last two years to support my new book “Robotics, Vision & Control” shown to the left.

Peter C0rke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

The practice of robotics and computer vision each involve the application of computational algorithms to data. The research community has developed a very large body of algorithms but for a newcomer to the ﬁeld this can be quite daunting. For more than 10 years the author has maintained two opensource matlab® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This new book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and computer vision. It is written in a light but informative style, it is easy to read and absorb, and includes over 1000 matlab® and Simulink® examples and ﬁgures. The book is a real walk through the fundamentals of mobile robots, navigation, localization, armrobot kinematics, dynamics and joint level control, then camera models, image processing, feature extraction and multi-view geometry, and ﬁnally bringing it all together with an extensive discussion of visual servo systems.

Corke

Robotics,

Vision and Control

Peter Corke

1

Robotics, Vision and Control

isbn 978-3-642-20143-1

9 783642 201431

›

springer.com

The Machine Vision Toolbox (MVTB) provides many functions that are useful in machine vision and vision-based control. It is a somewhat eclecFUNDAMENTAL tic collection reﬂecting my personal interest in areas ALGORITHMS IN MATLAB® of photometry, photogrammetry, colorimetry. It includes over 100 functions spanning operations such 123 as image ﬁle reading and writing, acquisition, display, ﬁltering, blob, point and line feature extraction, mathematical morphology, homographies, visual Jacobians, camera calibration and color space conversion. The Toolbox, combined R with MATLAB and a modern workstation computer, is a useful and convenient environment for investigation of machine vision algorithms. For modest image sizes the processing rate can be sufﬁciently “real-time” to allow for closed-loop control. Focus of attention methods such as dynamic windowing (not provided) can be used to increase the processing rate. With input from a ﬁrewire or web camera (support provided) and output to a robot (not provided) it would be possible to implement a visual R servo system entirely in MATLAB . An image is usually treated as a rectangular array of scalar values representing intenR sity or perhaps range. The matrix is the natural datatype for MATLAB and thus makes the manipulation of images easily expressible in terms of arithmetic statements R in MATLAB language. Many image operations such as thresholding, ﬁltering and R statistics can be achieved with existing MATLAB functions. The Toolbox extends this core functionality with M-ﬁles that implement functions and classes, and mex-ﬁles for some compute intensive operations. It is possible to use mex-ﬁles to interface with image acquisition hardware ranging from simple framegrabbers to robots. Examples for ﬁrewire cameras under Linux are provided. The routines are written in a straightforward manner which allows for easy underR standing. MATLAB vectorization has been used as much as possible to improve efﬁciency, however some algorithms are not amenable to vectorization. If you have the

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB

R

3

Copyright c Peter Corke 2011

The manual is now auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code itself which reduces the effort in maintaining code and a separate manual as I used to — the downside is that there are no worked examples and ﬁgures in the manual. and I commend it to you.MATLAB compiler available then this can be used to compile bottleneck functions. This toolbox is not a clone of the Mathwork’s own Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) although there are many functions in common. This is extravagant on storage. contains many functions that are useful for image feature extraction and control. However the book “Robotics. though this is much less signiﬁcant today than it was in the past. It was developed under Unix and Linux systems and some functions rely on tools and utilities that exist only in that environment. is open-source. Vision & Control” provides a detailed discussion (over 600 pages. nearly 400 ﬁgures and 1000 code examples) of how to use the Toolbox functions to solve many types of problems in robotics. This toolbox predates IPT by many years. Some particularly compute intensive functions are provided as mex-ﬁles and may need to be compiled for the particular platform. This toolbox considers images generally as arrays of double precision numbers. R R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 4 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . about . . . . . .5 Use in teaching . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . SiftPointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hough . . . BagOfWords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What’s new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ray3D . Video . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FeatureMatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . LineFeature . . . . . . . . . . . Functions and classes Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ScalePointFeature . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 5 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SphericalCamera . . . . . . AxisWebCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angdiff . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SurfPointFeature . . . . . . . . . CatadioptricCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RegionFeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB version issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PointFeature . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PGraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracker . . . . . . . . 3 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 19 29 32 37 40 41 45 48 53 55 59 62 63 70 73 78 80 83 85 87 88 89 89 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Other toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie . . blackbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaglyph . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to obtain the Toolbox 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FishEyeCamera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . CentralCamera . . . . .6 Use in research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . distance . . epidist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfxyz . . . . . fmatrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . epiline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homography . . . . . . . . . . . idisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . idouble . . . . . . . . . . . . idisplabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bresenham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gauss2d . .CONTENTS CONTENTS boundmatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cmfrgb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icanny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iendpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diff2 . . . idecimate . . . . . . cie primaries circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colordistance colorize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iconv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edgelist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorkmeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ianimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camcald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitormiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igraphseg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ccdresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iint . . . . . colnorm . . . . . . . . 90 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 110 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 117 118 119 120 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homwarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e2h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ihist . . col2im . iblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . icorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ibbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . humoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colorspace . . . . . . . . homtrans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isize . . . . inormhist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imono . . . . . . . . . irectify . . . . iscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . im2col . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isobel . . . . . . . . kdgauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isamesize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ireplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscolor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . itrim . . istretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalemax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isimilarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istereo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 124 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 132 132 133 133 134 134 135 135 136 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 148 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ithresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ismooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iscalespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iwindow . . . . . . . irotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kgauss . . . . . . imeshgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isrot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . irank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iroi . . . . . . . . . . imorph . . . . . . . . . . intgimage . . . . ithin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isurf . . . . . . . . . ishomog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iread . . . . . . itriplepoint . . . . . . . . . . . ipixswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ipad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS iisum . . . . . . . . . . . . isift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . imoments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iproﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . imser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkcube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse inv plot frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medﬁlt1 . . . . . . . . . plot ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2xy . . . . . . plot homline . . . norm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maxﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loadspectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rg addticks . . . . . . . npq poly . . . . . . . plot poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlabel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numcols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot circle . pgmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kmeans . . roty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mkgrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ncc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . numrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pnmﬁlt . . . . . . . . . . klog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . otsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R . . . . . . 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 158 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 163 164 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 171 171 172 172 172 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . . . . . . . . . plotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r2t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS klaplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . ktriangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ransac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksobel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rluminos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plot sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lambda2rg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mplot . . niblack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . npq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssd . . upq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tristim2cc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rt2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zncc . . . . . . . . . transl . . . . testpattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stdisp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotz . . . sad . . . . . xycolorspace yaxis . . . . . . . . . . trnorm . . . . . . vex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tpoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zssd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upq poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2angvec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . troty . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS rpy2tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trotx . . t2r . . . . . . . . useﬁg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rpy . . . . . . . . trprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tr2rt . . . . . . . . . . . tb optparse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 173 174 174 175 175 175 176 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 9 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . . zsad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se2 . . .

You might instead like to communicate with other users via the Google Group called “Robotics Toolbox” http://groups. and you will be suitably acknowledged. I need you to write a Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 10 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . tutors. I can guarantee that I will not respond to any requests for help with assignments or homework.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. You need to signup in order to post.au/group/robotics-tool-box which is a forum for discussion. lecturers and professors are paid to do. I am happy to correspond with people who have found genuine bugs or deﬁciencies but my response time can be long and I can’t guarantee that I respond to your email.2 Support There is no support! This software is made freely available in the hope that you ﬁnd it useful in solving whatever problems you have to hand.google. and the signup process is moderated by me so allow a few days for this to happen. That’s what you your teachers.com. I am very happy to accept contributions for inclusion in future versions of the toolbox.1 • x New features: • x Bugﬁxes: • Improved error messages in many functions • Removed trailing commas from if and for statements What’s new Changes: 1. no matter how urgent or important they might be to you.

and the “See also” functions to each other. 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 11 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .3. 1. It is R auto-generated from the comments in the MATLAB code and is fully hyperlinked: to external web sites.1.pdf or the web-based documentation html/*. Month = nov.4 MATLAB version issues The Toolbox has been tested under R2011a. Number = {4}. Volume = {12}. Year = {2005}.com The ﬁles are available in either gzipped tar format (. 1. Corke}.pdf is a manual that describes all functions in the Toolbox.gz) or zip format (. The details are @article{Corke05f.5 Use in teaching This is deﬁnitely encouraged! You are free to put the PDF manual (vision. type of organization and application.petercorke. Author = {P. the table of content to functions. The web page requests some information from you regarding such as your country.I.html on a server for class use. A menu-driven demonstration can be invoked by the function rtdemo. Journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine}.zip). 1. This is just a means for me to gauge interest and to help convince my bosses (and myself) that this is a worthwhile activity. Title = {Machine Vision Toolbox}. The ﬁle robot. If you plan to distribute paper copies of the PDF manual then every copy must include the ﬁrst two pages (cover and licence). INTRODUCTION few words about why you want to join the list so I can distinguish you from a spammer or a web-bot.6 Use in research If the Toolbox helps you in your endeavours then I’d appreciate you citing the Toolbox when you publish.3 How to obtain the Toolbox The Machine Vision Toolbox is freely available from the Toolbox home page at http://www. HOW TO OBTAIN THE TOOLBOX CHAPTER 1.

P.R. contributed by Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins of I. color space conversions by Pascal Getreuer.com/matlabcentral is a great resource for user contributed MATLAB code.vlfeat. Twente. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 12 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . INTRODUCTION Pages = {16-25} } or “Machine Vision Toolbox”.1. pose estimation by Francesco Moreno-Noguer. 1. and there are hundreds of modules available. the k-means and MSER algorithms by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson.7.7 Acknowledgements Last. Coimbra.org is a great collection of advanced computer vision algorithms for MATLAB. RANSAC code by Peter Kovesi.. The Camera Calibration Toolbox by Jean-Yves Bouguet is used unmodiﬁed. this release includes functions for computing image plane homographies and the fundamental matrix.1 Other toolboxes Matlab Central http://www. graph-based segmentation and pose estimation are based on great code Some of the MEX ﬁle use some really neat macros that were part of the package VISTA Copyright 1993.6. 12(4). MSER. Corke. numerical routines for geometric vision by various members of the Visual Geometry Group at Oxford (from the web site of the Hartley and Zisserman book. Vincent Lepetit.I. Pascal Fua at the CVLab-EPFL. 1. which is also given in electronic form in the CITATION ﬁle.Functions such as SURF. 1994 University of British Columbia.the graph-based image segmentation software by Pedro Felzenszwalb. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1. VLFeat http://www. pp 16–25.S. and the SURF feature detector by Dirk-Jan Kroon at U. but not least. See the ﬁle CONTRIB for details. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. November 2005.mathworks.

Chapter 2 Functions and classes Camera Camera superclass An abstract superclass for Toolbox camera classes. Methods plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display plot projection of world point to image plane control ﬁgure hold for image plane window test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions (2 × 1) principal point (2 × 1) pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres camera pose as homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 13 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

used by all subclasses. S ‘noise’. N ‘sensor’. N ‘image’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 14 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’. IM ‘resolution’. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This is an abstract class and must be subclassed and a project() method deﬁned. T ‘color’. Options ‘name’. • The object can create a window to display the Camera image plane. The ‘image’ option paints the speciﬁed image onto the image plane and allows points and lines to be overlaid. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. Camera.Camera Create camera object Constructor for abstact Camera class. S ‘centre’.CHAPTER 2. C = Camera(options) creates a default (abstract) camera with null parameters.8]) Notes • Normally the class plots points and lines into a set of axes that represent the image plane. this window is protected and can only be accessed by the plot methods of this object. P ‘pixel’. C Name of camera Load image IM to image plane Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) [metres] Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.

char() is a compact string representation of the camera parameters.clf() removes all graphics from the camera’s image plane. Camera.centre Get camera position p = C.char Convert to string s = C.display Display value C.CHAPTER 2.centre() is the 3-dimensional position of the camera centre (3 × 1). Camera.delete() destroys all ﬁgures associated with the Camera object and removes the object.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the camera parameters.delete Camera object destructor C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera. SphericalCamera Camera. Camera. Camera. CatadioptricCamera.clf Clear the image plane C. ﬁsheyecamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 15 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

hold Control hold on image plane graphics C.ishold Return image plane hold status H = C.line Plot homogeneous lines on image plane C.ishold() returns true (1) if the camera’s image plane is in hold mode.v + c = 0. See also Camera.u + b.hold(H) hold mode is set on if H is true (or > 0).ﬁgure() is the handle of the ﬁgure that contains the camera’s image plane graphics.hold() sets “hold on” for the camera’s image plane.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 16 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .line(L) plots lines on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of L (3 × N ) considered as lines in homogeneous form: a.char Camera. otherwise false (0).ﬁgure Return ﬁgure handle H = C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Camera object and the command has no trailing semicolon. and off if H is false (or 0). Camera. C. Camera. Camera.

plot Plot points on image plane C.move Instantiate displaced camera C2 = C. Camera.hold. If p has 3 dimensions (3xNxS) then it is considered a sequence of point sets and is displayed as an animation. z to the image plane and plots them. sphere.mesh Plot mesh object on image plane C. Camera. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.plot(p. The matrices x. cylinder.plot(p) as above but returns the image plane coordinates uv (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. y. options) projects world points p (3 × N ) to the image plane and plots them. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 17 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .mesh(x. mkcube. y. z. options) projects a 3D shape deﬁned by the matrices x. If p is 2 × N the points are assumed to be image plane coordinates and are plotted directly. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. uv = C.T. Options ‘Tobj’. y.move(T) is a new camera object that is a clone of C but its pose is displaced by the homogeneous transformation T with respect to the current pose of C. Camera. z are of the same size and the corresponding elements of the matrices deﬁne 3D points. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. T ‘Tcam’. Camera.plot. See also mesh.clf Camera.

T ‘scale’.CHAPTER 2. Overrides the current camera pose C.clf Camera.mesh. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘Tcam’. ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.hold. N Number of frames per second for point sequence display ‘sequence’ Annotate the points with their index ‘textcolor’. C Text color for annotation (default black) ‘textsize’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 18 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .T. S Camera displayed in pose T (homogeneous transformation 4 × 4) Overall scale factor (default 0. Camera.plot camera(options) draw a camera as a simple 3D model in the current ﬁgure. Camera. ‘fps’. S Text size for annotation (default 12) ‘drawnow’ Execute MATLAB drawnow function Additional options are considered MATLAB linestyle parameters and are passed directly to plot.plot camera Display camera icon in world view C.point Plot homogeneous points on image plane C.point(p) plots points on the camera image plane which are deﬁned by columns of p (3 × N ) considered as points in homogeneous form. ‘Tobj’. T See also Camera. Camera.2 x maximum axis dimension) Notes • The graphic handles are stored within the Camera object.

that is. The image is not inverted.rpy(R. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 19 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . a subclass of Camera. v Y This camera model assumes central projection.rpy(rpy) as above but rpy=[R. C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Camera.y].p. CentralCamera Perspective camera class A concrete class for a central-projection perspective camera.rpy Set camera attitude C. p.CHAPTER 2. the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. y) sets the camera attitude to the speciﬁed roll-pitch-yaw angles.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project K C H invH F E invE fov ray plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera plot line tr plot epiline ﬂowﬁeld visjac p visjac p polar visjac l visjac e rpy move centre estpose delete char display project world points camera intrinsic matrix camera matrix camera motion to homography decompose homography camera motion to fundamental matrix camera motion to essential matrix decompose essential matrix ﬁeld of view Ray3D corresponding to point plot projection of world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera in world view draw line in theta/rho format draw epipolar line compute optical ﬂow image Jacobian for point features image Jacobian for point features in polar coordinates image Jacobian for line features image Jacobian for ellipse features set camera attitude clone Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre estimate pose object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f k p distortion T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres intrinsic: focal length intrinsic: radial distortion vector intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters intrinsic: camera distortion [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 20 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

also known as the camera calibration or projection matrix. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera CentralCamera.CentralCamera Create central projection camera object C = CentralCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object.C Camera matrix C = C.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 21 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .C() is the 3×4 camera matrix. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.

177 See also CentralCamera. Springer.and v-axes parallel to x. SIGMA ‘pose’. F ‘distortion’.8]) See also Camera. S. CentralCamera. IM ‘resolution’. S ‘centre’. P ‘pixel’.and y-axes respectively. 2003. optical axis is z-axis.invE Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 22 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘focal’. S ‘noise’. u. E = C.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.Sastry. E = C. J.F. D ‘default’ ‘image’. CatadioptricCamera. camera at origin.F(C2) is the essential matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).F(F) is the essential matrix based on the fundamental matrix F (3 × 3) and the intrinsic parameters of camera C. S.CHAPTER 2.Kosecka. Reference Y. N ‘sensor’. f=8mm. “An invitation to 3D”.E Essential matrix E = C.Ma. 10um pixels. ﬁsheyecamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. D ‘distortion-bouguet’.Soatto. p. T ‘color’. C Name of camera Focal length [metres] Distortion vector [k1 k2 k3 p1 p2] Distortion vector [k1 k2 p1 p2 k3] Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. Display an image rather than points Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H] Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H] Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Color of image plane background (default [1 1 0.E(T) is the essential matrix relating two camera views. SphericalCamera CentralCamera. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.

Ma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 23 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.H CentralCamera. 2003.Soatto.T and the second is after a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T. Reference Y.Kosecka. from two viewpoints.F(C2) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views described by camera objects C (ﬁrst view) and C2 (second view).Sastry.E CentralCamera.H(T.H Homography matrix H = C. S.F Fundamental matrix F = C. F = C.K() is the 3 × 3 intrinsic parameter matrix. p. J. Springer. S.K Intrinsic parameter matrix K = C. The ﬁrst view is from the current camera pose C.F(T) is the fundamental matrix relating two camera views. d) is a 3 × 3 homography matrix for the camera observing the plane with normal n and at distance d. See also CentralCamera.177 See also CentralCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. “An invitation to 3D”.CHAPTER 2. n.T and the second is a relative motion represented by the homogeneous transformation T.

Lepetit. 81. Journal on Computer Vision. V. 2009. CentralCamera. CentralCamera. pp.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES CentralCamera. Fua. F.estpose Estimate pose from object model and camera view T = C. In practice there are multiple solutions and s (4x4xN) is a set of homogeneous transformations representing possible camera motion. vol. uv) is an estimate of the pose of the object deﬁned by coordinates xyz (3×N ) in its own coordinate frame.ﬂowﬁeld Optical ﬂow C.fov() are the ﬁeld of view angles (2 × 1) in radians for the camera x and y (horizontal and vertical) directions. Feb. 155-166.invE Decompose essential matrix s = C. See also quiver CentralCamera.fov Camera ﬁeld-of-view angles. Moreno-Noguer.ﬂowﬁeld(v) displays the optical ﬂow pattern for a sparse grid of points when the camera has a spatial velocity v (6 × 1). Reference “EPnP: An accurate O(n) solution to the PnP problem”. a = C.invE(E) decomposes the essential matrix E (3 × 3) into the camera motion.estpose(xyz. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 24 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . uv (2×N ) are the corresponding image plane coordinates. Int. and P.

259 Y. section 5.invH Decompose homography matrix s = C. See also CentralCamera. p. normal vector to the plane (3 × 3) Notes • There are up to 4 solutions • Only those solutions that obey the positive depth constraint are returned • The required camera intrinsics are taken from the camera object • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Ma.Sastry. s. p120122 Notes • The transformation is from view 1 to view 2.Sastry.Soatto. “An invitation to 3D”. s. p116. “An invitation to 3D”.CHAPTER 2. “Multiview Geometry”. J. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. In practice there are multiple solutions and s is a vector of structures with elements: • T. Springer. 2003. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES s = C. Reference Y.3 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 25 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . s. p) as above but only solutions in which the world point p is visible are returned. Springer. camera motion as a homogeneous transform matrix (4 × 4).Ma.E CentralCamera.invE(E.Kosecka. s. Chap 9.Kosecka.invH(H) decomposes the homography H (3 × 3) into the camera motion and the normal to the plane. 2003. J.Soatto. translation not to scale • n.

CHAPTER 2. options) are the image plane coordinates (2 × N ) corresponding to the world points p (3 × N ). C. T Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. p) plots the epipolar lines due to the fundamental matrix f and the image points p.plot line tr Plot line in theta-rho format CentralCamera.plot epiline(f. H = C. ‘Tobj’.plot epiline(f.plot epiline Plot epipolar line C. ‘Tcam’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.project(p. p. one per line.H CentralCamera. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls.plot line tr(L) plots lines on the camera’s image plane that are described by columns of L with rows theta and rho respectively. T Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 26 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. Options Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. CentralCamera. p) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also Hough CentralCamera.T.project Project world points to image plane uv = C.plot epiline(f. If Tcam (4x4xS) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the camera moves in the world.

pp.CHAPTER 2. 313-326. and P.b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES If Tobj (4x4x) is a transform sequence then uv (2xNxS) represents the sequence of projected points as the object moves in the world. See also Camera.plot CentralCamera. “Multiview Geometry”.ray(p) returns a vector of Ray3D objects. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the ellipse parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. pl) is the image Jacobian (5 × 6) for the ellipse E (5 × 1) described by u2 + E1v2 .ray 3D ray for image point R = C.visjac e(E. F. Reference Hartley & Zisserman. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. The ellipse lies in the world plane pl = (a.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. p 162 See also Ray3D CentralCamera. Reference B.c. vol. Rives. June 1992.2E2uv + 2E3u + 2E4v + E5 = 0. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. one for each point deﬁned by the columns of p. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 27 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .visjac e Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Chaumette. 8. Espiau.

vol. The Jacobian gives the rates of change of the line parameters in terms of camera spatial velocity. Chaumette. pl) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane lines L (2 × N ). F.visjac p polar. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 28 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Espiau. CentralCamera. Oct.visjac p. The Jacobian gives the image-plane point velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity.d) such that aX + bY + cZ + d = 0.visjac l CentralCamera. R&A. Each column of L is a line in theta-rho format. “A New Approach to Visual Servoing in Robotics”. June 1992.visjac p. 1996. 313-326. CentralCamera. CentralCamera.visjac p polar. or a vector (N × 1) of depth for each point.visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Reference “A tutorial on Visual Servo Control”. and the rows are theta and rho respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.c. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation. The lines all lie in the plane pl = (a. Hutchinson. pp 651-670. pp. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all points. See also CentralCamera. and P. CentralCamera. Hager & Corke. Vol 12(5).b.visjac p(uv. IEEE Trans. 8. Rives.visjac l Visual motion Jacobian for line feature J = C.CHAPTER 2. Reference B. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points uv (2 × N ).visjac e CentralCamera.visjac l(L.

CentralCamera. and F.visjac e SiftPointFeature SIFT point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SIFT features. Chaumette. Reference “Combining Cartesian and polar coordinates in IBVS”. 5962-5967. F. radius and theta. Corke. CentralCamera. or a vector (N × 1) of depths for each point. CentralCamera.visjac l. The Jacobian gives the image-plane polar point coordinate velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also CentralCamera.visjac p. 2009.visjac e CentralCamera. Oct. Spindler.visjac p polar Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C.visjac p polar(rt. (St. I. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 29 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Int. Louis). z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points rt (2 × N ) described in polar form. in Proc. pp.visjac l. CentralCamera. P. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar for all point. Conf on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).CHAPTER 2.visjac p polar. See also CentralCamera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength theta feature orientation [rad] scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SiftCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector.u is a 2×N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. pp. See also isift. You can download a SIFT implementation which this class can utilize. ScalePointFeature.SIFT.91-110. If F is a vector (N ×1) of SiftCornerFeature objects then F. Int.60. Notes • SiftCornerFeature is a reference object. SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 30 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . PointFeature. See README. Journal on Computer Vision. • SiftCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • The SIFT algorithm is patented and not distributed with this toolbox.Lowe.CHAPTER 2. References “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”. vol. 2004. D. Nov.

0=transparent (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.SiftPointFeature Create a SIFT point feature object f = SiftPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. See also isift SiftPointFeature. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength.match(f2. f = PointFeature(u.plot scale Plot feature scale F. v. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SIFT features F and f2. f = PointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 31 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C ‘alpha’. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity.plot scale(options. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.match Match SIFT point features m = F. 1=opaque. SiftPointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. F.CHAPTER 2.

support(images. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence. w) as above but the support region is displayed.support(im. out = F.support Support region of feature out = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 32 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SiftPointFeature. F.support(im.T] = F. [out.CHAPTER 2. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. See also SiftPointFeature SphericalCamera Spherical camera class A concrete class a spherical-projection camera.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Properties (read/write) npix pp rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) in metres extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Note • SphericalCamera is a reference object. • SphericalCamera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 33 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. each column is phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).CHAPTER 2. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane.T. CentralCamera.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 34 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘Tobj’. T Name of camera Pixel size: S × S or S(1)xS(2) Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation See also Camera.project(p. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. C = CentralCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. Overrides the current camera pose C. ﬁsheyecamera. See also SphericalCamera. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of pt (2 × N ) are the corresponding spherical projection points.project Project world points to image plane pt = C. CatadioptricCamera SphericalCamera. N ‘pixel’. S ‘pose’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Options ‘name’.SphericalCamera Create spherical projection camera object C = SphericalCamera() creates a spherical projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. T ‘Tcam’.

a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . camera pose. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SphericalCamera. The camera view.CHAPTER 2. The camera view. of 4-vector. params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane. error. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1.the side length of the target in world units (0.sph Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T. The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin. image plane size and desired feature locations.sph2 Implement spherical IBVS for point features results = sph(T) results = sph(T.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .gain.2) niter eterm lambda ci depth . defaults in parentheses: target size . params) Simulate IBVS with for a square target comprising 4 points is placed in the world XY plane.0. Two windows are shown and animated: 1. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane.01) . The camera/robot is initially at pose T and is driven to the orgin.the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) . The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements.depth of points to use for Jacobian. scalar for If null take actual value all points. Jacobian condition number. The external view.5) target center . from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.center of the target in world coords (0. error norm. showing the desired view (*) and the current view (o) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 35 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

visjac p Visual motion Jacobian for point feature J = C. Reference “Spherical image-based visual servo and structure estimation”. Conf. of 4-vector. Jacobian condition number. CentralCamera. error. z) is the image Jacobian (2N × 6) for the image plane points pt (2 × N ) described by phi (longitude) and theta (colatitude).the number of iterations to run the simulation (500) .visjac e Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 36 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . error norm. scalar for If null take actual value all points.3) niter eterm lambda ci depth . (Anchorage). The external view.CHAPTER 2. The Jacobian gives the image-plane velocity in terms of camera spatial velocity. Corke. See also CentralCamera. image plane size and desired feature locations. camera pose. defaults in parentheses: target size . in Proc. for all points.camera intrinsic structure (camparam) .the side length of the target in world units (0. May 3-7 2010.depth of points to use for Jacobian.visjac p polar. The params structure can be used to override simulation defaults by providing elements. from simulation ([]) SEE ALSO: ibvsplot SphericalCamera.a stopping criteria on feature error norm (0) . pp. 5550-5555.gain.5) target center .0. or a vector (N × 1) for each point. The depth of the points from the camera is given by z which is a scalar. showing the target points and the camera The results structure contains time-history information about the image plane. IEEE Int. can be scalar or diagonal 6 × 6 matrix (0.visjac p(pt. CentralCamera.center of the target in world coords (0.visjac l. Robotics and Automation. I. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES 2.01) . P.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature SURF point corner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for SURF features. 2008 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 37 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • SurfCornerFeature is a reference object. No. 110. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. Luc Van Gool.u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding u coordinate. If F is a vector (N × 1) of SurfCornerFeature objects then F. Vol. 346–359. Tinne Tuytelaars. Methods plot plot scale distance match ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Match features Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale theta feature orientation [rad] descriptor feature descriptor (vector) index of image containing feature image id Properties of a vector of SurfCornerFeature objects are returned as a vector. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). Andreas Ess.CHAPTER 2. pp. 3. • SurfCornerFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays Reference Herbert Bay.

C] = F. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. SiftPointFeature SurfPointFeature. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0. f = PointFeature(u.match(f2. See also isurf SurfPointFeature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates.match Match SURF point features m = F.05) Threshold at the median distance Notes • for no threshold set to []. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of SURF features F and f2. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively.match(f2. [m. ScalePointFeature. Correspondence is based on descriptor similarity. v. Options ‘thresh’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isurf. See also FeatureMatch Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 38 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . f = PointFeature(u.CHAPTER 2.SurfPointFeature Create a SURF point feature object f = SurfPointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. PointFeature.

A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by circle with one radial line for orientation Indicate scale and orientation by an arrow Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. 1=opaque. extracted from the image im in which the feature appears.support(images. w) is an image of the support region of the feature F. w) as above but if the features were extracted from an image sequence images then the feature is extracted from the appropriate image in the same sequence.2) SurfPointFeature.plot scale(options) overlay a marker to indicate feature point position and scale.plot scale Plot feature scale F. C ‘alpha’.CHAPTER 2. See also SurfPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 39 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . w) as above but the support region is displayed. The support region is scaled to w × w and rotated so that the feature’s orientation axis is upward. F. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES SurfPointFeature. out = F. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.support Support region of feature out = F. Options ‘circle’ ‘clock’ ‘arrow’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. w) as above but returns the pose of the feature as a 3 × 3 homogeneous transform in SE(2) that comprises the feature position and orientation. F. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.support(images.support(im.support(im. 0=transparent (default 0. [out.T] = F.plot scale(options.

com) web camera. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 40 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otherwise the result is not predictable.axis.com).CHAPTER 2. options) is an AxisWebCamera object that acquires images from an Axis Communications (www. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions. S ‘resolution’. G ‘scale’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera Image from Axis webcam A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.AxisWebCamera Axis web camera constructor a = AxisWebCamera(url. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Video AxisWebCamera. Obtain an image of size S=[W H].axis.

Notes • Some web cameras have a ﬁxed picture taking interval.grab() is an image acquired from the web camera. and this function will return the most recently captured image held in the camera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 41 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES AxisWebCamera.grab Acquire image from the camera im = A.char Convert to string A.display AxisWebCamera.close Close the image source A.char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. BagOfWords Bag of words class The BagOfWords class holds sets of features for a number of images and supports image retrieval by comparing new images with those in the ‘bag’. See also AxisWebCamera.CHAPTER 2. AxisWebCamera.close() closes the connection to the web camera.

b2) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f but clustered to the words (and stop words) from the existing bag b2. Conf.org). on Computer Vision. The features are sorted into k clusters and each cluster is termed a visual word. in Proc. Oct. 2003.CHAPTER 2. k) is a new bag of words created from the feature vector f and with k words. See also PointFeature BagOfWords.Sivic and A. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 42 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Ninth IEEE Int. Notes • Uses the MEX function vl kmeans to perform clustering (vlfeat.1470-1477. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods isword occurrences remove stop wordvector wordfreq similarity contains exemplars display char Return all features assigned to word Return number of occurrences of word Remove stop words Return word frequency vector Return words and their frequencies Compare two word bags List the images that contain a word Display examples of word support regions Display the parameters of the bag of words Convert the parameters of the bag of words to a string Properties K nstop nimages The number of clusters speciﬁed The number of stop words speciﬁed The number of images in the bag Reference J.Zisserman. as produced by ISURF() for an image sequence. pp.BagOfWords Create a BagOfWords object b = BagOfWords(f. “Video Google: a text retrieval approach to object matching in videos”. f can also be a cell array. b = BagOfWords(f.

BagOfWords. See also BagOfWords.contains(w) is a vector of the indices of images in the sequence that contain one or more instances of the word w.char Convert to string s = B.exemplars display exemplars of words B. BagOfWords. The examples are displayed as a table of thumbR Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 43 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a BagOfWords object and the command has no trailing semicolon.contains Find images containing word k = B.display() displays the parameters of the bag in a compact human readable form.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.exemplars(w.char() is a compact string representation of a bag of words.char BagOfWords. isurf BagOfWords. options) displays examples of the support regions of the words speciﬁed by the vector w.display Display value B. images.

All remaining words are renumbered so that the word labels are consecutive. M ‘width’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES nail images. N ‘maxperimage’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 44 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .isword(w) is a vector of feature objects that are assigned to any of the word w.remove stop Remove stop words B.n] = B. Options ‘ncolumns’.CHAPTER 2.occurrence(w) is the number of occurrences of the word w across all features in the bag. BagOfWords.isword Features from words f = B. BagOfWords. BagOfWords.occurrence Word occurrence n = B. If w is a vector of words the result is a vector of features assigned to all the words in w.wordfreq() is a vector of word labels w and the corresponding elements of n are the number of occurrences of that word. w Number of columns to display (default 10) Maximum number of exemplars to display from any one image (default 2) Width of each thumbnail [pixels] (default 50) BagOfWords. The original sequence of images from which the features were extracted must be provided as images.wordfreq Word frequency statistics [w.remove stop(n) removes the n most frequent words (the stop words) from the bag.

The vector is K × 1 and the angle between any two WFVs is an indication of image similarity.wordvector Word frequency vector wf = B.wordvector(J) is the word frequency vector for the J’th image in the bag.CHAPTER 2. subclass of Camera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES BagOfWords. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 45 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • The word vector is expensive to compute so a lazy evaluation is performed on the ﬁrst call to this function CatadioptricCamera Catadioptric camera class A concrete class for a catadioptric camera.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp rho f p T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: tangential distortion parameters extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv u0 v0 number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction principal point u-coordinate principal point v-coordinate Notes • Camera is a reference object. C = CatadioptricCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters.CatadioptricCamera Create central projection camera object C = CatadioptricCamera() creates a central projection camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. Camera CatadioptricCamera. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also CentralCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 46 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘name’. See also Camera. ‘sine’. camera at origin. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p.T. S ‘noise’. P ‘pixel’. Image sensor size in metres (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation Notes • The elevation angle range is from -pi/2 (below the mirror) to maxangle above the horizontal plane. S ‘centre’. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model The maximum viewing angle above the horizontal plane.and v-axes parallel to x. F ‘default’ ‘projection’. T ‘Tcam’.and y-axes respectively.project(p. T Name of camera Focal length (metres) Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. CatadioptricCamera. SphericalCamera CatadioptricCamera. Catadioptric model: ‘equiangular’ (default). A ‘resolution’. Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. Options ‘Tobj’. u. ‘equisolid’. SIGMA ‘pose’. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. See also Camera. K ‘maxangle’.plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 47 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘focal’.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. ﬁsheyecamera. f=8mm. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C. T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. 10um pixels. M ‘k’. optical axis is z-axis.CHAPTER 2. N ‘sensor’.

Methods plot show ransac inlier outlier subset display char Plot corresponding points Show summary statistics of corresponding points Determine inliers and outliers Return inlier matches Return outlier matches Return a subset of matches Display value of match Convert value of match to string Properties p1 Point coordinates in view 1 (2 × 1) p2 Point coordinates in view 2 (2 × 1) p Point coordinates in view 1 and 2 (4 × 1) distance Match strength between the points Properties of a vector of FeatureMatch objects are returned as a vector. See also PointFeature. If F is a vector (N × 1) of FeatureMatch objects then F.p1 is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding view 1 point coordinate. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch Feature correspondence object This class represents the correspondence between two PointFeature objects. SiftPointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 48 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SurfPointFeature and SiftPointFeature. A vector of FeatureMatch objects can represent the correspondence between sets of points. SurfPointFeature. Note • FeatureMatch is a reference object. such as ScalePointFeature.CHAPTER 2. • FeatureMatch objects can be used in vectors and arrays • Operates with all objects derived from PointFeature.

If M is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. f2) as above but the strength is set to NaN. SiftPointFeature FeatureMatch.char Convert to string s = M.display Display value M.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 49 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a FeatureMatch object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also FeatureMatch. m = FeatureMatch(f1. Notes • Only the coordinates of the PointFeature are kept. FeatureMatch. one per element.FeatureMatch Create a new FeatureMatch object m = FeatureMatch(f1. See also PointFeature.CHAPTER 2. If M is a vector then the string has multiple lines. s) is a new FeatureMatch object describing a correspondence between point features f1 and f2 with a strength of s. f2.char() is a compact string representation of the match object.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature pair. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. SurfPointFeature.

ransac FeatureMatch.v1.p Feature point coordinate pairs p = M. Notes • Outliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.p() is a 4 × N matrix containing the feature point coordinates. See also FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. Each column contains the coordinates of a pair of corresponding points [u1.outlier.CHAPTER 2.inlier. FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 50 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u2.outlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be outliers.v2].outlier Outlier features m2 = M. Notes • Inliers are not determined until after RANSAC is run.ransac FeatureMatch.inlier Inlier features m2 = M.inlier() is a subset of the FeatureMatch vector M that are considered to be inliers. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch.

See also FeatureMatch.FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 51 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .p1.v) properties of the feature F1 passed to the constructor.p1() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1.FeatureMatch. See also FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch. The ﬁgure must comprise views 1 and 2 side by side. These are the (u.p2 Feature point coordinates from view 2 p = M.v) properties of the feature F2 passed to the constructor. These are the (u. FeatureMatch.p1 Feature point coordinates from view 1 p = M.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot() M.p2 FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch.p FeatureMatch. FeatureMatch.p2() is a 2 × N matrix containing the feature points coordinates from view 1. FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also FeatureMatch.p1.p2.plot Show corresponding points M.im2}) m.plot() overlays the correspondences in the FeatureMatch vector M on the current ﬁgure. for example by: idisp({im1.CHAPTER 2.

The options are passed to the RANSAC() function. m = f1.show Display summary statistics of the FeatureMatch vector M.show() is a compact summary of the FeatureMatch vector M that gives the number of matches. f2 = isurf(im2). and an error is created if this UserData is not found. Example f1 = isurf(im1). options) applies the RANSAC algorithm to ﬁt the point correspondences to the model described by the function func.ransac Apply RANSAC M. See also idisp FeatureMatch. 1e-4).ransac( @fmatrix. m.CHAPTER 2. ransac FeatureMatch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Using IDISP as above adds UserData to the ﬁgure.match(f2).ransac(func. homography. Elements of the FeatureMatch vector have their status updated in place to indicate whether they are inliers or outliers. See also fmatrix. inliers and outliers (and their percentages). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 52 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES FeatureMatch. X | | | + (principal point) | | Z-axis is into the page. FishEyeCamera Fish eye camera class A concrete class a ﬁsheye lense projection camera. Methods project plot hold ishold clf ﬁgure mesh point line plot camera rpy move centre delete char display project world points to image plane plot/return world point on image plane control hold for image plane test ﬁgure hold for image plane clear image plane ﬁgure holding the image plane draw shape represented as a mesh draw homogeneous points on image plane draw homogeneous lines on image plane draw camera set camera attitude copy of Camera after motion get world coordinate of camera centre object destructor convert camera parameters to string display camera parameters Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 53 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the focal point is at z=0 and the image plane is at z=f. that is. v.subset Subset of matches m2 = M. The camera coordinate system is: 0------------> u. The image is not inverted. Y This camera model assumes central projection.subset(n) is a FeatureMatch vector with no more than n elements sampled uniformly from M.CHAPTER 2.

Options ‘name’. K ‘resolution’.and v-axes are parallel to x. N ‘default’ ‘projection’. N ‘sensor’. Image sensor size [metres] (2 × 1) Principal point (2 × 1) Pixel size: S × S or S=[W H]. 10um pixels. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties (read/write) npix pp f rho T image dimensions in pixels (2 × 1) intrinsic: principal point (2 × 1) intrinsic: focal length [metres] intrinsic: pixel dimensions (2 × 1) [metres] extrinsic: camera pose as homogeneous transformation Properties (read only) nu nv number of pixels in u-direction number of pixels in v-direction Notes • Camera is a reference object. T Name of camera Default camera parameters: 1024 × 1024. f=8mm.CHAPTER 2. • Camera objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Camera FishEyeCamera. C = FishEyeCamera(options) as above but with speciﬁed parameters. optical axis is z-axis. S ‘noise’.FishEyeCamera Create ﬁsheyecamera object C = FishEyeCamera() creates a ﬁsheye camera with canonic parameters: f=1 and name=’canonic’. ‘sine’.axes respectively. Standard deviation of additive Gaussian noise added to returned image projections Pose of the camera as a homogeneous transformation R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 54 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SIGMA ‘pose’. u. ‘stereographic’ Parameter for the projection model Image plane resolution: N × N or N=[W H]. ‘equisolid’.and y. camera at origin. M ‘k’. P ‘pixel’. Fisheye model: ‘equiangular’ (default). S ‘centre’.

T Transform all points by the homogeneous transformation T before projecting them to the camera image plane. options) are the image plane coordinates for the world points p. For every edge pixel in the input image a set of cells in the Hough accumulator (voting array) are incremented. Options ‘Tobj’. T ‘Tcam’.T.CHAPTER 2. See also FishEyeCamera. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • If K is not speciﬁed it is computed such that the circular imaging region maximally ﬁlls the square image plane.project(p. See also Camera. Set the camera pose to the homogeneous transformation T before projecting points to the camera image plane. Temporarily overrides the current camera pose C.project Project world points to image plane uv = C. The columns of p (3 × N ) are the world points and the columns of uv (2 × N ) are the corresponding image plane points. CentralCamera. CatadioptricCamera. SphericalCamera FishEyeCamera. In this version of the Hough transform lines are described by: d = y cos(theta) + x sin(theta) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 55 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot Hough Hough transform class The Hough transform is a technique for ﬁnding lines in an image using a voting scheme.

and d is the perpendicular distance between (0. By default the vote is incremented by Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 56 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is the Hough transform of the edge image E.0) and the line. Offset is in the range -rho max to rho max where rho max=max(W.Hough Create Hough transform object ht = Hough(E. A horizontal line has theta = 0. The voting array is 2-dimensional. Methods plot show lines char display Overlay detected lines Display the Hough accumulator Return line features Convert Hough parameters to string Display Hough parameters Properties Nrho Ntheta A rho theta edgeThresh houghThresh suppress interpWidth Number of bins in rho direction Number of bins in theta direction The Hough accumulator (Nrho x Ntheta) rho values for the centre of each bin vertically Theta values for the centre of each bin horizontally Threshold on relative edge pixel strength Threshold on relative peak strength Radius of accumulator cells cleared around peak Width of region used for peak interpolation Notes • Hough is a reference object. For every pixel in the edge image E (H ×W ) greater than a threshold the corresponding elements of the accumulator are incremented.CHAPTER 2. with columns corresponding to theta and rows corresponding to offset (d).H). Theta spans the range -pi/2 to pi/2 in Ntheta steps. a vertical line has theta = pi/2 or -pi/2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES where theta is the angle the line makes to horizontal axis. See also LineFeature Hough.

The threshold is determined from the maximum edge strength value x ht.edgeThresh (default 0.char() is a compact string representation of the Hough transform parameters. N All edge pixels have equal weight. T ‘suppress’. Hough. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the edge strength but votes can be made equal with the option ‘equal’. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Hough object and the command has no trailing semicolon.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 57 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Set ht.CHAPTER 2.5) Set ht.suppress (default 0) Set number of bins. Nrho]. else N = [Ntheta. T ‘edgethresh’. W ‘nbins’. Hough. Default 400 × 401.char Convert to string s = HT.edgeThresh.display Display value HT. W ‘houghthresh’. See also Hough.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Hough transform parameters. Options ‘equal’ ‘interpwidth’.1). if N is scalar set Nrho=Ntheta=N. otherwise the edge pixel value is the vote strength Interpolation width (default 3) Set ht.houghThresh (default 0.

reﬁned to subpixel precision.show Display the Hough accumulator as image s = HT.CHAPTER 2. H = HT.lines() is a vector of LineFeature objects that represent the dominant lines in the Hough accumulator. where ‘heat’ is proportional to the number of votes.plot(n) overlays a maximum of n strongest lines on the current ﬁgure.plot() as above but returns a vector of graphics handles for each line.lines Hough. See also Hough.lines(n) as above but returns no more than n LineFeature objects.suppress radius around are zeroed so as to eliminate multiple close minima.plot() overlays all detected lines on the current ﬁgure. The process is repeated for all peaks. See also Hough. The highest peak is found. HT.plot Plot line features HT. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 58 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .show() displays the Hough vote accumulator as an image using the hot colormap. then all elements in an HT. LineFeature Hough. L = HT. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Hough.houghThresh times the maximum vote value.plot(n. The peak detection loop breaks early if the remaining peak has a strength less than HT. HT.lines Find lines L = HT. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot. Lines are the coordinates of peaks in the Hough accumulator.

If L is a vector (N × 1) of LineFeature objects then L. RegionFeature. Methods plot seglength display char Plot the line segment Determine length of line segment Display value Convert value to string Properties rho Offset of the line theta Orientation of the line strength Feature strength length Length of the line Properties of a vector of LineFeature objects are returned as a vector. • LineFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays See also Hough. Note • LineFeature is a reference object. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also colormap. PointFeature Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 59 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. hot LineFeature Line feature class This class represents a line feature.rho is an N × 1 vector of the rho element of each feature.

char() is a compact string representation of the line feature. L = LineFeature(rho.char Convert to string s = L.char Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 60 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If L is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a LineFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon. See also LineFeature. LineFeature. LENGTH is undeﬁned. strength. If L is a vector then the string has multiple lines. LineFeature.display Display value L. strength) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.LineFeature Create a line feature object L = LineFeature() is a line feature object with null parameters. theta. L = LineFeature(rho.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature. theta. length) is a line feature object with the speciﬁed properties.CHAPTER 2. one per element. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature. L = LineFeature(l2) is a deep copy of the line feature l2.

L. less than gap pixels are tolerated.seglength Compute length of line segments The Hough transform identiﬁes lines but cannot determine their length. This method examines the edge pixels in the original image and determines the longest stretch of non-zero pixels along the line.plot() overlay the line on current plot. l2 = L.plot Plot line L.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. gap) is a copy of the line feature object with the property length updated to the length of the line (pixels). LineFeature.seglength(edge) as above but the maximum allowable gap is 5 pixels.seglength(edge. Notes • If L is a vector then each element is plotted. See also icanny Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 61 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES LineFeature.CHAPTER 2.points Return points on line segments p = L. l2 = L. Small gaps.points(edge) is the set of points that lie along the line in the edge image edge are determined. See also icanny LineFeature.

CHAPTER 2. Movie.close() closes the connection to the movie. S Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions Read every S’th frame from the movie Movie.close Close the image source M. Movie.char Convert to string M.com). Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 62 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is an Movie object that returns frames from the movie ﬁle ﬁle. S ‘skip’.axis. G ‘scale’.Movie Image source constructor m = Movie(ﬁle.char() is a string representing the state of the movie object in human readable form. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie Class to read movie ﬁle A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a web camera built by Axis Communications (www.

PGraph Simple graph class g = PGraph() g = PGraph(n) create a 2D. undirected graph Graphs • are undirected • are symmetric cost edges (A to B is same cost as B to A) • are embedded in coordinate system • have no loops (edges from A to A) • vertices are represented by integer ids. S ‘frame’.grab(options) as above but allows the next frame to be speciﬁed.grab() acquires the next image from the movie im = M. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Movie. vid • edges are represented by integer ids. Options ‘skip’. undirected graph create an n-d.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 63 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . eid Graph connectivity is maintained by a labeling algorithm and this is updated every time an edge is added. F Skip frames.grab Acquire next frame from movie im = M. and return current+S frame Return frame F within the movie Notes • If no output argument given the image is displayed using IDISP. planar.

v2) distance between v1 and v2 as the crow ﬂies g.clear() add vertex.component(v) g.plot() g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Methods Constructing the graph g.cost(e) g.pick() char(g) return vid for edge return cost for edge list return coordinate of node v return vid for edge return component id for vertex return number of edges for all nodes set goal vertex for path planning return vertex id closest to picked point display summary info about the graph Planning paths through the graph g.connectivity() g.distance(v1.add node(coord.n number of nodes Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 64 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .distances(coord) return sorted distances from coord and vertices To change the distance metric create a subclass of PGraph and override the method distance metric().path(v) set goal vertex.CHAPTER 2.closest(coord) return vertex closest to coord g. and plan paths return d of neighbour of v closest to goal return list of nodes from v to goal Graph and world points g. return vid add vertex and edge to v. return vid add edge from v1 to v2.add node(coord) g.add edge(v1.edges(e) g.neighbours(v) g. v2) g. v) g. return eid remove all nodes and edges from the graph Information from graph g.coord(v) g. Object properties (read/write) g.next(v) g.goal(v) g.

add node Add a node to the graph v = G.add edge(v1. Options ‘distance’. v) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 65 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph. PGraph. and returns the node id v. E = G. v2. PGraph. C) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2 with cost C. C) adds a node with coordinate x and connected to node v by an edge with cost C.PGraph Graph class constructor g = PGraph(d. v = G. M ‘verbose’ Use the distance metric M for path planning Specify verbose operation Note • The distance metric is either ‘Euclidean’ or ‘SE2’ which is the sum of the squares of the difference in position and angle modulo 2pi.add edge Add an edge to the graph E = G.add edge(v1. and returns the edge id E. v = G.add node(x. options) returns a graph object embedded in d dimensions.CHAPTER 2.add node(x. v. where x is D × 1. v2) add an edge between nodes with id v1 and v2.add node(x) adds a node with coordinate x.

char Convert graph to string s = G.closest(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x.coord Coordinate of node x = G. PGraph. [v. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 66 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CLEAR() removes all nodes and edges. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PGraph.CHAPTER 2.char() returns a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices.connectivity() returns the total number of edges in the graph. of node id v.d] = G. and the distance d.closest Find closest node v = G. D × 1.CLOSEST(x) return id of node geometrically closest to coordinate x. PGraph. PGraph.connectivity Graph connectivity C = G. edges and components. PGraph.clear Clear the graph G.coord(v) return coordinate vector.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

PGraph.cost

Cost of edge

C = G.cost(E) return cost of edge id E.

PGraph.display

Display state of the graph

G.display() displays a compact human readable representation of the state of the graph including the number of vertices, edges and components.

See also

PGraph.char

PGraph.distance

Distance between nodes

d = G.distance(v1, v2) return the geometric distance between the nodes with id v1 and v2.

PGraph.distances

distance to all nodes

d = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d. [d,w] = G.distances(v) returns vector of geometric distance from node id v to every other node (including v) sorted into increasing order by d where elements of w are the corresponding node id.

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PGraph.edges

Find edges given vertex

E = G.edges(v) return the id of all edges from node id v.

PGraph.goal

Set goal node

G.goal(vg) for least-cost path through graph set the goal node. The cost of reaching every node in the graph connected to vg is computed.

See also

PGraph.path cost is total distance from goal

PGraph.neighbours

Neighbours of a node

n = G.neighbours(v) return a vector of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. [n,C] = G.neighbours(v) return a vector n of ids for all nodes which are directly connected neighbours of node id v. The elements of C are the edge costs of the paths to the corresponding node ids in n.

PGraph.next

Find next node toward goal

v = G.next(vs) return the id of a node connected to node id vs that is closer to the goal.

See also

PGraph.goal, PGraph.path

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PGraph.path

Find path to goal node

p = G.path(vs) return a vector of node ids that form a path from the starting node vs to the previously speciﬁed goal. The path includes the start and goal node id.

See also

PGraph.goal

PGraph.pick

Graphically select a node

v = G.pick() returns the id of the node closest to the point clicked by user on a plot of the graph.

See also

PGraph.plot

PGraph.plot

Plot the graph

G.plot(opt) plot the graph in the current ﬁgure. Nodes are shown as colored circles.

Options

‘labels’ ‘edges’ ‘edgelabels’ ‘MarkerSize’, S ‘MarkerFaceColor’, C ‘MarkerEdgeColor’, C ‘componentcolor’ Display node id (default false) Display edges (default true) Display edge id (default false) Size of node circle Node circle color Node circle edge color Node color is a function of graph component

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PGraph.showComponent

t

G.showcomponent(C) plots the nodes that belong to graph component C.

PGraph.showVertex

Highlight a vertex

G.showVertex(v) highlights the vertex v with a yellow marker.

PGraph.vertices

Find vertices given edge

v = G.vertices(E) return the id of the nodes that deﬁne edge E.

PointFeature

PointCorner feature object

A superclass for image corner features.

Methods

plot distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string

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Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a PointFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.CHAPTER 2. See also ScalePointFeature. v. If F is a vector (N × 1) of PointFeature objects then F.char Convert to string s = F.PointFeature Create a point feature object f = PointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the feature.display Display value F. If F is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. one per element. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. PointFeature. PointFeature. SiftPointFeature PointFeature. If F is a vector then the string has multiple lines. f = PointFeature(u. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 71 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate.char() is a compact string representation of the point feature. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. SurfPointFeature. f = PointFeature(u. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of PointFeature objects are returned as a vector.

ncc(f1) is the similarty between feature descriptors which is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1.match(f2. T ‘median’ match threshold (default 0.ncc Feature descriptor similarity s = F. options) is a vector of FeatureMatch objects that describe candidate matches between the two vectors of point features F and f2.match(f2.match Match point features m = F. PointFeature. If F is a vector then d is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1.distance(f1) is the distance between feature descriptors.CHAPTER 2.C] = F. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 72 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [m. If F is a vector then D is a vector whose elements are the distance between the corresponding element of F and f1. where 1 is perfect match. the norm of the Euclidean distance. options) as above but returns a correspodence matrix where each row contains the indices of corresponding features in F and f2 respectively. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature.distance Distance between feature descriptors d = F.05) Threshold at the median distance See also FeatureMatch PointFeature.char PointFeature. Options ‘thresh’.

one per column Bounding box [minx maxx. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES PointFeature. If F is a vector then each element is plotted.plot() overlay a marker at the feature position. Methods plot area moments centroid perimeter transform inside intersection difference union xor display char Plot polygon Area of polygon Moments of polygon Centroid of polygon Perimter of polygon Transform polygon Test if points are inside polygon Intersection of two polygons Difference of two polygons Union of two polygons Exclusive or of two polygons print the polygon in human readable form convert the polgyon to human readable string Properties vertices extent n List of polygon vertices.CHAPTER 2. Polygon .plot Plot feature F.General polygon class p = Polygon(vertices). F. miny maxy] Number of vertices Notes • this is reference class object • Polygon objects can be used in vectors and arrays R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 73 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.

difference. HEIGHT].mit.CHAPTER 2.centroid Centroid of polygon x = P. union.mit. and xor are based on code written by: Kirill K.Polygon Polygon class constructor p = Polygon(v) is a polygon with vertices given by v. one column per vertex.area() is the area of the polygon. p = Polygon(C. Pankratov. wh) is a rectangle centred at C with dimensions wh=[WIDTH.edu. Polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Acknowledgement The methods inside. so use with care.html and require a licence. intersection.char String representation s = P.char() is a compact representation of the polgyon in human readable form. However the author does not respond to email regarding the licence.centroid() is the centroid of the polygon. http://puddle. Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 74 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .edu/ glenn/kirill/saga.area Area of polygon a = P. Polygon. Polygon. kirill@plume.

inside(p) tests if points given by columns of p are inside the polygon. resulting vertex list will contain NaNs.difference(q) is polygon P minus polygon q.char Polygon. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 75 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else 0. returns coordinates of P.intersect Intersection of polygon with list of polygons i = P.display Display polygon P. Polygon.intersect(plist) indicates whether or not the Polygon P intersects with i(j) = 1 if p intersects polylist(j). Polygon. • If the result d is not simply connected or consists of several polygons. See also Polygon.display() displays the polygon in a compact human readable form.inside Test if points are inside polygon in = p.difference Difference of polygons d = P.CHAPTER 2. Notes • If polygons P and q are not intersecting. The corresponding elements of in are either true or false. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 76 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .perimeter() is the perimeter of the polygon. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon. returns empty polygon. Polygon. y1 y2].moments Moments of polygon a = P. q) is the pq’th moment of the polygon.intersect line Intersection of polygon and line segment i = P. • If intersection consist of several disjoint polygons (for non-convex P or q) then vertices of i is the concatenation of the vertices of these polygons.intersection(q) is a Polygon representing the intersection of polygons P and q.perimeter Perimeter of polygon L = P. Polygon.intersect line(L) is the intersection points of a polygon P with the line segment L=[x1 x2. i is an N × 2 matrix with one column per intersection.moments(p.intersection Intersection of polygons i = P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. each column is [x y]’. See also mpq poly Polygon.CHAPTER 2.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 77 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Polygon. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform(T) is a new Polygon object whose vertices have been transfored by the 3 × 3 homgoeneous transformation T.xor Exclusive or of polygons i = P. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Polygon.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”.plot Plot polygon P. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting. Polygon.plot() plot the polygon.CHAPTER 2.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q. Notes • If these polygons are not intersecting.union(q) is a Polygon representing the union of polygons P and q.plot(ls) as above but pass the arguments ls to plot.union Union of polygons i = P. returns a polygon with vertices of both polygons separated by NaNs.transform Transformation of polygon vertices p2 = P. • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Polygon. P.

CHAPTER 2. deﬁned by a point on the ray and a direction unit-vector.clockwise “outer boundary” and one or more clock-wise “inner boundaries” around “holes”. d) is a new Ray3D object deﬁned by a point on the ray p0 and a direction vector d. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If the result P is not simply connected (such as a polygon with a “hole”) the resulting contour consist of counter. Ray3D Ray in 3D space This object represents a ray in 3D space. Methods intersect closest char display Intersection of ray with plane or ray Closest distance between point and ray Ray parameters as human readable string Display ray parameters in human readable form Properties P0 d A point on the ray (3 × 1) Direction of the ray. unit vector (3 × 1) Notes • Ray3D objects can be used in vectors and arrays Ray3D. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 78 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Ray3D Ray constructor R = Ray3D(p0.

char Convert to string s = R.CHAPTER 2.E] = R.intersect(r2) is the point on R that is closest to the ray r2. one per element. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines. If R is a vector then then x has multiple columns.intersect Intersetion of ray with line or plane x = R. Ray3D.E] = R. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line.display Display value R. [x.intersect(r2) as above but also returns the closest distance between the rays.closest(p) is the point on the ray R closest to the point p.char() is a compact string representation of the Ray3D’s value. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 79 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [x. See also Ray3D. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with r2. Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Ray3D object and the command has no trailing semicolon. Ray3D.closest Closest distance between point and ray x = R. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Ray3D.display() displays a compact human-readable representation of the Ray3D’s value.closest(p) as above but also returns the distance E between x and p.char Ray3D.

c.b. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES x = R. If R is a vector then x has multiple columns.CHAPTER 2.intersect(p) returns the point of intersection between the ray R and the plane p=(a.0) 1 for a circle. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. horizontal coordinate centroid. vertical coordinate bounding box. RegionFeature Region feature class This class represents a region feature. corresponding to the intersection of R(i) with p. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 80 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box.d) where aX + bY + cZ + d = 0. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. Methods boundary box plot plot boundary plot box plot ellipse display char Return the boundary as a list Return the bounding box Plot the centroid Plot the boundary Plot the bounding box Plot the equivalent ellipse Display value Convert value to string Properties uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid.

RegionFeature. These vectors have 400 elements irrespective of region size. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Note • RegionFeature is a reference object.box() is the bounding box in standard Toolbox form [xmin. See also iblobs. RegionFeature.boundary Boundary in polar form [d. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 81 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d(i) and th(i) are the distance to the boundary point and the angle respectively. For example R.th] = R. If R is a vector then the string has multiple lines.boundary() is a polar representation of the boundary with respect to the centroid.char Convert to string s = R. imoments RegionFeature.xmax. ymin. ymax].RegionFeature Create a region feature object R = RegionFeature() is a region feature object with null parameters.box Return bounding box b = R. RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.char() is a compact string representation of the region feature.uc will be a list not a vector. • RegionFeature objects can be used in vectors and arrays • This class behaves differently to LineFeature and PointFeature when getting properties of a vector of RegionFeature objects. one per element.

plot() overlay the centroid on current plot. Notes • this method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a RegionFeature object and the command has no trailing semicolon.and xmarkers. Notes • If R is a vector then each element is plotted.plot(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES RegionFeature. R.plot boundary(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. It is indicated with overlaid o.char RegionFeature.display Display value R.plot Plot centroid R. R.plot boundary plot boundary R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then the elements are printed one per line. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 82 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot boundary() overlay perimeter points on current plot. See also RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2.display() is a compact string representation of the region feature.

R. If R is a vector then each element is plotted. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also boundmatch RegionFeature.CHAPTER 2. ScalePointFeature ScalePointCorner feature object A subclass of PointFeature for features with scale. R. Methods plot plot scale distance ncc uv display char Plot feature position Plot feature scale Descriptor distance Descriptor similarity Return feature coordinate Display value Convert value to string Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 83 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .plot ellipse(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot box(ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot.plot ellipse Plot equivalent ellipse R.plot box() overlay the the bounding box of the region on current plot.plot ellipse() overlay the the equivalent ellipse of the region on current plot.plot box Plot bounding box R. RegionFeature. If R is a vector then each element is plotted.

u is a 2 × N matrix with each column the corresponding point coordinate. F. v.plot scale Plot feature scale F. A Indicate scale by a circle (default) Indicate scale by a translucent disk Color of circle or disk (default green) Transparency of disk. f = ScalePointFeature(u. Options ‘circle’ ‘disk’ ‘color’. v) is a point feature object with speciﬁed coordinates. f = ScalePointFeature(u.plot scale(options) overlay a marker at the feature position. 0=transparent (default 0. strength. If F is a vector (N × 1) of ScalePointFeature objects then F.plot scale(options.CHAPTER 2. strength) as above but with speciﬁed strength. See also PointFeature. v. If F is a vector then each element is plotted. scale) as above but with speciﬁed feature scale. 1=opaque. ScalePointFeature. C ‘alpha’. SurfPointFeature.ScalePointFeature Create a scale point feature object f = ScalePointFeature() is a point feature object with null parameters. f = ScalePointFeature(u.2) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 84 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . SiftPointFeature ScalePointFeature. ls) as above but the optional line style arguments ls are passed to plot. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Properties u horizontal coordinate v vertical coordinate strength feature strength scale feature scale descriptor feature descriptor (vector) Properties of a vector of ScalePointFeature objects are returned as a vector.

options) is a new tracker object. T ‘movie’.Tracker Create new Tracker object T = Tracker(im. one per active track. During operation the image sequence is animated and the point features are overlaid along with annotation giving the unique identiﬁer of the track. See also PointFeature Tracker. Methods plot tracklengths Plot all tracks Length of all tracks Properties track history A vector of structures. The elements of the cell array are the point features for the corresponding element of the image sequence. N ‘thresh’.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 85 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .8) Write the frames as images into the folder M as with sequential ﬁlenames. M Search radius for feature in next frame (default 20) Maximum number of tracks (default 800) Similarity threshold (default 0. im (HxWxS) is an image sequence and C (S × 1) is a cell array of vectors of PointFeature subclass objects. A complete history of all tracks is maintained. R ‘nslots’. C. A vector of track history structures with elements id and uv which is the path of the feature. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Tracker Track points in image sequence This class assigns each new feature a unique identiﬁer and tracks it from frame to frame until it is lost. Options ‘radius’.

Tracker. Tracker.display() displays a compact human-readable string representation of the Tracker object Notes • This method is invoked implicitly at the command line when the result of an expression is a Tracker object and the command has no trailing semicolon.display Display value T.char Tracker.plot Show feature trajectories T.CHAPTER 2.tracklengths Length of all tracks T.tracklengths() is a vector containing the length of every track. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 86 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .char Convert to string s = T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also PointFeature Tracker. See also Tracker.char() is a compact string representation of the Tracker parameters and status.plot() overlays the tracks of all features on the current plot.

Video Video camera constructor v = Video(camera. If camera is ‘?’ a list of available cameras. otherwise the result is not predictable. options) is a Video object that acquires images from the local video camera speciﬁed by the string camera. • The speciﬁed ‘resolution’ must match one that the camera is capable of. G ‘scale’. and their characteristics is displayed. Options ‘uint8’ ‘ﬂoat’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘gamma’. AxisWebCamera. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 87 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . S ‘resolution’. Movie Video.CHAPTER 2. Methods grab size close char Aquire and return the next image Size of image Close the image source Convert the object parameters to human readable string See also ImageSource. Obtain an image of size S=[W H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video Class to read from local video camera A concrete subclass of ImageSource that acquires images from a local camera. S Notes: Return image with uint8 pixels (default) Return image with ﬂoat pixels Return image with double precision pixels Return greyscale image Apply gamma correction with gamma=G Subsample the image by S in both directions.

char() is a string representing the state of the camera object in human readable form. Video.CHAPTER 2. about x as above but this is the command rather than functional form See also whos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 88 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .close Close the image source V. about Compact display of variable type about(x) displays a compact line that describes the class and dimensions of x.grab() acquires an image from the camera.char Convert to string V. Notes • the function will block until the next frame is acquired.grab Acquire image from the camera im = V. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Video. Video.close() closes the connection to the camera.

right. right) is an anaglyph image where the two images of a stereo pair are combined into a single image by coding them in two different colors. If th1 is a column vector. if negative it is reduced. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES anaglyph Convert stereo images to an anaglyph image a = anaglyph(left. By default the left image is red. color.CHAPTER 2. These adjustments are achieved by trimming the images. useful if the images were captured with a non-human stereo baseline or ﬁeld of view. the second for right. th2) returns the difference between angles th1 and th2 on the circle. Return the equivalent angle in the interval [-pi pi). Use this option to make the images more natural/comfortable to view. If disp is positive the disparity is increased. the ﬁrst for left. and each is one of: ‘r’ red ‘g’ green ‘b’ green ‘c’ cyan ‘m’ magenta a = anaglyph(left. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 89 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and th2 a scalar then return a column vector where th2 is modulo subtracted from the corresponding elements of th1. right. See also stdisp angdiff Difference of two angles d = angdiff(th1. and the right image is cyan. a = anaglyph(left. color) as above but the string color describes the color coding as a string with 2 letters. disp) as above but allows for disparity correction. d = angdiff(th) returns the equivalent angle to th in the interval [-pi pi). The result is in the interval [-pi pi).

Each is an N × 1 vector of distances from the centroid of an object to points on its perimeter at equal angular increments.boundary. For example: l = [380:10:700]’*1e-9. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES blackbody Compute blackbody emission spectrum E = blackbody(lambda. y2) is a list of integer coordinates for points lying on the line segement (x1. [x. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 90 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .s] = boundmatch(R1. x is also N × 1 and is a correlation whose peak indicates the relative orientation of one proﬁle with respect to the other. r2) is the correlation of the two boundary proﬁles R1 and r2.y1) to (x2. then E is a column vector whose elements correspond to to those in lambda. See also RegionFeature. T) is the blackbody radiation power density [W/m3 ] at the wavelength lambda [m] and temperature T [K]. r2) as above but also returns the relative scale s which is the size of object 2 with respect to object 1. y1.y1] and p2=[x2.CHAPTER 2. Endpoints must be integer. xcorr bresenham Generate a line p = bresenham(x1. p2) as above but p1=[x1. If lambda is a column vector. p = bresenham(p1.y2).y2]. % visible spectrum e = blackbody(l. e) boundmatch Match boundary proﬁles x = boundmatch(R1. x2. 6500). % emission of sun plot(l.

V] is the corresponding image plane coordinate. See also CentralCamera ccdresponse CCD spectral response R = ccdresponse(lambda) is the spectral response of a typical silicon imaging sensor at the wavelength lambda. Notes: • This method cannot handle lense distortion.Y. d is a table of points with rows of the form [X Y Z U V] where (X. If lambda is a vector then R is a vector of the same length whose elements are the response at the corresponding element of lambda. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also icanvas camcald Camera calibration from data points C = camcald(d) is the camera matrix (3 × 4) determined by least squares from corresponding world and image-plane points.E] = camcald(d) as above but E is the maximum residual error after back substitution [pixels]. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 91 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .Z) is the coordinate of a world point and [U. The response is normalized in the range 0 to 1.CHAPTER 2. [C. Reference An ancient Fairchild data book for a sensor with no IR ﬁlter ﬁtted.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also rluminos cie primaries Deﬁne CIE primary colors p = CIE PRIMARIES() is a 3-vector with the wavelengths [m] of the CIE 1976 red. R. and x is N × 3. k (1 x NA) is such that the element J = k(I). C is normally 2 × 1 but if 3 × 1 then the circle is embedded in 3D. b) is the correspondence for N-dimensional point sets a (N × N A) and b (N × N B).y] of points around the circumferance of a circle centred at C and of radius R.CHAPTER 2. N Specify the number of points (default 50) closest Find closest points in N-dimensional space. that is.d1] = closest(a. green and blue primaries respectively. [k. that the I’th column of a is closest to the Jth column of b. k = closest(a. x = circle(C. Options ‘n’. opt) return an N × 2 matrix whose rows deﬁne the coordinates [x. circle Compute points on a circle circle(C. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 92 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . R. b) as above and d1(I)=—a(I)-b(J)— is the distance of the closest point. but the circle is always in the xy-plane with a z-coordinate of C(3). opt) plot a circle centred at C with radius R.

5.5.CHAPTER 2.44) cm-1 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 93 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .d2] = closest(a. 19000 (526. b) as above but also returns the distance to the second closest point.16).uk • The Stiles & Burch 2-deg CMFs are based on measurements made on 10 observers. E) is the CIE color matching (1×3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].) • These CMFs differ slightly from those of Stiles & Burch (1955). (Table 1(5.ioo.32).ucl.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) is gives them in interpolated 1 nm steps.5.d1. Notes • Data from http://cvrl. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [k. As noted in footnote a on p. rgb = cmfrgb(lambda) is the CIE color matching function (N × 3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. but probably represent the best estimate of the 2 deg CMFs.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). 335 of Table 1(5. unlike the CIE 2 deg functions (which were reconstructed from chromaticity data).5. See also distance cmfrgb Color matching function Tthe color matching function is the tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982). rgb = cmfrgb(lambda. • From Table I(5. If lambda is a vector then each row of rgb is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. since. the CMFs have been ”corrected in accordance with instructions given by Stiles & Burch (1959)” and renormalized to primaries at 15500 (645. while Table I(5. and 22500 (444. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. they were measured directly. The data are referred to as pilot data.ac.3) of Wyszecki & Stiles (1982) gives the Stiles & Burch functions in 250 cm-1 steps.

uk See also cmfrgb. imsize is a 2-vector (N.ac. imsize) is an image (HxWxP) comprising the pixel values in pix (N × P ) with one row per pixel where N=H × W . xyz = cmfxyz(lambda.ucl. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 94 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. E) is the CIE xyz color matching (1 × 3) function for an illumination spectrum deﬁned by intensity E (N × 1) and wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m].M). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ccxyz cmfxyz matching function The color matching function is the XYZ tristimulus required to match a particular wavelength excitation. Notes • The number of rows in pix must match the product of the elements of imsize. Note • CIE 1931 2-deg xyz CMFs from cvrl.ioo. im) as above but the dimensions of out are the same as im. If lambda is a vector then each row of xyz is the color matching function of the corresponding element of lambda. ccxyz col2im Convert pixel vector to image out = col2im(pix. xyz = cmfxyz(lambda) is the CIE xyz color matching function (N ×3) for illumination at wavelength lambda (N × 1) [m]. out = col2im(pix.

d is an image with the same dimensions as im and the value of each pixel is the color space distance of the corresponding pixel in im. • Note that Euclidean distance in the rg-chromaticity space does not correspond well with human perception of color differences. colordistance Colorspace distance d = colordistance(im. rg) is the Euclidean distance on the rg-chromaticity plane from coordinate rg=[r. See also colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 95 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .g] to every pixel in the color image im. Notes • The output image could be thresholded to determine color similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also im2col colnorm Column-wise norm of a matrix cn = colnorm(a) returns an M × 1 vector of the normals of each column of the matrix a which is N × M . Perceptually uniform spaces such as Lab remedy this problem.CHAPTER 2.

A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed. color) as above but a the mask is the return value of the function handle func applied to the image im. eg. out = colorize(im. mask. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES colorize Colorize a greyscale image out = colorize(im. func. k) as above but also returns the cluster centres C (k × 2) where the I’th row is the rg-chromaticity of the I’th cluster and corresponds to the label I. The label image L has the same row and column dimension as im and each pixel has a value in the range 0 to k-1 which indicates which cluster the corresponding pixel belongs to. icolor. and returns a per-pixel logical result. Examples Display image with values < 100 in blue out = colorize(im.G. k. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 96 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [0 0 1]) Display image with NaN values shown in red out = colorize(im. [1 0 0]) Notes • With no output arguments the image is displayed. color) is a color image where each pixel in out is set to the corresponding element of the greyscale image im or a speciﬁed color according to whether the corresponding value of mask is true or false respectively. im<100. @isnan. See also imono. options) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes. @isnan. ipixswitch colorkmeans Color image segmentation by clustering L = colorkmeans(im. [L. The color is speciﬁed as a 3-vector (R.C] = colorkmeans(im.CHAPTER 2. A k-means clustering of the chromaticity of all input pixels is performed.B).

the root mean square error of all pixel chromaticities with respect to their cluster centre. ‘xy’) is the XYZ-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. k) as above but also returns the residual R. interactively pick cluster centres Notes • The k-means clustering algorithm used in the ﬁrst three forms is computationally expensive and time consuming. ‘xy’) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given XYZ-tristimulus value. Pixels are assigned to the closest (Euclidean) centre. low is good. • The residual is an indication of quality of ﬁt.CHAPTER 2. Since cluster centres are provided the k-means segmentation step is not required.R] = colorkmeans(im.C. Notes • Color name may contain a wildcard. “?burnt” Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB R 97 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. name = colorname(rgb) is a string giving the name of the color that is closest (Euclidean) to the given rgb-tristimulus value. • Clustering is performed in rg-chromaticity space. eg. C) is a segmentation of the color image im into k classes which are deﬁned by the cluster centres C (k × 2) in chromaticity space. See also colorname Map between color names and RGB values rgb = colorname(name) is the rgb-tristimulus value corresponding to the color speciﬁed by the string name. name = colorname(XYZ. XYZ = colorname(name. Options Various options are possible to choose the initial cluster centres for k-means: ‘random’ ‘spread’ ‘pick’ randomly choose k points from randomly choose k values within the rectangle spanned by the input chromaticities. L = colorkmeans(im.

i2.709 gamma-corrected) Luma (ITU-R BT. im) converts the image im to a different color space according to the string s which speciﬁes the source and destination color spaces.txt. Supported color spaces are: ‘RGB’ ‘YPbPr’ ‘YCbCr’/’YCC’ ‘YUV’ ‘YIQ’ ‘YDbDr’ ‘JPEGYCbCr’ ‘HSV’/’HSB’ ‘HSL’/’HLS’/’HSI’ ‘XYZ’ ‘Lab’ ‘Luv’ ‘Lch’ R’G’B’ Red Green Blue (ITU-R BT. As MATLAB’s native datatype. double data is the natural choice. Input and output images have 3 planes.i3) as above but speciﬁes separate input channels. • MATLAB uses two standard data formats for R’G’B’: double data with intensities in the range 0 to 1. im) as above but speciﬁes separate output channels or planes. colorspace(s. and uint8 data with integer-valued intensities from 0 to 255. or alternatively. s = ‘dest<-src’.601) + Chroma Luma + Chroma (“digitized” version of Y’PbPr) NTSC PAL Y’UV Luma + Chroma NTSC Y’IQ Luma + Chroma SECAM Y’DbDr Luma + Chroma JPEG-Y’CbCr Luma + Chroma Hue Saturation Value/Brightness Hue Saturation Luminance/Intensity CIE XYZ CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) CIE L*u*v* (CIELUV) CIE L*ch (CIELCH) Notes • RGB input is assumed to be gamma encoded • RGB output is gamma encoded • All conversions assume 2 degree observer and D65 illuminant. • Tristimulus values are in the range 0 to 1 colorspace Color space conversion of image out = colorspace(s. • When R’G’B’ is the source or destination. For example ‘yuv<’ is short for ‘yuv<-rgb’.o2. and R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 98 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . i1. it can be omitted. • Color space names are case insensitive.o3] = colorspace(s. [o1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Based on the standard X11 color database rgb. s = ‘src->dest’.

distance Euclidean distances between sets of points d = distance(a.J) is the distance between points a(I) and d(J). • If im is an M × 3 array. out will also have size M × 3. Given uint8 R’G’B’ color data. Example A = rand(400. The distance d is M × N and element d(I.CHAPTER 2.B ) R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 99 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . d = distance(A. like a colormap.200). However. Author Pascal Getreuer 2005-2006 diff2 diff3(v) compute 2-point difference for each point in the vector v. Notes • This fully vectorized (VERY FAST!) • It computes the Euclidean distance between two vectors by: ||A-B|| = sqrt ( ||A||ˆ2 + ||B||ˆ2 .b) is the Euclidean distances between L-dimensional points described by the matrices a (L × M ) and b (L × N ) respectively. some functions also operate with uint8 R’G’B’. B = rand(400.2*A.100). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES the R’G’B’ format used by colorspace. for memory and computational performance. colorspace will ﬁrst cast it to double R’G’B’ before processing.B).

3. each row is one edge point coordinate (x.CHAPTER 2. non-zero is an object. Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) group. direction) returns the list of edge pixels as above. non zero is counter-clockwise. in matrix coordinate frame. not image frame. • seed must be a point on the edge of the region. See also closest e2h Euclidean to homogeneous edgelist Return list of edge pixels for region E = edgelist(im. E = edgelist(im.y). • The seed point is always the ﬁrst element of the returned edgelist. The result E is a matrix. seed.nl Last Rev: Oct 29 16:35:48 MET DST 1999. Kruislaan 403 1098 SJ Amsterdam. Thanx: Nikos Vlassis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Roland Bunschoten.(+31)20-5257524.2 and Solaris Matlab v5. but the direction of edge following is speciﬁed. tel. Notes • im is a binary image where 0 is assumed to be background.j). Tested: PC Matlab v5. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 100 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . University of Amsterdam. Note that direction is with respect to y-axis upward.uva. direction == 0 (default) means clockwise. bunschot@wins. seed) return the list of edge pixels of a region in the image im starting at edge coordinate seed (i.

j) is the distance from the point p2(j) to the epipolar line due to point p1(i).S. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ilabel epidist Distance of point from epipolar line d = epidist(f. Oct 27. ls) as above but draw lines using the line style arguments ls. epidist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 101 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . p) draws epipolar lines in current ﬁgure based on points p (2 × N ) and the fundamental matrix f (3 × 3). one per line drawn. fmatrix epiline Draw epipolar lines epiline(f. epiline(f. H = epiline(f.CHAPTER 2.R. Coimbra. 1998. Nuno Alexandre Cid Martins. See also fmatrix. d (N × M ) is the distance matrix where element d(i. ls) as above but return a vector of graphic handles. See also epiline. p. p2) is the distance of the points p2 (2 × M ) from the epipolar lines due to points p1 (2 × N ) where f (3 × 3) is a fundamental matrix relating the views containing image points p1 and p2. Points are speciﬁed by the columns of p. p. Author Based on fmatrix code by. p1. I.

au/. http://www. c. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. Notes • The points must be corresponding. and the convolution kernel has a half size of w. epidist gauss2d kernel k = gauss2d(im. • Contains a RANSAC driver. homography. that is.csse. no outlier rejection is performed. • f is a rank 2 matrix. sigma) Returns a unit volume Gaussian smoothing kernel. If w is not speciﬁed it defaults to 2*sigma. ‘Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision’. p2. k is (2W+1) x (2W+1). The University of Western Australia. The Gaussian has a standard deviation of sigma. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 102 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . page 270.edu. epiline. See also ransac. it is singular.CHAPTER 2. Author Based on fundamental matrix code by Peter Kovesi. that is. Reference Hartley and Zisserman. options) is the fundamental matrix (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2 × N ) and p2 (2 × N ) from two different camera views. which means it can be passed to ransac().uwa. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES fmatrix Estimate fundamental matrix f = fmatrix(p1.

y2). See also plot homline Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 103 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and (x2. Homogeneous points X (3 × 1) on the line must satisfy L’*X = 0. ithin. iendpoint homline Homogeneous line from two points L = homline(x1. See also imorph. y2) returns a 3 × 1 vectors which describes a line in homogeneous form that contains the two Euclidean points (x1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES h2e Homogeneous to Euclidean hitormiss Hit or miss transform H = hitormiss(im. 1 and don’t care (represented by NaN). se) is the hit-or-miss transform of the binary image im with the structuring element se.CHAPTER 2. itriplepoint. y1. Unlike standard morphological operations S has three possible values: 0. x2.

Author Based on homography code by Peter Kovesi. • If T is in SE(2) (3 × 3) and – p is 2 × N (2D points) they are considered Euclidean (R2 ) – p is 3 × N (2D points) they are considered projective (p2 ) • If T is in SE(3) (4 × 4) and – p is 3 × N (3D points) they are considered Euclidean (R3 ) – p is 4 × N (3D points) they are considered projective (p3 ) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 104 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .csse. fmatrix homtrans Apply a homogeneous transformation p2 = homtrans(T. which means it can be passed to ransac().uwa. School of Computer Science & Software Engineering. no outlier rejection is performed. http://www. • The points must be projections of points lying on a world plane • Contains a RANSAC driver. p) applies homogeneous transformation T to the points stored columnwise in p. p2) is the homography (3 × 3) that relates two sets of corresponding points p1 (2×N ) and p2 (2×N ) from two different camera views of a planar object. See also ransac. Notes • The points must be corresponding. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES homography Estimate homography H = homography(p1. invhomog. The University of Western Australia.au/.CHAPTER 2.edu.

S ‘dimension’. itrim. See also e2h. im.CHAPTER 2. R ‘scale’.H] Notes • The edges of the resulting output image will in general not be be vertical and horizontal lines. D ‘size’.offs] = homwarp(H. T1) applies homogeneous transformation T to the homogeneous transformation T1. if T = N × N and T=NxNxP then the result is NxNxP. See also homography. but its position with respect to the input image is given by the second return value offs. [out. If T1 is a 3-dimensional transformation then T is applied to each plane as deﬁned by the ﬁrst two dimensions. that is tp=T*T1. Options ‘full’ ‘extrapval’. options) as above but offs is the offset of the warped tile out with respect to the origin of im. ie. h2e homwarp Warp image by an homography out = homwarp(H. options) is a warp of the image im obtained by applying the homography H to the coordinates of every input pixel. interp2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 105 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tp = homtrans(T. im. S output image contains all the warped pixels. set unmapped pixels to this value output image contains the speciﬁed ROI in the input image scale the output by this factor ensure output image is D × D size of output image S=[W. V ‘roi’.

CHAPTER 2. Animate image sequence with overlaid corner features: c = icorner(im. features (N × 1) cell array whose elements are vectors of feature objects. % computer corners % features shown as green squares Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 106 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . features. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im (HxWxN) where N is the number of frames in the sequence. options) displays a greyscale image sequence im with point features overlaid. IT-8:pp. features. Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. ’nfeat’. ianimate(seq. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES humoments Hu moments phi = humoments(im) is the vector (7 × 1) of Hu moment invariants for the binary image im. Examples Animate image sequence: ianimate(seq). IRE Trans. See also npq ianimate Display an image sequence ianimate(im. 179-187. Hu. ianimate(im. 1962. on Information Theory. 200). Notes • im is assumed to be a binary image of a single connected region Reference M-K. ’gs’). The feature is plotted using the object’s plot method and additional options are passed through to that method.

isurf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 107 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) is a vector of RegionFeature objects that describe each connected region in the image im. M ‘npoints’. YMIN YMAX]. N ‘only’. I set the frame rate (default 5 frames/sec) endlessly loop over the sequence save the animation as a series of PNG frames in the folder M plot no more than N features per frame (default 100) display only the I’th frame from the sequence See also PointFeature. idisp ibbox Find bounding box box = ibbox(p) is the minimal bounding box that contains the points described by the columns of p (2 × N ).CHAPTER 2. F ‘loop’ ‘movie’. box = ibbox(im) is the minimal bounding box that contains the non-zero pixels in the image im. iharris. iblobs features f = iblobs(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘fps’. The bounding box is a 2 × 2 matrix [XMIN XMAX.

A2] accept only blobs with area in interval A1 to A2 ‘shape’. and larger values correspond to stronger edges. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘aspect’.0 ‘connect’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 108 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .0) 1 for a circle. less for other shapes a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2 See also RegionFeature. maximum vertical coordinate the number of pixels the value of the pixels forming this region the label assigned to this region a list of indices of features that are children of this feature coordinate of a point on the perimeter a list of edge points 2 × N matrix number of edge pixels true if region touches edge of the image major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. options) returns an edge image using the Canny edge detector. C set connectivity. minimum vertical coordinate bounding box. vertical coordinate bounding box.S2] accept only blobs with shape in interval S1 to S2 ‘touch’ ignore blobs that touch the edge (default accept) ‘class’. default 1. minimum horizontal coordinate bounding box. The edges within im are marked by non-zero values in E. horizontal coordinate centroid. 4 (default) or 8 ‘greyscale’ compute greyscale moments 0 (default) or 1 ‘boundary’ compute boundary (default off) ‘area’. [S1.CHAPTER 2. A set pixel aspect ratio. ilabel. C accept only blobs of pixel value C (default all) The RegionFeature object has many properties including: uc vc umin umax vmin vmax area class label children edgepoint edge perimeter touch a b theta shape circularity moments centroid. maximum horizontal coordinate bounding box. imoments icanny edge detection E = icanny(im. [A1.

This is an dilation followed by erosion. 1996-7. Tel Aviv University. kdgauss iclose closing out = iclose(im. imorph Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 109 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times.1 x strongest edge) set the upper hysteresis threshold (default 0. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. See also isobel. T ‘th1’. out = iclose(im. se. se) is the image im after morphological closing with the structuring element se.5 x strongest edge) Author Oded Comay. S ‘th0’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘sd’. See also iopen. T set the standard deviation for smoothing (default 1) set the lower hysteresis threshold (default 0. that is n dilations followed by n erosions.CHAPTER 2.

C = icolor(im.options) as above but also returns the vector u whose elements are the coordinates of the left (or top in vertical mode) edge of the corresponding image. See also imono.CHAPTER 2. and smaller images are surrounded by background pixels which can be speciﬁed. D ‘bgval’. Create an aqua tinted version of the greyscale image c = icolor(im. B direction of concatenation: ‘horizontal’ (default) or ‘vertical’. colorize.u] = iconcat(im. Examples Create a color image that looks the same as the greyscale image c = icolor(im). color) as above but each output pixel is color (3 × 1) times the corresponding element of im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icolor Colorize a greyscale image C = icolor(im) is a color image C (HxWx3)where each color plane is equal to im (H × W ). [0 1 1]). ipixswitch iconcat Concatenate images C = iconcat(im. The images do not have to be of the same size. value of unset background pixels Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 110 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘dir’. iconcat(im.options) as above but displays the concatenated images using idisp.options) concatenates images from the cell array im. [C.

See also conv2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 111 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. options) convolves im1 with im2. im2. and contains only valid pixels Notes • This function is a convenience wrapper for the builtin function CONV2. If the larger image is color (has multiple planes) the kernel is applied to each plane. resulting in an output image with the same number of planes. ‘h’ or ‘v’ • In vertical mode all images are right justiﬁed • In horizontal mode all images are top justiﬁed See also idisp iconv Image convolution C = iconv(im1. Options ‘same’ ‘full’ ‘valid’ output image is same size as largest input image (default) output image is larger than the input image output image is smaller than the input image. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Works for color or greyscale images • Direction can be abbreviated to ﬁrst character. The smaller image is taken as the kernel and convolved with the larger image.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES icorner Corner detector f = icorner(im. • The function stops when: – the corner strength drops below cmin – the corner strenght drops below cMinThresh x strongest corner – the list of corners is exhausted • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im has more than 2 dimensions it is either a color image or a sequence • If im is NxMxP it is taken as an image sequence and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. The vector has zero mean and unit norm. options) is a vector of PointFeature objects describing detected corner features. This is a non-scale space detector and by default the Harris method is used. ‘noble’ or ‘klt’ kernel width for smoothing (default 2) kernel for gradient (default kdgauss(2)) set the value of k for Harris detector use a P × P patch of surrounding pixel values as the feature vector. If im is an image sequence a cell array of PointFeature vectors is returned. D ‘sigma’. specify that im is a color image not a sequence Notes • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. E ‘suppress’. N ‘detector’.CHAPTER 2. S ‘deriv’. CM ‘cminthresh’. R ‘nfeat’. • If im is NxMx3 it is taken as a sequence unless the option ‘color’ is given Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 112 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . D ‘k’. K ‘patch’. P ‘color’ minimum corner strength minimum corner strength as a fraction of maximum corner strength don’t return features closer than E to the edge of image (default 2) don’t return a feature closer than R pixels to an earlier feature (default 0) return the N strongest corners (default Inf) choose the detector where D is one of ‘harris’ (default). CT ‘edgegap’. The PointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate corner strength corner descriptor (vector) Options ‘cmin’.

6.d] = icp(p1. p2. J. 593-593. Stephens. N ‘mindelta’. T show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration.. isurf icp Point cloud alignment T = icp(p1. Fourth Alvey Vision Conf. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 113 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) as above but also returns the norm of the error between the transformed point set p2 and p1.G. Options ‘dplot’. 1988. with a delay of 0. T ‘distthresh’. where * denotes squared and smoothed. [T. Image and Vision Computing.5 [sec]. d ‘plot’ ‘maxtheta’.CHAPTER 2. • The descriptor is a vector of ﬂoat types to save space References • “A combined corner and edge detector”. limit the change in rotation at each step to T (default 0. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • If im is NxMx3xP it is taken as a sequence of color images and f is a cell array whose elements are feature vectors for the corresponding color image in the sequence. Proc. IEEE Computer Society. • “Good features to track”. See also PointFeature. pp. T ‘maxiter’.121-128. C. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. pp. with a delay of d [sec]. Manchester. show the points p1 and p2 at each iteration. Harris and M. pp 147-151. Proc. p2.Noble. May 1988. • “Finding corners”.001) eliminate correspondences more than T x the median distance at each iteration.J. Tomasi. options) is the homogeneous transformation that best transforms the set of points p2 to p1 using the iterative closest point algorithm. J. vol. 1994.05 rad) stop after N iterations (default 100) stop when the relative change in error norm is less than T (default 0. • The default descriptor is a vector [Ix* Iy* Ixy*] which are the unique elements of the structure tensor. Shi and C.

Besl and H. vol. Mach. each plane is decimated. IEEETrans. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Points can be 2. • Smoothing is used to eliminate aliasing artifacts and the standard deviation should be chosen as a function of the maximum spatial frequency in the image. 239-256. no.. Pattern Anal. See also iscale. sd) as above but the standard deviation of the smoothing kernel is set to sd. s = idecimate(im. idecimate an image s = idecimate(im. P. 2.McKay. Reference “A method for registration of 3D shapes”. s = idecimate(im. Feb. The image is smoothed with a Gaussian kernel with standard deviation m/2 then subsampled.or 3-dimensional. Intell. ismooth Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 114 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . []) as above but no smoothing is applied prior to decimation. 14. 1992. m) is a decimated version of the image im whose size is reduced by m (an integer) in both dimensions.CHAPTER 2. pp. Notes • If the image has multiple planes. • For noisy data setting distthresh and maxtheta can help to prevent the the solution from diverging. m. m.

zero is white. • The “line” button allows two points to be speciﬁed and a new ﬁgure displays intensity along a line between those points. The image is displayed in a ﬁgure with a toolbar across the top. – The “zoom” button requires a left-click and drag to specify a box which deﬁnes the zoomed view. maximum value is white color map: greyscale unsigned. linear proﬁle. C ‘grey’ ‘invert’ ‘signed’ ‘invsigned’ ‘random’ ‘dark’ number of colors in the color map (default 256) display the image without the GUI no axes on the image no axes or frame on the image no axes. image is inverted C is a 2-vector that speciﬁes the grey value range that spans the colormap. histogram and zooming. the histogram is computed over only those pixels in view. zero is black. options) displays an image and allows interactive investigation of pixel value. darker than ‘grey’. If im is a cell array of images.CHAPTER 2. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 115 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . good for superimposed graphics Notes • Color images are displayed in true color mode: pixel triples map to display pixels • Grey scale images are displayed in indexed mode: the image pixel value is mapped through the color map to determine the display pixel value. zero is white color map: random values. XY is a cell array whose elements are vectors that span the x. negative is red. zero is black color map: greyscale signed. User interface: • Left clicking on a pixel will display its value in a box at the top. Options ‘ncolors’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES idisp image display tool idisp(im. negative is red. • The “histo” button displays a histogram of the pixel values in a new ﬁgure. N ‘nogui’ ‘noaxes’ ‘noframe’ ‘plain’ ‘bar’ ‘print’. they are ﬁrst concatenated (horizontally). maximum value is black color map: greyscale signed. positive is blue. highlights ﬁne structure color map: greyscale unsigned. Set colormap C (N × 3) color map: greyscale unsigned. positive is blue. C ‘xydata’. F ‘square’ ‘wide’ ‘ﬂatten’ ‘ynormal’ ‘cscale’. If the image is zoomed.and y-axes respectively. frame or GUI add a color bar to the image write the image to ﬁle F in EPS format display aspect ratio so that pixels are squate make ﬁgure very wide. XY ‘colormap’. useful for displaying stereo pair display image planes (colors or sequence) as horizontally adjacent images y-axis increases upward.

CHAPTER 2. The pixel classes to be displayed are given by the elements of labels which is a scalar a vector of class labels. idisplabel(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • The minimum and maximum image values are mapped to the ﬁrst and last element of the color map. labels) displays only those image pixels which belong to a speciﬁc class. labels. Non-selected pixels are displayed as white. icolorize. which by default (’greyscale’) is the range black to white. labelimage. colorseg idouble Convert integer image to double imd = idouble(im) returns an image with double precision elements in the range 0 to 1. labelimage. See also iblobs. colormap. caxis. See also iint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 116 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and labelimage is an N × M image containing integer pixel class labels for the corresponding pixels in im. bg) as above but the grey level of the non-selected pixels is speciﬁed by bg in the range 0 to 1. The integer pixels are assumed to span the range 0 to the maximum value of their integer class. See also image. iconcat idisplabel Display an image with mask idisplabel(im. im is a greyscale N × M or color NxMx3 image.

ithin. All pixels are raised to the power gamma. • For images of type int the pixels are assumed in the range 0 to max integer value. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iendpoint Find end points in a binary skeleton image out = iendpoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is the end point of a single-pixel wide line such as found in an image skeleton.45.CHAPTER 2. out = igamma(im. • Gamma decoding is typically performed in the display with gamma=2. • For images of type double the pixels are assumed to be in the range 0 to 1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 117 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .2. ‘sRGB’) is a gamma decoded version of im using the sRGB decoding function (JPEG images sRGB encoded). Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. hitormiss igamma correction out = igamma(im. See also itriplepoint. Gamma encoding can be performed with gamma > 1 and decoding with gamma < 1. Notes • Gamma encoding is typically performed in a camera with gamma=0. gamma) is a gamma corrected version of im. • For images with multiple planes the gamma correction is applied to all planes.

2004. pp. 59. min. See also ithresh. Example im = iread(’58060. imser Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 118 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .jpg’). k is the scale parameter. vol. 100. sigma) as above but m is the number of regions found. Sept. min) is a graph-based segmentation of the greyscale or color image im. [l. k. k. and a larger value indicates a preference for larger regions. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle Author Pedro Felzenszwalb. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES igraphseg Graph-based segmentation L = igraphseg(im. k. Felzenszwalb and D. sigma) as above and sigma is the width of a Gaussian which is used to initially smooth the image (default 0. 1500. 167181. L = igraphseg(im.m] = igraphseg(im. idisp(im) Reference “Efﬁcient graph-based image segmentation”. P. Int.5).5).CHAPTER 2. min is the minimum region size (pixels). 0. Journal on Computer Vision.m] = igraphseg(im. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. Huttenlocher. [L. min. 2006.

plot(x. ’normcdf’). For an image with multiple planes H is a matrix with one column per image plane. • For a uint8 image the MEX function fhist is used See also hist Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 119 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .h). bar(x. [h. Notes • For a uint8 image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-255 • For a ﬂoating point image the histogram spans the greylevel range 0-1 • For ﬂoating point images all NaN and Inf values are ﬁrst removed. Options ‘nbins’ ‘cdf’ ‘normcdf’ ‘sorted’ number of histogram bins (default 256) compute a cumulative histogram compute a normalized cumulative histogram histogram but with occurrence sorted in descending order Example [h. options) is the image histogram as a column vector. For an image with multiple planes the histogram of each plane is given in a separate subplot. [H. options) displays the image histogram. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ihist Image histogram ihist(im.x] = ihist(im. options) as above but also returns the bin coordinates as a column vectors.x] = ihist(im.h).CHAPTER 2.x] = ihist(im). H = ihist(im.

parents] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns region hierarchy information. The ﬂoating point pixels values in im are assumed to span the range 0 to 1. where each pixel value represents the integer region label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. ii is a precomputed integral image. [L. x2) is the sum of pixels in the rectangular image region deﬁned by its top-left (x1. Region labels are in the range 1 to M. See also intgimage ilabel Label an image L = ilabel(im) performs connectivity analysis on the image im and returns a label image L.m] = ilabel(im) as above but returns the value of the maximum label value. same size as im. The value of parents(I) is the label of the parent or enclosing region of region I.y1) and bottom-right (x2. x1. for a binary image this means the region touches the edge of the image.y2). A value of 0 indicates that the region has no single enclosing region. [L.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES iint Convert image to integer class out = iint(im) is an image with 8-bit unsigned integer elements in the range 0 to 255.m. y2. y1. for a multilevel image it means that it touches more than one other region. See also idouble iisum Sum of integral image s = iisum(ii. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 120 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

• The image can be binary or multi-level • Connectivity is performed using 4 nearest neighbours by default. See also iblobs. otherwise it does not.CHAPTER 2. To use 8-way connectivity pass a second argument of 8. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES [L. IBLOBS is a higher level interface. ipaste Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 121 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . out = iline(im. v) as above but the pixel on the line are set to v. If edge(I) is 1 then region I touches edge of the image.class.Y]. [L. ilabel(im. imoments iline Draw a line in an image out = iline(im. 8). p2) is a copy of the image im with a line drawn between the points p1 and p2.parents.parents. p1. Notes • Uses the Bresenham algorith • Only works for greyscale images • The line looks jagged since no anti-aliasing is performed See also bresenham. iproﬁle.maxlabel.maxlabel. The pixels on the line are set to 1. p2.class] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the class of pixels within each region. eg. p1.edge] = ilabel(im) as above but also returns the edge-touch status of each region. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. each a 2-vector [X. The value of class(I) is the value of the pixels that comprise region I. • This is a “low level” function.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES im2col Convert an image to pixel per row format out = im2col(im) returns the image (HxWxP) as a pixel vector (N ×P ) where each row is a pixel value (1 × P ). y.CHAPTER 2. and columns the vertical position. s) is the matching subimage of im1 (template) within the image im2. The return value is xm=[DX. w2. • ZNCC matching is used. Notes • Useful for tracking a template in an image sequence. -s. • Is a MEX ﬁle.y) and CC is the similarity score (zero-mean normalized cross correlation) for the best match in the search region. • im1 and im2 must be the same size. ymin.and y-offsets relative to (x. More generally s is a 4-vector s=[xmin.score] = imatch(im1. im2.DY. xmax. s. s] % relative to (x. H. The template in im1 is centred at (x.y). See also col2im imatch Template matching xm = imatch(im1. ymax] relative to (x. im2. The pixels are in image column order and there are N=W × H rows. y.y) and of size s. s) works as above but also returns a matrix of matching score values for each template position tested.0 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 122 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [xm. The template is searched for within im2 inside a rectangular region. centred at (x.DY) are the x. The rows correspond to horizontal positions of the template. If s is a scalar the search region is [-s.y) and its half-width is H. x.y). x. a perfect match score is 1.CC] where (DX.

The element u(v. effectively a greyscale image. [u.u) = u and v(v. effectively a binary image. f = imoments(u. The RegionFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 123 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v] = imeshgrid(size) as above but the domain is described size which is scalar size× size or a 2-vector [w H]. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also isimilarity imeshgrid Domain matrices for image [u.v] = imeshgrid(w. w) as above but the pixels have weights given by the vector w. v. See also meshgrid imoments Image moments f = imoments(im) is a RegionFeature object that describes the greyscale moments of the image im. H) as above but the domain is w × H.v] = imeshgrid(im) return matrices that describe the domain of image im and can be used for the evaluation of functions over the image.CHAPTER 2. v) as above but the moments are computed from the pixel coordinates given as vectors u and v.u) = v. f = imoments(u. All pixels are equally weighted. [u.

imoments imono Convert color image to monochrome out = imono(im.CHAPTER 2. or its area. • This function does not perform connectivity. ilabel. See also RegionFeature. vertical coordinate the number of pixels major axis length of equivalent ellipse minor axis length of equivalent ellipse angle of major ellipse axis to horizontal axis aspect ratio b/a (always <= 1. Different conversion functions are supported. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES uc vc area a b theta shape moments centroid. m01. m10.0) a structure containing moments of order 0 to 2. the elements are m00. m20. colorspace Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 124 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . icolor. horizontal coordinate centroid. if connected blobs are required then the ILABEL function must be used ﬁrst. Notes • For a binary image the zeroth moment is the number of non-zero pixels. Options ‘r601’ ‘r709’ ITU recommendation 601 (default) ITU recommendation 709 See also colorize. m02. options) is a greyscale equivalent to the color image im. m11.

2004. O.m] = imser(im. The labels [L.png’. imser Maximally stable extremal regions L = imser(im. Chum. ’light’). 22. Pajdla. [label. Options ‘dark’ ‘light’ looking for dark features against a light background (default) looking for light features against a dark background Example im = iread(’castle_sign2. vol. Sept. op) is the image im after morphological processing with the operator op and structuring element se. Matas. options) as above but m is the number of regions found. part of VLFeat (vlfeat. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES imorph Morphological neighbourhood processing out = imorph(im. and T. ’double’). Image and Vision Computing. L is an image of the same size as im where each element is the label assigned to the corresponding pixel in im. idisp(im) Reference “Robust wide-baseline stereo from maximally stable extremal regions”.CHAPTER 2. 761767. m. Urban. se. pp. J. ’grey’. options) is a greyscale segmentation of the image im based on maximally stable extremal regions. by Andrea Vedaldi and Brian Fulkerson • vl mser is a MEX ﬁle Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 125 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .org).m] = imser(im. Notes • Is a wrapper for vl mser.

Examples Create integral images for sum of pixels over rectangular regions i = intimage(im). Integral images can be used for rapid computation of summations over rectangular regions. igraphseg inormhist Histogram normalization out = inormhist(im) is a histogram normalized version of the image im. • Highlights image detail in dark areas of an image. See also ihist intgimage Compute integral image out = intimage(im) is an integral image corresponding to im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 126 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. Create integral images for sum of pixel squared values over rectangular regions i = intimage(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ithresh.ˆ2). Notes • The histogram of the normalized image is approximately uniform.

Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 127 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . n. Notes • Cheaper to apply a smaller structuring element multiple times than one large one. sides. the effective structuing element is the Minkowski sum of the structuring element with itself n times. n) is a padded version of the image im with a block of NaN values n pixels wide on the sides of im as speciﬁed by sides which is a string containing one or more of the characters: ‘t’ top ‘b’ bottom ‘l’ left ‘r’ right out = ipad(im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iisum iopen Morphological opening out = iopen(im.CHAPTER 2. This is an erosion followed by dilation. n) as above but the structuring element se is applied n times. out = iopen(im. v) as above but pads with pixels of value v. sides. imorph ipad Pad an image with constants out = ipad(im. se) is the image im after morphological opening with the structuring element se. se. See also iclose. that is n erosions followed by n dilations.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Examples Add a band of zero pixels 20 pixels high across the top of the image: ipad(im. options) is the image im with the image im2 pasted in at the position p=[U.V]. by default 1 is assumed im2 overwrites the pixels in im (default) im2 is added to the pixels in im im2 is set to the mean of pixel values in im2 and im See also iline ipixswitch Pixelwise image merge out = ipixswitch(mask. 255) Notes • Not a tablet computer. im2. ’t’. ’tblr’.CHAPTER 2. p. otherwise im2 is selected. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 128 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . im1. im2) is an image where each pixel is selected from the corresponding pixel in im1 or im2 according to the corresponding values of mask. Options ‘centre’ ‘zero’ ‘set’ ‘add’ ‘mean’ The pasted image is centred at p. If the element of mask is zero im1 is selected. 0) Add a band of white pixels 10 pixels wide on all sides of the image: ipad(im. otherwise p is the top-left corner (default) the coordinates of p start at zero. 20. ipaste Paste an image into an image out = ipaste(im. 10.

v (N × P ) has one row for each point along the line and the row is the pixel value which will be a vector for a multi-plane image.uv] = iproﬁle(im. p2) as above but also returns the coordinates of the pixels for each point along the line. p2) is a vector of pixel values extracted from the image im (HxWxP) between the points p1 (2 × 1) and p2 (2 × 1). iline ipyramid Pyramidal image decomposition out = ipyramid(im) is a pyramid decomposition of input image im using Gaussian smoothing with standard deviation of 1. p1. Notes • The Bresenham algorithm is used to ﬁnd points along the line. Each row of uv is the pixel coordinate (u. [p. See also bresenham. out is a cell array of images each one having R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 129 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .v) for the corresponding row of p.CHAPTER 2. p1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • im1 and im2 must have the same number of rows and columns • if im1 and im2 are both greyscale then out is greyscale • if either of im1 and im2 are color then out is color See also colorize iproﬁle Extract pixels along a line v = iproﬁle(im.

ones(5. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES dimensions half that of the previous image. sigma. ismooth irank Rank ﬁlter out = irank(im.3). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. the image is assumed to wrap around Examples 5 × 5 median ﬁlter: irank(im. nbins) as above but the number of histogram bins can be speciﬁed. se. Only pixels corresponding to non-zero elements of the structuring element se are ranked and the order’th value in rank becomes the corresponding output pixel value. se. out = imorph(image. se(2. is order=1. 1. out = imorph(image.2) = 0. 3 × 3 non-local maximum: se = ones(3.5)). op. n) as above but only n levels of the pyramid are computed. Notes • Works for greyscale images only. sigma) as above but the Gaussian standard deviation is sigma. the maximum. op. hence output image had reduced dimensions. The pyramid is computed down to a nonhalvable image size. The highest rank. idecimate. See also iscalespace. im > irank(im. nbins. out = ipyramid(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 130 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . order. out = ipyramid(im.CHAPTER 2. se). 12. edge) as above but the processing of edge pixels can be controlled. se) is a rank ﬁltered version of im.

im = iread(ﬁle. If the path is relative it is searched for on Matlab search path. If multiple ﬁles match a 3D or 4D image is returned where the last dimension is the number of images in the sequence. R ‘roi’. • A histogram method is used with nbins (default 256). vmin vmax]. Wildcards are allowed in ﬁle names. where R=[umin umax. ivar. either numeric or ‘sRGB’ decimate image by R in both dimensions apply the region of interest R to each image. Options ‘uint8’ ‘single’ ‘double’ ‘grey’ ‘grey 709’ ‘gamma’. convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 601 convert image to greyscale if it’s color using ITU rec 709 gamma value. Notes • A greyscale image is returned as an H × W matrix • A color image is returned as an HxWx3 matrix • A greyscale image sequence is returned as an HxWxN matrix where N is the sequence length Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 131 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . options) reads the speciﬁed ﬁle and returns a matrix. On subsequent calls the initial folder is as set on the last call. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle.CHAPTER 2. G ‘reduce’. iwindow iread Read image from ﬁle im = iread() presents a ﬁle selection GUI from which the user can select an image ﬁle which is returned as 2D or 3D matrix. R return an image with 8-bit unsigned integer pixels in the range 0 to 255 return an image with single precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1. See also imorph. return an image with double precision ﬂoating point pixels in the range 0 to 1.

k) is an image where each pixel is replicated into a k × k tile. Notes • The resulting image pair are epipolar aligned. imono. m. path irectify Rectify stereo image pair [out1. im2) is a rectiﬁed pair of images corresponding to im1 and im2. [out1. See also FeatureMatch.h1. im1. CentralCamera ireplicate Expand image out = ireplicate(im. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 132 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .out2] = irectify(f.out2. f (3 × 3) is the fundamental matrix relating the two views and m is a FeatureMatch object containing point correspondences between the images. im1. istereo. If im is H × W the result is (KH)x(KW). • The resulting images may have negative disparity. Notes • Color images are not supported. igamma. m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • A color image sequence is returned as an HxWx3xN matrix where N is the sequence length See also idisp.CHAPTER 2. imwrite. homwarp. im2) as above but also returns the homographies h1 and h2 that warp im1 to out1 and im2 to out2 respectively.h2] = irectify(f.

R] = iroi(im) as above but returns the selected region of interest R=[umin umax. options) is a version of the image im that has been rotated about its centre.umax. same size as im scale the image size by S (default 1) set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation S Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 133 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idecimate. [out.vmin vmax]. S set size of out to H × W where S=[W. V ‘smooth’. Options ‘outsize’.CHAPTER 2. vmin. angle.vmax].R) is a subimage of the image im described by the rectangle R=[umin. iline irotate Rotate image out = irotate(im. S ‘extrapval’. out = iroi(im) as above but the image is displayed and the user is prompted to adjust a rubber band box to select the region of interest. iscale iroi Extract region of interest out = iroi(im. S ‘crop’ ‘scale’. See also idisp.H] return central part of image.

5 moves the crop window down or to the right. im2. s>1 makes the image larger. s=[] means no smoothing (default s=1) Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 134 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . bias<0. out = isamesize(im1. s ‘extrapval’. • Counter-clockwise is a positive angle. bias) as above but bias controls which part of the image is cropped. while bias>0. s set size of out to H × W where s=[W. s<1 makes it smaller. See also iscale iscale Scale an image out = iscale(im. V ‘smooth’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Rotation is deﬁned with respect to a z-axis into the image.H] set background pixels to V (default 0) smooth image with Gaussian of standard deviation s. s) is a version of im scaled in both directions by s which is a real scalar.5 is symmetric cropping. bias=0.CHAPTER 2. im2) is an image derived from im1 that has the same dimensions as im2 which is achieved by cropping and scaling. See also iscale isamesize Automatic image trimming out = isamesize(im1.5 moves the crop window up or to the left. Options ‘outsize’.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also ireplicate.L. and s (n × 1) is the vector of scales. irotate iscalemax Scale space maxima f = iscalemax(L. L (HxWxN) is the absolute value of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) of the scale sequence. Notes • Features are sorted into descending feature strength.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The Laplacian is computed from the difference of adjacent Gaussians. The ﬁrst step in the sequence is the original image. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 135 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . At each scale step the variance of the Gaussian increases by sigma2 .L. s) is a vector of ScalePointFeature objects which are the maxima. n. idecimate.s] = iscalespace(im. ScalePointFeature iscalespace Scale-space image sequence [g. The standard deviation of the smoothing Gaussian is sigma. corresponding to each step of the sequence. in space and scale. [g. sigma) is a scale space image sequence of length n derived from im (H × W ). g (HxWxN) is the scale sequence. s (N × 1) is a vector of scale values corresponding to each plane of L.s] = iscalespace(im. of the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) scale-space image sequence L (HxWxN). n) as above but sigma=1. See also iscalespace.

CHAPTER 2. ismooth. ilaplace. klog iscolor Test for color image iscolor(im) is true (1) if im is a color image. else false (0). ‘valid’) as above. ishomog(T. that is. isvec isift SIFT feature extractor sf = isift(im. it its third dimension is equal to three. ishomog Test if argument is a homogeneous transformation ishomog(T) is true (1) if the argument T is of dimension 4 × 4 or 4x4xN. See also isrot. options) returns a vector of SiftPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also iscalemax. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. The SiftPointFeature object has many properties including: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 136 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Lowe. icorner isimilarity Locate template in image s = isimilarity(T.org • Corners are processed in order from strongest to weakest. N ‘suppress’. 60. • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements.vlfeat. • The SIFT algorithm is patented by Univerity of British Columbia. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. 2 (2004). See also SiftPointFeature. pp. • Wraps a MEX ﬁle from www. isurf. International Journal of Computer Vision. • ISURF is a functional equivalent. R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set the suppression radius (default 0) Notes • Greyscale images only. im) is an image where each pixel is the ZNCC similarity of the template T (M × M ) to the M × M neighbourhood surrounding the corresonding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 137 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. 91-110. • Features are returned in descending strength order. Reference David G. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints”.

@ncc. See also imatch.d) is the size of the d’th dimension of im. metric) as above but the similarity metric is speciﬁed by the function metric which can be any of @sad. • The ZNCC function is a MEX ﬁle and therefore the fastest • User provided similarity metrics can be provided. im.p] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w and number of planes p. sad. s = isimilarity(T.H.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES input pixel in im. @zsad. @zssd. ssd.H] = isize(im) is the image height H and width w. @ssd. zsad. [w. Even if the image has only two dimensions p will be one. zssd. [w. R Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 138 Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . the function accepts two regions and returns a scalar similarity score. and these output pixels are set to NaN. Notes • Similarity is not computed where the window crosses the image boundary. See also size ismooth Gaussian smoothing out = ismooth(im. ncc. s is same size as im. zncc isize Size of image n = isize(im. sigma) is the image im after convolution with a Gaussian kernel of standard deviation sigma.

CHAPTER 2. • Smooths all planes of the input image • The Gaussian kernel has a unit volume • If input image is integer it is converted to ﬂoat. sigma. [gx. convolved. [gx. The Sobel kernel is: | -1 | -2 | -1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| out = isobel(im.gy] = isobel(im) as above but returns the gradient images. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES out = ismooth(im. See also iconv. kgauss isobel Sobel edge detector out = isobel(im) is an edge image computed using the Sobel edge operator applied to the image im. Options ‘full’ ‘same’ ‘valid’ returns the full 2-D convolution (default) returns out the same size as im returns the valid pixels only. options) as above but the options are passed to CONV2. then converted back to integer. This is the norm of the vertical and horizontal gradients at each pixel.dx) as above but returns the gradient images. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 139 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .dx) as above but applies the kernel dx and dx’ to compute the horizontal and vertical gradients respectively. those where the kernel does not exceed the bounds of the image. Notes • By default (option ‘full’) the returned image is larger than the passed image.gy] = isobel(im.

iconv isrot Test if argument is a rotation matrix isrot(R) is true (1) if the argument is of dimension 3 × 3.u-d) is the same world point as iml(v. else false (0).M] for an N × M window. isvec istereo Stereo matching d = istereo(iml. See also ksobel. isrot(R. range is the disparity search range. range. options) is a disparity image computed from the epipolar aligned stereo pair: the left image iml (H × W ) and the right image imr (H × W ). ‘valid’) as above.CHAPTER 2. • The resulting image is the same size as the input image. See also ishomog.u) means that imr(v.sim] = istereo(iml. imr. the disparity d=d(v. H. which can be a scalar for disparities in the range 0 to range. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Tends to produce quite thick edges. icanny. but also checks the validity of the rotation matrix. That is. imr. or a 2-vector [DMIN DMAX] for searches in the range DMIN to DMAX. options) as above but returns sim which is the same size as d and the elements are the peak matching score for the corresponding Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 140 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . [d. d (H × W ) is the disparity and the value at each pixel is the horizontal shift of the corresponding pixel in iml as observed in imr. range. which can be a scalar for N × N or a 2-vector [N. H is the half size of the matching window. w.u).

CHAPTER 2. ‘ncc’. a linear mapping where the minimum value of im is mapped to 0 and the maximum value of im is mapped to 1. ‘ssd’ or ‘sad’. • Disparity values pixels within a half-window dimension (H) of the edges will not be valid and are set to NaN. 3) See also irectify. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 141 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .sim. range. For the default matching metric ZNCC this varies between -1 (very bad) to +1 (perfect). p. w. options) as above but returns dsi which is the disparity space image (HxWxN) where N=DMAX-DMIN+1. w. M ‘interp’ string that speciﬁes the similarity metric to use which is one of ‘zncc’ (default). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES elements of d. range.dx is the peak of the polynomial with respect to the integer disparity at which s is maximum (in the range -0. p. Options ‘metric’. The I’th plane is the similarity of iml to imr shifted by DMIN+I-1. out = istretch(im. The interpolation polynomial is s = Ad2 + Bd + C where s is the similarity score and d is disparity relative to the integer disparity at which s is maximum. [d.B are matrices the same size as d whose elements are the per pixel values of the interpolation polynomial coefﬁcients. enable subpixel interpolation and d contains non-integer values (default false) Notes • Images must be greyscale. dx. [d. options) if the ‘interp’ option is given then disparity is estimated to sub-pixel precision using quadratic interpolation. In this case d is the interpolated disparity and p is a structure with elements A. imr. • sim = max(dsi.5 to +0. That is.p] = istereo(iml. stdisp istretch Image normalization out = istretch(im) is a normalized image in which all pixel values lie in the range 0 to 1.A and p.sim. B.5).dsi] = istereo(iml. imr.max) as above but pixel values lie in the range 0 to max.

R set the number of features to return (default Inf) set Hessian threshold. N ‘extended’ ‘upright’ ‘suppress’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also inormhist isurf SURF feature extractor sf = isurf(im. • Features are returned in descending strength order • If im is HxWxN it is considered to be an image sequence and F is a cell array with N elements. Features are not returned if they are within R [pixels] of an earlier (stronger) feature.CHAPTER 2. Twente) or a MEX-ﬁle OpenCV wrapper by Petter Strandmark. Notes • Color images. options) returns a vector of SurfPointFeature objects representing scale and rotationally invariant interest points in the image im. are ﬁrst converted to greyscale. number of octaves to process (default 5) return 128-element descriptor (default 64) don’t compute rotation invariance set the suppression radius (default 0). Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 142 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • The sign of the Laplacian is not retained. Increasing the threshold reduces the number of features computed and reduces computation time. N ‘thresh’. The SurfPointFeature object has many properties including: u v strength descriptor sigma theta horizontal coordinate vertical coordinate feature strength feature descriptor (64 × 1 or 128 × 1) feature scale feature orientation [rad] Options ‘nfeat’. • Wraps an M-ﬁle implementation of OpenSurf by D. Kroon (U. each of which is the feature vectors for the corresponding image in the sequence. or sequences. T ‘octaves’.

2008 See also SurfPointFeature. 3. Luc Van Gool. out = ithin(im. Otherwise false (0). Andreas Ess. “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Reference Herbert Bay. See also ishomog. See also hitormiss.delay) as above but graphically displays each iteration of the skeletonization algorithm with a pause of delay seconds between each iteration. Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU). 346–359. 110. isvec(v. either a row. itriplepoint. Tinne Tuytelaars. Any non-zero region is replaced by a network of single-pixel wide lines.or columnvector. icorner isvec Test if argument is a vector isvec(v) is true (1) if the argument v is a 3-vector. isift. Vol. isrot ithin Morphological skeletonization out = ithin(im) is the binary skeleton of the binary image im. L) is true (1) if the argument v is a vector of length L. iendpoint Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 143 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . else false (0). No.CHAPTER 2. pp.

It assumes that the undeﬁned pixels in im1 and im2 have values of NaN. Notes • Greyscale image only.out2] = itrim(im1.T) as above but the threshold T in the range 0 to 1 is used to adjust the level of cropping.5. • For a ﬂoating point class image the slider range is 0 to 1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ithresh Interactive image threshold ithresh(im) displays the image im in a window with a slider which adjusts the binary threshold. a lower value will include more. When images are rectiﬁed or warped the shapes can become quite distorted and are embedded in rectangular images surrounded by black of NaN values. • For a uint8 class image the slider range is 0 to 255. The same cropping is applied to each input image. T) as above but the initial threshold is set to T.out2] = itrim(im1.im2.im2) returns the central parts of images im1 and im2 as out1 and out2 respectively. irectify Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 144 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The default is 0. This function crops out the central rectangular region of each. ithresh(im. [out1. See also homwarp.CHAPTER 2.0 See also idisp itrim Trim images [out1. a higher value will include fewer NaN value in the result.

Computed using the hit-or-miss morphological operator. These are the Voronoi points in an image skeleton. op) is an image where each output pixel is the speciﬁed statistic over the pixel neighbourhood indicated by the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths. See also iendpoint. the image is assumed to wrap around Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. edge) as above but performance at edge pixels can be controlled. se. op.CHAPTER 2. ithin. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES itriplepoint Find triple points out = itriplepoint(im) is a binary image where pixels are set if the corresponding pixel in the binary image im is a triple point. The operation op is one of: ‘var’ variance ‘kurt’ Kurtosis or peakiness of the distribution ‘skew’ skew or asymmetry of the distribution out = ivar(im. The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector on which the required statistic is computed. hitormiss ivar Pixel window statistics out = ivar(im. se. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 145 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. that is where three single-pixel wide line intersect.

func) is an image where each pixel is the result of applying the function func to a neighbourhood centred on the corresponding pixel in im. edge) as above but performance of edge pixels can be controlled. iwindow iwindow Generalized spatial operator out = iwindow(im. See also ivar. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also irank. The elements in the neighbourhood corresponding to non-zero elements in se are packed into a vector (in column order from top left) and passed to the speciﬁed function handle func. @std). out = iwindow(image. @max). se. the image is assumed to wrap around Example Compute the maximum value over a 5 × 5 window: iwindow(im. • Is slow since the function func must be invoked once for every output pixel. Compute the standard deviation over a 3 × 3 window: iwindow(im.CHAPTER 2. irank Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 146 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . hence output image had reduced dimensions. Notes • Is a MEX ﬁle. The return value becomes the corresponding pixel value in out. se. func. ones(3.5). The value of edge is: ‘border’ ‘none’ ‘trim’ ‘wrap’ the border value is replicated (default) pixels beyond the border are not included in the window output is not computed for pixels whose window crosses the border. The neighbourhood is deﬁned by the size of the structuring element se which should have odd side lengths.3). ones(5.

See also ones. kdog.CHAPTER 2. • The vertical derivative. iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 147 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kcircle Circular structuring element k = kcircle(R) is a square matrix S × S where S=2R+1 of zeros with a maximal centered circular region of radius R pixels set to one. klog. k = kcircle(R. and the two numbers are interpretted as inner and outer radii. ktriangle. k = kdgauss(sigma. Notes • If R is a 2-element vector the result is an annulus of ones. • This kernel is an effective edge detector.s) as above but s is explicitly speciﬁed. imorph kdgauss Derivative of Gaussian kernel k = kdgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional derivative of Gaussian kernel (W × W ) of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. is k’. dG/dx. See also kgauss. H) as above but the half-width is explictly speciﬁed. Notes • This kernel is the horizontal derivative of the Gaussian. dG/dy.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kdog Difference of Gaussian kernel k = kdog(sigma1) is a 2-dimensional difference of Gaussian kernel equal to KGAUSS(sigma1) . iconv Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 148 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • This kernel is similar to the Laplacian of Gaussian and is often used as an efﬁcient approximation. kdgauss. H) as above but the kernel half-width is speciﬁed. klog. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed. k = kdog(sigma1. and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=2 × sigma and W=2 × H+1. kdog. iconv kgauss Gaussian kernel k = kgauss(sigma) is a 2-dimensional unit-volume Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma. sigma2.KGAUSS(SIGMA2). k = kgauss(sigma.CHAPTER 2. klog. sigma2) as above but sigma2 is speciﬁed directly. The kernel is centred within the matrix k whose half-width H = 3 × SIGM A and W=2 × H+1. k = kdog(sigma1. See also kdgauss. where sigma1 > SIGMA2. See also kgauss.6*sigma1. By default SIGMA2 = 1.

kdog. kdgauss. iconv. zcross Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 149 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . See also ilaplace. iconv klog Laplacian of Gaussian kernel k = klog(sigma) is a 2-dimensional Laplacian of Gaussian kernel of width (standard deviation) sigma and centred within the matrix k whose half-width is H=3 × sigma.CHAPTER 2. See also kgauss. and W=2 × H+1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES klaplace Laplacian kernel k = klaplace() is the Laplacian kernel: —0 |1 1 0— -4 1| —0 1 0— Notes • This kernel has an isotropic response to gradient. k = klog(sigma. H) as above but the half-width H is speciﬁed.

C] = kmeans(x. options) is k-means clustering of multi-dimensional data points x (D × N ) where N is the number of points. L is a vector (N ×1) whose elements indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x belongs to. C (D × k) contains the cluster centroids and L (N × 1) indicates which cluster the corresponding element of x is closest to. C) is similar to above but the clustering step is not performed. Pattern Recognition Principles. k. [L.C] = kmeans(x. it is assumed to have been completed previously. L = kmeans(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES kmeans K-means clustering [L. and D is the dimension. The data is organized into k clusters based on Euclidean distance from cluster centres C (D × k). pp 94 ksobel Sobel edge detector k = ksobel() is the Sobel x-derivative kernel: |-1 |-2 |-1 0 0 0 1| 2| 1| Notes • This kernel is an effective horizontal edge detector • The Sobel vertical derivative is k’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 150 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Options ‘random’ ‘spread’ initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from the set of data points x initial cluster centres are chosen randomly from within the hypercube spanned by x.CHAPTER 2. k. c0) as above but the initial clusters c0 (D × k) is given and column I is the initial estimate of the centre of cluster I. Reference Tou and Gonzalez.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

See also

isobel

ktriangle

Triangular kernel

k = ktriangle(w) is a triangular kernel within a rectangular matrix k. The dimensions k are w × w if w is scalar or w(1) wide and w(2) high. The triangle is isocles and is full width at the bottom row of the kernel and with its apex in the top row.

Examples

>> ktriangle(3) ans = |0 1 0| |0 1 0| |1 1 1|

See also

kcircle

lambda2rg

RGB chromaticity coordinates

rgb = lambda2rg(lambda) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength lambda [metres]. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. rgb = lambda2rg(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

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See also

cmfrgb, lambda2xy

lambda2xy

= LAMBDA2XY(LAMBDA) is the xy-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for

illumination at the speciﬁc wavelength LAMBDA [metres]. If LAMBDA is a vector (N × 1), then P (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of LAMBDA. xy = lambda2xy(lambda, E) is the rg-chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) for an illumination spectrum E (N × 1) and lambda (N × 1).

See also

cmfxyz, lambda2rg

loadspectrum

Load spectrum data

s = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) is spectral data (N × D) from ﬁle ﬁlename interpolated to wavelengths [metres] speciﬁed in lambda (N × 1). The spectral data can be scalar (D=1) or vector (D>1) valued. [s,lambda] = loadspectrum(lambda, ﬁlename) as above but also returns the passed wavelength lambda.

Notes

• The ﬁle is assumed to have its ﬁrst column as wavelength in metres, the remainding columns are linearly interpolated and returned as columns of s.

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luminos

Photopic luminosity function

p = luminos(lambda) is the photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. If lambda is a vector (N × 1), then p (N × 2) is a vector whose elements are the luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda. Luminosity has units of lumens which are the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.

See also

rluminos

maxﬁlt

maximum ﬁlter

MAXFILT(s [,w]) minimum ﬁlter a signal with window of width w (default is 5) SEE ALSO: medﬁlt, minﬁlt pic 6/93

medﬁlt1

Median ﬁlter

y = medﬁlt1(x, w) is the one-dimensional median ﬁlter of the signal x computed over a sliding window of width w.

Notes

• A median ﬁlter performs smoothing but preserves sharp edges, unlike traditional smoothing ﬁlters.

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The cube is centred at C (3 × 1) not the origin The cube is arbitrarily transformed by the homogeneous transform T Return a set of cube edges in MATLAB mesh format rather than points. options) is a set of points (3 × 8) that deﬁne the vertices of a cube of side length s and centred at the origin. in this case the returned value is 3 × 14 (8 vertices + 6 face centres). [x. ‘edge’.z] = mkcube(s. The points are the columns of p. If d is a 2-vector the grid is d(1)xD(2) points. Options ‘T’. By default the grid lies in the XY plane. If s is a 2-vector the side lengths are s(1)xS(2). options) is a mesh that deﬁnes the edges of a cube.y. [x. T ‘edge’ Add an extra point in the middle of each face. sphere mkgrid Create grid of points p = mkgrid(d.y. allowing the plane to be translated or rotated.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mkcube Create cube p = mkcube(s. s. symmetric about the origin. T the homogeneous transform T is applied to all points. options) is a set of points (3 x d2 ) that deﬁne a d × d planar grid of points with side length s. Options ‘facepoint’ ‘centre’. C ‘T’. options) as above but return the rows of p as three vectors. See also cylinder.z] = mkcube(s. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 154 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

2)).CHAPTER 2.yq . the sum of I(x. Plot all other vectors versus time in subplots. npq. That is. or y(:. MPLOT(y) MPLOT(y. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and t is time. upq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 155 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . mpq Image moments m = mpq(im. MPLOT(S) Where S is a structure and one element ‘t’ is assumed to be time. n) MPLOT(y. See also mpq poly. MPLOT(t. n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. n) MPLOT(t. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mlabel for mplot style graph mlabel(lab1 lab2 lab3) mplot multiple data Plot y versus t in multiple windows. Subplots are labelled as per the data ﬁelds. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots.2)). n is a row vector specifying which variables to plot (1 is ﬁrst data column. y.y). p. or y(:. y.xp . y) MPLOT(t. labels is a cell array of labels for the subplots. n. {labels}) Where y is multicolumn data and ﬁrst column is time. q) is the PQ’th moment of the image im.

p. Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). i2) is the normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. npq poly. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 156 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. Polygon mtools simple/useful tools to all windows in ﬁgure ncc Normalized cross correlation m = ncc(i1.CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES mpq poly Polygon moments m = MPQ POLY(v. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 (non match) to 1 (perfect match) that indicates similarity. so centroids will be still be correct. they are considered to be a single vertex. upq poly. q) is the PQ’th moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. See also mpq.

ssd. • A common choice of k=-0. k. W. isimilarity niblack Adaptive thresholding T = niblack(im. in text segmentation.2 Reference An Introduction to Digital Image Processing. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 157 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . niblack. idisp(im >= t). -0. 1986. w2) is the per-pixel (local) threshold to apply to image im.s] = niblack(im. Prentice-Hall. for example. • The ncc similarity measure is invariant to scale changes in image intensity. Example t = niblack(im. The threshold at each pixel is a function of the mean and standard deviation computed over a W × W window. sad. • w2 should be chosen to be half the “size” of the features to be segmented. w2) as above but returns the per-pixel mean m and standard deviation s. Notes • This is an efﬁcient algorithm very well suited for binarizing text. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. See also zncc. the height of a character. T has the same dimensions as im. [T.CHAPTER 2. k. where W=2*w2+1. 20).m.2.

q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v. p.q)/MPQ(im. See also npq poly.0. upq npq poly Normalized central polygon moments m = NPQ POLY(v. p. That is UPQ(im. q) is the PQ’th normalized central moment of the image im.p.0). Notes • The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 158 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also otsu.CHAPTER 2. b) npq Normalized central image moments m = npq(im. mpq. ithresh norm2 columnwise norm n = norm2(m) n = norm2(a.

• The normalized central moments are invariant to translation and scale. mpq.CHAPTER 2. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same. • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated. they are considered as a single vertex. See also mpq poly. so centroids will be still be correct. npq. Polygon numcols Return number of columns in matrix nc = numcols(m) returns the number of columns in the matrix m. See also numcols Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 159 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . upq. See also numrows numrows Return number of rows in matrix nr = numrows(m) returns the number of rows in the matrix m. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise).

CHAPTER 2. N. pp 62-66 See also niblack. Jan 1979. x. Systems. Example t = otsu(im). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES otsu Threshold selection T = otsu(im) is an optimal threshold for binarizing an image with a bimodal intensity histogram.xp] = peak(y. Reference A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. x is the same length of y and contains the corresponding x-coordinates. options) as above but also returns the corresponding x-coordinates of the maxima in the vector y. [yp. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the vector y. Notes • Performance for images with non-bimodal histograms can be quite poor.i] = peak(y. [yp. T is a scalar threshold that maximizes the variance between the classes of pixels below and above the thresold T. ithresh peak Find peaks in vector yp = peak(y. options) are the values of the maxima in the vector y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 160 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . otsu IEEE Trans. idisp(im >= t). Man and Cybernetics Vol SMC-9(1).

[zp. Typically choose N to be odd. Use SUB2IND to convert these to row and column coordinates Options ‘npeaks’. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 161 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘scale’. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with a paraboloid and its peak position is returned.CHAPTER 2.S points. N ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal range +/. Order of interpolation polynomial (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Options ‘npeaks’. use peak2(-V). See also peak2 peak2 Find peaks in a matrix zp = peak2(z. S ‘interp’ ‘plot’ Number of peaks to return (default all) Only consider as peaks the largest value in the horizontal and vertical range +/.S points. • The interp options ﬁts points in the neighbourhood about the peak with an N’th order polynomial and its peak position is returned. options) as above but also returns the indices of the maxima in the matrix z. S ‘interp’. options) are the peak values in the 2-dimensional signal z.ij] = peak2(z. Interpolate peak (default no interpolation) Display the interpolation polynomial overlaid on the point data Notes • To ﬁnd minima. N ‘scale’. use peak(-V).

CHAPTER 2. If p has three dimensions. The program given by the string pgmcmd must accept and return images in PGM format. sub2ind pgmﬁlt Pipe image through PGM utility out = pgmﬁlt(im. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also peak. p can be N × 2 or N × 3. See also pnmﬁlt. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. ie. iread plot2 Plot trajectories plot2(p) plots a line with coordinates taken from successive rows of p. pgmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plot2(p. Nx2xM or Nx3xM then the M trajectories are overlaid in the one plot. See also plot Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 162 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Options ‘edgecolor’ ‘ﬁllcolor’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s edge. ’fillcolor’. r. YL YR] with optional Matlab linestyle options ls. ls) draws a box with center at P=[X. ‘size’. Examples plot_circle(c. value pairs that are passed to plot. ’edgecolor’.y2. x2. or a set of name.CHAPTER 2.Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT].y1. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plot box a box on the current plot PLOT BOX(b. If C (2 × N or 3 × N ) and R (1 × N ) then a set of N circles are drawn with centre and radius taken from the columns of C and R. ‘g:’) for a non-ﬁlled circle. ‘r’. ’r’).Y] and with dimensions W=[WIDTH HEIGHT]. R. ’g’. If C=[X Y Z] the circle is drawn in the XY-plane at height Z. ’b’). 1=solid. plot circle Draw a circle on the current plot PLOT CIRCLE(C. r. options) draws a circle on the current plot with centre C=[X Y] and radius R. ls) draws a box with corners at (x1. Matlab color spec the color of the circle’s interior. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. ls) draws a box deﬁned by b=[XL XR. P. PLOT BOX(x1. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 163 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .y1) and (x2.y2). PLOT BOX(’centre’. P. r. plot_circle(c. PLOT BOX(’topleft’. ‘size’. Notes • the option can be either a simple linespec (eg. ’LineWidth’. ls) draws a box with top-left at P=[X. and optional Matlab linestyle options ls. W. 5). W. plot_circle(c.

xc. centred at the origin.Z] the ellipse is parallel to the XY plane but at height Z. c Specify color of the axes.CHAPTER 2. current plot. ls) ls is the standard line styles. PLOT ELLIPSE(a. ls) draws an ellipse deﬁned by X’AX = 0 on the current plot.Y]. Options ‘color’.Y. Matlab colorspec ‘axes’ ’axis’ Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 164 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . C. plot frame Plot a coordinate frame represented by a homogeneous transformation trplot(T. ls) as above but centred at C=[X. plot ellipse inv Plot an ellipse plot ellipse(a. with Matlab line style ls. If C=[X. options) draws a coordinate frame corresponding to the homogeneous transformation T. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot plot ellipse Draw an ellipse on the current plot PLOT ELLIPSE(a.

trplot( T. ‘framename’. ’r’. Matlab line speciﬁcation ls can be set. fmt. The return argument is a vector of graphics handles for the lines.X = 0. ’color’. Options ‘textcolor’. ’B’) plot homline Draw a line in homogeneous form H = PLOT HOMLINE(L. n ‘text opts’. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘name’. data Label points according to printf format string and corresponding element of data ‘sequence’ Label points sequentially Additional options are passed through to PLOT for creating the marker. where p is 2 × N and each column is the point coordinate. ’r’). l Specify length of the axes (default 1) Examples: trplot( T. ’color’. ‘printf’. colspec Specify color of text ‘textsize’. The current axis limits are used to determine the endpoints of the line. ls) draws a line in the current ﬁgure L. v Specify the view angle for the Matlab axes ‘width’. options) adds point markers to a plot. See also homline plot point point features PLOT POINT(p. size Specify size of text ‘bold’ Text in bold font. n Specify the name of the coordinate frame. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 165 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. w ‘arrow’ ’length’. to ‘view’. ’name’.

patch. 1=solid. color) as above but returns the handle(s) for the spheres. color. options ‘ﬁll’ ‘alpha’ the color of the circle’s interior. R. • The number of vertices to draw the sphere is hardwired. Polygon plot sphere Plot spheres PLOT SPHERE(C. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also plot. irrespective of ﬁgure hold state. alpha) as above but alpha speciﬁes the opacity of the sphere were 0 is transparant and 1 is opaque. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 166 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . H = PLOT SPHERE(C. Matlab color spec transparency of the ﬁlled circle: 0=transparent. R. The default is 1. NOTES • The sphere is always added. either a letter or 3-vector.CHAPTER 2. C is the centre of the sphere and if its a 3 × N matrix then N spheres are drawn with centres as per the columns. See also plot. R. H = PLOT SPHERE(C. color) add spheres to the current ﬁgure. options) plot a polygon deﬁned by columns of p which can be 2 × N or 3 × N. text plot poly Plot a polygon plotpoly(p. R is the radius and color is a Matlab color spec.

iread Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 167 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . plot2 pnmﬁlt Pipe image through PNM utility out = pnmﬁlt(im. See also plot. The program given by the string pnmcmd must accept and return images in PNM format. By default a linestyle of ‘bx’ is used.CHAPTER 2. pnmcmd) pipes the image im through a Unix ﬁlter program and returns its output as an image. plotp(p. which by Toolbox convention are stored one per column. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES plotp Plot trajectories plotp(p) plots a set of points p. ls) as above but the line style arguments ls are passed to plot. Notes • Provides access to a large number of Unix command line utilities such as ImageMagick. See also pgmﬁlt. p can be N × 2 or N × 3.

See also isobel Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 168 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – if R is 2 × 2 then T is 3 × 3.Y] rather than the centre pixel of im. [gr. • translational component is zero See also t2r radgrad Radial gradient [gr. or – if R is 3 × 3 then T is 4 × 4.gt] = radgrad(im) is the radial and tangential gradient of the image im. centre) as above but the centre of the image is speciﬁed as centre=[X.CHAPTER 2.gt] = radgrad(im. At each pixel the image gradient vector is resolved into the radial and tangential directions. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES r2t Convert rotation matrix to a homogeneous transform T = r2t(R) is a homogeneous transform equivalent to an orthonormal rotation matrix R with a zero translational component. radgrad(im) as above but the result is displayed graphically.

d) as above but elements increment by d. See also linspace ransac Random sample and consensus m = ransac(func. x typically contains corresponding point data.CHAPTER 2. x. N maximum number of iterations (default 2000) maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate data set (default 100) Model function out = func(R) is the function passed to RANSAC and it must accept a single argument R which is a structure: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 169 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .in] = ransac(func. T. x. T.in. [m. ransac classiﬁes Points that support the model as inliers and those that do not as outliers. T. ransac determines the subset of points (inliers) that best ﬁt the model described by the function func and the parameter m. N ‘maxDataTrials’. [m.resid] = ransac(func. Options ‘maxTrials’. x. if the ﬁt residual is aboe the the threshold the point is considered an outlier. T is a threshold on how well a point ﬁts the estimated. options) as above but returns the ﬁnal residual of applying func to the inlier set. one column per point pair. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ramp create a ramp vector ramp(n) output a vector of length n that ramps linearly from 0 to 1 ramp(v) as above but vector is same length as v ramp(v. options) is the ransac algorithm that robustly ﬁts data x to the model represented by the function func. options) as above but returns the vector in of column indices of x that describe the inlier point set.

If multiple models are found out.x data to work on.x conditioned data (2D × N ) out. pp 381-395.theta is a cell array.theta] = ERR(R. [out.theta to the points R. If this function cannot ﬁt a model then out.valid is true if a set of points is not degenerate. fundamental matrix) it is necessary to condition the data to improve the accuracy of model estimation.s out.x) condition the point data out. Boles. Assoc. The inverse conditioning operation is applied to the model to transform the estimate based on conditioned data to a model applicable to the original data.resid model ﬁt residual (1 × 1) The values of R. ‘error’ Notes • For some algorithms (eg.theta.out.misc private data (cell array) out.valid if data is valid for estimation (logical) out.s sample size (1 × 1) out.x and returns the best model out.resid] = EST(R. Comp.misc private data (cell array) The function return value is also a structure: out. they detect a structure argument. For efﬁciency the data is conditioned once.cmd are: ‘size’ ‘condition’ ‘decondition’ ‘valid’ ‘estimate’ out. • The functions FMATRIX and HOMOG are written so as to be callable from RANSAC. No 6. Mach.R. that is they will produce a model. Fishler and R. that is. This is used to discard random samples that do not result in useful models. ”Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision”.x.x) returns the best ﬁt model and residual for the subset of points R.CHAPTER 2. [out.x that best supports (most inliers) that model.x. pp 101-113. Vol 24.theta = [].theta estimated quantity (3 × 3) out..inlier list of inliers (1 × m) out. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES R.debug display what’s going on (logical) R.theta estimated quantity to test (3 × 3) R. and the data transform parameters are kept in the .s is the minimum number of points required to compute an estimate to out.C.theta and the subset of R. ”Random sample concensus: A paradigm for model ﬁtting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography”.theta. N point pairs (6 × N ) R.out.x = CONDITION(R.theta = DECONDITION(R.t threshold (1 × 1) R.inlier.cmd the operation to perform which is either (string) R.A. References • m. 2001 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 170 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .misc element. 1981 • Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. Cambridge University Press.theta) decondition the estimated model data out.T) evaluates the distance from the model(s) R. Comm.

edu.CHAPTER 2. See also xycolourspace rluminos Relative photopic luminosity function p = ruminos(lambda) is the relative photopic luminosity function for the wavelengths in lambda. See also luminos Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 171 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . If lambda is a vector. homography rg addticks Label spectral locus RG ADDTICKS() adds wavelength ticks to the spectral locus.uwa. then p is a vector whose elements are the relative luminosity at the corresponding elements of lambda.csse. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Author Peter Kovesi School of Computer Science & Software Engineering The University of Western Australia pk at csse uwa edu au http://www. Relative luminosity lies in the interval 0 to 1 which indicate the intensity with which wavelengths are perceived by the light-adapted human eye.au/ pk See also fmatrix.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rotx Rotation about X axis R = rotx(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. angvec2r roty Rotation about Y axis R = roty(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. rotz. rotz. See also roty. angvec2r Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 172 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. angvec2r rotz Rotation about Z axis R = rotz(theta) is a rotation matrix representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. See also rotx. roty. See also rotx.

Y. where the last index corresponds to the rows of roll. Note • in previous releases (<8) the angles corresponded to rotations about ZYX. • many texts (Paul. then TR is 4 × 4 • the validity of R is not checked Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 173 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .CHAPTER 2. If roll. then TR is 3 × 3 – If R is 3 × 3 and t is 3 × 1. T = rpy2tr(roll. where the last index corresponds to the rows of rpy. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If rpy has multiple rows they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES rpy2tr Roll-pitch-yaw angles to homogeneous transform T = rpy2tr(rpy) is an orthonormal rotation matrix equivalent to the speciﬁed roll. Z axes respectively. Notes • functions for R in SO(2) or SO(3) – If R is 2 × 2 and t is 2 × 1. t) is a homogeneous transformation matrix formed from an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. See also tr2rpy. pitch and yaw are column vectors then they are assumed to represent a trajectory and R is a three dimensional matrix. pitch. yaw) as above but the roll-pitch-yaw angles are passed as separate arguments. eul2tr rt2tr Convert rotation and translation to homogeneous transform TR = rt2tr(R. yaw angles which correspond to rotations about the X. pitch. yaw.

T = se2(xy) as above where xy=[x. tr2rt sad Sum of absolute differences m = sad(i1. i2) is the sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. theta) is a 3 × 3 homogeneous transformation SE(2) representing translation x and y. ssd.y] and rotation is zero T = se2(xy. and rotation theta in the plane. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity.y] T = se2(xyt) as above where xyt=[x. See also zsad. y. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also t2r. theta) as above where xy=[x.CHAPTER 2. isimilarity se2 Create planar translation and rotation transformation T = se2(x. r2t. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases.y. ncc.theta] See also trplot2 Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 174 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Two cross-hairs are created. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Clicking the corresponding world point in the right image sets the green crosshair and displays the disparity [pixels]. See also vex ssd Sum of squared differences m = ssd(i1. Clicking a point in the left image positions black cross hair at the same pixel coordinate in the right image. R) displays the stereo image pair L and R in adjacent windows. ncc. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 175 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES skew Create skew-symmetric matrix s = skew(v) is a skew-symmetric matrix and v is a 3-vector. i2) is the sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. See also zsdd. isimilarity stdisp Display stereo pair stdisp(L.CHAPTER 2.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also idisp. It supports options that have an assigned value.CHAPTER 2. rt2tr tb optparse Standard option parser for Toolbox functions [optout. istereo t2r Return rotational submatrix of a homogeneous transformation R = t2r(T) is the orthonormal rotation matrix component of homogeneous transformation matrix T: Notes • functions for T in SE(2) or SE(3) – If T is 4 × 4. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 176 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . b. • the validity of rotational part is not checked See also r2t. varargin) opt. opt. then R is 2 × 2.bar = false. arglist) is a generalized option parser for Toolbox functions. c. opt.blah = []. tr2rt.choose = {’this’.foo = true. then R is 3 × 3. The software pattern is: function(a. ’that’. boolean or enumeration types (string or int). ’other’}. – If T is 3 × 3.args] = TB OPTPARSE(opt. opt.

S ‘showopt’ sets opt.1.2 (the second element) and can be given in any combination.y ‘that’ sets opt. The allowable options are speciﬁed by the names of the ﬁelds in the structure opt.select = {’#no’.true sets opt.true ‘nobar’ sets opt. which is a cell array of all unassigned arguments in the order given in varargin. x.choose <.select <.N sets opt <.foo <. 3 sets opt. if multiple values are required they must be converted to a cell array.debug <. args) creates a test pattern image. varargin).false ‘blah’. If neither of ‘no’ or ‘yes’ are speciﬁed then opt.3 ‘blah’. opt = tb_optparse(opt.foo <. w.‘this’.CHAPTER 2.blah <. ‘that’ or ‘other’ are speciﬁed then opt.verbose <. The image is speciﬁed by the string type and one or two (type speciﬁc) arguments: Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 177 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . N ‘setopt’.y sets opt.S displays opt and arglist testpattern Create test images im = testpattern(type.choose <.‘that’ ‘yes’ sets opt. ’#yes’}. Optional arguments to the function behave as follows: ‘foo’ sets opt. By default if an option is given that is not a ﬁeld of opt an error is declared.x.select <. The following options are automatically parsed: ‘verbose’ ‘debug’.arglist] = tb_optparse(opt. • that only one value can be assigned to a ﬁeld. varargin). If w is a scalar the image is w × w else w(2)xW(1). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES opt. Sometimes it is useful to collect the unassigned options and this can be achieved using a second output argument [opt. The return structure is automatically populated with ﬁelds: verbose and debug.blah <. Note: • that the enumerator names must be distinct from the ﬁeld names. If neither of ‘this’.

args is the number of cycles. Examples A 256 × 256 image with 2 cycles of a horizontal sawtooth intensity ramp: testpattern(’rampx’. args is the number of cycles. The trajectory s. a line. T) as above but speciﬁes the trajectory in terms of the length of the time vector T. binary square pattern. See also idisp tpoly Generate scalar polynomial trajectory [s. intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the y-direction. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the x-direction. square side length. 2).sd. args are dot pitch (distance between centres). Velocity and acceleration can be optionally returned as sd and sdd.sd. binary dot pattern. 256. intercept. n) is a trajectory of a scalar that varies smoothly from s0 to sf in n steps using a quintic (5th order) polynomial. args are pitch (distance between centres). FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES ‘rampx’ ‘rampy’ ‘sinx’ ‘siny’ ‘dots’ ‘squares’ ‘line’ intensity ramp from 0 to 1 in the x-direction. Notes • With no output argument the testpattern in displayed using idisp. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 178 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . dot diameter. [s. sinusoidal intensity pattern (from -1 to 1) in the y-direction. sf. A 256 × 256 image with a grid of dots on 50 pixel centres and 20 pixels in diameter: testpattern(’dots’. args is the number of cycles.sdd] = tpoly(s0.sdd] = tpoly(s0. sf. args are theta (rad). 25). 256. 50. args is the number of cycles.CHAPTER 2. sd and sdd are n-vectors.

Y] correspond to sequential rotations about the X. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 179 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then each row of rpy corresponds to a step of the trajectory. X axes (Paul book) Notes • There is a singularity for the case where THETA=0 in which case PHI is arbitrarily set to zero and PSI is the sum (PHI+PSI).P. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the rotation part of a homogeneous transform T. rpy = tr2rpy(R. If R or T represents a trajectory (has 3 dimensions). Options ‘deg’ ‘zyx’ Compute angles in degrees (radians default) Return solution for sequential rotations about Z.CHAPTER 2. The 3 angles rpy=[R. Y and Z axes respectively.v] = tr2angvec(T) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the rotational component of the homogeneous transform T. [theta.v] = tr2angvec(R) is a rotation of theta about the vector v equivalent to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. angvec2tr tr2rpy Convert a homogeneous transform to roll-pitch-yaw angles rpy = tr2rpy(T. options) are the roll-pitch-yaw angles expressed as a row vector corresponding to the orthonormal rotation matrix R. Y. See also angvec2r. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES tr2angvec Convert rotation matrix to angle-vector form [theta. Notes • If no output arguments are speciﬁed the result is displayed.

r2t. tr2eul tr2rt Convert homogeneous transform to rotation and translation [R.:.y. T = transl(p) is a homogeneous transform representing a translation or point p=[x. Spong) use the rotation order ZYX. If T has three dimensions. See also rpy2tr.CHAPTER 2.z]. 4x4xN then T is considered a homgoeneous Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 180 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . then R is 3 × 3 and T is 3 × 1. p = transl(T) is the translational part of a homogenous transform as a 3-element column vector. – If TR is 3 × 3. If p is an M × 3 matrix transl returns a 4x4xM matrix representing a sequence of homogenous transforms such that T(:.i) corresponds to the i’th row of p. See also rt2tr. t2r transl Create translational transform T = transl(x. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES • Note that textbooks (Paul. y. z) is a homogeneous transform representing a pure translation. then R is 2 × 2 and T is 2 × 1. • The validity of R is not checked.t] = tr2rt(TR) split a homogeneous transformation matrix into an orthonormal rotation matrix R and a translation vector t. ie. Notes • Functions for TR in SE(2) or SE(3) – If TR is 4 × 4.

if tri is XYZ then cc is xy. See also ctraj tristim2cc Tristimulus to chromaticity coordinates cc = tristim2cc(tri) is the chromaticity coordinate (1 × 2) corresponding to the tristimulus tri (1 × 3). trnorm Normalize a homogeneous transform tn = trnorm(T) is a normalized homogeneous transformation matrix in which the rotation submatrix is guaranteed to be a proper orthogonal matrix. If tri is RGB then cc is rg. out = tristim2cc(im) is the chromaticity coordinates corresponding to every pixel in the tristimulus image im (HxWx3). out (HxWx2) has planes corresponding to r and g. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES transform sequence and returns an N × 3 matrix where each row is the translational component of the corresponding transform in the sequence.CHAPTER 2. [o1.o2] = tristim2cc(im) as above but the chromaticity is returned as separate images (H × W ). Notes • somewhat unusually this function performs a function and its inverse. [c1. each N × 1.C2] = tristim2cc(tri) as above but the chromaticity coordinates are returned in separate vectors. An historical anomaly. Multiple tristimulus values can be given as rows of tri (N × 3) in which case the chromaticity coordinates are the corresponding rows of cc (N × 2). or x and y. Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 181 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The O and A vectors are normalized and the normal vector is formed from O x A.

Notes • translational component is zero See also rotx. troty.CHAPTER 2. See also oa2tr trotx Rotation about X axis T = trotx(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the x-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES Notes • Used to prevent ﬁnite word length arithmetic causing transforms to become ‘unnormalized’. trotz troty Rotation about Y axis T = troty(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the y-axis. Notes • translational component is zero Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 182 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 .

Options ‘rpy’ ‘euler’ ‘angvec’ ‘radian’ ‘fmt’. l display with rotation in roll/pitch/yaw angles (default) display with rotation in ZYX Euler angles display with rotation in angle/vector format display angle in radians (default is degrees) use format string f for all numbers. Notes • translational component is zero See also rotz. (default %g) display the text before the transform Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 183 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . and displays in RPY format. trotz trotz Rotation about Z axis T = trotz(theta) is a homogeneous transformation representing a rotation of theta about the z-axis. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also roty. trotx. trprint T is the command line form of above. trotx.CHAPTER 2. options) displays the homogoneous transform in a compact single-line format. f ‘label’. If T is a homogeneous transform sequence then print each element is printed on a separate line. troty trprint Compact display of homogeneous transformation trprint(T.

mpq. p.(y-y0)q where (x0. the sum of I(x. That is.(x-x0)p .y).y0) is the centroid. Note • fails for the case where norm(v) is zero. upq Central image moments m = upq(im. See also upq poly. Notes • The central moments are invariant to translation. tr2rpy. tr2angvec unit Unitize a vector vn = unit(v) is a unit vector parallel to v.CHAPTER 2. npq Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 184 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES See also tr2eul. q) is the PQ’th central moment of the image im.

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES

upq poly

Central polygon moments

m = UPQ POLY(v, p, q) is the PQ’th central moment of the polygon with vertices described by the columns of v.

Notes

• The points must be sorted such that they follow the perimeter in sequence (counterclockwise). • If the points are clockwise the moments will all be negated, so centroids will be still be correct. • If the ﬁrst and last point in the list are the same, they are considered as a single vertex. • The central moments are invariant to translation.

See also

upq, mpq poly, npq poly

useﬁg

a named ﬁgure or create a new ﬁgure

useﬁg(’Foo’) make ﬁgure ‘Foo’ the current ﬁgure, if it doesn’t exist create it. h = useﬁg(’Foo’) as above, but returns the ﬁgure handle

vex

Convert skew-symmetric matrix to vector

v = vex(s) is the vector which has the skew-symmetric matrix s.

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Notes

• No checking is done to ensure that the matrix is skew-symmetric. • The function takes the mean of the two elements that correspond to each unique element of the matrix, ie. vx = 0.5*(s(3,2)-s(2,3))

See also

skew

xaxis

X-axis scaling

xaxis(max) xaxis([min max]) xaxis(min, max) xaxis restore automatic scaling for this axis

xycolorspace

Display spectral locus

xycolorspace() display a fully colored spectral locus in terms of CIE x and y coordinates. xycolorspace(p) as above but plot the points whose xy-chromaticity is given by the columns of p. [im,ax,ay] = xycolorspace() as above returns the spectral locus as an image im, with corresponding x- and y-axis coordinates ax and ay respectively.

Notes

• The colors shown within the locus only approximate the true colors, due to the gamut of the display device.

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See also

rg addticks

yaxis

Y-axis scaling

yayis(max) yayis(min, max) YAXIS restore automatic scaling for this axis

zcross

Zero-crossing detector

iz = zcross(im) is a binary image with pixels set where the corresponding pixels in the signed image im have a zero crossing, a positive pixel adjacent to a negative pixel.

Notes

• Can be used in association with a Lapalacian of Gaussian image to determine edges.

See also

ilog

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sad. ssd. i2) is the zero-mean sum of absolute differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc.CHAPTER 2. Notes • The zsad similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. See also sad. The result m is a scalar in the interval -1 to 1 that indicates similarity. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 188 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . ssd. See also ncc. A value of 1 indicates identical pixel patterns. Notes • The zncc similarity measure is invariant to afﬁne changes in image intensity (brightness offset and scale). isimilarity zsad Sum of absolute differences m = zsad(i1. i2) is the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zncc Normalized cross correlation m = zncc(i1.

FUNCTIONS AND CLASSES zssd Sum of squared differences m = zssd(i1. See also sdd.CHAPTER 2. sad. a value of 0 indicates identical pixel patterns and is increasingly positive as image dissimilarity increases. Notes • The zssd similarity measure is invariant to changes in image brightness offset. isimilarity Machine Vision Toolbox for MATLAB 189 R Copyright c Peter Corke 2011 . The result m is a scalar that indicates image similarity. i2) is the zero-mean sum of squared differences between the two equally sized image patches i1 and i2. ncc.